Historic Documents of 2004

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Edited by: CQ Press

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    Contents

    Thematic Table of Contents

    List of Documents

    Preface

    How to Use This Book

    Overview of 2004

    January
    NASA on the Mars Rovers

    The January 4, 2004, press release from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory announcing the safe landing on Mars of the Spirit rover.

    President Bush on Missions to the Moon and Mars

    A speech by President George W. Bush, delivered at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C., on January 14, 2004, in which he announced plans for a series of manned space missions, first to the moon and later to Mars and possibly deeper into space.

    State of the Union Address and Democratic Response

    The State of the Union address, delivered January 20, 2004, by President George W. Bush to a joint session of Congress and the Democratic response by House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi of California and Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle of South Dakota.

    February
    Massachusetts Supreme Court on Gay Marriage

    The majority and minority advisory opinions to the Massachusetts Senate from the justices of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, issued February 3, 2004, in which the majority concluded that differentiating between civil unions for same-sex couples and marriage for opposite-sex couples would violate the equal protection and due process requirements of the Massachusetts constitution. The opinion cleared the way for legal same-sex marriages to begin in the state on May 17, 2004.

    President's Economic Report, Economic Advisers' Report

    President George W. Bush's annual report to Congress, The Economic Report of the President, and excerpts from The Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisers, both released February 9, 2004.

    Georgian President Saakashvili on the Transition to Democracy

    A speech delivered February 24, 2004, by Georgian president Mikhail Saakashvili to a forum at the Johns Hopkins University School for Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C., in which he appealed for U.S. help for his country's transition to democracy.

    National Review Board on Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church

    A Report on the Crisis in the Catholic Church in the United States, issued February 27, 2004, by the National Review Board for the Protection of Children and Young People, an independent lay board of prominent Catholics appointed by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops to monitor the church's response to allegations of widespread sexual abuse of minors by priests.

    UN Security Council on the Post-Aristide Era in Haiti

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1529, adopted February 29, 2004, authorizing an international peacekeeping force, led by the United States, to stabilize the situation in Haiti following the resignation of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

    March
    Spanish Leaders on the Terrorist Bombings in Madrid

    Two televised statements to the people of Spain by King Juan Carlos I and President of the Government José María Aznar on the afternoon of March 11, 2004, hours after 191 people were killed and more than 1,600 were injured by bomb explosions on commuter trains in Madrid.

    UN Secretary General on Remembering the Rwanda Genocide

    “Rwanda Genocide ‘Must Leave Us Always with a Sense of Bitter Regret and Abiding Sorrow,’ Says Secretary-General to New York Memorial Conference,” a press release of a statement by United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan on March 26, 2004, at a conference in New York City commemorating the Rwanda genocide.

    Congressional Research Service Report on Human Trafficking

    “Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response,” a report released March 26, 2004, by the Congressional Research Service, an arm of the Library of Congress.

    President Bush on NATO Expansion

    A speech by President George W. Bush at the White House on March 29, 2004, welcoming seven new member nations into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    General Accounting Office on Federal Aviation Security Efforts

    “Aviation Security: Improvement Still Needed in Federal Aviation Security Efforts,” a report to Congress by the General Accounting Office, issued March 30, 2004, assessing government programs to improve aviation security.

    April
    Presidential Council on the Ethics of Cloning

    Reproduction and Responsibility: The Regulation of New Biotechnologies, a report released April 1, 2004, by the President's Council on Bioethics, which called for closer monitoring of fertility clinic procedures and long-term studies of the health effects of assisted reproduction.

    Bush Administration on Lifting Economic Sanctions against Libya

    A statement released April 23, 2004, by the Office of the Press Secretary announcing that President George W. Bush had lifted most U.S. economic sanctions against Libya in recognition of that country's willingness to give up its programs to develop chemical and nuclear weapons.

    General Accounting Office on Missile Defense Systems

    “Missile Defense: Actions Are Needed to Enhance Testing and Accountability,” a report submitted to Congress April 23, 2004, by the General Accounting Office.

    Federal Reserve Board Chairman on Rising Energy Prices

    An address April 27, 2004, by Alan Greenspan, chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, to a conference on U.S.-Saudi Arabian energy relations, held at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C., in which he described the economic challenges posed by increased energy prices.

    May
    EU Officials on the Addition of Ten New Member Nations

    Speeches delivered May 1, 2004, at the official ceremonies in Dublin, Ireland, commemorating the addition of ten new member nations to the European Union. The speeches were delivered by Bertie Ahern, the prime minister of Ireland and the current president of the European Council; Pat Cox, president of the European Parliament; and Romano Prodi, president of the European Commission.

    U.S. Army Report on Abuses of Iraqi Prisoners

    “Article 15-6 Investigation of the 800th Military Police Brigade,” a report submitted to the U.S. Army in March 2004 by Maj. Gen. Antonio M. Taguba. The report dealt with General Taguba's investigation into abuses by U.S. military personnel of Iraqi prisoners at the Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad and at other U.S.-run detention facilities in Iraq. Excerpts of the report were first published by U.S. newspapers on May 3, 2004.

    Federal Reserve Chairman on Trade and Budget Deficits

    “Globalization and Innovation,” a speech delivered May 6, 2004, by Federal Reserve Board chairman Alan Greenspan at the Conference on Bank Structure and Competition in Chicago.

    Bush Administration Commission on Policies toward Cuba

    “Report to the President: Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba,” compiled by U.S. government officials under the chairmanship of Secretary of State Colin Powell. The report was presented to President George W. Bush on May 3, 2004, and made public on May 6.

    Chen Shui-bian on His Reelection as President of Taiwan

    The inaugural address on May 20, 2004, by Chen Shui-bian, the reelected president of Taiwan (Republic of China).

    Attorney General and FBI Director on the Terrorism Threat

    A news conference held at the Justice Department in Washington, D.C., on May 26, 2004, in which Attorney General John Ashcroft and FBI director Robert Mueller warned of potential terrorist attacks against the United States.

    Surgeon General on the Dangers of Smoking

    “The Health Consequences of Smoking,” a report released May 27, 2004, by Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona.

    June
    Israeli Plan to Withdraw Troops and Settlers from the Gaza Strip

    “The Cabinet Resolution Regarding the Disengagement Plan,” approved June 6, 2004, by the Israeli cabinet incorporating the elements of a proposal by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to withdraw all Jewish settlements from, and end the military occupation of, the area known as the Gaza Strip. The plan also envisioned the withdrawal of four small Jewish settlements and military outposts from a portion of the northern West Bank.

    President Bush on the Death of Former President Reagan

    The eulogy given by President George W. Bush on June 11, 2004, at the state funeral in Washington, D.C., for former president Ronald W. Reagan.

    IAEA Director on Halting the Spread of Nuclear Weapons

    “Nuclear Non-Proliferation: Global Security in a Rapidly Changing World,” a speech delivered June 21, 2004, by Mohamed ElBaradei, director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, D.C., in which he offered proposals for reforming the international system to halt the spread of nuclear weapons.

    Justice Department on the Use of Torture in Terrorism Interrogations

    First, a memorandum released and declassified June 22, 2004, that was submitted to White House legal counsel Alberto Gonzales on August 1, 2002, by the Office of Legal Counsel in the Justice Department, headed by Assistant Attorney General Jay S. Bybee, that laid out legal justifications for the possible use of torture by U.S. interrogators when questioning suspected members of the al Qaeda terrorist network; second, a memorandum dated December 30, 2004, submitted to Deputy Attorney General James B. Comey by Daniel Levin, the acting assistant attorney general in charge of the Justice Department Office of Legal Counsel, that rejected as unlawful the use of torture by U.S. interrogators.

    India's New Prime Minister on Programs and Priorities

    A nationally televised speech on June 24, 2004, by Manmohan Singh, who had taken office the previous month as prime minister of India, laying out the new government's program.

    Supreme Court on Sentencing Guidelines

    The majority and two minority opinions in the case of Blakely v. Washington, in which the Supreme Court, by a vote of 5–4, ruled on June 24, 2004, that a judge had violated a defendant's Sixth Amendment right to trial by jury when he lengthened the defendant's sentence based on factors that had not been considered by a jury or admitted by the defendant as part of a plea agreement.

    Supreme Court on Detentions in Terrorism Cases

    The majority and minority decisions in two cases decided by the Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. In the first case, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, the Court ruled 8–1 that a U.S. citizen held as an “enemy combatant” was entitled to a hearing before a federal court. In the second case, Rasul v. Bush, the Court ruled 6–3 that the government was required to provide a legal forum for foreigners detained at the U.S. Naval Base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to challenge their detentions.

    Leaders on Transfer of Power to Interim Iraqi Government

    Two documents, released June 28, 2004, the date that the United States transferred sovereignty over Iraq from the U.S.-led Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) to an interim Iraqi government. The first is an exchange of letters by L. Paul Bremer III, the administrator of the CPA; Ayad Allawi, the interim prime minister of Iraq; and U.S. president George W. Bush. The second document consists of excerpts of statements on the transition in Iraq by Bush and British prime minister Tony Blair at a news conference in Istanbul, Turkey.

    July
    Justice Department on Indictment of Former Enron CEO

    “Former Enron Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Kenneth L. Lay Charged with Conspiracy, Fraud, False Statements,” an announcement by the Justice Department, on July 8, 2004, that two former officers of Enron Corporation had been indicted on eleven counts of fraud and making false statements.

    Bush Administration on the U.S. AIDS Program

    A speech delivered July 14, 2004, by Randall Tobias, head of President Bush's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, at the 2004 international conference on HIV/AIDS in Bangkok, Thailand.

    President Bush on Signing Project BioShield Act

    Remarks by President George W. Bush on July 21, 2004, upon signing the Project BioShield Act of 2004, which authorized $5.6 billion over ten years for the purchase of vaccines and other medicines and equipment to protect Americans in the event of a terrorist attack using biological weapons.

    Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks

    The 9/11 Commission Report, the final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, released July 22, 2004. The commission was composed of Thomas H. Kean, chairman; Lee H. Hamilton, vice chairman; and members Richard Ben-Veniste, Fred F. Fielding, Jamie S. Gorelick, Slade Gorton, Bob Kerrey, John F. Lehman, Timothy J. Roemer, and James R. Thompson.

    Kerry, Bush Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speeches

    Speeches by Massachusetts senator John F. Kerry, accepting the Democratic presidential nomination on July 29, 2004, and by President George W. Bush, accepting the Republican presidential nomination on September 2, 2004.

    August
    UN Secretary General on the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    “Third Special Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo,” submitted August 16, 2004, to the United Nations Security Council by Secretary General Kofi Annan.

    September 11 Commission on Terrorist Activity in Saudi Arabia

    “Monograph on Terrorist Financing: Staff Report to the Commission,” prepared by the U.S. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States and made public August 21, 2004. The monograph, written by staff members John Roth, Douglas Greenburg, and Serena Wille, explained how terrorist organizations obtained their financing and detailed U.S. government efforts to curtail that financing.

    United Nations on the al Qaeda Terrorist Network and the Taliban

    “First Report of the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team Appointed Pursuant to Resolution 1526 (2004) Concerning Al Qaeda and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities,” submitted August 25, 2004, to the United Nations Security Council by the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team, which the council had appointed to monitor sanctions against the al Qaeda terrorist network and the former Taliban regime of Afghanistan.

    Organization of American States on the Recall Vote in Venezuela

    Resolution 869, “Results of the Presidential Recall Referendum Held in Venezuela on August 15, 2004,” adopted August 26, 2004, by the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States, commending the people of Venezuela for their peaceful referendum on the presidency of Hugo Chavez and calling on all sides in the country to respect the results.

    September
    United Nations Security Council on Syrian Troops in Lebanon

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559, adopted September 2, 2004, calling for the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Lebanon and the disbanding and disarming of armed militias there.

    Russian President Putin on Hostage-Taking Tragedy

    Two speeches by Russian president Vladimir Putin: first, a nationally televised speech on September 4, 2004, one day after the resolution of a hostage crisis at a school in Beslan, Russia; second, a nationally televised speech on September 13, 2004, to his cabinet and governors of the Russian provinces, in which he announced a series of proposals to change key components of the Russian political system.

    GAO on Withholding Medicare Cost Estimates from Congress

    An opinion by Anthony H. Gamboa, general counsel of the Government Accountability Office, dated September 7, 2004, in which he concluded that the top administrator of the Medicare program in the Department of Health and Human Services had violated federal law when he barred Medicare's chief actuary from giving adverse cost estimates and other information to Congress during its debate in 2003 on revamping the Medicare program.

    Secretary of State Powell on Genocide in Western Sudan

    Testimony September 9, 2004, by Secretary of State Colin Powell to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in which he described the violence against civilians in the Darfur regions of western Sudan as “genocide” and called for a halt to the fighting there.

    Presidential Commission on the Need for Ocean Protection

    An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century, issued September 20, 2004, by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy.

    Defense Department Task Force on U.S. Strategic Communication

    “Report on the Defense Science Board Task Force on Strategic Communication,” submitted September 23, 2004, to the acting undersecretary of defense for acquisition, technology, and logistics by William Schneider Jr., chairman of the Defense Science Board. The report outlined challenges facing the United States in explaining its foreign policy goals to the rest of the world, particularly Muslim nations, and offered recommendations for what it called a “strategic communications” policy.

    Government Accountability Office on the Shortage of Flu Vaccine

    “Infectious Disease Preparedness: Federal Challenges in Responding to Influenza Outbreaks,” testimony delivered September 28, 2004, to the Senate Special Committee on Aging by Janet Heinrich, director of health care and public health issues at the Government Accountability Office.

    Institute of Medicine on Preventing Childhood Obesity

    Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance, a report issued September 30, 2004, by the Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth, a panel established by the Institute of Medicine in the National Academy of Sciences.

    EPA Inspector General on the Development of Air Quality Rules

    “New Source Review Rule Change Harms EPA's Ability to Enforce Against Coal-fired Electric Utilities,” a report issued September 30, 2004, by the Office of Inspector General of the Environmental Protection Agency.

    Bush, Kerry Presidential Debates

    Transcripts of the three U.S. presidential debates, held September 30, 2004, in Coral Gables, Florida; October 8 in St. Louis, Missouri; and October 13 in Tempe, Arizona.

    October
    U.S. Inspector on Iraq's “Missing” Weapons of Mass Destruction

    “Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the DCI on Iraq's WMD,” submitted to the Central Intelligence Agency on September 30, 2004, by Charles A. Duelfer and made public October 6, 2004. The report said Iraq had destroyed its biological and chemical weapons in the early 1990s and had not resumed a previous attempt to develop nuclear weapons.

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corp. Director on Avoiding a Bailout

    Testimony given October 7, 2004, before the Senate Commerce Committee by Bradley D. Belt, executive director of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, outlining a plan for strengthening funding of corporate defined-benefit pension plans.

    FDA Advisory on Children's Use of Antidepressants and Suicide

    “FDA Public Health Advisory: Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated with Antidepressant Medications” a report issued October 15, 2004, by the federal Food and Drug Administration, directing drug makers to put warnings on the labels of their antidepressants to alert doctors that the drugs could increase the risk of suicide in children eighteen and under.

    Yudhoyono on His Inauguration as President of Indonesia

    The English translation of the inaugural address, delivered October 20, 2004, by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, the new president of Indonesia.

    FBI Report on Crime in the United States

    “FBI Releases Crime Statistics for 2003,” a news release issued October 25, 2004, by the Federal Bureau of Investigation summarizing the findings of its annual report, Crime in the United States, 2003.

    November
    Kerry Concession Speech, Bush Victory Speech

    Two statements made November 3, 2004. The first, “Address to Supporters at Fanueil Hall,” is by Sen. John Kerry, D-Mass., conceding the 2004 presidential election; the second, “Remarks in a Victory Celebration,” is by George W. Bush thanking the American people for electing him to a second term as president.

    GAO on Challenges in Preparing U.S. National Guard Forces

    “Reserve Forces: Actions Needed to Better Prepare the National Guard for Future Overseas and Domestic Missions,” a report submitted November 10, 2004, by the Government Accountability Office to the Senate Committee on Government Reform and the House Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations.

    Bureau of Justice Statistics on Capital Punishment

    “Capital Punishment, 2003,” a bulletin from the Bureau of Justice Statistics released November 14, 2004, detailing a continuing decline in the number of death sentences imposed and executions carried out.

    UN Middle East Envoy on the Death of Yasir Arafat

    A statement to the United Nations Security Council on November 15, 2004, by Terje Roed-Larsen, the UN's special coordinator for the Middle East peace process, on the death four days earlier of Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat.

    UN Security Council Resolution on Civil War in Ivory Coast

    Resolution 1572, adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on November 15, 2004, imposing an immediate arms embargo against all sides to the civil war in Ivory Coast and threatening personal sanctions (including an international travel ban and assets freeze) against those who blocked the peace process in that country.

    Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Study on Global Warming

    “Senate Committee Hears Testimony on Arctic Assessment: Arctic Warming Is the Result of Human Activity, Scientists Say,” testimony to the Senate Commerce Committee on November 16, 2004, by Robert Corell, chairman of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Study, in which he described the general findings of a four-year study of the effects of climate change on the Arctic region.

    Government Panel on Science and Technology Appointments

    Science and Technology in the National Interest: Ensuring the Best Presidential and Advisory Committee Science and Technology Appointments, a report issued November 17, 2004, by an ad hoc panel of the National Academies of Science Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy.

    FDA Officials on Protecting Patients from Unsafe Drugs

    Testimony before the Senate Finance Committee on November 18, 2004, from David Graham, associate director for science and medicine in the Office of Drug Safety at the Food and Drug Administration, and from Sandra Kweder, deputy director of the Office of New Drugs at the FDA. Kweder defended the agency against Graham's assertion that it was “incapable” of protecting the American public from unsafe drugs.

    Atomic Energy Agency on Nuclear Programs in Iran

    A resolution adopted November 29, 2004, by the International Atomic Energy Agency board of governors concerning the alleged nuclear weapons programs in Iran.

    Iraqi Prime Minister Allawi on Security Challenges

    An address November 20, 2004, by Iraq's interim prime minister, Ayad Allawi, to the interim parliament known as the National Council, describing the recent capture by U.S. and Iraqi forces of the city of Falluja and outlining challenges facing the country. The translation from Arabic to English was provided by the Iraqi government.

    December
    Secretary General's Panel on Reform of the United Nations

    “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility,” a report submitted to United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan by the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change and made public on December 1, 2004.

    Karzai on His Inauguration as President of Afghanistan

    The inaugural address given December 7, 2004, by Hamid Karzai, the president of Afghanistan.

    World Health Organization on Preparing for a Flu Pandemic

    “Estimating the Impact of the Next Influenza Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness,” a press release issued December 8, 2004, by the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland, on preparing for an influenza pandemic.

    Wangari Maathai on Receiving the Nobel Peace Prize

    The speech delivered December 10, 2004, in Oslo, Norway, by Wangari Maathai, a Kenyan environmental and human rights activist, upon accepting the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize.

    U.S. Trade Representative on China's Trading Practices

    “2004 Report to Congress on China's WTO [World Trade Organization] Compliance,” submitted December 11, 2004, by the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative.

    UN Special Envoy on Ethnic Violence in Kosovo

    “Enclosure: Report on the Situation in Kosovo,” a report submitted July 23, 2004, by Norwegian diplomat Kai Eide, to United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, who had appointed Eide to investigate the UN mission in the province of Kosovo. Annan sent his own recommendations based on Eide's report to the UN Security Council on November 17. Both documents were made public on December 16.

    President Bush on the Overhaul of U.S. Intelligence Agencies

    Remarks by President George W. Bush on December 17, 2004, on signing into law the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, which overhauled U.S. intelligence agencies.

    European Union President on a Membership Invitation to Turkey

    A statement made December 17, 2004, by Jan Peter Balkenende, the prime minister of the Netherlands who was serving at the time as president of the European Council, following a meeting during which European leaders extended an invitation to Turkey to begin negotiations in October 2005 toward Turkish membership in the European Union.

    Task Force Report on Prescription Drug Importation

    “Report on Prescription Drug Importation,” prepared by the HHS Task force on Drug Importation and released December 21, 2004.

    United Nations Reports on Tsunami in Indian Ocean Region

    Three news reports by the United Nations, issued December 26, December 27, and December 29, 2004, in response to an undersea earthquake and resulting tsunami that caused vast devastation across the Indian Ocean region.

    Yushchenko on His Victory in Ukrainian Presidential Election

    An address given December 27, 2004, by Viktor A. Yushchenko, the newly elected president of Ukraine.

    Pakistan President Musharraf on Retaining His Military Role

    A televised address to the nation by Pakistan's president, Pervez Musharraf, delivered December 30, 2004, in which he explained his reversal of an earlier promise to give up his other post as army chief of staff by the end of 2004.

    Credits

    Index

    Thematic Table of Contents

    Business, the Economy, and Work

    President's Economic Report, Economic Advisers' Report (February 9, 2004)

    Federal Reserve Board Chairman on Rising Energy Prices (April 27, 2004)

    Federal Reserve Chairman on Trade and Budget Deficits (May 6, 2004)

    Surgeon General on the Dangers of Smoking (May 27, 2004)

    Justice Department on Indictment of Former Enron CEO (July 8, 2004)

    Institute of Medicine on Preventing Childhood Obesity (September 30, 2004)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corp. Director on Avoiding a Bailout (October 7, 2004)

    Energy, Environment, Science, Technology, and Transportation

    NASA on the Mars Rovers (January 4, 2004)

    President Bush on Missions to the Moon and Mars (January 14, 2004)

    Presidential Council on the Ethics of Cloning (April 1, 2004)

    Federal Reserve Board Chairman on Rising Energy Prices (April 27, 2004)

    Presidential Commission on the Need for Ocean Protection (September 20, 2004)

    EPA Inspector General on the Development of Air Quality Rules (September 30, 2004)

    Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Study on Global Warming (November 16, 2004)

    Government Panel on Science and Technology Appointments (November 17, 2004)

    United Nations Reports on Tsunami in Indian Ocean Region (December 26, 27, and 29, 2004)

    Government and Politics

    State of the Union Address and Democratic Response (January 20, 2004)

    Massachusetts Supreme Court on Gay Marriage (February 3, 2004)

    Federal Reserve Chairman on Trade and Budget Deficits (May 6, 2004)

    President Bush on the Death of Former President Reagan (June 11, 2004)

    Justice Department on the Use of Torture in Terrorism Interrogations (June 22 and December 30, 2004)

    Kerry, Bush Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speeches (July 29 and September 2, 2004)

    GAO on Withholding Medicare Cost Estimates from Congress (September 7, 2004)

    Bush, Kerry Presidential Debates (September 30 and October 8 and 13, 2004)

    Kerry Concession Speech, Bush Victory Speech (November 3, 2004)

    Government Panel on Science and Technology Appointments (November 17, 2004)

    President Bush on the Overhaul of U.S. Intelligence Agencies (December 17, 2004)

    Health Care, Social Services, Housing, and Education

    Presidential Council on the Ethics of Cloning (April 1, 2004)

    Surgeon General on the Dangers of Smoking (May 27, 2004)

    Bush Administration on the U.S. AIDS Program (July 14, 2004)

    President Bush on Signing Project BioShield Act (July 21, 2004)

    GAO on Withholding Medicare Cost Estimates from Congress (September 7, 2004)

    Government Accountability Office on the Shortage of Flu Vaccine (September 28, 2004)

    Institute of Medicine on Preventing Childhood Obesity (September 30, 2004)

    FDA Advisory on Children's Use of Antidepressants and Suicide (October 15, 2004)

    FDA Officials on Protecting Patients from Unsafe Drugs (November 18, 2004)

    World Health Organization on Preparing for a Flu Pandemic (December 8, 2004)

    Task Force Report on Prescription Drug Importation (December 21, 2004)

    International Affairs—Africa

    UN Secretary General on Remembering the Rwanda Genocide (March 26, 2004)

    Bush Administration on Lifting Economic Sanctions against Libya (April 23, 2004)

    UN Secretary General on the Democratic Republic of the Congo (August 16, 2004)

    Secretary of State Powell on Genocide in Western Sudan (September 9, 2004)

    UN Security Council Resolution on Civil War in Ivory Coast (November 15, 2004)

    Wangari Maathai on Receiving the Nobel Peace Prize (December 10, 2004)

    International Affairs—Asia

    Chen Shui-bian on His Reelection as President of Taiwan (May 20, 2004)

    India's New Prime Minister on Programs and Priorities (June 24, 2004)

    United Nations on the al Qaeda Terrorist Network and the Taliban (August 25, 2004)

    Yudhoyono on His Inauguration as President of Indonesia (October 20, 2004)

    Karzai on His Inauguration as President of Afghanistan (December 7, 2004)

    U.S. Trade Representative on China's Trading Practices (December 11, 2004)

    United Nations Reports on Tsunami in Indian Ocean Region (December 26, 27, and 29, 2004)

    Pakistan President Musharraf on Retaining His Military Role (December 30, 2004)

    International Affairs—Europe

    Spanish Leaders on the Terrorist Bombings in Madrid (March 11, 2004)

    President Bush on NATO Expansion (March 29, 2004)

    EU Officials on the Addition of Ten New Member Nations (May 1, 2004)

    UN Special Envoy on Ethnic Violence in Kosovo (December 16, 2004)

    European Union President on a Membership Invitation to Turkey (December 17, 2004)

    International Affairs—Latin America

    UN Security Council on the Post-Aristide Era in Haiti (February 29, 2004)

    Bush Administration Commission on Policies toward Cuba (May 6, 2004)

    Organization of American States on the Recall Vote in Venezuela (August 26, 2004)

    International Affairs—Middle East

    Bush Administration on Lifting Economic Sanctions against Libya (April 23, 2004)

    Israeli Plan to Withdraw Troops and Settlers from the Gaza Strip (June 6, 2004)

    Leaders on Transfer of Power to Interim Iraqi Government (June 28, 2004)

    September 11 Commission on Terrorist Activity in Saudi Arabia (August 21, 2004)

    United Nations on the al Qaeda Terrorist Network and the Taliban (August 25, 2004)

    United Nations Security Council on Syrian Troops in Lebanon (September 2, 2004)

    Defense Department Task Force on U.S. Strategic Communication (September 23, 2004)

    U.S. Inspector on Iraq's “Missing” Weapons of Mass Destruction (October 6, 2004)

    UN Middle East Envoy on the Death of Yasir Arafat (November 15, 2004)

    Atomic Energy Agency on Nuclear Programs in Iran (November 29, 2004)

    Iraqi Prime Minister Allawi on Security Challenges (November 30, 2004)

    Karzai on His Inauguration as President of Afghanistan (December 7, 2004)

    European Union President on a Membership Invitation to Turkey (December 17, 2004)

    International Affairs—Russia and Former Soviet Republics

    Georgian President Saakashvili on the Transition to Democracy (February 24, 2004)

    Russian President Putin on Hostage-Taking Tragedy (September 4 and 13, 2004)

    Yushchenko on His Victory in Ukrainian Presidential Election (December 27, 2004)

    International Affairs—World Issues

    Congressional Research Service Report on Human Trafficking (March 26, 2004)

    President Bush on NATO Expansion (March 29, 2004)

    IAEA Director on Halting the Spread of Nuclear Weapons (June 21, 2004)

    Bush Administration on the U.S. AIDS Program (July 14, 2004)

    Defense Department Task Force on U.S. Strategic Communication (September 23, 2004)

    Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Study on Global Warming (November 16, 2004)

    Secretary General's Panel on Reform of the United Nations (December 1, 2004)

    World Health Organization on Preparing for a Flu Pandemic (December 8, 2004)

    Wangari Maathai on Receiving the Nobel Peace Prize (December 10, 2004)

    United Nations Reports on Tsunami in Indian Ocean Region (December 26, 27, and 29, 2004)

    Media, Culture, and Life in America

    National Review Board on Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church (February 27, 2004)

    President Bush on the Death of Former President Reagan (June 11, 2004)

    Rights, Responsibilities, and Justice

    Massachusetts Supreme Court on Gay Marriage (February 3, 2004)

    National Review Board on Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church (February 27, 2004)

    Congressional Research Service Report on Human Trafficking (March 26, 2004)

    U.S. Army Report on Abuses of Iraqi Prisoners (May 3, 2004)

    Justice Department on the Use of Torture in Terrorism Interrogations (June 22, 2004, and December 30, 2004)

    Supreme Court on Sentencing Guidelines (June 24, 2004)

    Supreme Court on Detentions in Terrorism Cases (June 28, 2004)

    Justice Department on Indictment of Former Enron CEO (July 8, 2004)

    FBI Report on Crime in the United States (October 25, 2004)

    Bureau of Justice Statistics on Capital Punishment (November 14, 2004)

    Security and Terrorism

    Spanish Leaders on the Terrorist Bombings in Madrid (March 11, 2004)

    General Accounting Office on Federal Aviation Security Efforts (March 30, 2004)

    General Accounting Office on Missile Defense Systems (April 23, 2004)

    U.S. Army Report on Abuses of Iraqi Prisoners (May 3, 2004)

    Attorney General and FBI Director on the Terrorism Threat (May 26, 2004)

    Justice Department on the Use of Torture in Terrorism Interrogations (June 22 and December 30, 2004)

    Supreme Court on Detentions in Terrorism Cases (June 28, 2004)

    President Bush on Signing Project BioShield Act (July 21, 2004)

    Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks (July 22, 2004)

    United Nations on the al Qaeda Terrorist Network and the Taliban (August 25, 2004)

    GAO on Challenges in Preparing U.S. National Guard Forces (November 10, 2004)

    President Bush on the Overhaul of U.S. Intelligence Agencies (December 17, 2004)

    List of Documents

    White House and President

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. Economic Report of the President. February 9, 2004.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Eulogy at the National Funeral Service for President Ronald Reagan.” June 11, 2004. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 40, no. 25 (June 21, 2004): 1057–1060.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. Office of the Press Secretary. “Texts of Letters on Iraq Sovereignty as Read by Scott McClellan.” Hilton International Hotel, Istanbul, Turkey. June 28, 2004.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. Office of the Press Secretary. “U.S. Eases Economic Embargo against Libya.” Statement by the press secretary. April 23, 2004.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. President's Council on Bioethics. Reproduction and Responsibility: The Regulation of New Biotechnologies. April 1, 2004.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks Accepting the PresidentialNomination at the Republican National Convention in New York City.” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 40, no. 36 (September 6, 2004): 1797–1804.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 40, no. 3 (January 19, 2004): 66–68.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks at a Ceremony Honoring Seven Nations on Accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 40, no. 14 (April 5, 2004): 495–497.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks in a Victory Celebration.” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 40, no. 45 (November 8, 2004): 2783–2784.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Signing the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004.” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 40, no. 51 (December 20, 2004): 2985–2987.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Signing the Project BioShield Act of 2004.” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 40, no. 30 (July 26, 2004): 1346–1348.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “The President's News Conference with Prime Minister Tony Blair of the United Kingdom in Istanbul.” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 40, no. 27 (March 5, 2004): 1170–1177.

    Executive Departments and Agencies

    Congressional Quarterly. “Attorney General John Ashcroft and FBI Director Robert Mueller Hold News Conference on Summer Terrorist Threat [transcript].” May 26, 2004.

    Council of Economic Advisers. The Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisers. February 9, 2004.

    U.S. Office of the United States Trade Representative. “2004 Report to Congress on China's WTO Compliance.” December 11, 2004.

    U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. “Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the DCI on Iraq's WMD: Key Findings.” October 6, 2004.

    U.S. Department of Defense. Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics. Defense Science Board. “Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Strategic Communication.” September 23, 2004.

    U.S. Department of Defense. U.S. Army. U.S. Central Command. Coalition Forces Land Component Command. “Article 15-6 Investigation of the 800th Military Police Brigade.” May 3, 2004.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Office on Smoking and Health. “The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.” May 27, 2004. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “FDA Public Health Advisory: Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated with Antidepressant Medications.” October 15, 2004.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. HHS Task Force on Drug Importation. “Report on Prescription Drug Importation.” December 21, 2004.

    U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. “FBI Releases Crime Statistics for 2003.” Press release, October 25, 2004.

    U.S. Department of Justice. “Former Enron Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Kenneth L. Lay Charged with Conspiracy, Fraud, False Statements.” Press release, July 8, 2004.

    U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics. “Capital Punishment, 2003.” Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin, NCJ 206627. November 14, 2004.

    U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Legal Counsel. Office of the Assistant Attorney General. “Memorandum for Alberto R. Gonzales, Counsel to the President.” August 1, 2002. Declassified and released June 22, 2004.

    U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Legal Counsel. Office of the Assistant Attorney General. “Memorandum for James B. Comey, Deputy Attorney General.” December 30, 2004.

    U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. “Report to the President: Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba.” May 6, 2004.

    U.S. Department of State. “Global Fight Against HIV/AIDS: What Do We Need to Do Differently?” Prepared remarks of Ambassador Randall L. Tobias, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator. July 14, 2004, Bangkok, Thailand.

    U.S. Department of State. “Senate Committee Hears Testimony on Arctic Assessment: Arctic Warming is the Result of Human Activity, Scientists Say.” Prepared testimony of Dr. Robert W. Corell for a hearing by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. November 16, 2004.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Inspector General. “New Source Review Rule Change Harms EPA's Ability to Enforce Against Coal-fired Electric Utilities.” Report No. 2004–P–00034, September 30, 2004.

    U.S. Federal Reserve Board. “Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan: Energy.” Speech presented at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C. April 27, 2004.

    U.S. Federal Reserve Board. “Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan: Globalization and Innovation.” Speech presented at the Conference on Bank Structure and Competition in Chicago, Illinois. May 6, 2004.

    U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. “Spirit Lands on Mars and Sends Postcards.” News release 2004–003. January 4, 2004.

    U.S. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. “Testimony of Bradley D. Belt, Executive Director, Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.” Prepared testimony of Bradley D. Belt for a hearing by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. October 7, 2004.

    Governmental Commissions

    U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century: Final Report of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. September 20, 2004.

    U.S. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. “Monograph on Terrorist Financing: Staff Report to the Commission.” August 21, 2004.

    U.S. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. July 22, 2004.

    Congress

    U.S. Congress. Committee on Finance. “FDA, Merck and Vioxx: Putting Patient Safety First?” Prepared statements of Sen. Charles Grassley, R-Iowa; Sen. Max Baucus, D-Mont.; Dr. David J. Graham; Dr. Gurkirpal Singh; Dr. Bruce M. Psaty; Dr. Sandra L. Kweder; and Mr. Raymond V. Gilmartin. 108th Cong., 2nd sess. November 18, 2004.

    U.S. Congress. General Accounting Office. “Aviation Security: Improvement Still Needed in Federal Aviation Security Efforts.” Prepared testimony of Norman J. Rabkin for a hearing by the Subcommittee on Aviation of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. GAO–04–592T, March 30, 2004.

    U.S. Congress. General Accounting Office. “Missile Defense: Actions Are Needed to Enhance Testing and Accountability.” GAO-04-409, April 23, 2004.

    U.S. Congress. Government Accountability Office. “Department of Health and Human Services—Chief Actuary's Communications with Congress.” B–302911, September 7, 2004.

    U.S. Congress. Government Accountability Office. “Infectious Disease Preparedness: Federal Challenges in Responding to Influenza Outbreaks.” Prepared testimony of Janet Heinrich for a hearing by the Senate Special Committee on Aging. GAO–04–1100T, September 28, 2004.

    U.S. Congress. Government Accountability Office. “Reserve Forces: Actions Needed to Better Prepare the National Guard for Future Overseas and Domestic Missions.” GAO–05–21, November 10, 2004.

    U.S. Congress. House. Office of Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi. Pelosi and Daschle Official State of the Union Response. January 20, 2004.

    U.S. Congress. House. State of the Union Message: Message from the President of the United States Transmitting a Report on the State of the Union. 108th Cong., 2nd sess., January 20, 2004. H. Doc. 108–144.

    U.S. Congress. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. “Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response.” RL30545, March 26, 2004.

    U.S. Congress. Senate. Senate Foreign Relations Committee. “The Crisis in Darfur.” Prepared testimony of Secretary of State Colin L. Powell for a hearing by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. September 9, 2004.

    Judiciary

    Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Supreme Judicial Court. Opinions of the Justices to the Senate [on the issue of gay marriage]. SJC-09163, February 3, 2004.

    U.S. Supreme Court of the United States. Blakely v. Washington. 542 U.S. ___ (2004), slip opinion. June 24, 2004.

    U.S. Supreme Court of the United States. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld. 542 U.S. ___ (2004), Docket 03-6696. June 28, 2004.

    U.S. Supreme Court of the United States. Rasul v. Bush. 542 U.S. ___ (2004), Docket 03–334. June 28, 2004.

    U.S. Nongovernmental Organizations

    Commission on Presidential Debates. “The First Bush-Kerry Presidential Debate.” Transcript. Coral Gables, Florida, September 30, 2004.

    Commission on Presidential Debates. “The Second Bush-Kerry Presidential Debate.” Transcript. St. Louis, Missouri, October 8, 2004.

    Commission on Presidential Debates. “The Third Bush-Kerry Presidential Debate.” Transcript. Tempe, Arizona, October 13, 2004.

    Friends of John Kerry, Inc. “Speech to the 2004 Democratic National Convention: Remarks of John Kerry.” July 29, 2004.

    Friends of John Kerry, Inc. “Address to Supporters at Fanueil Hall: Remarks as Delivered by John Kerry.” November 3, 2004.

    National Academy of Sciences. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. Committee on Ensuring the Best Presidential and Federal Advisory Committee Science and Technology Appointments. Science and Technology in the National Interest: Ensuring the Best Presidential and Federal Advisory Committee Science and Technology Appointments. Washington: National Academies Press, 2004.

    National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. September 30, 2004.

    United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. The National Review Board for the Protection of Children and Young People. A Report on the Crisis in the Catholic Church in the United States. February 27, 2004.

    Non-U.S. Governments

    Afghanistan. Embassy of Afghanistan in Washington, D.C. “H.E. President Hamid Karzai's Inaugural Speech” (English translation). December 7, 2004.

    British Broadcasting Corporation. BBC Monitoring. “Text of Indonesian President's Inaugural Speech.” October 20, 2004.

    European Union. European Council. “Prime Minister and President of the European Council Jan Peter Balkenende at the Press Conference Following the European Council.” December 17, 2004.

    Georgia. Embassy of Georgia (in the United States). “Georgia after the Rose Revolution: Rebuilding Democracy and Stability.” Prepared remarks of Mikhail Saakashvili, president of Georgia, at Johns Hopkins University. February 24, 2004.

    Ireland. Department of Foreign Affairs. Irish Presidency of the European Union. “Mr. Bertie Ahern, Mr. Pat Cox and Mr. Romano Prodi Address Accession Day Conference of the Three Presidents.” Dublin, Ireland. May 1, 2004.

    Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Text of President's Address to the Nation.” Speech, December 30, 2004; English translation released January 5, 2005.

    Kingdom of Spain. Embassy of Spain in the United States. “Speech Delivered by H.M. the King Due to the Terrorist Attacks Perpetrated in Madrid.” English translation. March 11, 2004.

    Kingdom of Spain. Embassy of Spain in the United States. “Statement Made by the President of the Government Regarding the ETA Terrorist Attacks in Madrid.” English translation. March 11, 2004.

    Office of the Prime Minister of Iraq. “Text of speech by Prime Minister Ayad Allawi to the National Council.” Baghdad, Iraq, November 30, 2004.

    Republic of China. Government Information Office. “President Chen's Inaugural Speech ‘Paving the Way for a Sustainable Taiwan.’” May 20, 2004.

    Republic of India. Prime Minister's Office. “Address to the Nation by Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh.” New Delhi, June 24, 2004.

    Russian Federation. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Information and Press Department. “Address by President Vladimir Putin.” Unofficial translation from Russian. September 7, 2004.

    Russian Federation. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Information and Press Department. “Address by President Vladimir Putin.” Unofficial tra nslation from Russian. September 13, 2004.

    State of Israel. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “The Cabinet Resolution Regarding the Disengagement Plan.” June 6, 2004.

    Ukraine. My Ukraine: Personal Website of Viktor Yushchenko. “Victor Yushchenko's Address at the Election Press Center.” December 27, 2004.

    International Nongovernmental Organizations

    Nobel Foundation. “Nobel Lecture by Wangari Maathai.” Oslo, Norway. December 10, 2004.

    Organization of American States. Permanent Council. “Results of the Presidential Recall Referendum Held in Venezuela on August 15, 2004.” OEA/Ser. G, CP/RES. 869 (1436/04). August 26, 2004.

    United Nations. International Atomic Energy Agency. Board of Governors. “Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran.” GOV/2004/90, November 29, 2004.

    United Nations. International Atomic Energy Agency. “Nuclear Non-Proliferation: Global Security in a Rapidly Changing World.” Speech by IAEA director general Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei at the Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference, Washington, D.C. June 21, 2004.

    United Nations. “Rwanda Genocide ‘Must Leave Us Always with a Sense of Bitter Regret and Abiding Sorrow,’ Says Secretary-General to New York Memorial Conference.” Press Release SG/SM/9223, AFR/870, HQ631. March 26, 2004.

    United Nations. Security Council. “Agenda: The Situation in the Middle East, Including the Palestinian Question.” S/PV.5077, 5077th Meeting, November 15, 2004.

    United Nations. Security Council. Analytical and Sanctions Monitoring Team. “First Report of the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team Appointed Pursuant to Resolution 1526 (2004) Concerning Al Qaeda and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities.” S/2004/678, August 26, 2004.

    United Nations. Security Council. Letter dated 17 November 2004 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council. “Enclosure: Report on the Situation in Kosovo.” S/2004/932, December 16, 2004.

    United Nations. Security Council. Resolution 1529. S/RES/1529 (2004), February 29, 2004.

    United Nations. Security Council. Resolution 1559. S/RES/1559 (2004), September 2, 2004.

    United Nations. Security Council. Resolution 1572. S/RES/1572 (2004), November 15, 2004.

    United Nations. Security Council. “Third Special Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” August 16, 2004.

    United Nations. The Secretary-General's High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change. “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility.” December 1, 2004.

    United Nations. UN News Service. “UN Experts Rush to Indian Ocean Countries Devastated by Quake and Tidal Waves.” December 26, 2004.

    United Nations. UN News Service. “UN Launches Unprecedented Multiple Effort to Aid Victims of Asia's Devastating Tsunami.” December 27, 2004.

    United Nations. UN News Service. “UN's Initial Tsunami Relief Takes Various Forms in Worst-Hit Countries.” December 29, 2004.

    United Nations. World Health Organization. Western Pacific Region. “Estimating the Impact of the Next Influenza Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.” Press release, December 9, 2004.

    Preface

    The continuing turmoil in Iraq and the Middle East, a natural disaster of epic proportions, and a contentious presidential election year in America are only some of the topics of national and international interest chosen for Historic Documents of 2004. This edition marks the thirty-third volume of a CQ Press project that began with Historic Documents of 1972. This series allows students, librarians, journalists, scholars, and others to research and understand the most important issues and events of the year through primary source documents. These primary sources have often been excerpted to highlight the most important parts of lengthy documents written for a specialized audience. In our judgment, the official statements, news conferences, speeches, special studies, and court decisions presented here will be of lasting interest.

    This edition also includes a new thematic table of contents (page xvi) and a new list of documents by type or source (page xx). For more details on how these new features can help you locate the events and documents you need, please see “How to Use This Book” (page xxviii).

    Historic Documents of 2004 begins with “Overview of 2004,” which puts key events and issues from around the world in political, historical, or social context. The balance of the book is organized chronologically, with each “article” comprising an introduction and one or more related documents on a specific event, issue, or topic. The introduction preceding each document provides context, background, and an account of continuing developments during the year, when relevant.

    As events, issues, and consequences become more complex and far-reaching, these introductions and documents yield important information and deepen understanding about the world in which we live. The editors of this series believe these introductions will become increasingly useful as memories of current events fade.

    How to Use This Book

    The seventy-eight articles in this edition contain two sections: a comprehensive introduction, followed by one or more primary source documents. The articles are arranged in chronological order. There are several ways to find events and documents of interest:

    By date:

    If you know the approximate date of the event or document you are looking for, glance through the titles for that month in the table of contents or in the monthly tables of contents that appear at the start of each month's introductions and documents.

    By theme:

    If you are interested in a particular topic or area, review the new thematic table of contents to find articles on the subjects of interest.

    By document type or source:

    If you are interested in a particular type or source of document, review the new list of documents, which will take you to the start of the document you need.

    By index:

    The five-year index at the end of the book will help you find references not only to the particular event or document you seek but also to other entries on the same or a related subject. The index in this volume is a five-year cumulative index of Historic Documents covering the years 2000–2004. There is a separate volume, Historic Documents Index, 1972–2002, which may also be useful.

    Each article begins with the heading “Introduction,” and the discussion that directly follows provides the historical and intellectual context for the selected document(s). A rule designates the start of the official document, followed by the document's formal title (designated with quotation marks or italics) or informal title. The documents are reproduced with the spelling, capitalization, and punctuation of the original or official copy. Where the full text is not given, omissions of material are indicated by the customary ellipsis points. Insertions within the documents by the editors to clarify information are enclosed within brackets.

    Full citations to the official print and online sources, including the Internet URL addresses noting where the documents have been obtained, appear at the end of each document, as necessary, allowing you to find original documents in either format. If documents were not available on the Internet, this also has been noted.

    Overview of 2004

    For much of 2004 it appeared possible that President George W. Bush would join his father, President George H.W. Bush (1989–1993), in the ranks of one-term presidents—each man denied reelection in part by an ambivalent economy and despite having led the nation to an overwhelming military victory in Iraq. The younger Bush was buffeted by so many problems, and endured so many weeks of bad news during an election year, that he was widely seen as vulnerable politically, just as his father had proved to be in 1992. Indeed, on election day, many pundits believed Bush's Democratic challenger, Sen. John F. Kerry of Massachusetts, had a fifty-fifty chance of becoming the next president. The president's victory, while certainly no landslide, was a convincing one that not only upset conventional wisdom but also helped Republicans consolidate their control of Congress. Bush was thus in a potentially strong position to impose elements of his conservative agenda that had stalled in Congress during his first term and to deepen his imprint on the federal court system, perhaps even with one or more appointments to the Supreme Court.

    In historical terms, Democrats had every reason to believe Bush could be beaten. The war in Iraq, which a year earlier had been so successful in the initial stage of ousting Saddam Hussein from power in Baghdad, had dragged on, leading some critics to compare it to the “quagmire” of the Vietnam War more than three decades earlier. Economists, and officials in the president's administration, produced all sorts of technical evidence that the economy was recovering nicely from a brief recession. But many ordinary Americans remained nervous about their personal economic prospects, mainly because the so-called jobless recovery was failing to produce an abundance of new employment. Moreover, Bush had become a deeply polarizing figure after nearly four years in office, reviled by some critics as ignorant and intolerant, but admired by many supporters as a determined man of righteous principle. The political fates of such controversial presidents have tended to be decided by their ability to mobilize their supporters and to convince enough of those in the middle that the critics were misguided.

    Guided by his political mentor, Karl Rove, Bush waged an extraordinarily focused campaign that put his accomplishments in the most positive light possible and planted seeds of doubt in the voters' minds about the character of Kerry, the opponent. Kerry ultimately contributed to his own defeat. While polls showed that Kerry “won” the three televised debates, he was never able to effectively refute Republican charges that he had lied about his military record in the Vietnam War and had flip-flopped on important issues.

    Bush also benefited politically from a sudden surge of gay marriages. The sight of men marrying men, and women marrying women, at churches and courthouses in Massachusetts and San Francisco may have heartened those who saw gay rights as the next stage of the nation's civil rights struggle—but it also energized millions of Americans who were repelled by what they saw as further evidence of decline in the nation's moral values. Polls showed that those in the latter category outnumbered the former and that they voted overwhelmingly for Bush.

    The Iraq War, Chapter II

    By 2004 there no longer was doubt that the Bush administration had laid brilliant plans for a successful short-term war in Iraq but had failed to consider the possibility that the war would continue long after Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi leader, had been toppled from power. An anti-U.S. insurgency, which at first was an annoyance to the American occupiers, quickly developed into a serious threat to all of Washington's plans for a democratic, prosperous, and stable Iraq. Rather than withdrawing U.S. forces at the end of 2003, as Pentagon plans had envisioned, the administration found itself scrambling desperately to keep enough troops in Iraq so the insurgents would not win by default. At the end of 2004 the Pentagon was ready to boost the U.S. troop level in Iraq to about 150,000 for the weeks before and after the country's parliamentary elections, scheduled for January 2005.

    The depth and breadth of the insurgency forced the administration to rethink the political, as well as the military, aspects of its occupation of Iraq. The original plan to turn Iraq over to a coalition of Iraqi exiles favored by the Pentagon was the first idea to fall by the wayside, shortly after the war in 2003. One by one other schemes for governing Iraq succumbed to reality, until by early 2004 the Bush administration was forced to turn for help to the United Nations. After UN-mediated negotiations that often seemed ready to collapse, leaders of Iraq's numerous political and religious factions settled on a multistep process beginning with formation of an interim government by July 1, followed by elections for another interim government early in 2005, and leading up to the adoption of a constitution and elections for a permanent government by the end of 2005.

    The threat of insurgent attacks upon an official ceremony led the U.S. occupiers to hand over nominal political authority to the new interim Iraqi government three days early, on June 28. The hurried handover ceremony, held in secret in a heavily fortified compound in Baghdad, said more about the dangers faced by the new government, which relied for its survival on the U.S. military, than about the opportunities for a democratic and stable Iraq. The interim government represented a delicate balance among the country's three main factions: the majority Shi'ite Muslims, and the two largest minorities, the Sunni Muslims and the Kurds. Whether that balance could be maintained, in the face of an insurgency apparently determined to upset it, was the main question facing Iraq in its new era.

    The Bush administration had portrayed its policy in Iraq as a jump-start for a broader campaign to encourage democracy in the Middle East, particularly in Arab lands long dominated by repressive regimes. The purity of Washington's motives became questionable, in Arab eyes, beginning in April when news organizations published photographs showing U.S. soldiers abusing Iraqis at a notorious Baghdad prison. The Pentagon insisted the abuses were committed by a handful of soldiers acting contrary to established policy. However, a continuing wave of photographs and other evidence, along with some of the official investigations launched by the military, appeared to show a broader pattern of abuse by soldiers who had reason to believe they were acting with official approval. The prison abuse scandal deepened in June when news organizations reported that the Justice Department in 2002 had appeared to endorse the use of torture against terrorism suspects. Embarrassed, administration officials withdrew the memoranda authorizing torture and, in December, produced a new legal rationale against torture.

    Another continuing source of embarrassment for the administration was its failure to locate in Iraq the biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons programs that Bush had said posed a mortal danger to the United States, thus justifying the 2003 war. A broad CIA search came to a close in 2004 with a report to Congress saying Iraq's weapons were eliminated during or shortly after the 1991 Persian Gulf War and that Saddam's government had done virtually nothing to rebuild them.

    Rethinking Intelligence

    The apparently conclusive evidence about Iraq's lack of weapons of mass destruction was one of two recent cases of major failures by the U.S. intelligence community, including its flagship agency, the CIA. The other failure involved the government's inability to assess the risks that a small group of terrorists would or could hijack several airliners and deliberately fly them into large and symbolically important buildings—as was done on September 11, 2001, when nineteen members of the al Qaeda terrorist network destroyed the two World Trade Center towers in New York and damaged the Pentagon.

    After studying the matter for nearly two years, a high-level commission issued a report in July saying U.S. intelligence agencies, along with the rest of the government, failed to comprehend the nature of Islamist-driven terrorism. The commission called for a sweeping overhaul of the intelligence community, starting with appointment of a single director who had the authority to hold all its fifteen agencies accountable. Despite resistance from the Pentagon, which jealously guarded the privileges of its own intelligence agencies, Congress responded in December by passing the most fundamental revision of the U.S. intelligence structure since it was created after World War II.

    The “War on Terrorism”

    Although there was no evidence that Iraq had been involved, even indirectly, in any recent terrorist attacks against the United States, Bush had portrayed the war in Iraq as a central front in his post-September 11 “global war on terror” (known at the White House and Pentagon as GWOT). The first front of that war was in Afghanistan, where U.S. and allied forces in October 2001 ousted from power the Taliban regime, which had provided sanctuary for al Qaeda and its leader, Osama bin Laden. By 2004 a certain degree of stability had developed in Afghanistan, where an interim government headed by Hamid Karzai, with the support of U.S. and NATO troops, struggled to assert authority in the country's lawless provinces that were largely controlled by tribal warlords. Karzai won Afghanistan's first-ever free election, held October 9, and then set about the task of unifying his country so parliamentary elections could be held in 2005. The political process seemed to be moving faster than the process of reconstructing a country that had been battered by more than two decades of war, however, creating a situation in which unfulfilled economic aspirations potentially could endanger the fragile new democracy.

    Another unfinished piece of business in the terrorism war was the fate of hundreds of terrorism suspects the Bush administration had imprisoned at various locations, including the Guantanamo Bay naval base in Cuba. With only a handful of exceptions, the suspects were being held indefinitely, without being charged with any crime and without the benefit of legal counsel. The Supreme Court entered the fray in June, rebuking the administration in its handling of nearly 600 detainees at Guantanamo Bay and of a U.S. citizen, of Saudi Arabian descent, who had been held at a U.S. Navy brig in South Carolina. The Court's action forced the administration to accord the Guantanamo detainees a modest degree of legal recourse and to negotiate a deal under which the man held in South Carolina was sent back to his native Saudi Arabia.

    Global terrorism did surface during 2004, notably in Spain, where a coordinated series of bombings onboard Madrid commuter trains on March 11 killed 191 people and wounded more than 1,600. Those bombings had immediate political ramifications. Three days later, Spanish voters ousted the conservative government of Prime Minister José Marìa Aznar, replacing it with the center-left Socialist Workers Party and its leader, José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero. Aznar's supporters claimed voters had given in to al Qaeda terrorists, who appeared to be responsible for the bombings and who may have targeted Spain in part because of Aznar's support for the U.S. war in Iraq. Most independent analysts, however, said Spanish voters punished Aznar and his government for a clumsy effort to lie about who had carried out the bombings.

    A Mideast Peace Opportunity?

    A pair of developments in 2004 offered at least a modest degree of hope that the decades-long conflict between Israelis and Palestinians might be entering a more positive phase. The first was a plan by Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon to withdraw Israel's settlements and military posts from the tiny Palestinian territory along the Mediterranean known as the Gaza strip. Sharon, who had been a political sponsor of Jewish settlements in Palestinian territories, portrayed his plan as a unilateral action to rid Israel of the burden of protecting about 8,000 settlers living among 1.3 million Palestinians. Settlers and their allies in the Israeli right wing and religious partners condemned Sharon as a traitor and threatened to block the Gaza withdrawal, scheduled for the summer of 2005. But most Palestinians, after initially expressing skepticism about Sharon's motives, grew to embrace his plan as a way of asserting their authority over a territory that Israel had seized in 1967.

    The year's other development, of potentially even greater significance, was the death on November 11, from unknown causes, of longtime Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat at age seventy-five. Arafat had founded the cause of Palestinian nationalism in the 1960s and had become a one-man symbol of Palestinian national identity. He had been unable or unwilling to lead his people into permanent peace and reconciliation with Israel, however. Both Israel and the United States considered Arafat an obstacle to peace, and so his death created what many observers considered the best opportunity in years for a renewal of the long-stalled peace process. Arafat was succeeded by a former aide, Mahmoud Abbas, who appeared determined to seize the new opportunity. Although he had no real personal following among the Palestinian populace, Abbas was expected to win an election to succeed Arafat in January 2005.

    Other Key International Developments

    The year saw significant developments on several other international fronts—none of them conclusive but each serving as indicators of where the world was headed in the early years of the twenty-first century.

    Perhaps of greatest importance over the long-term was the rapid rise of China as an economic and even political power. By 2004 free-market economic principles had come to dominate many important aspects of Chinese life, and the country responded with astonishing growth that put China on course to overtake Japan as the world's second-biggest economic power (after the United States) by around 2020. China's pace of growth was so torrid (clocking in at around 9 percent a year) that the government intervened with small steps to cool things off, in hopes of avoiding an overheating that might lead to a crash. The prospect of a sudden “hard landing” by China had become a serious source of concern around Asia, where many countries were hitching their own economic futures to China's.

    In keeping with its new economic clout, the government in Beijing was becoming an increasingly important player on the world stage. One of many notable examples was a twelve-day visit to Latin America in November by President Hu Jintao, who showered billions of dollars of investment in the region and began negotiating free-trade deals in a part of the world Washington considered its backyard. In another area of possible tension with the United States, China late in the year began crafting the legal basis for a move to halt the independence of Taiwan. Voters on that island—claimed by China—in March reelected a president committed to independence from the mainland. Although President Chen Shui-bian made subsequent efforts to play down the prospect of a formal break, alarmed leaders in Beijing said they would draft an “antisecession” law barring Taiwanese independence. Any conflict over Taiwan likely would draw in the United States, which was formally committed to defending the island.

    Two other areas of potential international conflict, each with ramifications just as broad as the China-Taiwan issue, appeared little closer to resolution at the end of 2004 than at the beginning. One was Iran's seeming determination to develop a capability of building nuclear weapons, and possibly the weapons themselves. European diplomats, with grudging support from the Bush administration, negotiated with Iran in hopes of reaching a deal under which Tehran would give up its weapons program in exchange for economic and political concessions. Those negotiations produced a tentative agreement in November, but the prospects for a more solid deal were questionable, at best. Likewise, international efforts to convince the reclusive government of North Korea to give up its nuclear weapons program were proceeding on an uncertain course. In this case, China was the key interlocutor because of its historic patronage of the communist regime in Pyongyang. North Korea said it already had built some nuclear weapons, and most Western analysts tended to believe that claim, although given the recent experience of intelligence assessments about Iraq, it was impossible to know the truth for certain.

    Three more positive developments, at least potentially, concerned the future of Europe. On May 1 ten new countries joined the European Union (EU), boosting the economic and trade consortium to twenty-five countries encompassing most of the continent. Eight of the new members had been under communist rule during the cold war, and three of them (the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) had been part of the Soviet Union until its collapse in 1991. Just in time to receive its new members, the EU adopted a constitution replacing an outdated patchwork of laws and treaties; a key element was a new voting procedure intended to promote harmony in a union with members ranging in size from tiny Malta to giant Germany. The constitution was to be submitted to referendums in several countries during 2005–2006, including several where it was unpopular; in theory and possibly in practice, rejection by a single country would nullify the constitution and force EU leaders to return to the drawing board. The EU took a third important step in December, formally inviting Turkey to begin negotiations, in October 2005, leading toward eventual membership. The question of Turkey's membership, with its overwhelmingly Muslim population, raised a host of questions of great economic, historical, and political significance in Europe and was expected to generate controversy for years to come.

    Another international union of sorts—the United Nations—confronted its own questions about the future during 2004. At the request of Secretary General Kofi Annan, a panel of well-known international figures debated the entire range of issues facing the United Nations and gave Annan a long list of recommended actions in late November. Among them was a call for revamping the Security Council, the one UN body with legal authority to order countries to take certain actions. But in an implicit recognition of the political difficulty of making such a change, the panel could not agree on a single solution and instead offered Annan two choices. Annan was expected to come up with his own recommendations early in 2005. The secretary general, who had been extraordinarily popular and influential, came under fire himself because of the alleged involvement of his son, Kojo, in a UN-administered program that sold Iraqi oil on world markets. An investigation was under way.

    Finally, the world watched in horror late in December as India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and a half-dozen other Indian Ocean countries suffered the consequences of a series of giant tsunami waves, generated December 26 by a huge underwater earthquake off the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The waves, in some cases more than thirty feet high, roared onto beaches and devastated everything in their paths. At year's end more than 100,000 people had died as an immediate result of the destruction; tens of thousands more were still missing, and health authorities feared epidemics of disease resulting from the lack of food and clean water. Relief agencies rushed tons of supplies to the affected countries, but some of the hardest-hit communities were in remote areas where transportation facilities were inadequate even before the tsunami wrought its destruction.

    Other U.S. Domestic Issues

    Because the presidential election was expected to be an exceptionally close one, partisan politics dominated much of the domestic scene in the United States during 2004. The federal government accomplished little of substance, as the two parties sought to gain political advantage before November 2—each expecting to be the victor.

    The economy was the year's dominant domestic issue, both politically and in daily life for many Americans. The economy continued to grow at a relatively strong pace—4.4 percent over the course of the year—but polls showed that many Americans were not persuaded that the recovery from the 2000–2001 recession was a strong and lasting one. The lagging job market was perhaps the chief source of concern. Unemployment was fairly low by historic standards, hovering around 5.5 percent throughout the year. But in most months since President Bush took office the economy failed to create enough new jobs to make up for jobs that were lost, let alone satisfy those entering the workforce. Rapidly rising energy prices—stimulated by an oil market that shot past the $50-a-barrel mark—caused concern about a possible rise in inflation and contributed to a tightening of monetary policy by the Federal Reserve Board.

    The year was the third in a row that brought significant revelations of wrongdoing by major corporations. More than a dozen top-level corporate figures were being prosecuted on various fraud charges, the latest being Kenneth Lay, the former chairman and chief executive of Enron Corporation—the energy company whose bankruptcy in late 2001 set off the current round of business scandals. Lay was indicted on fraud charges on July 8, the same day that a jury convicted John J. Rigas, the former chairman of Adelphia Communications, on fraud charges and that a federal judge denied a new trial for the most famous of those caught up in the scandals: Martha Stewart, the guru of homemakers who had been convicted on charges related to insider trading. New York state's crusading attorney general, Elliot L. Spitzer, took aim at fraudulent activities in the insurance business, the third industry (after Wall Street investment banks and mutual funds) to feel the heat of his reformist zeal.

    The nation's pharmaceutical industry had not been touched by similar allegations of financial wrongdoing, but late in the year two industry giants—Merck and Pfizer—came under intense market and public pressure because of concerns about the safety of some of their best-selling medicines. Merck on September 30 pulled Vioxx, a financially lucrative painkiller, off the market after studies showed it could cause increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Pfizer stopped marketing a competing drug, Celebrex, to consumers because of similar concerns. These events stimulated questions about the regulatory prowess of the Food and Drug Administration, which was supposed to monitor the safety and efficacy of drugs both before and after they went to market.

    The FDA also came under fire after contamination forced the closing of a vaccine factory, depriving the nation of one half of the year's supply of flu vaccine. The sudden shortage at the beginning of the flu season sparked alarm and panic among patients as doctors and the government scrambled to find alternative sources of the vaccine. Fortunately, the flu season was mild, but the incident pointed up the vulnerability of the health care system to serious attack, whether from natural causes such as the bird flu that the World Health Organization feared could turn into a human flu pandemic or from manmade causes such as a bioterrorism attack.

    The legal gay marriages in Massachusetts and illegal ones in San Francisco, Oregon, and a few other places touched off a backlash that conservative leaders turned to great advantage politically. Although both chambers of Congress failed by wide margins to approve a constitutional amendment barring gay marriages, voters in eleven states came out en masse to support state constitutional bans at the November elections. The turnout might have cost John Kerry the election. In the pivotal state of Ohio, 62 percent of the voters supported a referendum banning gay marriage. Had that issue not been on the ballot, many social conservatives might not have bothered coming to the polls, where Bush edged out Kerry by less than 2 percent of the vote to win the state and clinch a majority in the electoral college.

    Moral values also continued to be front and center for the American Roman Catholic Church, which had been wracked by widespread allegations of sexual abuse of minors by priests. Three reports published under the auspices of the church gave some reason to believe that the worst period of abuse might be past and that most dioceses around the country were taking steps to prevent abuses in the future. But it was clear that the scandal had not run its course. New allegations of past abuse arose in hundreds of lawsuits filed around the country, the board that issued the reports accused the leaders of the church of backtracking on their efforts to protect children, and victims' rights groups were highly skeptical that the church was dealing with the problem openly and in good faith.

    JohnFelton and MarthaGottron

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