Historic Documents of 2009

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Edited by: CQ Press

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    Thematic Table of Contents

    American Life

    Same-Sex Marriage in the States (March 25, June 3 and 17, December 2 and 3, 2009)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reports Rise in Pregnancy and STD Rates During Bush Administration (July 17, 2009)

    FBI Report on Crime in the United States (September 14, 2009)

    Swine Flu in the United States (October 1, 7, and 9 and November 13, 2009)

    Educational Assessment Shows States Lagging (October 14 and 29, 2009)

    Jobs Report Shows Improvement (December 4, 2009)

    Business, the Economy, and Labor

    President Obama Signs the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (January 28 and February 17, 2009)

    President Obama Calls for Executive Pay Cap (February 4, 2009)

    The London Summit on Global Economic Recovery (April 2, 2009)

    Congress Passes Credit Card Reform Legislation (April 30 and May 22, 2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court on Civil Rights Act in Hiring Practices (June 29, 2009)

    U.S. Department of Transportation's Cash for Clunkers Program (July 27 and September 25, 2009)

    Federal Reserve Board Chair Announces End of Recession (September 15, 2009)

    Jobs Report Shows Improvement (December 4, 2009)

    Economic Outlook in the States (December 18 and 30, 2009)

    Energy, Environment, Science, Technology, and Transportation

    Special Court Finds Vaccines Do Not Cause Autism (February 12, 2009)

    Plane Crash-Lands in the Hudson River (February 24, 2009)

    New York State to Pay Women for Egg Donations for Stem Cell Research (June 11, 2009)

    U.S. Department of Transportation's Cash for Clunkers Program (July 27 and September 25, 2009)

    The Department of Transportation and the Environmental Protection Agency Release New Fuel Economy Standards (September 15, 2009)

    UN Summit on Climate Change (December 19, 2009)

    Government and Politics

    Roland Burris and Al Franken Seated During Dynamic Year in U.S. Senate (January 15 and June 30, 2009)

    Barack Obama Sworn in as President of the United States (January 20, 2009)

    President Obama's Address Before a Joint Session of Congress and Republican Response (February 24, 2009)

    Gov. Bill Richardson Signs Bill to Repeal New Mexico's Death Penalty (March 18, 2009)

    Congress Passes Credit Card Reform Legislation (April 30 and May 22, 2009)

    Congress Passes Tobacco Legislation (June 2, 3, and 22, 2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court on Campaign Contribution to Judges (June 8, 2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court on the Voting Rights Act (June 22, 2009)

    Congress Briefed on Secret CIA Program (July 8, 2009)

    Sonia Sotomayor Confirmed as First Hispanic Supreme Court Justice (July 13 and August 5, 2009)

    New Jersey and New York Government Officials Arrested in Corruption Probe (July 23, 2009)

    President Obama Speaks to Congress on Health Care Reform (September 9, 2009)

    Justice Department Announces Medical Marijuana Policy (October 19, 2009)

    Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton Visits Pakistan (October 28, 2009)

    Health and Social Services

    Special Court Finds Vaccines Do Not Cause Autism (February 12, 2009)

    Mexico and the World Health Organization on the Spread of Swine Flu (April 27 and June 11, 2009)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reports Rise in Pregnancy and STD Rates During Bush Administration (July 17, 2009)

    President Obama Speaks to Congress on Health Care Reform (September 9, 2009)

    HIV Vaccine Study Shows Promising Results in Thailand (September 29, 2009)

    Swine Flu in the United States (October 1, 7, and 9 and November 13, 2009)

    Justice Department Announces Medical Marijuana Policy (October 19, 2009)

    International Affairs
    Africa

    President and Army Chief of Guinea-Bissau Assassinated (March 2, 3, and 21, 2009)

    Arrest Warrant Issued for Sudan's President (March 4, 2009)

    President Obama Speaks at Cairo University (June 4, 2009)

    International Affairs
    Asia

    North Korea Conducts Successful Nuclear Test (May 25 and June 12, 2009)

    Delhi Court Overturns Ban on Homosexuality (July 2, 2009)

    American Journalists Freed in North Korea (August 5, 2009)

    Democratic Party Wins Landmark Election in Japan (September 16, 2009)

    HIV Vaccine Study Shows Promising Results in Thailand (September 29, 2009)

    International Affairs
    Europe

    Iceland Elects Its First Female and Openly Gay Prime Minister (February 4, 2009)

    International Affairs
    Latin America and the Caribbean

    Mexico and the World Health Organization on the Spread of Swine Flu (April 27 and June 11, 2009)

    Political Crisis in Honduras (June 29 and July 25, 2009)

    Rio de Janeiro Selected as 2016 Olympic Host City (October 2 and November 3, 2009)

    International Affairs
    Middle East

    President Obama Announces Timeline for Ending Iraq War (February 27, 2009)

    Conflict over Iranian Presidential Elections (June 14, 15, and 19, 2009)

    Iran Calls for Diplomatic Talks (September 9, 2009)

    Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton Visits Pakistan (October 28, 2009)

    Dubai Credit Crisis (December 1, 9, 14, and 21, 2009)

    President Obama Announces Troop Increase in Afghanistan (December 1, 2009)

    International Affairs
    Russia and Former Soviet Republics

    U.S.-Russian Relations in the Obama Administration (July 28 and September 17, 2009)

    International Affairs
    Global Issues

    Arrest Warrant Issued for Sudan's President (March 4, 2009)

    The London Summit on Global Economic Recovery (April 2, 2009)

    Iran Calls for Diplomatic Talks (September 9, 2009)

    Rio de Janeiro Selected as 2016 Olympic Host City (October 2 and November 3, 2009)

    UN Summit on Climate Change (December 19, 2009)

    National Security and Terrorism

    The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court Declares Warrantless Wiretapping Legal (January 15, 2009)

    President Obama Calls for the Closure of Detention Facilities at Guantánamo Bay (January 22 and December 15, 2009)

    CIA Destroyed Ninety-Two Interrogation Tapes (March 2, 2009)

    Pirates Attack U.S.-Flagged Ship (April 12 and 30, 2009)

    Congress Briefed on Secret CIA Program (July 8, 2009)

    Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton Visits Pakistan (October 28, 2009)

    President Obama Announces Troop Increase in Afghanistan (December 1, 2009)

    Attempted Christmas Day Plane Bombing (December 26, 28, and 29, 2009)

    Rights, Responsibilities, and Justice

    Same-Sex Marriage in the States (March 25, June 3 and 17, December 2 and 3, 2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court on Campaign Contribution to Judges (June 8, 2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court on DNA Testing for Prisoners (June 18, 2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court on the Voting Rights Act (June 22, 2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court on Strip Searches of Students (June 25, 2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court on Civil Rights Act in Hiring Practices (June 29, 2009)

    Sonia Sotomayor Confirmed as First Hispanic Supreme Court Justice (July 13 and August 5, 2009)

    New Jersey and New York Government Officials Arrested in Corruption Probe (July 23, 2009)

    Court Finds New York Discriminated Against Mentally Ill (September 8, 2009)

    Justice Department Announces Medical Marijuana Policy (October 19, 2009)

    Hate Crimes Bill Becomes Law (October 28, 2009)

    List of Document Sources

    Congress

    Rep. Anna Eshoo. “Rep. Eshoo Releases Letter to CIA Dir. Panetta.” July 8, 2009

    Rep. C.W. (Bill) Young. “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.” January 28, 2009

    Rep. Ed. Perlmutter. “Credit Cardholders' Bill of Rights Act.” April 30, 2009

    Rep. Pete Sessions. “Credit Cardholders' Bill of Rights Act.” April 30, 2009

    Rep. Silvestre Reyes. “Reyes Statement on Recent Correspondence Regarding the CIA.” July 8, 2009

    Rep. Steny Hoyer. “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.” January 28, 2009

    Rep. Steny Hoyer. “Hoyer Statement on November Jobs Report.” December 4, 2009

    Sen. Harry Reid. “Reid Statement on Roland Burris.” January 15, 2009

    Sen. Harry Reid. “Reid Statement on Senator-Elect Al Franken.” June 30, 2009

    Sen. Jeff Sessions. “Nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to Be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.” August 5, 2009

    Sen. Patrick Leahy. “Nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to Be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.” August 5, 2009

    U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Aviation. Testimony from Captain Chesley Sullenberger. “U.S. Airways Fight 1549 Accident.” February 24, 2009

    U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. “Statement of Captain Richard Phillips, Master Maersk Alabama to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.” April 30, 2009

    U.S. Senate. “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.” June 2, 2009

    U.S. Senate. “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.” June 3, 2009

    Executive Departments and Agencies

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Testimony and speeches. “Reflections on a Year of Crisis.” September 15, 2009

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Press briefing transcripts. “Weekly 2009 H1N1 Flu Media Briefing.” October 1, 2009

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Press statement. “Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and Risk of 2009 H1N1 Influenza.” October 7, 2009

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Sexual and Reproductive Health of Persons Aged 10-24 Years—United States, 2002-2007.” July 17, 2009

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Update: Influenza Activity—United States, August 30-October 31, 2009.” November 13, 2009

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Update on Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines.” October 9, 2009

    Environmental Protection Agency. Press release. “DOT Secretary Ray LaHood and EPA Administrator Lisa P. Jackson Propose National Program to Improve Fuel Economy and Reduce Greenhouse Gases/New Interagency Program to Address Climate Change and Energy Security.” September 15, 2009

    Federal Bureau of Investigation. “Crime in the United States 2008.” September 14, 2009

    Federal Bureau of Investigation. Press release. “Nigerian National Charged with Attempting to Destroy Northwest Airlines Aircraft.” December 26, 2009

    National Assessment Governing Board. Press release. “2009 Nation's Report Card in Mathematics Reveals No Change at 4th-Grade, But New High for 8th-Grade Score.” October 14, 2009

    U.S. Attorney's Office, District of New Jersey. Press release. “Two-Track Investigation of Political Corruption and International Money Laundering Rings Net 44 Individuals.” July 23, 2009

    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Press release. “Regional and State Employment and Unemployment—November 2009.” December 18, 2009

    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Press release. “The Employment Situation—November 2009.” December 4, 2009

    U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Educational Statistics. “Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales: 2005-2007.” October 29, 2009

    U.S. Department of Education. Press release. “U.S. Education Secretary Releases Statement on National Center for Education Statistics NAEP Report Released Today.” October 29, 2009

    U.S. Department of Justice. “Memorandum for Selected United States Attorneys on Investigations and Prosecutions in States Authorizing the Medical Use of Marijuana.” October 19, 2009

    U.S. Department of Justice. Press release. “Attorney General Announces Formal Medical Marijuana Guidelines.” October 19, 2009

    U.S. Department of Labor. Press release. “Statement of U.S. Secretary of Labor Hilda L. Solis on November employment numbers.” December 4, 2009

    U.S. Department of State. Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. “Statement Before the House Foreign Relations Committee.” July 28, 2009

    U.S. Department of State. Press release. “Successful HIV Vaccine Study Will Lead to Further Research.” September 29, 2009

    U.S. Department of State. “Release of Two Journalists from North Korea.” August 5, 2009

    U.S. Department of State. “Remarks with Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi.” October 28, 2009

    U.S. Department of Transportation. Office of Public Affairs. Press release. “Cash for Clunkers Payout Nearly Complete.” September 25, 2009

    U.S. Department of Transportation. Office of Public Affairs. Press release. “Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood Kicks-Off CARS Program, Encourages Consumers to Buy More Fuel Efficient Cars and Trucks.” July 27, 2009

    U.S. Government Printing Office. Public Law No. 111-84. “National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010.” October 28, 2009

    U.S. Navy. “From Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Central Command/5th Fleet Public Affairs.” April 12, 2009

    International Nongovernmental Organizations

    Dubai World. “Statement from Dubai World.” December 1, 2009

    Dubai World. “Statement from Dubai World.” December 9, 2009

    Dubai World. “Statement from Dubai World.” December 14, 2009

    Dubai World. “Statement from Dubai World.” December 21, 2009

    Economic Community of West African States. Press release. “ECOWAS Chairman Condemns Killings in Bissau, Urges Security Agencies to Avert Deterioration of Situation.” March 2, 2009

    Economic Community of West African States. Press release. “ECOWAS Foreign Ministers Call for Deployment of Protection Force in Guinea Bissau.” March 21, 2009

    International Criminal Court. Docket no. ICC-02/05-01/09. “Situation in Darfur, Sudan in the Case of Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmad al Bashir (“Omar al Bashir”).” March 4, 2009

    International Olympic Committee. Press release. “Rio de Janeiro Elected as the 2016 Host City.” October 2, 2009

    The London Summit 2009. “Global Plan for Recovery and Reform.” April 2, 2009

    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. “Copenhagen Accord.” December 19, 2009

    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. “Copenhagen United Nations Climate Change Conference Ends with Political Agreement to Cap Temperature Rise, Reduce Emissions and Raise Finance.” December 19, 2009

    United Nations General Assembly. Press release. “General Assembly President Expresses Outrage at Coup D’Etat in Honduras, Says Crucial for World Community to ‘Stand as One’ in Condemnation.” June 29, 2009

    United Nations News Centre. “Iran: UN Rights Chief Concerned over Arrests, Excessive Force Following Polls.” June 19, 2009

    United Nations Security Council. Press release. “Security Council Condemns Assassinations of Guinea-Bissau's President, Army Chief; Calls on Government to Bring Those Responsible to Justice.” March 3, 2009

    United Nations Security Council. “Security Council, Acting Unanimously, Condemns in Strongest Terms Democratic People's Republic of North Korea Nuclear Test, Toughens Sanctions.” June 12, 2009

    World Health Organization. “World Now at Start of 2009 Influenza Pandemic.” June 11, 2009

    Judiciary

    Sonia Sotomayor. “Testimony of Judge Sonia Sotomayor.” July 13, 2009

    U.S. Court of Federal Claims. Docket no. 01-162V. “Colten Snyder, By and Through Kathryn Snyder and Joseph Snyder, His Natural Guardians and Next Friends v. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services.” February 12, 2009

    U.S. Court of Federal Claims. Docket no. 03-654V. “Rolf and Angela Hazlehurst, Parents of William Yates Hazlehurst v. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services.” February 12, 2009

    U.S. Court of Federal Claims. Docket no. 98-916V. “Theresa Cedillo and Michael Cedillo, as Parents and Natural Guardians of Michelle Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services.” February 12, 2009

    U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York. Decisions of Interest. 1:03-cv-03209-NGG-MDG Disability Advocates, Inc. v. Pataki et al. September 8, 2009

    U.S. Federal Judiciary. “In Re: Directives [redacted text] Pursuant to Section 105B of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.” August 22, 2008

    U.S. Supreme Court. Caperton v. A. T. Massey Coal Co. 556 U.S. ___ (2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court. District Attorney v. Osborne. 557 U.S. ____ (2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court. Northwest Austin Municipal Utility District Number One v. Holder et al. 557 U.S. ____ (2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court. Ricci v. Destefano. 557 U.S. ____ (2009)

    U.S. Supreme Court. Safford Unified School District v. Redding. 557 U.S. ____ (2009)

    Non-U.S. Governments

    African Union Press Office. Press release. “Press Statement on the Situation in Guinea Bissau.” March 2, 2009

    Delhi High Court. Judgment Information System. Naz Foundation (India) Trust v. Government of NCT of Delhi and Others. WP(C) No. 7455/2001. July 2, 2009

    Embassy of Honduras, Washington, D.C. Press release. “Honduran President Manuel Zelaya Asks President Barack Obama to Take Further Measures to Help Restore Constitutional Rule in Honduras.” July 25, 2009

    Embassy of Sudan, Berlin. Press release. “Sudanese Statement on Arrest Warrant Issued by ICC.” March 4, 2009

    Islamic Republic of Iran. “Cooperation for Peace, Justice and Progress.” September 9, 2009

    Islamic Republic of Iran. Office of the President. “Ahmadinejad Public Opinion Not Affected by Movement.” June 15, 2009

    Islamic Republic of Iran. Office of the President. “Re elected President Speaks to Nation on TV.” June 14, 2009

    Korean Central News Agency of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. “KCNA Report on One More Successful Underground Nuclear Test.” May 25, 2009

    Korean Central News Agency of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. “Report on Bill Clinton's Visit to DPRK Made Public.” August 5, 2009

    Office of the President of Mexico. Press release. “School Activities Throughout Country Suspended: Health Secretariat.” April 27, 2009

    Office of the Prime Minister of Iceland. “Platform of the Government—Report from the Prime Minister.” February 4, 2009

    Office of the Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. “Press Conference by Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama.” September 16, 2009

    Rio 2016. Press release. “Rio 2016 Sets Record in Early Start to Work on the Organization of the Olympic and Paralympics Games.” November 3, 2009

    U.S. Nongovernmental Organizations

    American Civil Liberties Union. “Letter to Judge Hellerstein Acknowledging Destroyed CIA Interrogation Tapes.” March 2, 2009

    Empire State Stem Cell Board. “Statement of the Empire State Stem Cell Board on Compensation of Oocyte Donors.” June 11, 2009

    U.S. State and Local Governments

    Minnesota Supreme Court. Coleman v. Franklin. A09-697. June 30, 2009

    New York State Senate. Office of Senator Carl Kruger. Press release. “Same-Sex Legislation Fails in Senate by a Vote of 38-24.” December 3, 2009

    New York State Senate. Office of Senator Diane Savino. New York State Senate Session Transcripts. December 2, 2009

    Office of Governor of Michigan Jennifer Granholm. Press release. “Governor Granholm Says While 2009 Was Tough, Better Days Lie Ahead.” December 30, 2009

    Office of the Governor of Louisiana. “Governor Bobby Jindal: ‘Americans Can Do Anything.’” February 24, 2009

    Office of the Governor of New Hampshire. “Gov. Lynch Statement Regarding Same-Sex Marriage Legislation Signed into Law Today.” June 3, 2009

    Office of the Governor of New Mexico. Press release. “Governor Bill Richardson Signs Repeal of the Death Penalty.” March 18, 2009

    Office of the Governor of Vermont. Press release. “Statement of Governor James H. Douglas Regarding Same-Sex Marriage.” March 25, 2009

    White House and the President

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00105 (February 24, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Address Before the Joint Session of the Congress on Health Care Reform.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00693 (September 9, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Eulogy at the Funeral Service for Senator Edward M. Kennedy in Boston, Massachusetts.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00669 (August 29, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Executive Order 13492—Review and Disposition of Individuals Detained at the Guantánamo Bay Naval Base and Closure of Detention Facilities.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00005 (January 22, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Inaugural Address.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00001 (January 20, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Letter to Governor Quinn.” December 15, 2009

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00962 (December 1, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks in Cairo, Egypt.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00436 (June 4, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Accepting the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00985 (December 10, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Improving Homeland Security in Kaneohe, Hawaii.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 01017 (December 28, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Improving Homeland Security in Kaneohe, Hawaii.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 01019 (December 29, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Military Operations in Iraq at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00109 (February 27, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Missile Defense Systems in Europe.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00720 (September 17, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Signing a Memorandum on Federal Benefits and Non-Discrimination.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00475 (June 17, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Signing the Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility, and Disclosure Act of 2009.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00395 (May 22, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Signing the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00493 (June 22, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on the National Economy.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 000057 (February 4, 2009)

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Statement on Signing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents 2009, no. 00088 (February 17, 2009)

    Preface

    A continuing economic crisis around the world; the inauguration of President Barack Obama; a contentious battle over national health care reform; political turmoil in Guinea-Bissau and Honduras; a landmark election in Japan; the confirmation of the first Hispanic Supreme Court justice; and significant Supreme Court rulings on elections, DNA testing, and searches in schools are just a few of the topics of national and international importance chosen for discussion in Historic Documents of 2009. This edition marks the thirty-eighth volume of a CQ Press project that began with Historic Documents of 1972. This series allows students, librarians, journalists, scholars, and others to research and understand the most important domestic and foreign issues and events of the year through primary source documents. To aid research, many of the lengthy documents written for specialized audiences have been excerpted to highlight the most important sections. The official statements, news conferences, speeches, special studies, and court decisions presented here should be of lasting public and academic interest.

    Historic Documents of 2009 opens with an “Overview of 2009,” a sweeping narrative of the key events and issues of the year which provides context for the documents that follow. The balance of the book is organized chronologically, with each article comprising an introduction entitled “Document in Context” and one or more related documents on a specific event, issue, or topic. The introductions provide context and an account of further developments during the year. A thematic table of contents (page xv) and a list of documents organized by source (page xix) follow the standard table of contents and assist readers in locating events and documents.

    As events, issues, and consequences become more complex and far-reaching, these introductions and documents yield important information and deepen understanding about the world's increasing interconnectedness. As memories of current events fade, these selections will continue to further understanding of the events and issues that have shaped the lives of people around the world.

    How to Use This Book

    Each of the 70 entries in this edition consists of two parts: a comprehensive introduction followed by one or more primary source documents. The articles are arranged in chronological order by month. Articles with multiple documents are ordered according to the date of the first document. There are several ways to find events and documents of interest:

    By date: If the approximate date of an event or document is known, browse through the titles for that month in the table of contents. Alternatively, browse the monthly tables of contents that appear at the beginning of each month's articles.

    By theme: To find a particular topic or subject area, browse the thematic table of contents.

    By document type or source: To find a particular type of document or document source, such as the White House or Congress, review the list of document sources.

    By index: The five-year index allows researchers to locate references to specific events or documents as well as entries on the same or related subjects. The index in this volume covers the years 2005-2009. A separate volume, Historic Documents Index, 1972-2005, may also be useful.

    Each article begins with a section entitled “Document in Context.” This feature provides historical and intellectual contexts for the documents that follow. Documents are reproduced with the spelling, capitalization, and punctuation of the original or official copy. Ellipsis points indicate textual omissions (unless they were present in the documents themselves indicating pauses in speech), and brackets are used for editorial insertions within documents for text clarification. Other excerpting exceptions are presented in brackets preceding the document text. The excerpting of Supreme Court opinions has been done somewhat differently than other documents. In-text references to laws and other cases have been removed to improve the readability of opinions. In those documents, readers will only find ellipses used when sections of narrative text have been removed. Full citations appear at the end of each document. If a document is not available on the Internet, a print citation is provided. For further reading on a particular topic consult the “Other Historic Documents of Interest” section at the end of each article. These provide cross-references for related articles in this edition of Historic Documents as well as in previous editions. References to articles from past volumes include the year and page number for easy retrieval.

    Overview of 2009

    The year 2009 brought significant change to Washington, with the swearing in of a new president, the installation of a new cabinet, the confirmation of a new Supreme Court justice, and the announcement of new domestic and international policy goals. President Barack Obama came to office optimistic yet facing incredible economic challenges and two wars abroad. His campaign promise to enact major health care reform met with strong opposition in parts of the country and in Congress, despite Democratic control of the House and Senate. In what many considered a premature decision, President Obama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize after less than one year in office. The president traveled abroad extensively, at one point attending the UN climate change summit, a meeting that produced few new agreements for capping carbon emissions.

    Around the world, many nations continued to feel the effects of recession. Industrialized nations implemented government spending programs to provide a necessary infusion of funds to put people back to work, while developing nations scrambled to make up for aid lost when the recession hit and wealthier nations were no longer able to provide help. North Korea's and Iran's governments continued building a nuclear arsenal in 2009, seemingly unfazed by UN sanctions. Japan elected a new government, and in Africa and South America various nations experienced regime change, some through peaceful measures and others through coups and assassinations.

    Global Economic Crisis

    The economic crisis that began in 2007 continued into its third year in 2009, again dominating headlines. U.S. unemployment rose from 7.6 percent in January to 10 percent in December; in Michigan, unemployment hit its highest level in twenty-five years, at 15.4 percent, largely because of the closure of multiple car-manufacturing plants. Across the country, as an increasing number of citizens found themselves unemployed, states and localities had their social services stretched to the breaking point. Decreased tax revenue meant less money for social services, and states and cities scrambled to make up for lost revenue by increasing taxes and fees.

    To help shore up the economy and close billion-dollar budget gaps by infusing more money into state and local governments, Congress passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) in February. The act, which carried a more than $700 billion price tag, was intended to create and preserve jobs, increase funding for infrastructure and energy efficiency, expand social benefits to those most in need, and help families through tax cuts.

    The ARRA was one of the largest government spending projects since World War II and followed on the heels of the George W. Bush administration's Economic Stimulus Act of 2008. Newly elected president Obama made it an early goal of his presidency to see that the ARRA was passed by Congress. In the House of Representatives, the bill was easily passed, thanks to the Democratic majority, but in the Senate, it faced more resistance, as Democrats were still struggling to capture the elusive sixty-seat majority. The argument in both houses of Congress rested on how much the program would cost and what the ultimate benefit would be. Republicans argued that the costs would far outweigh the number of jobs created, thus adding to the deficit, while Democrats, citing Mark Zandi, chief economist and cofounder of Moody's http://Economy.com, said the jobless rate would be 2 percent higher without the government infusion of funds.

    On February 4, 2009, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) released a report on the stimulus package, giving its independent assessment of how the program would benefit Americans. According to the CBO, the plan would initially increase employment and the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP), but by 2019, the overall GDP would decrease, largely because of declining productivity and business investment, not because of unemployment. In a letter dated February 11, 2009, the CBO indicated that there was great debate among economists about how well the plan would actually work. Most economists agreed, however, that success would rest largely on whether jobs were created at a high enough rate. The White House estimated that the program would create or save 3.5 million jobs in 2009 and 2010.

    Zandi estimated that if the stimulus worked as expected, by the end of the year, monthly job losses would be closer to 250,000 per month, down from the 500,000 per month at the time the stimulus passed. Although this was not a perfect test—because there was no way to predict with absolute accuracy whether the economy would turn itself around or, if it did, whether the infusion of funds was responsible—by the end of the year, the Bureau of Labor Statistics announced in its monthly report that in November the economy had lost 11,000 jobs, the lowest number in two years.

    By late 2009, the economy was beginning to show signs of improvement. In September, chair of the Federal Reserve Board Ben Bernanke announced that the recession had ended. However, Bernanke warned that economic troubles were not over yet. Regardless of the amount of improvement shown, the White House reminded Americans that there was still work left to be done. At the end of 2009, the outlook on long-term employment remained grim.

    The United States was by no means alone in facing a third year of recession. Many large, industrialized nations around the world continued to feel the effects of the downturn, and many developing nations, dependent on aid from the industrialized countries, suffered as well. Some nations implemented stimulus plans or helped to bail out failing banks as the United States had done. To aid nations worldwide, in April the Group of 20 (G-20) pledged $1.1 trillion to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other international financial organizations.

    Health Care

    Likely the most contentious issue in politics in 2009 was health care reform. President Obama came into office promising to reform the nation's health care and health insurance systems to ensure fair and affordable coverage for all Americans. Shortly after his inauguration, Obama called on Congress to put together a proposal for reform and pass it before the end of 2009. Republicans in both houses, along with a small number of Democrats, put up heavy resistance to the bill, which constantly evolved as it made its way through five congressional committees to reach the House and Senate floors. During the August congressional recess, senators and representatives returned to their home districts and called town hall meetings with citizens to discuss plans for health care reform. The heated debates that ensued during these meetings, at which some attendees compared the government's health care plans to socialism, dominated news coverage. Despite the airing of grievances, opinion polls throughout 2009 continued to show that a majority of Americans supported health care reform.

    President Obama's objective in calling for health care reform was to provide health insurance coverage to tens of millions of Americans without it, prevent insurance companies from denying coverage for preexisting conditions or imposing caps on annual or lifetime claims, and contain the cost, which had risen at a rate higher than that of inflation for many years. The plan would require Americans to carry health insurance, in the same way drivers are required to have car insurance. Anyone who chose not to purchase insurance, and did not receive it from his or her employer, would be charged a fine. For those unable to afford health insurance, subsidies would be offered to help defray the cost of premiums, and the income limit for Medicaid qualification would be raised. In addition, young adults would be able to remain on their parents' coverage well into their twenties.

    Early on, the Obama administration rejected the idea of single-payer government-run insurance like that offered in Canada, but President Obama was a supporter of a public option, an early point of contention in the House and Senate and among voters. The public option would allow citizens to purchase group health insurance through the federal government. Obama argued that the public option would infuse competition into the health insurance market that would help bring down costs. As the year progressed, however, the president increasingly backed away from the idea of a public option.

    In an effort to refocus the debate, President Obama spoke before a joint session of Congress on September 9, during which he called on leaders of both parties to work together to reach a compromise. The president also used his speech to clarify what he characterized as false information being used to scare voters away from health care reform, including the threat of death panels (which were touted by the opposition as deciding who would receive life-saving care and who would not), and the question of whether illegal immigrants would be insured. President Obama's plan, and those in Congress, ensured that no person illegally in the United States would receive government-sponsored health coverage.

    In the House, it was likely that health care reform would pass, given the comfortable Democratic majority. However, Democrats still needed to scramble to ensure enough votes for passage when the bill came up for a vote. Republicans in the House criticized the Democrats for wanting to pass health reform no matter what it took or what was included in the bill. Some Democrats criticized the bill, saying that it was too weak and industry friendly. Another heated issue was abortion and whether government-subsidized insurance plans would be required to cover them. Rep. Bart Stupak, D-Mich., a socially conservative Democrat, attached an amendment preventing government options from covering abortions. Liberal Democrats argued that this restricted reproductive rights. The Stupak amendment remained in the health care bill that came to a vote on the floor on November 7. The reform bill barely passed, by a vote of 220-215, with thirty-nine Democrats and all but one Republican voting in opposition.

    In the Senate, however, the situation played out much differently. Sixty votes were needed to avoid a filibuster, and although Democrats briefly held a sixty-seat majority, the death of Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., who had devoted considerable effort in the Senate to health care reform, left Democrats one vote short of a filibuster-proof majority. Regardless of the number of seats held by Democrats in Congress, getting the entire party to vote for health care reform proved to be a challenge. When Senate Democrats learned they would garner no support from Republicans, they were forced to rethink their strategy and focus on crafting legislation that would at least attract all the members of their own party.

    Republicans in the Senate stepped up their criticism of what they dubbed “Obamacare” and prepared to filibuster any legislation that came to the floor, especially if it contained a public option. Other Republicans took action to thwart health care reform, including former Republican vice-presidential candidate Sarah Palin, who said that what she considered the government takeover of health care would create the aforementioned “death panels” that would ration end-of-life care. Although her claim was erroneous, it was spread by anti-health-care reform groups and Republican pundits around the country. An up-and-coming national movement, the Tea Party (with TEA standing for taxed enough already), used health care reform as a platform to air their concerns about excessive government spending, waste, and intrusion.

    Various alternatives to the public option were debated in the Senate, including a network of nonprofit insurance cooperatives or an option for earlier buy-in to Medicare. However, none of the options attracted sixty senators. Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nev., originally announced that the legislation would retain the public option, but after Sen. Joe Lieberman, I-Conn., said he would not support such a bill, Democrats were forced to cater to his interests and remove the option. Democrats also needed to work to gain support from Sen. Ben Nelson, D-Neb., who took issue with abortion funding. To appease Nelson, the Democrats reached a deal that would place restrictions on abortion funding and would exempt Nebraska from paying to expand Medicaid. The Senate bill came to a vote on December 24 and passed 60-39. The differing provisions in the House and Senate bills would need to be merged in conference committee, meaning the health care debate would continue into 2010.

    Supreme Court Decisions

    The U.S. Supreme Court welcomed a new justice, Sonia Sotomayor, and handed down significant rulings on civil rights, judicial recusal, voting rights, and the rights of prisoners. Sotomayor, the first Hispanic justice in the Court's history, replaced retiring justice David Souter. Sotomayor faced tough questioning before the Senate Judiciary Committee, which focused a good amount of attention on a comment previously made by the justice in which she explained that “a wise Latina woman with the richness of her experiences would more often than not reach a better conclusion than a white male who hasn't lived that life.”

    One issue on the Supreme Court's 2009 docket involved whether judges should remove themselves from a trial if they have received campaign funds from someone involved in the case. On June 2, 2009, the Court took up judicial recusal for the first time, and voted 5-4 in Caperton v. A.T. Massey Coal Company that the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment had been violated by a West Virginia supreme court justice who had refused to step down from a case that involved a campaign donor. The justices writing for the majority overturned a decision that the judge was not required to recuse himself. According to the Supreme Court majority, although there was no proof of bias, the “probability of actual bias on the part of the judge … [was] too high to be constitutionally tolerable.”

    The Court took up the issue of state's rights in District Attorney's Office for the Third Judicial District v. Osborne, in which a prisoner sought access to the DNA evidence that had been used against him at trial in an effort to run additional tests that he claimed would prove his innocence. The Court ruled 5-4 that it could not overturn state decisions, which in this particular case would mean the petitioner would have to abide by state law in the jurisdiction in which he had been convicted.

    In Northwest Austin Municipal Utility District Number One v. Holder et al., the Court took up the issue of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Voting nearly unanimously, and avoiding constitutional issues, the Court questioned whether the Voting Rights Act was still necessary after more than four decades had passed.

    The constitutionality of strip searches of students was on the Court's docket for 2009 after an underage student in Pennsylvania was forced to take her clothes off and pull her underwear aside on suspicion that she was carrying prescription-strength painkillers with the intent to give them to students. This was not the first time the Court had taken up the issue of student's rights while on school property, most often finding that students lose some constitutional privacy rights but retain others. In this instance, the Court ruled 8-1 in Safford v. Redding that the student's privacy rights had been violated because the school had no reasonable proof that she had been carrying prescription-strength painkillers.

    In one of the most highly publicized cases of 2009, the Court took up the issue of the Civil Rights Act as it pertained to hiring. In Ricci v. DeStefano, white firefighters in New Haven, Connecticut, sued the city over a promotional exam that was administered but later thrown out after no African American scored high enough to qualify for a promotion. The white firefighters claimed reverse discrimination. New Haven, on the other hand, said that it was trying to follow federal law that looks suspiciously on promotional exams that disadvantage minorities. In this case, the Court ruled 5-4 that the white firefighters had been discriminated against by New Haven, which was held in violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    Foreign Affairs

    In early 2009, African issues were high on the international radar, beginning on March 2, 2009, when Guinea-Bissau's democratically elected president, João Bernadro Vieira, was killed during a clash between two rival factions. The head of the nation's military had been killed hours earlier. The immediate concern was that a coup had taken place that would threaten democracy in the small African nation. Although the government of Guinea-Bissau announced that there had been no coup, international observers worried that the new president would be unable to maintain control.

    Only two days after the death of Vieira, the International Criminal Court (ICC), located in The Hague, The Netherlands, charged Sudan's president, Omar al-Bashir, with war crimes and crimes against humanity. The ICC issued a warrant for Bashir's arrest and called on member nations, and Sudanese, to turn him in. The ICC's charges stemmed mainly from violence in Darfur, where, during the previous six years, nearly 300,000 people had died, some from starvation and others during combat. Bashir showed no signs of backing down, and the Sudanese constitution gave the president immunity from criminal prosecution.

    North Korea continued its nuclear program in 2009, announcing in May that it had conducted its second test in three years. Initial reports indicated that the blast was as strong as those in Japan during World War II, when atomic bombs were dropped, but later investigations concluded that although the test was twenty times larger than North Korea's first test in 2006, it fell far short of the levels from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. International leaders immediately condemned the action and called for increased sanctions and pressure. Japan, South Korea, the United States, China, and Russia had been holding talks with North Korea on its nuclear program since 2003 in an effort to halt the production and use of nuclear weapons, but progress had been slow, and the nuclear test in May and an earlier long-range missile test in April had put a damper on future talks.

    Iran made news in 2009 for continued development of its nuclear program and its June 2009 presidential elections. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won re-election, but alleged fraud fueled protests across the country. The protests in Iran set off international speculation that the regime was beginning to fall apart. According to reports, opposition election observers had been barred from entering various polling locations; Web sites featuring Ahmadinejad's opponent, Mir Hossein Mousavi, were blocked; and various polling locations ran out of ballots or were unable to match the number of eligible voters with the number of votes cast. In addition, immediate election results gave Ahmadinejad a consistent percentage of the vote across the country, and victory in Mousavi's home region.

    Immediately after election results were announced, supporters of the opposition took to the streets, burning buses and chanting “Death to the Dictator.” Police used batons and tear gas to disperse the crowds, and nearly 1,000 Iranians were arrested. Protestors were warned that they risked being beaten, jailed, or even killed. After the nation's Guardian Council certified the election results, a court was set up to try protestors; many were forced to tape confessions in which they admitted to participating in a Western-backed plot to overthrow Ahmadinejad's government.

    After the election crisis, Iran issued a statement to various Western nations indicating that it wanted to meet to discuss nuclear programs in other countries, but not Iran's program. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, China, Germany, France, and Russia met with Iranian leaders in October to discuss providing Iran enriched uranium for the purpose of fuel production, a proposal Iran initially indicated it would accept but that it later rejected. By the end of 2009, talks between Iran and the six nations had broken down.

    In South America, the president of Honduras, Manuel Zelaya, was overthrown in a military-backed coup. The conflict initially erupted over Zelaya's proposal for a referendum on whether Honduras should hold an assembly to reform the nation's constitution. Opponents saw this as a move to ensure his re-election. Zelaya returned to Honduras in September to work toward a compromise possibly involving his reinstatement as president.

    In Japan, citizens found themselves with the third prime minister in as many years, as Taro Aso, who took office in September 2008, resigned in August after his party was handily defeated in parliamentary elections. For the second time since the 1950s, the Liberal Democratic Party lost power. Analysts said the defeat of the Liberal Democrats could mark the end of that party's virtually unchallenged rule. Yukio Hatoyama, leader of the Democratic Party, was chosen by parliament as the new prime minister. High on Hatoyama's agenda was ensuring that Japan realign itself with the rest of Asia and distance the nation from unpopular American programs, such as the war in Iraq. Another point of contention for Hatoyama was the unpopular presence of American troops at Okinawa.

    Newly elected President Obama traveled to more countries in his first year in office than any previous first-year president. One issue Obama had been advocating at home and abroad in 2009 was taking action against climate change, and in December, he attended the UN-sponsored climate change summit in Copenhagen. During the meetings, the United States attempted negotiations with China, a major holdout on agreeing to carbon emissions caps, and with developing nations that were unwilling to cut back on production to cap emissions. In the end, the summit produced little more than an agreement recognizing the danger of climate change. The United States said it would continue to work toward global agreements regarding climate change into 2010.

    Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Two challenges facing the new president when he entered office were the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Public sentiment had long ago soured on both conflicts, but Obama had the difficult task of deciding whether to decrease or increase troops in both countries, a decision he promised not to politicize.

    In February, Obama announced that an official timeline for withdrawal from Iraq had been agreed on. President Obama's plan, announced six years after the United States entered Iraq, was to bring approximately 100,000 troops home from Iraq by August 2010, while 50,000 troops would stay until 2011. Those remaining would continue to train Iraqi security forces and ensure the continued stabilization of the country.

    During his presidential campaign, Obama had promised to bring troops home from Iraq within sixteen months of his inauguration. The eventual withdrawal plan he chose after consulting with military advisors would have most troops leave the country in nineteen months and would allow him to shift more units to Afghanistan, where the situation was increasingly deteriorating as extremists continued to regain a foothold in the country.

    In December, after facing extensive criticism for taking too much time to make a decision on Afghanistan, President Obama announced that he would increase the number of troops there by 30,000. This marked the second troop increase since Obama took office in January 2009. During his announcement at West Point, Obama said that he had consulted the top military officials in the region, all of whom requested that more troops be deployed to ensure increased stability for the fledgling government in Afghanistan.

    The troop increase was politically risky for Obama, who drew criticism from his own party over the $30 billion price tag at a time when the United States faced a serious economic crisis. Republicans, on the other hand, were generally supportive of the move to invest more resources in Afghanistan but encouraged the president not to set a timeline for withdrawal. President Obama said that he planned to begin withdrawing troops from Afghanistan by summer 2011.

    Shortly before President Obama made the decision to increase the number of troops in Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai, Afghanistan's first democratically elected president, had been re-elected to a second term in office in an election plagued by fraud. Karzai was initially declared the winner in August, but an investigation found that many votes had been cast illegally. A recount showed that Karzai had not received the 50 percent necessary to win the election, so a runoff was scheduled for November. Shortly before the runoff, Karzai's opponent dropped out of the race, citing the inability of election board members to remain impartial because they were appointed by Karzai. With no opponent, Karzai was declared the winner by default. Obama took the opportunity of Karzai's questionable election to encourage the leader to rid his government of corruption and shift his focus instead to building a stronger nation and partnering with neighboring countries to deny the Taliban safe haven.

    —Heather Kerrigan

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