Historic Documents of 2005

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    Thematic Table of Contents

    Business, the Economy, and Work

    President Bush on Social Security (February 3, 2005)

    Comptroller General on Budget Issues Facing the Government (February 8, 2005)

    President's Economic Report, Economic Advisers' Report (February 17, 2005)

    PBGC Director on Underfunded Corporate Pension Plans (March 1, 2005)

    Supreme Court on Eminent Domain (June 23, 2006)

    Labor Leaders on a Split by Several Unions from the AFL-CIO (July 25 and September 27, 2005)

    National Weather Service on Hurricane Katrina (August 28, 2005)

    Inspector General's Report on Labor Agreement with Wal-Mart (October 31, 2005)

    Energy Company Executives on Oil and Gas Prices and Profits (November 9, 2005)

    Energy, Environment, Science, Technology, and Transportation

    EPA Inspector General on Mercury Pollution Regulations (February 3, 2005)

    President's Council on Bioethics on Alternative Sources of Stem Cells (May 12, 2005)

    NASA on the Return of the Shuttle Discovery to Space (July 26, August 3, and August 9, 2005)

    Energy Company Executives on Oil and Gas Prices and Profits (November 9, 2005)

    Canadian Prime Minister Martin on the Dangers of Climate Change (December 7, 2005)

    Federal District Court on “Intelligent Design” (December 20, 2005)

    Government and Politics

    President Bush on His Second Inauguration as President (January 20, 2005)

    State of the Union Address and Democratic Response (February 2, 2005)

    President Bush on Social Security (February 3, 2005)

    Comptroller General on Budget Issues Facing the Government (February 8, 2005)

    Florida Court and Congress on Schiavo Intervention (February 25 and March 21, 2005)

    Presidential Commission on U.S. Intelligence Failures (March 31, 2005)

    President Bush's Remarks on the Death of Chief Justice Rehnquist (September 7, 2005)

    Judge John G. Roberts Jr. on His Nomination as Chief Justice (September 12, 2005)

    President Bush on Recovering from Hurricane Katrina (September 2 and 15, 2005)

    Indictments of House Majority Leader DeLay (September 28 and October 3, 2005)

    GAO on Education Department “Propaganda” (September 30, 2005)

    Indictment of I. Lewis “Scooter” Libby in CIA Leak Case (October 28, 2005)

    Inspector General's Report on Labor Agreement with Wal-Mart (October 31, 2005)

    U.S. Government Plan for Combating an Influenza Pandemic (November 2, 2005)

    GAO on the FDA's Handling of the “Morning-After” Pill (November 14, 2005)

    Rep. Murtha and President Bush on U.S. Involvement in Iraq (November 17 and 30, 2005)

    Health Care, Social Services, Housing, and Education

    Revised Federal Dietary Guidelines (January 12, 2005)

    Federal Guidelines on Drugs to Prevent HIV Infection (January 21, 2005)

    President Bush on Social Security (February 3, 2005)

    Congressional Hearing on the Use of Steroids in Baseball (March 17, 2005)

    President's Council on Bioethics on Alternative Sources of Stem Cells (May 12, 2005)

    U.S. Government Plan for Combating an Influenza Pandemic (November 2, 2005)

    GAO on the FDA's Handling of the “Morning-After” Pill (November 14, 2005)

    International Affairs—Africa

    G-8 Leaders on Aid to Africa (July 8, 2005)

    UN Human Rights Commission on Sexual Violence in Sudan (July 29, 2005)

    European Union Observation Mission on the Election in Liberia (November 10, 2005)

    UN Secretary General on Progress toward Democracy in the Congo (December 28, 2005)

    International Affairs—Asia

    UN Human Rights Commissioner on Killings in Uzbekistan (July 12, 2005)

    President Bush and Prime Minister Singh on U.S.-Indian Relations (July 18, 2005)

    Pakistan's President Musharraf on Islamic Extremism (July 21, 2005)

    Joint Statement on Six-Party Talks on North Korean Nuclear Programs (September 19, 2005)

    State Department on U.S.-China Relations (September 21, 2005)

    President Karzai Addresses the New Parliament of Afghanistan (December 19, 2005)

    United Nations Recovery after the Indian Ocean Tsunami (December 19 and 22, 2005)

    International Affairs—Europe

    French and British Leaders on the Failure of the EU Constitution (May 31 and June 23, 2005)

    British Prime Minister Blair on Terrorist Bombings in London (July 7, 2005)

    Irish Republican Army on an End to Violence (July 28, 2005)

    Political Leaders on Constitutional Reform in Bosnia-Herzegovina (November 22, 2005)

    German Chancellor Merkel on Her Agenda for Change (November 30, 2005)

    Secretary of State on U.S. Policy Concerning Torture of Detainees (December 5 and 7, 2005)

    International Affairs—Latin America and Caribbean

    Secretary General Annan on the UN Mission in Haiti (May 13, 2005)

    Presidents Bush and Lula on U.S.-Brazilian Relations (November 6, 2005)

    International Affairs—Middle East

    Abbas on His Election as President of the Palestinian Authority (January 15, 2005)

    President Bush on His Second Inauguration as President (January 20, 2005)

    President Mubarak on Election Reforms in Egypt (February 26, 2005)

    United Nations on Promoting Democracy in Arab Lands (April 5, 2005)

    Israeli Prime Minister Sharon on Withdrawal from the Gaza Strip (August 15, 2005)

    President Ahmadinejad on Iran's Relations with the World (September 17, 2005)

    Department of Defense and President Bush on Security in Iraq (October 13 and December 12, 2005)

    United Nations Commission on Hariri Assassination in Lebanon (October 20, 2005)

    Special Inspector General on Iraq Reconstruction (October 30, 2005)

    Rep. Murtha and President Bush on U.S. Involvement in Iraq (November 17 and November 30, 2005)

    President Bush and International Observers on the Iraqi Elections (December 15 and 16, 2005)

    International Affairs—Russia and Former Soviet Republics

    Ukrainian President Yushchenko on His Inauguration (January 23, 2005)

    Russian President Putin on the State of the Nation (April 25, 2005)

    International Affairs—World Issues

    National Intelligence Council on World Trends in 2020 (January 13, 2005)

    Federal Guidelines on Drugs to Prevent HIV Infection (January 21, 2005)

    UN Secretary General on United Nations Reforms (March 21, 2005)

    Cardinal Ratzinger's Homily for Pope John Paul II (April 8, 2005)

    G-8 Leaders on Aid to Africa (July 8, 2005)

    State Department Panel on Foreign Views of the United States (September 15, 2005)

    Canadian Prime Minister Martin on the Dangers of Climate Change (December 7, 2005)

    IAEA Director ElBaradei on Accepting the Nobel Peace Prize (December 10, 2005)

    Media, Culture, and Life in America

    Revised Federal Dietary Guidelines (January 12, 2005)

    Florida Court and Congress on Schiavo Intervention (February 25 and March 21, 2005)

    Congressional Hearing on the Use of Steroids in Baseball (March 17, 2005)

    Closing Statement in Trial for 1964 Slayings of Civil Rights Workers (June 20, 2005)

    Supreme Court on Displays of the Ten Commandments (June 27, 2005)

    National Weather Service on Hurricane Katrina (August 28, 2005)

    GAO on Education Department “Propaganda” (September 30, 2005)

    Vatican Prohibition on Gay Seminarians (November 29, 2005)

    Rights, Responsibilities, and Justice

    Supreme Court on the Death Penalty for Juveniles (March 1, 2005)

    Closing Statement in Trial for 1964 Slayings of Civil Rights Workers (June 20, 2005)

    Supreme Court on Eminent Domain (June 23, 2006)

    Supreme Court on Displays of the Ten Commandments (June 27, 2005)

    Appeals Court on Prisoners Held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (July 15, 2005)

    President Bush's Remarks on the Death of Chief Justice Rehnquist (September 7, 2005)

    Judge John G. Roberts Jr. on His Nomination as Chief Justice (September 12, 2005)

    FBI Report on Crime in the United States (October 17, 2005)

    Secretary of State on U.S. Policy Concerning Torture of Detainees (December 5 and 7, 2005)

    Federal District Court on “Intelligent Design” (December 20, 2005)

    Security and Terrorism

    Presidential Commission on U.S. Intelligence Failures (March 31, 2005)

    British Prime Minister Blair on Terrorist Bombings in London (July 7, 2005)

    Appeals Court on Prisoners Held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (July 15, 2005)

    Indictment of I. Lewis “Scooter” Libby in CIA Leak Case (October 28, 2005)

    Final Report on Implementing the 9/11 Commission Recommendations(December 5, 2005)

    Secretary of State on U.S. Policy Concerning Torture of Detainees (December 5 and 7, 2005)

    IAEA Director ElBaradei on Accepting the Nobel Peace Prize (December 10, 2005)

    President Bush on Warrantless Domestic Surveillance by the NSA (December 19, 2005)

    List of Documents

    White House and President

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Address before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union.” February 2, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Address to the Nation on Hurricane Katrina Recovery from New Orleans, Louisiana.” September 15, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report to the President of the United States.” March 31, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Discussion on Strengthening Social Security and a Question-and-Answer Session in Great Falls, Montana.” February 3, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Economic Report of the President, Together with the Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisers.” February 17, 2006.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Inaugural Address.” January 20, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Joint Statement by President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh of India.” July 25, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. The President's Council on Bioethics. “Alternative Sources of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.” May 12, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “The President's News Conference.” December 19, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks at the Funeral Service for Chief Justice of the United States William H. Rehnquist.” September 7, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks Following Discussions with President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of Brazil in Brasilia.” Brasilia, Brazil. November 6, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks Following a Meeting with Iraqi Out-of-Country Voters.” December 15, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in Mobile, Alabama.” Mobile, Alabama. September 2, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on the War on Terror in Annapolis, Maryland.” November 30, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks to the World Affairs Council and a Question-and-Answer Session in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.” December 12, 2005.

    Executive Departments and Agencies

    U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. National Intelligence Council. “Mapping the Global Future: Report of the National Intelligence Council's 2020 Project.” NIC 2004–13. January 13, 2005.

    U.S. Department of Commerce. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. National Weather Service. Office in New Orleans, Louisiana. “Urgent Weather Message: National Weather Service, New Orleans, LA.” 10:11 a.m. CDT, August 28, 2005.

    U.S. Department of Defense. “Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq: October 2005 Report to Congress in Accordance with Conference Report 109–72, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2005.” October 13, 2005.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Antiretroviral Postexposure Prophylaxis after Sexual, Injection-Drug Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV in the United States.” January 20, 2005.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Department of Agriculture. “Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.” January 12, 2005.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. “HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan.” November 2, 2005.

    U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. “Fact Sheet for Crime in the United States, 2004.” October 17, 2005.

    U.S. Department of Labor. Office of Inspector General. Office of Audit. “Agreement with Wal-Mart Indicates Need for Stronger Guidance and Procedures Regarding Settlement Agreements.” Report No. 04-06-001-04-420. October 31, 2005.

    U.S. Department of State. Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy. “Cultural Diplomacy: The Linchpin of Public Diplomacy.” September 15, 2005.

    U.S. Department of State. “Commitment to Pursue Constitutional Reform.” Washington, D.C. November 22, 2005.

    U.S. Department of State. “Joint Statement of the Fourth Round of the Six-Party Talks.” Beijing, China. September 19, 2005.

    U.S. Department of State. “Press Availability with Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko: Secretary Condoleezza Rice.” Kiev, Ukraine. December 7, 2005.

    U.S. Department of State. “Remarks in Honor of the Tenth Anniversary of the Dayton Peace Accords.” Washington, D.C. November 22, 2005.

    U.S. Department of State. “Remarks upon Her Departure for Europe: Secretary Condoleezza Rice.” Andrews Air Force Base. December 5, 2005.

    U.S. Department of State. “Whither China: From Membership to Responsibility?” Speech by Robert B. Zoellick to the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations. New York City. September 21, 2005.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Inspector General. “Evaluation Report: Additional Analyses of Mercury Emissions Needed before EPA Finalizes Rules for Coal-Fired Electric Utilities.” Report no. 2005-P-00003. February 3, 2005.

    U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Mission Control Center. “STS-114 MCC Status Report #01.” Houston, Texas. July 26, 2005.

    U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Mission Control Center. “STS-114 MCC Status Report #17.” Houston, Texas. August 3, 2005.

    U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Mission Control Center. “STS-114 MCC Status Report #28.” Houston, Texas. August 9, 2005.

    Governmental Commissions

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report to the President of the United States.” March 31, 2005.

    Congress

    Congressional Quarterly. CQ Transcriptions. “House Majority Leader DeLay Delivers Remarks on Indictment.” September 28, 2005.

    U.S. Congress. “For the Relief of the Parents of Theresa Marie Schiavo.” 109th Congress, 1st sess. March 20, 2005.

    U.S. Congress. Government Accountability Office. “Decision Process to Deny Initial Application for Over-the-Counter Marketing of the Emergency Contraceptive Drug Plan B Was Unusual.” GAO-06-109. November 14, 2005.

    U.S. Congress. Government Accountability Office. “Department of Education—Contract to Obtain Services of Armstrong Williams.” B-305368, September 30, 2005.

    U.S. Congress. Government Accountability Office. “Department of Education—No Child Left Behind Act Video News Release and Media Analysis.” B-304228. September 30, 2005.

    U.S. Congress. Government Accountability Office. “Long-Term Fiscal Issues: Increasing Transparency and Reexamining the Base of the Federal Budget.” Testimony by Comptroller General David M. Walker before the Senate Budget Committee. February 8, 2005.

    U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. “Restoring Faith in America's Pastime: Evaluating Major League Baseball's Efforts to Eradicate Steroid Use.” 109th Cong., 1st sess. Serial no. 109–8. March 17, 2005.

    U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. The Honorable John P. Murtha. “War in Iraq.” November 17, 2005.

    U.S. Congress. Senate. Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee and the Energy and Natural Resources Committee. “Energy Pricing and Profits.” 109th Cong., 1st sess. November 9, 2005.

    U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. “Senate JudiciaryCommittee Holds Hearing on Supreme Court Nomination.” 109th Cong., 1st sess. September 12, 2005.

    U.S. Department of State. International Information Programs. “Democrats Present Post State of the Union Policy Agenda.” February 2, 2005.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Address before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union.” February 2, 2005.

    U.S. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. “Testimony of Bradley D. Belt, Executive Director, Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, before the Committee on Finance, United States Senate.” March 1, 2005.

    U.S. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. “Quarterly Report to Congress.” October 30, 2005.

    Judiciary

    State of Florida. Circuit Court for Pinellas County, Probate Division. “In Re: The Guardianship of Theresa Marie Schiavo, Incapacitated. Michael Schiavo, Petitioner, vs. Robert Schindler and Mary Schindler, Respondents.” File no. 90-2908-GD-003. February 25, 2005.

    State of Mississippi. Eighth Circuit Court District. State of Mississippi vs. Edgar Ray Killen. Closing Arguments of Attorney General Jim Hood. June 20, 2005.

    State of Texas. District Court of Travis County. 147th Judicial District. The State of Texas vs. John Dominick Colyandro, James Walter Ellis, & Thomas Dale DeLay. Bill of Indictment. September 28, 2005.

    State of Texas. District Court of Travis County. 403rd Judicial District. The State of Texas vs. John Dominick Colyandro, James Walter Ellis, & Thomas Dale DeLay. Bill of Indictment. October 3, 2005.

    U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. No. 04-5393. July 15, 2005.

    U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. United States of America v. I. Lewis Libby. Grand jury indictment. October 28, 2005.

    U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania. Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District. Memorandum Opinion. Case No. 04cv2688. December 20, 2005.

    U.S. Supreme Court of the United States. Kelo v. City of New London. 545 U.S. ___ (2005), slip opinion. June 23, 2005.

    U.S. Supreme Court of the United States. McCreary County v. ACLU. 545 U.S. ___ (2005), slip opinion. June 27, 2005.

    U.S. Supreme Court of the United States. Roper v. Simmons. 543 U.S. ___ (2005), slip opinion. March 1, 2005.

    U.S. Supreme Court of the United States. Van Orden v. Perry. 545 U.S. ___ (2005), slip opinion. June 27, 2005.

    U.S. Nongovernmental Organizations

    AFL-CIO. “Keynote Remarks by AFL-CIO President John J. Sweeney, 50th Anniversary AFL-CIO Constitutional Convention.” July 25, 2005.

    Change to Win. “Change to Win Founding Convention: Statement byAnna Burger, Chair of Change to Win.” September 27, 2005.

    9/11 Public Discourse Project. “Final Report on 9/11 Commission Recommendations.” December 5, 2005.

    Non-U.S. Governments

    Arab Republic of Egypt. Egypt State Information Service. “Mubarak Stresses Constitutional Amendments, Paving Way for Multi-Candidate Polls.” February 27, 2005.

    European Union. European Union Election Observation Mission to Liberia. “Peaceful and Well Administered Presidential Run-Off Election Advances the Process of Returning Liberia to a Normal Functioning State: Statement of Preliminary Findings and Conclusions.” Monrovia, Liberia. November 10, 2005.

    Federal Republic of Germany. The Press and Information Office of the Federal Government. “Policy Statement by Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel in the German Bundestag.” November 30, 2005.

    French Republic. Présidence de la Republique. “Referendum on the European Constitution: Statement to the French by M. Jacques Chirac, President of the Republic.” Paris, France. May 31, 2005.

    Government of Canada. Privy Council Office. “Address by Prime Minister Paul Martin at the UN Conference on Climate Change.” Montreal, Canada. December 7, 2005.

    Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Embassy of Afghanistan in Canada. “Speech of H. E. Hamid Karzai at the Opening Session of the Parliament of Afghanistan.” December 19, 2005.

    Islamic Republic of Iran. Permanent Mission to the United Nations. “Address by H. E. Dr. Mahmood Ahmadinejad President of the Islamic Republic of Iran before the Sixtieth Session of the United Nations General Assembly.” New York. September 17, 2005.

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan. “President's Address to the Nation on Thursday, July 21, 2005.” July 21, 2005.

    Russian Federation. President of Russia. “Annual Address to the Federal Assembly.” The Kremlin, Moscow. April 25, 2005.

    State of Israel. Prime Minister's Office. “PM Sharon's Statement on the Day of the Implementation of the Disengagement Plan.” Translation. August 15, 2005.

    Ukraine. My Ukraine: Personal Website of Viktor Yushchenko. “Inaugural Address of the President of Ukraine Victor Yushchenko to the Ukrainian People on Independence Square.” January 23, 2005.

    United Kingdom. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. G-8 Gleneagles 2005. “Gleneagles Communiqué on Africa, Climate Change, Energy, and Sustainable Development.” July 8, 2005.

    United Kingdom. Prime Minister's Office. “PM's Statement on London Explosions.” Perthshire, Scotland. July 7, 2005.

    United Kingdom. Prime Minister's Office. “Speech to the EU Parliament.” June 23, 2005.

    U.S. Department of State. “Joint Statement of the Fourth Round of theSix-Party Talks.” Beijing, China. September 19, 2005.

    International Nongovernmental Organizations

    International Mission for Iraqi Elections. “Interim Report on the December 15, 2005 Council of Representatives Elections.” Amman, Jordan. December 15, 2005.

    Jerusalem Media and Communication Center. “First Speech of Palestinian National Authority President Mr. Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen).” January 15, 2005.

    Nobel Foundation. “Nobel Lecture by Mohamed ElBaradei.” Oslo, Norway. December 10, 2005.

    Sinn Fein. “IRA Statement.” July 28, 2005.

    United Nations. General Assembly. “In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All.” Report of the Secretary-General, A/59/2005. March 21, 2005.

    United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Access to Justice for Victims of Sexual Violence: Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.” July 29, 2005.

    United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Relief and Rehabilitation Efforts Remain Problematic One Year after Asian Tsunami, Say UN Experts.” December 19, 2005.

    United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Report of the Mission to Kyrgyzstan by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Concerning the Killings in Andijan, Uzbekistan of 13–14 May 2005.” Geneva, Switzerland. July 12, 2005.

    United Nations. Office of the Secretary-General's Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery. “Tsunami Recovery: Taking Stock after 12 Months.” December 22, 2005.

    United Nations. Security Council. “Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1595 (2005).” S/2005/662. Beirut, Lebanon. October 19, 2005.

    United Nations. Security Council. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti.” S/2005/313. May 13, 2005.

    United Nations. Security Council. “Twentieth Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” S/2005/832. December 28, 2005.

    United Nations. United Nations Development Program. Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development. Arab Gulf Programme for United Nations Development Organizations. “Arab Human Development Report 2004: Towards Freedom in the Arab World.” Amman, Jordan. April 5, 2005.

    The Vatican. Congregation for Catholic Education. “Instruction: Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with Regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in View of Their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders.” Rome. November 29, 2005.

    The Vatican. “Funeral Mass of the Roman Pontiff John Paul II: Homily of His Eminence Card. Joseph Ratzinger.” St. Peter's Square, Rome. April 8, 2005.

    Preface

    The most destructive hurricane season on record in the United States, continuing turmoil in Iraq and the Middle East, and the selection of a new pope are only some of the topics of national and international interest chosen for discussion in Historic Documents of 2005. This edition marks the thirty-fourth volume of a CQ Press project that began with Historic Documents of 1972. This series allows students, librarians, journalists, scholars, and others to research and understand the most important domestic and foreign issues and events of the year through primary source documents. Some of the more lengthy documents written for specialized audiences have been excerpted to highlight the most important sections. The official statements, news conferences, speeches, special studies, and court decisions presented here should be of lasting public and academic interest.

    Historic Documents of 2005 opens with “Overview of 2005,” which puts key events and issues in political, historical, and social contexts. The balance of the book is organized chronologically, with each “article” comprising an introduction and one or more related documents on a specific event, issue, or topic. When relevant, the introductions provide context, background, and an account of further developments during the year. A thematic table of contents (page xv) and a list of documents by type or source (page xix) following the standard table of contents assist in locating events and documents.

    As events, issues, and consequences become more complex and far-reaching, these introductions and documents yield important information and deepen understanding about the world. The introductions become increasingly useful as memories of current events fade.

    How to Use This Book

    The seventy-two articles in this edition consist of two parts: a comprehensive introduction followed by one or more primary source documents. The articles are arranged in chronological order. There are several ways to find events and documents of interest:

    By date

    If the approximate date of an event or document is known, glance through the titles for that month in the table of contents or in the monthly tables of contents that appear at the beginning of each month's introduction and documents.

    By theme

    To find a particular topic or area, review the thematic table of contents.

    By document type or source

    To find a particular type of document or one by source, review the list of documents.

    By index

    The five-year index helps in locating references not only to particular events or documents, but also to entries on the same or related subjects. The index in this volume covers the years 2001–2005. A separate volume, Historic Documents Index, 1972–2005, may also be useful.

    Each article begins with an introduction providing historical and intellectual contexts for the document or documents presented. Documents' formal or informal titles are designated with quotation marks or italics, and these, along with the text, are reproduced with the original spelling, capitalization, and punctuation of the original or official copy. Ellipsis points indicate textual omissions, and brackets are used for editorial insertions within documents to clarify the text. Full citations to the official print and online sources appear at the end of each document. If a document is not available on the Internet, this too is noted.

    Overview of 2005

    Natural disasters in Asia and the Americas and a postconflict situation in Iraq rapidly trending toward manmade disaster were the dominant themes of 2005. All these disasters seemed certain to have long-term consequences for the societies directly afflicted by them, and in the case of Iraq, the consequences appeared likely to have a much broader reach.

    Hurricane Katrina

    The United States experienced one of its worst natural disasters in history when Hurricane Katrina slammed into the Gulf Coast on August 29, dislocating more than 1 million people and destroying or damaging more than 500,000 homes and other buildings. More than 1,300 people died from storm-related causes, most of them in New Orleans. Eighty percent of that city flooded when protective levees gave way under pressure from rains and storm surges. About 100,000 people—roughly 20 percent of the city's population—did not evacuate the city because they did not own a car or were otherwise unable to leave. As many as 50,000 people sought shelter in the Superdome and the city's convention center, where they awaited evacuation for as long as five or six days, with little food, water, sanitation, or medical care. Looters took over parts of the city for several days before being brought under control.

    The sheer magnitude of the destruction made rescue and relief operations difficult, but it soon became apparent that state and local officials as well as the federal government were unprepared to handle such a large-scale emergency. Poor planning and lack of communications equipment and coordination at all levels resulted in loss of life and suffering that possibly could have been avoided. The Bush administration came under heavy criticism for its slow and inefficient response. Top officials, including President George W. Bush, seemed ill-informed in the first days after the storm. On vacation when the storm hit, Bush did not return to Washington for two days and then showed little of the forceful leadership that had characterized his response to the al Qaeda attacks on New York and Washington in 2001, the last major emergency the country faced. The head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency was forced to step down, while legislators, editorial writers, and the general public raised pointed questions about the ability of the Department of Homeland Security to protect Americans in the event of a terrorist attack if they could not adequately prepare for a storm for which there had been ample warning.

    Katrina was only one of four strong hurricanes to pummel the United States in 2005. Although none of the others matched the devastation or proved as deadly as Katrina, together they stretched emergency workers and resources to their limits. Altogether, a record twenty-seven named storms took shape in the Atlantic in 2005. The most devastating, Stan, contributed to the deaths of at least 2,000 people in Central America.

    Recovering from the Tsunami

    Despite the devastation the year's hurricanes caused to portions of the U.S. Gulf Coast, the Caribbean, and Central America, they were relatively small-scale natural disasters in comparison with the tsunami in the Indian Ocean region in December 2004, caused by a violent earthquake off the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. According to UN estimates, the tsunami killed at least 200,000 people, destroyed the livelihoods of about 1.4 million people, and made several million people homeless—hundreds of thousands of whom remained in temporary shelters a year later. Indonesia by far took the hardest hit, but tens of thousands of people were affected in eleven other countries, especially Sri Lanka and Thailand.

    The incomprehensible enormity of the destruction and human suffering spawned the greatest outpouring of international humanitarian generosity in modern times. Individuals and governments contributed nearly $14 billion through 2005 for emergency relief and long-term reconstruction in the stricken countries—exceeding the $10 billion price tag the United Nations had estimated. Perhaps just as miraculously, the aid effort generally won positive marks. By and large, most people got the emergency aid they needed in a relatively timely fashion, and the local countries moved with varying degrees of dispatch to provide new housing, jobs, and crucial infrastructure.

    The tragedy of the tsunami produced at least one unexpected positive result. At the epicenter of the destruction, in Indonesia's Aceh province, rebels fighting for independence and the Indonesian government decided that cooperation was more important than continuing their three-decade war. The two sides signed a peace agreement in August, and at year's end appeared to be abiding by it. Hopes for a similar path to peace in Sri Lanka appeared, however, to come to naught. A 2002 cease-fire between the government and Tamil rebels held by a thread, but an initial period of post-tsunami cooperation gave way in 2005 to a new hardening of attitudes that risked Sri Lanka descending once again into the embrace of what had been one of the most violent conflicts anywhere on the planet in recent decades.

    One other major natural disaster struck in 2005: On October 7 a massive earthquake, centered in the disputed province of Kashmir, hit the border regions between India and Pakistan. By year's end the official death toll stood in excess of 70,000 people, most of them in areas under Pakistani control. The Pakistani government's hesitant response almost certainly contributed to the number of dead and to suffering, as did the fact that many of the victims lived in remote mountainous regions inaccessible for weeks because of landslides and damaged roads.

    The Iraq War, Chapter III

    Nearly everyone agreed that 2005 would be a crucial year in determining the near-term future of Iraq, but at year's end the future remained uncertain. President Bush and his aides insisted that Iraq was transforming rapidly into a democracy that within a few years would be able to fend for itself. Many of Iraq's new political leaders, and other Iraqi citizens who hoped to benefit in the post-Saddam Hussein era, also seemed determined to make the best of an incredibly difficult situation that they could not entirely control. Regardless, most observers on the scene, and many others watching Iraq from a distance, had difficulty discerning signs of light in the darkness.

    According to public opinion polls, Americans were becoming highly skeptical about the chances of a positive outcome in Iraq. By late 2005, a growing majority told pollsters that they believed the war and all that followed were not worth the price the United States was paying in treasure and blood. That price became especially obvious in late October, when fatalities for U.S. service personnel reached 2,000. Such concerns inevitably spilled over into the political arena. Some Democrats, and even a handful of Republicans, began saying what no political figure had dared utter a year earlier: the time had come to begin pulling back from Iraq. By far, the most credible of these new critics was Rep. John Murtha of Pennsylvania, a little known but highly influential Democrat who with one brief speech in November suddenly made it legitimate for politicians to talk about ending the U.S. enterprise in Iraq sooner rather than later. In response, Bush temporarily rallied some of his Republican base with a series of speeches vigorously defending his policies. More tellingly, however, the Pentagon in December began talking about reducing the U.S. troop presence in Iraq in 2006, a move suggesting that the White House planned to make at least symbolic reductions before crucial midterm congressional elections in November.

    In Iraq, elections and violence were the two most important issues of 2005, and the two were intertwined. Under quite difficult circumstances, Iraqis managed to hold not one but three elections during the year, as part of the U.S.-fostered program to transform the country into a working democracy. Holding elections in a country afflicted by large-scale violence and more accustomed to dictatorship than democracy represented an undeniable achievement. Legislative elections in January, boycotted by most of the country's Sunni Muslim minority, resulted in the formation of a “transitional” government whose chief responsibility was to write a permanent constitution. Reaching agreement on such a document faced predictable difficulties, but the Iraqis met the task, and voters—this time including a larger number of Sunnis—ratified the constitution in October. The year's third election, held in December, established a new legislature that would create Iraq's first “permanent” government since Saddam Hussein's overthrow. Most Sunni leaders, who had come to regret their boycott of the earlier voting, urged Sunnis to participate in this election, and a majority of them did. The task of forming a government in 2006 was expected to be a difficult one that would place severe strains on Iraq's tentative embrace of the democratic process.

    All three elections took place amid violence carried out by disparate groups of fighters commonly referred to as “insurgents.” The year's violence spiked in conjunction with the elections, an indication that the insurgents hoped to derail the U.S.-backed move toward democracy. According to U.S. and Iraqi intelligence assessments, the vast majority of insurgents—some 15,000 to 20,000 by most estimates—were angry Sunni Muslims motivated by hatred of the U.S. occupation and by an uncertain future as a minority in a country in which the long-oppressed Shi'ite majority was now dominant. A much smaller number of insurgents were radical Muslim Arabs from other countries, attracted to the opportunity of waging jihad (holy war) against the American infidels occupying a Muslim land. These foreign fighters, U.S. officials said, were responsible for dozens of suicide bombings in 2005 that killed hundreds of people, most of them Iraqi civilians. Largely because of the increasing use of suicide bombs, 2005 was the most violent year in Iraq since the U.S. invasion.

    The Bush administration switched its tactics against the insurgents in 2005, generally abandoning its emphasis on killing as many of them as possible and instead developing a broader strategy of clearing insurgents from large swaths of the country and building stable, violence-free zones. The prospects for success with this new “clear, hold, and build” counterinsurgency strategy remained unclear at the end of 2005.

    The increasingly sectarian nature of just about every aspect of post-Saddam Iraq was, however, clear. The three elections of 2005 demonstrated that the vast majority of Iraqis voted along sectarian lines: most Shi'ites supported the dominant Shi'ite political alliance, nearly all Kurds voted for one of the two major Kurdish political parties, and Sunnis (when they voted) supported one of the two or three Sunni-backed parties. Some aspects of this trend were only natural, given Iraq's relatively brief and troubled history as an independent country. It also seemed possible, however, that sectarian divisions in political discourse—particularly when magnified by sectarian violence—could threaten future stability and even lead to partition of the country along sectarian lines.

    Perhaps the greatest irony about the situation in Iraq was that it finally became what Bush said it was before he ordered the invasion in 2003: a center of international terrorism. The president heavily invested his argument for war with the warning that Saddam Hussein's regime might give weapons of mass destruction to international terrorists, who would use them against U.S. allies in the Middle East, Europe, or even against the United States itself. After the war, it became clear that Iraq had no such weapons, nor did it have anything close to a working relationship with al Qaeda and the other terrorist groups the United States feared. After two years of U.S. occupation, Iraq had, however, become the world's most active location for the recruiting and training of radical Islamist terrorism, according to a confidential CIA report, portions of which were leaked to the news media. The report merely gave an official imprimatur to commonsensical observations of events in Iraq.

    The “War on Terrorism”

    Four years after the September 11, 2001, al Qaeda attacks against the United States, terrorism by radical Islamist groups remained near the top of the international agenda and at the top of the Bush administration's foreign policy agenda. President Bush cited the absence of a terrorist attack in the United States since September 11 as an indicator of the success of his antiterrorism policies. Groups waging jihad against what they viewed as Western decadence did, however, stage several high-profile attacks elsewhere in the world. By far, the suicide bombings in the London transport system on July 7 received the most attention. The attacks on three subway trains and one bus killed fifty-two people (plus the four bombers) and wounded some seven hundred others, at least sixty of whom required hospitalization for a week or more. An attempt to duplicate the attack two weeks later failed when four bombs failed to ignite.

    For Britons, one of the more disturbing aspects of the attacks was that three of the bombers were young Muslim men who had been born and raised in Britain after their parents emigrated from Pakistan. The fourth was a Jamaican native who had moved to the country. Many of Britain's 2 million-plus Muslims trace their origins to far-flung regions of the former British empire. That some of them would reject British culture so thoroughly as to resort to terrorism in their homeland raised troubling questions for the country as a whole. Prime Minister Tony Blair's government, which had enacted tough antiterrorism laws before the bombings, reacted even more strongly afterward by proposing additional legislation giving law enforcement agencies enhanced powers. Despite the public anxiety caused by the bombings, Blair's proposals went too far in the prevailing political climate, and in November he suffered the most embarrassing legislative defeat of his eight-year tenure, with the House of Commons rejecting his proposal to extend the length of time police could detain terror suspects without charging them. Blair's close ties to President Bush ironically added to his troubles. Given the widespread international revulsion at such U.S. policies as the indefinite detention of terrorism suspects at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, British legislators across the political spectrum feared being associated with similar policies at home.

    Other significant terrorist episodes during the year included the second attack in three years on the island of Bali in Indonesia and in Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon. According to an investigation by the United Nations, the attack in Lebanon on February 14 exhibited the hallmarks of state-sponsored terrorism strongly implicating Syria. The target, former prime minister Rafik Hariri, was killed along with twenty-one others when a massive bomb exploded near the Beirut waterfront. The killing of Hariri, Lebanon's most popular political figure, spawned large nationalist demonstrations demanding that Syria relinquish the control it had exerted over the country for more than two decades. These demonstrations, coupled with international pressure, forced Syria to withdraw its army and its intelligence services from Lebanon within months.

    Afghanistan, the original front in Bush's war on terrorism, faced some of the same challenges and opportunities during the year as did Iraq, the second and far bloodier front. The people of Afghanistan went to the polls in September to elect a new national assembly to work alongside President Hamid Karzai, who had won the country's first-ever legitimate election in 2004. In both cases, as in Iraq, voters tended to select candidates along sectarian lines, appearing to foreshadow the difficulties that elected politicians would face in making decisions based on national rather than local or sectarian interests. Just as threatening to Afghanistan's future was a rise in violence, which made 2005 the bloodiest year in the country since the U.S.-led invasion in late 2001. Fighters for the ousted Taliban regime remained active in the south and continued to launch attacks against civilians, the government, and foreign military forces. Key al Qaeda and Taliban leaders remained at-large four years after the invasion and Bush's claim that they would be captured “dead or alive.” Chief among them was al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, who was presumed to be hiding in the mountainous border region of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

    In the United States, the Bush administration found itself increasingly on the defensive as it entered the fourth year of what it called the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT, in Washington's acronym-obsessed terms). Energized by a Supreme Court decision in June 2004 that the president did not have a “blank check” to take action even in wartime, federal judges became less deferential than they had been to the administration's claims that all its antiterrorism steps—notably, the prolonged jailing of alleged terrorists without charges—were protected from legal scrutiny.

    The year also witnessed a significant amount of outrage, but no concrete action, in Congress in December when the New York Times revealed that Bush had ordered the National Security Agency to monitor e-mails, telephone calls, and other communications between individuals in the United States and suspected terrorists overseas. In ordering this action, Bush bypassed a special federal court that had been established specifically to grant warrants for this type of surveillance. Some Republicans joined many Democrats in suggesting that Bush had exceeded his authority and possibly violated the law. Even so, the political power of Bush's claim to be fighting a war against terrorism was still effective in Washington, and it appeared likely to override considerations on such matters as civil liberties and limits on presidential authority.

    That furor came less than two months after a federal grand jury had indicted Vice President Dick Cheney's chief of staff, I. Lewis “Scooter” Libby, on charges of perjury, making false statements to investigators, and obstruction of justice. The charges stemmed from the investigation of the leaking in mid-2003 of classified information about the identify of a covert CIA official who was the wife of a former diplomat who had become one of the chief critics of Bush's original justification for the war in Iraq. The charges against Libby were deeply troubling for the White House, but not nearly as troubling as would have been charges against Bush's chief political adviser, Karl Rove, who also was under investigation. Rove appeared to escape indictment, at least for the time being, by amending his grand jury testimony after later evidence contradicted it. Libby was expected to go on trial in 2006, creating another opportunity for potentially damaging revelations about political dealings within the White House.

    Israelis and the Palestinians

    The year 2005 brought significant changes in the relationship between Israel and the more than 3 million Palestinians living in the territories Israel occupied in 1967. The death of Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat in November 2004 had ushered in the prospect of significant political changes in the Palestinian community, which Arafat had dominated for nearly four decades. Arafat's old guard managed to hold onto political power for another year, notably by securing the election in January of his longtime aide Mahmoud Abbas as president of the Palestinian Authority. Long-simmering tensions that Arafat had suppressed rose to the surface throughout the rest of the year, however, making it increasingly likely that dramatic changes would result from parliamentary elections scheduled for January 2006. Most important, the radical group Hamas, which had sponsored many of the suicide bombings and other terrorist bombings against Israel since the late 1980s, entered the political arena and mounted a significant challenge to Fatah, the party founded by Arafat. During the year, Hamas generally observed a cease-fire that Abbas had arranged after taking office. Even so, the prospect of Hamas gaining a share of political power in the Palestinian government was a threatening one for Israelis.

    On the Israeli side, beginning in August, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon carried out the plan he had announced a year earlier to withdraw Israeli civilian settlements and military posts from the Gaza Strip. Most of the more than 9,000 settlers left peacefully, if reluctantly, but a small minority resisted, insisting that Sharon could not force Jews from the land that God had decreed to them. The government forcing settlers from homes that the government had encouraged them to build traumatized many settlers and outraged their hardcore supporters, but most Israelis supported Sharon's action. Polls showed that most Israelis accepted his argument that the cost of protecting the few thousand settlers who lived among the more than 1 million Palestinians in Gaza had become unacceptably high. Sharon also closed four small settlements in a remote section of the West Bank, and he appeared to have plans to consolidate Israel's occupation of the West Bank into several large settlements, most of them near Jerusalem. Sharon had not officially presented his plans by year's end, however, and early in January 2006 he suffered a major stroke that ended his political career.

    U.S. Relations with China and India

    Although in 2005 the Bush administration focused much of its attention on the Middle East, it found time to contemplate current and future relations with China and India, the two Asian giants widely considered to be the rising powers of the twenty-first century. In both their cases, the administration tried to balance short-term interests with long-term considerations that would extend beyond Bush's presidency.

    By 2005 U.S. relations with China had become much more complex than at any point in the recent past. As China's economy continued to grow at a blistering pace, and as a new generation of Chinese leaders became increasingly confident of their country's expanding role in the world, the relationship between Beijing and Washington evolved into one more equal than it had been. The Bush administration and members of Congress continued to lecture China on human rights, currency exchange rates, Taiwan, and other matters, but Beijing's leaders had become less defensive and more assertive in their responses.

    It appeared that Chinese leaders were becoming increasingly concerned about the internal stresses produced by the transformation of their country's economy since the late 1980s from strict communism to a more open capitalist system. Several hundred million people in urban areas, primarily in the eastern part of the country, had benefited from the influx of Western investment that was transforming China into the world's biggest factory. At the same time, however, the vast majority of the nation's 1.3 billion people continued to live in deep poverty in rural areas, and the pace of industrialization had made much of the country an environmental disaster area. With few formal outlets for dissent, the Chinese increasingly expressed their frustration with the country's problems through protests. According to officials, China experienced more than 70,000 protests at the local level in 2004, and public discontent showed no signs of abating in 2005.

    At least in part because of concerns about a rising China, the Bush administration took a bold step in 2005 toward improving relations with India. Bush agreed in July to allow sales of nuclear power technology to India despite U.S. laws and international rules banning such sales because India had acquired nuclear weapons. Bush considered it vital for the United States to establish better relations with India, which despite its size long had been at the fringes of U.S. policy. The president's aides asserted that the new approach to India was motivated at least in part by a desire to hedge U.S. bets in Asia. China and India, along with Japan, are natural rivals for leadership in Asia. In a modern-day equivalent of nineteenth-century balance-of-power politics, the Bush administration had come to see advantages in maintaining better relations with India in case tensions rise with China.

    Regardless, Bush's willingness to help India's civilian nuclear power program caused controversy on Capitol Hill and in foreign policy circles. Most of the unease centered around concerns that overlooking India's development of nuclear weapons would undermine U.S. attempts to block the spread of nuclear weapons elsewhere. The most important consideration was how the United States and its allies could convince Iran, North Korea, and other countries that it was wrong for them to build nuclear weapons, while India was being rewarded for having done so. The Bush administration insisted that each situation was unique and that its deal with India set no precedents. Meanwhile, diplomatic efforts to persuade Iran and North Korea to halt their nuclear weapons programs plodded along with little success.

    The U.S. Economy

    The U.S. economy chugged along in 2005 at a pace slightly higher than expected. Although the states directly affected by Hurricane Katrina suffered a major economic shock, the national economy surprisingly appeared to take the storm in stride, at least during the first few months. Overall, growth slowed in the last quarter of the year, but economists attributed some of that slowdown to a decline in car sales. The national unemployment rate remained stable for the year at around 5 percent. Gasoline prices had spiked to more than $3.00 a gallon by late September but then fell. Nonetheless, it appeared that energy prices would likely remain high for some time, in part because of uncertainty about domestic and foreign supplies and heightened demands from fast-growing economies, including China.

    Economic watchdogs continued to warn about the risk of ever-expanding deficit spending. At the end of 2005, the U.S. trade deficit stood at a record $726 billion, much of it financed by investors from China and Japan, including the Chinese and Japanese governments. The federal budget deficit dropped from $412 billion in 2004, a record level in dollar terms, to $319 billion in 2005. Although the Bush administration pledged to cut the deficit even further, costs of the war in Iraq and hurricane recovery made that job difficult.

    One worry resulting from the deficits concerned the solvency of the Social Security system, which is expected to start running its own deficit soon after the oldest members of the baby boom generation begin retiring in 2008. President Bush made Social Security reform the centerpiece of his domestic agenda for 2005 with a proposal for allowing younger workers to take over the management, and financial risk, of their own personal retirement accounts. Bush and key members of his economic team mounted a political-style campaign to win public support for the program, but the public refused to buy it. Perhaps more important, neither did key Republican leaders of Congress. In late spring Bush quietly shelved the plan.

    Change at the Supreme Court

    With no change in membership for eleven years—historically, a long stretch—the Supreme Court in 2005 lost two influential voices with the death of Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist and the retirement of Associate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. Vacancies on the bench had been long awaited by social conservatives committed to holding Bush to his promise to name staunch conservatives to the Court. By the same token, liberals long feared that the Bush nominees could tip the balance on the Court toward conservatives who would weaken or even overturn civil rights and liberties, including the right to an abortion guaranteed by earlier Courts. Both sides were prepared for highly partisan and divisive battles over virtually any nominee that Bush might put forward. An agreement early in the year among moderate Republicans and Democrats in the Senate virtually guaranteed that Senate Democrats would be able to block the confirmation only of candidates who held extremist views outside the “mainstream” of acceptability.

    Working within these parameters, Bush was able to win confirmation of a new chief justice, John G. Roberts Jr., in relatively short order and with comparative ease. He bungled the nomination for the second vacancy, however, naming White House counsel and personal friend Harriet Miers and then withdrawing her nomination after conservatives loudly complained that she did not have a proven track record on abortion and other issues of concern to them. Samuel A. Alito Jr., his second nomination to fill the vacancy, was a federal court judge with a legal and judicial background similar to that of Roberts, although Alito seemed the more conservative of the two men. Alito was confirmed in January 2006.

    The courts sat at the center of several battles in the ongoing “culture war” in 2005. The Supreme Court split on two cases involving public displays of the Ten Commandments, allowing them in one instance, where a granite monument was judged to be a part of the nation's judicial history and tradition, but disallowing them in another, where a framed display appeared intended primarily to advance a specific religious message. A federal district judge in Pennsylvania barred a public school from teaching “intelligent design” as an alternative to evolution in a biology class. The judge, a Republican appointed in 2002, said the theory of intelligent design was a variant of creationism and a pretext for advancing “a particular version of Christianity.”

    An even greater controversy surrounded the death of Terry Schiavo, a brain-damaged woman who had been in a “persistent vegetative state” for nearly fifteen years. After her husband won court approval to remove her feeding tube and allow her to die, Congress and President Bush sought to force the courts to prolong her life. Federal courts, including the Supreme Court, refused to intervene, and Schiavo died on March 31. Social conservatives, who used the case to push their “culture of life” agenda, railed against what they described as an activist, liberal judiciary bent on thwarting the will of the people. House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, R-Texas, one of the most outspoken critics of the judiciary, called it “out of control” and said its members would eventually have “to answer for their behavior.” As it turned out, DeLay was asked to answer for his behavior. In September a Texas grand jury indicted him on money laundering charges in connection with campaign fund-raising. House rules forced him to relinquish his leadership position. His trial remained pending at the end of the year.

    JohnFelton

    MarthaGottron

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