Guide to U.S. Health and Health Care Policy

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Edited by: Thomas R. Oliver

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Evolution of American Health Care Policy (Beginnings to Today)

    Part II: Government Organizations That Develop, Fund, and Administer Health Policy (1789–Today)

    Part III: Contemporary Health Policy Issues: Goals and Initiatives (1920s–Today)

    Part IV: Contemporary Health Policy Issues: People and Policies (1960s–Today)

    Part V: U.S. Response to Global Health Challenges (1980s–Today)

  • Copyright

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    List of Illustrations

    About the Editor

    Thomas R. Oliver is professor of population health sciences in the School of Medicine and Public Health at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. There, he has served as director of the Master of Public Health program and of the Wisconsin Center for Public Health Education and Training and is a faculty affiliate of the Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs. Before coming to Wisconsin, he held faculty positions at the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University.

    Trained in health administration and political science, Professor Oliver teaches courses in domestic and international health systems and policy and in the politics of health policy to a variety of professional and graduate students. Over the course of his career, he has published a wide range of research examining major issues in health politics, policy, and system reform at all levels of government. He has focused much of his work on how ideas—whether specific concepts, evidence-based analysis, or paradigm shifts—are translated into action through leadership and institutional dynamics. Currently, he is studying the critical roles of intersectoral governance and leadership in strategies for population health improvement in the United States and other countries. Professor Oliver served as president of the Health Politics and Policy section of the American Political Science Association in 2010–2011 and is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law.

    Contributors

    • Diana M. Bowman
    • University of Michigan
    • Claire D. Brindis
    • University of California, San Francisco
    • Jaclyn Bunch
    • Florida State University
    • Robert Cook-Deegan
    • Sanford School of Public Policy
    • Duke University
    • Cari Cuffney
    • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    • Rob A. DeLeo
    • Northeastern University
    • Michael W. Fahey
    • Independent Scholar
    • Thomas D. Fahey
    • California State University, Chico
    • Andrew Flescher
    • Stony Brook University
    • Daniel M. Fox
    • President Emeritus, Milbank Memorial Fund
    • Lance Gable
    • Wayne State University
    • Susan Giaimo
    • Marquette University
    • Scott L. Greer
    • University of Michigan
    • Michael K. Gusmano
    • The Hastings Center
    • Andrew S. Jessmore
    • University of Michigan
    • Christopher E. Johnson
    • University of Washington
    • Darrell J. Kozlowski
    • Independent Scholar
    • B. Rick Mayes
    • University of Richmond
    • Deborah R. McFarlane
    • University of New Mexico
    • Michael McGeary
    • Political Director and Senior Strategist at Engine
    • Evan M. Melhado
    • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    • Roy T. Meyers
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
    • Edward Alan Miller
    • University of Massachusetts, Boston
    • Pamela Nadash
    • University of Massachusetts, Boston
    • Kenrad E. Nelson
    • Johns Hopkins University
    • Ann M. Nguyen
    • Bastyr University
    • Rongal D. Nikora
    • University of New Mexico
    • Jonathan Oberlander
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    • Thomas R. Oliver
    • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    • Mary K. Olson
    • Tulane University
    • Kant Patel
    • Professor Emeritus, Missouri State University
    • Beryl A. Radin
    • Georgetown University
    • Patrick Remington
    • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    • Thomas C. Ricketts
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    • David A. Rochefort
    • Northeastern University
    • Samira Soleimanpour
    • University of California, San Francisco
    • David Barton Smith
    • Drexel University
    • Donald H. Taylor Jr.
    • Duke University
    • Carol S. Weissert
    • Florida State University
  • Appendix A: Selected Federal Health and Health Care Agencies and Offices

    The vast majority of health-related agencies and offices are located in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In general, these two cabinet departments have the greatest impact on governmental health policy and on U.S. citizens’ health. Nevertheless, many agencies of the federal government bear some public health or health care responsibilities. Among those agencies are the following:

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    • Administration for Children and Families (ACF)
    • Administration for Community Living (ACL)
    • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    • Office of Infectious Diseases
    • Office of Noncommunicable Diseases, Injury and Environmental Health
    • Office of Public Health and Science
    • Office of Population Affairs
    • Office of Women's Health
    • Vaccines for Children (VFC)
    • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
    • Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
    • Federal Coordinated Health Care Office
    • Program for All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)
    • National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP)
    • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    • Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
    • Indian Health Service (IHS)
    • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
    • Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICD)
    • National Institute on Drug Abuse
    • Administration on Children, Youth and Families
    • Office of Head Start
    • Office of Child Care
    • Office of Early Childhood Development
    • Office of the Inspector General
    U.S. Department of Agriculture
    • Food and Nutrition Services (FNS)
    • National School Lunch Program (NSLP)
    • School Breakfast Program (SBP)
    • Special Milk Program (SMP)
    • Summer Food Service Program (SFSP)
    • Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP)
    • Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
    • Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)
    • Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP)
    • Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR)
    • The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP)
    • Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
    • Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
    • Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program
    U.S. Department of Labor
    • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)
    U.S. Department of Defense
    • Defense Environment Safety and Occupational Health Network and Information Exchange (DENIX)
    • Military Health System
    • Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)
    • Office of Medical Services
    U.S. Department of Energy
    • Office of Health, Safety, and Security
    U.S. Department of State
    • United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
    • Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator
    U.S. Department of Education
    • Office of Safe and Healthy Students (OSHS)
    • Office of Elementary and Secondary Education
    • Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services
    • Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students
    U.S. Department of Commerce
    • International Trade Administration (ITA)
    U.S. Department of Transportation
    • National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
    U.S. Department of Justice
    • Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
    • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF)
    • Criminal Division, Fraud Section
    U.S. Department of Homeland Security
    • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
    • Office of Health Affairs
    U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
    • Veterans Health Administration (VHA)
    • Veterans Benefits Administration
    • Office of Disability Assistance
    • Defense Health Agency
    Environmental Protection Agency
    • Office of Air and Radiation (OAR)
    • Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP)
    • Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER)
    • Office of Water
    • Office of Children's Health Protection
    Federal Trade Commission
    • Bureau of Competition
    • Bureau of Consumer Protection
    • Bureau of Economics

    Appendix B: Bibliography

    Part I—Evolution of American Health Care Policy (Beginnings to Today)
    Abramson, John.Overdosed America: The Broken Promise of American Medicine. New York: HarperCollins, 2004.
    Altman, Stuart, and DavidShactman. Power, Politics and Universal Health Care: The Inside Story of a Century-Long Battle. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2011.
    Ball, Robert.“What Medicare's Architects Had in Mind.”Health Affairs14: 4 (1995): 62–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.14.4.62
    Bernstein, Merton C., and Joan B.Bernstein. Social Security: The System That Works. New York: Basic Books, 1988.
    Blumenthal, David, and James A.Morone. The Heart of Power: Health and Politics in the Oval Office. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.
    Breslaw, Elaine G.Lotions, Potions, Pills, and Magic: Health Care in Early America. New York: New York University Press, 2012.
    Broder, David, and HaynesJohnson. The System: The American Way of Politics at a Breaking Point. Boston: Little, Brown, 1996.
    Brown, Lawrence, and MichaelSparer. “Poor Program's Progress: The Unanticipated Politics of Medicaid Policy.”Health Affairs22: 1 (2003): 31–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.22.1.31
    Brownlee, Shannon.Overtreated: How Too Much Medicine Is Making Us Sicker and Poorer. New York: Bloomsbury, 2007.
    Buchmueller, Thomas C., and Alan C.Monheit. “Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance and the Promise of Health Insurance Reform” (NBER Working Paper Series). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14839. http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w14839
    Budrys, Grace.Our Unsystematic Health Care System.
    3rd ed.
    Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011.
    Burton, John D.“‘The Awful Judgments of God upon the Land’: Smallpox in Colonial Cambridge.”New England Quarterly74: 3 (2001): 495–506. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3185429
    Clemens-Cope, Lisa, StephenZuckerman, and DeanResnick. “Limiting the Tax Exclusion of Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Premiums: Revenue Potential and Distributional Consequences.”Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2013. http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/issue_briefs/2013/rwjf405948.
    “Clinton's Health Plan: Transcript of President's Address to Congress on Health Care.”New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/09/23/us/clinton-s-health-plan-transcript-president-s-address-congress-health-care.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.
    Cohn, Jonathan.“How They Did It.”The New Republic, May 20, 2010.
    Cohn, Jonathan.Sick: The Untold Story of America's Health Care Crisis—and the People Who Pay the Price. New York: HarperCollins, 2008.
    Coughlin, Teresa A., and StephenZuckerman. “State Responses to New Flexibility in Medicaid.”Milbank Quarterly86: 2 (2008): 209–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2008.00520.x
    Dentzer, Susan.“America's Scandalous Health Care.”U.S. News and World Report108: 10 (1990): 24–28, 30.
    Deutsch, Albert.“The Sick Poor in Colonial Times.”American Historical Review45: 3 (1941).
    Dinan, John.“Shaping Health Reform: State Government Influence in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.”Publius41: 3 (2011): 395–420.
    Duffy, John.The Sanitarians: The History of American Public Health. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990.
    Ehrenreich, Barbara.“Our Health-Care Disgrace.”Time136: 25 (1990): 1–12.
    Elhauge, Einer, ed. The Fragmentation of U.S. Health Care: Causes and Solutions. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390131.001.0001
    Feingold, Eugene.Medicare: Policy and Politics: A Case Study and Policy Analysis. San Francisco: Chandler, 1966.
    Garrison, Fielding H.An Introduction to the History of Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1960.
    Ginsberg, David L.“Health Care Policy in the Reagan Administration: Rhetoric and Reality.”Public Administration Quarterly11: 1 (1987): 59–70.
    Goodman, Christopher J., and Stephen M.Mance. “Employment Loss and the 2007–2009 Recession: An Overview.”Monthly Labor Review (April 2011): 3–12.
    Gordon, Colin.Dead on Arrival: The Politics of Health Care in Twentieth-Century America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.
    Hacker, Jacob S.The Road to Nowhere: The Genesis of President Clinton's Plan for Health Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.
    —–. The Divided Welfare State: The Battle over Public and Private Social Benefits in the United States. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
    Hayes, Katherine.“Overview of Policy, Procedure, and Legislative History of the Affordable Care Act.”National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys7: 1 (2011): 1–9.
    Hirshfield, Daniel.The Lost Reform: The Campaign for Compulsory Health Insurance in the United States from 1932–1943. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970. http://dx.doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674498082
    Hoffman, Beatrix.Health Care for Some: Rights and Rationing in the United States Since 1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226348056.001.0001
    The Wages of Sickness: The Politics of Health Insurance in Progressive America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
    Jacobs, Lawrence R., and ThedaSkocpol. Health Care Reform and American Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
    Kenney, Genevieve, JenniferHaley, and AlexandraTabay. “Children's Insurance Coverage and Service Use Improve.” In Snapshots of American Families III. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, July 2003.
    Kleinke, J. D.Oxymorons: The Myth of a U.S. Health Care System. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.
    Kornick, Richard, and ToddGilmer. “Explaining the Decline in Health Insurance Coverage, 1979–1995.”Health Affairs18: 2 (1999): 30–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.18.2.30
    Kulczyski, Andrzej.“Ethics, Ideology, and Reproductive Health Policy in the United States.”Studies in Family Planning38: 4 (2007): 333–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2007.00145.x
    Levit, Katharine R., et al. “National Health Expenditures, 1993.” Health Care Financing Review16: 1 (1994): 247–294.
    Lewis, Anthony.“A Sick System.”New York Times, June 3 1991, A17.
    Lynn, Joanne.Sick to Death and not Going to Take It Anymore! Reforming Health Care for the Last Years of Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
    Marmor, Theodore.The Politics of Medicare. New York: Aldine, 1973.
    Mayes, Rick.Universal Coverage: The Elusive Quest for National Health Insurance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.
    McCarthy, Michael.“Fragmented US Health-Care System Needs Major Reform.”Lancet357: 9258 (2001): 782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2805%2971219-8
    McDonough, John E.Inside National Health Reform. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.
    McFarlane, Deborah R.“Reproductive Health Policy in President Bush's Second Term: Old Battles and New Fronts in the United States and Internationally.”Journal of Public Health Policy27: 4 (2006): 405–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jphp.3200099
    Means, James H.“Homo Medicus Americanus.”Daedalus92: 4 (1963): 701–723.
    Mickey, Robert.“Dr. StrangeRove; or, How Conservatives Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Community Health Centers.” In The Health Care Safety Net in a Post-Reform World, edited by Mark A.Hall, 21–66. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2012).
    Morone, James A.“Enemies of the People: The Moral Dimension to Public Health.”Journal of Health, Politics, Policy and Law22: 4 (1997): 993–1020.
    Morone, James A.Hellfire Nation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004.
    Mushkin, Selina.“The Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and Health Programs.”Public Health Reports70: 8 (1955): 791–800. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4589189
    Myers, Robert J.Medicare. Bryn Mawr, PA: McCahan Foundation, 1970.
    Nixon, Richard.“Message to Congress.”Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register, February 18, 1971.
    Nixon, Richard.“Special Message to the Congress Proposing a National Health Strategy.” February 18, 1971. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=3311.
    Numbers, Ronald.Almost Persuaded: American Physicians and Compulsory Health Insurance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.
    Oberlander, Jonathan.“Learning from Failure in Health Care Reform.”New England Journal of Medicine357: 17 (2007): 1677–1679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp078201
    Oberlander, Jonathan.“Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed.”Health Affairs29: 6 (2010): 1112–1116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447
    Oberlander, Jonathan.The Political Life of Medicare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
    Patel, Kant, and MarkRushefsky. Health Care Politics and Policy in America.
    5th ed.
    New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2014.
    Patel, Kant, and MarkRushefsky. The Politics of Public Health in the United States. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2005.
    Poen, Monte M.Harry S. Truman versus the Medical Lobby: The Genesis of Medicare. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1979.
    Quadagno, Jill.One Nation Uninsured: Why the U.S. Has No National Health Insurance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
    Quazi, Khalid J.“Health Care Reform in the United States: Fact, Fiction and Drama.”British Journal of Medical Practitioners2: 4 (2009): 5–7.
    Reagan, Michael D.The Accidental System: Health Care Policy in America. Boulder, CO: Waterview Press, 1999.
    Rosenberg, Charles E.The Care of Strangers: The Rise of American Hospital System. New York: Basic Books, 1987.
    Rothman, David J.Beginnings Count: The Technological Imperative in American Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
    Schneider, Anne L., and Helen M.Ingram. Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004.
    Shyrock, Richard H.“The Health of the American People: An Historical Survey.”Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society90: 4 (1946): 251–258.
    Silva, Cristobal.“Miraculous Plagues: Epidemiology on New England's Colonial Landscape.”Early American Literature43: 2 (2008): 249–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/eal.0.0021
    Skocpol, Theda.Boomerang: Health Care Reform and the Turn against Government. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997.
    Starbuck, David R.“Military Hospitals on the Frontier of Colonial America.”Expedition39: 1 (1997): 33–46.
    Starr, Paul.Remedy and Reaction: The Peculiar American Struggle over Health Care Reform. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011.
    Starr, Paul.The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books, 1982.
    Starr, Paul.“What Happened to Health Care Reform?”American Prospect20 (Winter 1995): 20–31.
    Stevens, Rosemary A.American Medicine and the Public Interest. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
    Stevens, Rosemary A.In Sickness and in Wealth: American Hospitals in the Twentieth Century. New York: Basic Books, 1989.
    The Public-Private Health Care State: Essays on the History of American Health Care Policy. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction, 2007.
    Stevens, Rosemary A., Charles E.Rosenberg., and Lawton R.Burns. History and Health Policy in the Unites States. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2006.
    Taylor, Humphrey.“U.S. Health Care: Built for Waste.”New York Times, April 17, 1990, A25.
    Terris, Milton.“A Wasteful System That Doesn't Work.”Progressive54: 10 (1990): 14–16.
    Thomasson, Melissa A.“The Importance of Group Coverage: How Tax Policy Shaped U.S. Health Insurance” (Working Paper 7543). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000. http://www.nber.org/papers/w7543.pdf. http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w7543
    Thompson, Frank J., and CourtneyBurke. “Executive Federalism and Medicaid Demonstration Waivers: Implications for Policy and Democratic Process.”Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law32: 6 (2007): 971–1004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/03616878-2007-039
    Thompson, Frank J., and CourtneyBurke. “Federalism by Waiver: Medicaid and the Transformation of Long-Term Care.”Publius39: 1 (2008): 22–48.
    Truman, Harry.“Special Message to the Congress Recommending a Comprehensive Health Program.” November 19, 1945. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/index.php?pid=483.
    U.S. Health Resources Administration. Health in America: 1776–1976. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1976.
    Von Drehle, David, AlexAltman, MichaelCrowley, MichaelGrunwald, and MichaelScherer. “Here's What We Know for Sure: Obama's Health Care Reform Is Constitutional, Congress May not Hold States Hostage to Its Every Whim.”Time180: 3 (2012): 30–41.
    Warner, John H., and Janet A.Tighe. Major Problems in the History of American Medicine and Public Health: Documents and Essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.
    Waxman, Henry A.“Politics and Science: Reproductive Health.”Health Matrix: Journal of Law-Medicine16: 1 (2006): 5–25.
    Welch, Gilbert H., LisaSwartz, and SteveWoloshin. Overdiagnosed: Making People Sick in the Pursuit of Health. Boston: Beacon Press, 2011.
    Part II—Government Organizations That Develop, Fund, and Administer Health Policy (1789–Today)
    Aaron, Henry J.“Budget Crisis, Entitlement Crisis, Health Care Financing Problem—Which Is It?”Health Affairs26: 6 (2007): 1622–1633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.26.6.1622
    Altman, Drew E., RichardGreene, and Harvey M.Sapolsky. Health Planning and Regulation: The Decision-making Process. Washington, DC: AUPHA Press, 1981.
    Antos, Joseph R.“Is There a Right Way to Promote Health Insurance through the Tax System?”National Tax Journal54: 3 (2006): 477–490.
    Armstrong, Drew.“Medicare Patch Habit Too Painful to Break.”CQ Weekly, June 16, 2008, 1595–1596.
    Bakke, Olav M., MichaelManocchia, Franciscode Abajo, Kenneth I.Kaitin, and LouisLasagna. “Drug Safety Discontinuations in the U.K., the U.S. and Spain from 1974–1993: A Regulatory Perspective.”Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics58: 1 (1995): 108–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-9236%2895%2990078-0
    Belknap, Michal R.The Supreme Court under Earl Warren, 1953–1969. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2005.
    Bell, Jordan B., and Ella C.Nye. “Specific Symptoms Predict Suicidal Ideation in Vietnam Combat Veterans with Chronic Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.”Military Medicine172: 11 (2007): 1144–1147.
    Blow, Frederic C., John E.Zebe, John F.McCarthy, MarciaValenstein, LeahGillon, and C. RaymondBingham. “Ethnicity and Diagnostic Patterns in Veterans with Psychoses.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology39: 10 (2004): 841–851.
    Bossarte, Robert M.Veteran Suicide: A Public Health Imperative. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 2013.
    Bray, Robert M., and Laura L.Hourani. “Substance Use Trends among Active Duty Military Personnel: Findings from the United States Department of Defense Health Related Behavior Surveys, 1980–2005.” Addiction102: 7 (2007): 1092–1101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.2007.102.issue-7
    Bushy, Angeline.“Health Issues of Women in Rural Environments: An Overview.”Journal of American Medical Women's Association53: 2 (1998): 53–56.
    Carpenter, Daniel.Reputation and Power: Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “Emergency Preparedness and Response.” May 2, 2013. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/lrn.
    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Actuarial Report on the Financial Outlook for Medicaid. 2012. http://medicaid.gov/Medicaid-CHIP-Program-Information/By-Topics/Financing-and-Reimbursement/Downloads/medicaid-actuarial-report-2012.pdf.
    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Blueprint for Approval of Affordable State-Based and State Partnership Insurance Exchanges. 2012. http://www.cms.gov/CCIIO/Resources/Files/Downloads/hie-blueprint-11162012.pdf.
    Chandra, Amitabh, JonathanHolmes, and JonathanSkinner. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook. Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office, September 2013.
    Congressional Budget Office. Approaches to Reducing Federal Spending on Military Health Care. Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office, 2014.
    Congressional Budget Office. Quality Initiatives Undertaken by the Veterans Health Administration. Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office, 2009.
    Congressional Budget Office. The Sustainable Growth Rate Formula for Setting Medicare's Physician Payment Rates. Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office, September 6, 2006. http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/75xx/doc7542/09-07-sgr-brief.pdf.
    Congressional Budget Office. The Veterans Health Administration's Treatment of PTSD and Traumatic Brain Injury among Recent Combat Veterans. Washington, DC: CreateSpace, 2012.
    Conlan, Timothy J., and Paul L.Posner. “Inflection Point? Federalism and the Obama Administration.” Publius41: 3 (2011): 421–446.
    Cutler, David M., KarenDavis, and KristofStremikis. “Why Health Reform Will Bend the Cost Curve.”New York: Commonwealth Fund, December 2009.
    Cutler, David M., and JudyFeder. Financing Health Care Reform: A Plan to Ensure the Cost of Reform Is Budget-Neutral. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, 2009.
    Defense Health Agency. About DHA. http://www.tricare.mil/tma/aboutDHA.aspx.
    Derthick, Martha.“Going Federal: The Launch of Medicare Part D Compared to SSI.”Publius37: 3 (2007): 351–370.
    DiMasi, Joseph A., Ronald W.Hansen, and Henry G.Grabowski. “The Price of Innovation: New Estimates of Drug Development Costs.”Journal of Health Economics22: 2 (2003): 151–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6296%2802%2900126-1
    Doonan, Michael.American Federalism in Practice: The Formulation and Implementation of Contemporary Health Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2013.
    Eibner, Christine.Invisible Wounds of War: Quantifying the Societal Costs of Psychological and Cognitive Injuries. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2008.
    Ellis, Christopher, and James A.Stimson. Ideology in America. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139094009
    Elster, Eric, EricSchoomaker, and CharlesRice. “The Laboratory of War: How Military Trauma Care Advances Are Benefiting Soldiers and Civilians.”Health Affairs, December 18, 2013. http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2013/12/18/the-laboratory-of-war-how-military-trauma-care-advances-are-benefiting-soldiers-and-civilians/
    Emanuel, Ezekiel, et al. “A Systemic Approach to Containing Health Care Spending.”New England Journal of Medicine367 (2012): 949–954. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsb1205901
    Etheridge, Elizabeth W.Sentinel for Health: A History of the Centers for Disease Control. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
    Evans, Robert G.“The TSX Gives a Short Course in Health Economics: It's the Prices, Stupid!”Healthcare Policy6: 2 (2010): 13–23.
    Families USA. “Implementing Exchanges.”Families USA: The Voice for Health Care Consumers. October 2012.
    FDA and Stakeholders Public Meeting. December 7, 2001. Executive Summary. http://www.fda.gov/cder/pdufa/default.htm.
    Feder, Judith M.The Politics of Federal Hospital Insurance. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1977.
    Finley, Erin P.Fields of Combat: Understanding PTSD among Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan (The Culture and Politics of Health Care Work). Ithiaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011.
    Follette, Glenn, and LouiseSheiner. “The Sustainability of Health Spending Growth.”National Tax Journal58: 3 (2005): 391–408.
    Fox, Daniel M.Health Policies, Health Politics: The British and American Experience, 1911–1965. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.
    Frederickson, David G., and H. GeorgeFrederickson. Measuring the Performance of the Hollow State. Washington, DC: Georgetown Press, 2006.
    Freidson, Eliot.Professionalism, the Third Logic: On the Practice of Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
    Gabel, Jon R.“Congress's Health Care Numbers Don't Add Up.”New York Times, August 26, 2009.
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    Part III—Contemporary Health Policy Issues: Goals and Initiatives (1920s–Today)
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