Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy: A Diplomatic History
Publication Year: 2012
Subject: American Foreign Policy
At no time in American history has an understanding of the role and the art of diplomacy in international relations been more essential than it is today. Both the history of U.S. diplomatic relations and the current U.S. foreign policy in the twenty-first century are major topics of study and interest across the nation and around the world.
Spanning the entire history of American diplomacy—from the First Continental Congress to the war on terrorism to the foreign policy goals of the twenty-first century—Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy traces not only the growth and development of diplomatic policies and traditions but also the shifts in public opinion that shape diplomatic trends. This comprehensive reference shows how the United States gained “the strength of a giant” and also ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: From the Colonial Era to a New Nation
- Chapter 2: Manifest Destiny
- Chapter 3: Civil War Diplomacy
- Chapter 4: The Gilded Age
- Chapter 5: Diplomatic Milestones, 1770s–1898: History and Analysis of the Foreign Policy Developments in the New Nation
- Chapter 6: The Spanish-American War and Imperialism
- Chapter 7: The Big Stick and Dollar Diplomacy
- Chapter 8: The Challenge of Maintaining Neutrality
- Chapter 9: Making the World Safe for Democracy
- Chapter 10: Diplomatic Milestones, 1898–1919: History and Analysis of the Nation's Emergence as a World Power and Society's Reaction
- Chapter 11: Independent Internationalism
- Chapter 12: The Great Depression: The Economy and Diplomacy
- Chapter 13: The Debate over Intervention
- Chapter 14: World War II Diplomacy
- Chapter 15: Diplomatic Milestones, 1918–1945: History and Analysis of the Shift from Isolationism to Internationalism
- Chapter 16: The Legacy of World War II
- Chapter 17: The Cold War: Containing Communism
- Chapter 18: Middle East Diplomacy: Formative Years
- Chapter 19: Korea and Anti-Communist Policies in East Asia
- Chapter 20: Brinkmanship and Mutually Assured Destruction
- Chapter 21: Relations with Nonaligned Nations in Asia and Africa
- Chapter 22: Relations with Latin America and the Caribbean, 1945–1970
- Chapter 23: The Vietnam War
- Chapter 24: Diplomatic Milestones, 1945–1970s: History and Analysis of the Cold War—Origins to Détente
- Chapter 25: Détente
- Chapter 26: Shuttle Diplomacy and its Impact on the Middle East
- Chapter 27: Rogue States and the Emergence of Terrorist Tactics
- Chapter 28: “Tear down this Wall”: The Fall of Communism and the Emergence of Eastern Europe
- Chapter 29: Glasnost and Perestroika: The End of the Soviet Union
- Chapter 30: Diplomatic Milestones, 1970s–1991: History and Analysis of the Post-Vietnam Era and its Impact on American Society
- Chapter 31: U.S. Economic and Foreign Relations with the Western Hemisphere
- Chapter 32: The Environment and International Diplomacy
- Chapter 33: Europe, the United States, and NATO and their Roles in the Twenty-First Century
- Chapter 34: Diplomatic Milestones, 1992–2000: Dilemmas of the Post-Cold War Era
- Chapter 35: The Global War on Terrorism: Afghanistan, Iraq, and beyond
- Chapter 36: The Rise of China in the Twenty-First Century
- Chapter 37: Africa in the Twenty-First Century
- Chapter 38: U.S.-Israeli Relations and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East
- Chapter 39: U.S. Foreign Policy Goals of the Twenty-First Century
- Chapter 40: Diplomatic Milestones, 2001-Present: History and Analysis of Emerging Issues
Dedicated to Thomas G. Paterson: valued mentor, sterling role model, and good friend—RobertJ.McMahon
Dedicated to Stephen Pelz, Robert Schulzinger, and Alfred Eckes Jr.: teachers, guides, and friends—ThomasW.Zeiler
Copyright © 2012 by CQ Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc. CQ Press is a registered trademark of Congressional Quarterly Inc.
Developed by DWJ BOOKS LLC
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Guide to U.S. foreign policy : a diplomatic history / editors, Robert J. McMahon, Thomas W. Zeiler.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-60871-910-5 (cloth)
I. United States—Foreign relations. I. McMahon, Robert J., 1949—II. Zeiler, Thomas W.
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List of Illustrations[Page xi]
- Volume I
- Part I: The Development and Growth of American Foreign Policy
- Signing of the Treaty of Ghent, 1814 14
- Table 1.1: Expansion of the American Consular Corps, 1790–1830 14
- The Trail of Tears 21
- American Progress by John Gast 29
- Map of Territorial Expansion of the United States, 1783–1854 31
- Table 2.1: Major Territorial Acquisitions of the United States, 1803–1854 32
- The CSS Alabama and USS Kearsarge 42
- Anti-immigrant Cartoon, Published in Judge Magazine 64
- Signing the Treaty of Paris, 1783 71
- Battle of Buena Vista 78
- McCormick Reaper Factory, Chicago 82
- Part II: The United States on the International Stage
- Wreck of the USS Maine 93
- Theodore Roosevelt Big Stick Cartoon 105
- Table 8.1: U.S. Exports to Major Belligerents during World War I, 1914–1916 117
- Sinking of the Lusitania 120
- Wilson Addressing Congress for a Declaration of War 132
- Building the Panama Canal 149
- American Troops Entering Paris, 1919 152
- Wilson on Train Tour Supporting League of Nations 154
- Part III: Diplomacy and Foreign Policy between the Wars
- Harding with Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, and Harvey Firestone 161
- Figure 12.1: Unemployment 174
- Figure 12.2: GNP 174
- Police Standing Guard at Closed Bank in New York City, 1931 175
- Figure 12.3: Exports and Imports as a Percent of GNP 180
- Franklin D. Roosevelt Addressing a Joint Session of Congress 199
- Map of Europe on the Eve of World War II, 1939 204 [Page xii]
- The Big Three: Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill 210
- Signing the Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 221
- Roosevelt Signing Lend-Lease Act 224
- Woman Working on A-31 Vengeance Bomber, 1943 226
- Part IV: Diplomacy Stretched to its Limits: The Early Cold War Era
- Truman and Secretary of State Stettinius Signing UN Charter 242
- The Berlin Airlift 255
- Jewish Families Being Evacuated from Jerusalem, June 1948 267
- Table 18.1: Crude Oil Reserves, 1948–1973 269
- Table 18.2: Total U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East, 1950–1970 270
- Table 18.3: United Nations Resolutions Dealing with the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947–1973 276
- South Korean Girl with Brother 283
- Commanders Radford and MacArthur in Tokyo, 1950 285
- Cuban Missile Crisis 305
- Ghana's Kwame Nkrumah with Eisenhower 315
- Fidel Castro Meeting with Vice President Nixon 331
- Army Helicopters Rescuing American Troops in Vietnam 350
- Khrushchev Banging His Fist at the UN 361
- Kennedy Addresses West Berlin 362
- Map of the Domino Theory 364
- Part I: The Development and Growth of American Foreign Policy
- Volume II
- Part V: The End of the Cold War
- Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev 377
- Henry Kissinger and Golda Meir 387
- Bombing of U.S. Marine Headquarters in Lebanon 402
- Wreckage of Pan Am Flight 103 in Scotland 406
- West Berliners at Berlin Wall, 1989 422
- Ronald Reagan Addressing Moscow State University 433
- Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush on Governor's Island, New York 436
- Camp David Accord 448
- Signing the INF Treaty 453
- Gorbachev Announcing His Resignation and the End of the Soviet Union 454
- Part VI: New Thresholds of Diplomacy
- Table 31.1: Latin American Imports from the United States 465
- Table 31.2: Latin American Exports to the United States 465
- Table 31.3: U.S. Share of Foreign Investment Stock in Selected Countries in Western Hemisphere 466
- U.S. Border Inspection 469
- Table 31.4: Tourism in Latin America, 2005 470
- The Damaged Reactors at the Fukushima Power Plant in Northeast Japan, 2011 484
- Table 33.1: Expansion of NATO 490
- NATO Troops in Afghanistan, 2011 495
- Table 33.2: Defense Spending of All 27 NATO Members, 2010 497
- Bill Clinton and Boris Yeltsin 507
- Part VII: Diplomatic Dilemmas in the Post-9/11 World
- September Eleventh Ten-Year Memorial, 2011 524
- Enemy Combatants Praying at Guantánamo 529
- Bush and Chinese President Hu Jintao 539
- Obama Greets Hu Jintao 541
- Table 37.1: Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 2008 553
- Table 37.2: Total Crude Oil and Products: Top Eight African Exporters to the United States 554
- Obama with Ghana President John Atta Mills 558
- U.S. Troops Leaving Iraq, 2011 573
- Obama with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Oval Office, 2011 574
- Map of the Arab Spring, 2010–2011 575
- UN General Assembly Meeting 586
- Germany's Angela Merkel with Barack and Michelle Obama 587
- Map of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan 599
- Meeting of the Organization of American States Members 601
- UN Peacekeepers in South Sudan 601
- Meeting of G-20 Leaders, 2009 604
- Part V: The End of the Cold War
About the Editors[Page xv]
Robert J. McMahon is the Ralph Mershon Distinguished Professor of History at the Ohio State University. He also has taught at the University of Florida and served as a visiting professor at the University of Virginia, the Free University of Berlin, and as the Mary Ball Washington Chair at University College Dublin. In 2010, he was the keynote speaker at the international research seminar in Beijing, in which he spoke on the rise and fall of America's alliances in “Cold War Asia.”
He is the author of, among other books, Dean Acheson and the Creation of an American World Order (2009); The Limits of Empire: The United States and Southeast Asia since World War II (1999); and Cold War on the Periphery: The United States, India, and Pakistan (1994). He is working on a book on the Cold War in the Third World.
Dr. McMahon has served as president of the Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations and currently serves as a member of the U.S. State Department Historical Society Committee.
Thomas W. Zeiler is the director of the Global Studies Academic Program and professor of history and international affairs at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He teaches, among other topics, American foreign relations, war and society, international trade, America's political economy, European integration, and globalization.
Included among his many awards, honors, and grants is the Stuart L. Bernath Lecture Prize from the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations (SHAFR). His numerous publications include American Foreign Relations since 1600: A Guide to the Literature (editor of three editions); Globalization and the American Century Annihilation: A Global Military History of World War II; and Dean Rusk: Defending the American Mission Abroad.
Dr. Zeiler is the editor of Diplomatic History, the only journal devoted to the history of U.S. diplomacy and foreign relations, examining strategic issues from the colonial period to the present. In 2011, Dr. Zeiler joined the Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation at the U.S. Department of State.[Page xvi]
Lloyd E. Ambrosius
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Andrew D. Barnes
Georgia State University
Paul Thomas Chamberlin
University of Kentucky
Jessica M. Chapman
University of Victoria
Front Range Community College
University of North Florida
Max Paul Friedman
Joseph A. “Andy” Fry
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
James L. Gormly
Washington and Jefferson College
Jussi M. Hanhimäki
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva
Mary Ann Heiss
Kent State University
George C. Herring, Emeritus
University of Kentucky
University of Alabama
Illinois State University
Mark Atwood Lawrence
University of Texas at Austin
Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne
Pennsylvania State University
James I. Matray
California State University, Chico
William B. McAllister
U.S. Department of State
University of Western Ontario
Colorado School of Mines
Nicole M. Phelps
University of Vermont[Page xviii]
United States Study Centre, University of Sydney
Thomas Robertson Worcester Polytechnic Institute
J. Simon Rofe
University of London
University of California, Berkeley
Richard A. Sauers
Director, Packwood Museum
Robert W. Smith
Worcester State University
University of Pittsburgh
Stephen M. Streeter
U.S. Department of State
ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich
Carol K. Winkler
Georgia State University
Long Island University
U.S. Department of State
When President George Washington warned Americans to avoid binding commitments to other nations in his oft-quoted “Farewell Address” in 1796, he was responding both to the exigencies of his times as well as laying out principles for the future. While he alluded to French intrigues that risked drawing the young nation into European conflicts (and Europeans into American affairs), he also understood that the United States would remain involved in world commerce. Remarkably, Washington predicted the tension between isolationism and interventionism, the sway of both domestic and foreign influences, and the pursuit of American prosperity and safety alongside empire and war. Above all, he said the country must retain its freedom, freedom as a value as well as an action.
As the following chapters in The Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy: A Diplomatic History attest, the foreign policy of the United States in the ensuing decades adhered to Washington's admonition. In the meantime, the United States gained “the strength of a Giant,” as Washington also predicted, as it had moved from a disparate collection of upstart colonies to a unipolar superpower that found itself defending the status quo. The nation was not immune to crises, as terrorism most recently has shown. Hegemony has its price. The contributors of this volume have explained how America reached the point of defending freedom, after a start in which it merely sought it.
We are indebted to the authors of the Guide who we believe represent, as a collective, unparalleled expertise on matters of U.S. foreign policy and diplomacy. Moreover, they were given a huge task, one different from the standard encyclopedia of foreign affairs that exists on the market. In a matter of just months, forty scholars contributed ten-thousand word narratives that not only cover the chronology of their topics and the leading issues of each period, but also feature key concepts and shifts in policy, noteworthy people, and primary documents to illustrate further the significance of the history. Both topical and historical, the Guide certainly gives its audience an idea of the broad scope of U.S. foreign relations and a primer on current events. Readers will note that while most of the chapters drill deeply into a certain time period, a handful lay out the “diplomatic milestones” that provide an overview of an entire era. Within every chapter are vignettes of key moments and major shifts in foreign policy-making and a biographical sketch or “public portrait” that focuses on the influential actors of the period, many of whom speak “in their own words” about a crucial issue. The result, we editors believe, is brilliant! And useful.
As editors, we have been impressed not only with the thoroughness of the coverage provided by the contributors, but also with their ability to keep an eye on the relevance of their topic to history as well as to contemporary affairs. In these forty chapters, readers will find a solid basis to understand the change and contours of American foreign relations, and a means to judge both present policies and future challenges.
Additionally, the editorial staff of DWJ Books proved shrewd, balanced, and accommodating in their treatment of each chapter. To deal with such a large number of authors and topics, and make the whole product nearly uniform in tone and quality, was no mean feat. We offer our deepest thanks to the DWJ staff, Lauren Fedorko, who masterminded the entire project, and the authors who produced this unique and valuable guide to U.S. foreign policy.—ThomasW.Zeiler[Page xx]
Introduction: The History and Role of American Foreign Relations[Page xxi]
America's dramatic ascension from the lowly status of vulnerable and precarious republic at its founding to the exalted position of global superpower surely constitutes one of the most improbable, compelling, and important tales in modern world history. During the early national period, presidents and secretaries of state needed to navigate the treacherous shoals of a mostly hostile external environment, and they did so with some marked success. From then until the emergence of the United States as a fledgling world power at the end of the nineteenth century, this upstart nation-state on the North American continent posed fundamental challenges to the traditional powers of Europe and to the international system they upheld. What role would—and could—a non-European power play in a Eurocentric world order? America's stunning internal expansion and economic transformation, coupled with two devastating world wars, provided a definitive answer to that question. World War II irrevocably shattered the old European order. In its wake, the United States firmly grasped the reins of world leadership, reins it has held ever since.
Boasting vast industrial and economic power, a burgeoning military capability, atomic and nuclear weaponry, a stable, liberal political order, and an expansive culture, the United States became the most powerful country on earth during the second half of the twentieth century. It remains so today, even if some of the economic bases of its preeminence appear to be eroding. Since the collapse two decades ago of the Soviet Union, America's only serious rival, and the concomitant end of the Cold War, it has become commonplace to label the United States the world's lone superpower, or “hyperpower,” as a French diplomat termed it in the late 1990s. Yet American policymakers frequently, if somewhat paradoxically, also have been haunted by fears about their country's vulnerability over the past two generations. From their deep apprehension about the threats posed to U.S. national security by the Soviet Union, China, and Communist ideology during the Cold War to their preoccupation since the terrorist attacks of 9/11 with radical Islamic jihadists, American elites have devoted enormous energy and resources to containing or eliminating the perils lurking in the external environment. That, too, has constituted a hallmark of U.S. foreign policy.
By any standard of measurement, the United States has been the dominant force in world affairs for at least the past seventy years, economically, politically, ideologically, militarily, and culturally. It has placed its own indelible stamp on the contemporary international system, having forged many of the transnational institutions and multilateral organizations that still shape today's world. At the same time, it has influenced the aspirations, mores, tastes, living standards, and sometimes resentments and hatreds of hundreds of millions of ordinary people across the globe. It has also gone to war on numerous occasions. Few subjects, consequently, loom larger in modern world history and in contemporary international relations than the often-uneasy encounter between the United States and the nations and peoples beyond its shores.
The Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy: A Diplomatic History seeks to introduce students and general readers alike to this crucial subject: the complex, often colorful, and invariably controversial and contested history and role of American foreign relations and expansion. Each of the essays herein has been written by a leading expert on the topic at hand. Each author has striven to present a balanced interpretive overview of a particular historical period or topical subject, drawing from and building on the most up-to-date scholarship. A handful of the contributions, termed “Diplomatic Milestones” essays, offers a synthetic, thematic treatment of a longer period of time, building upon several of the more focused chapters that immediately precede it.
Taken together, these essays offer a remarkably broad-based examination of America's rise to power and its exercise of global leadership, with several contributions even looking toward the future. This combination of essays focused on U.S. diplomatic history, with another set devoted to topical and contemporary subjects, represents one of the Guide's distinctive features. The essays herein do not conform to any one interpretive viewpoint or analytical approach. Instead, the editors have encouraged all of the contributors to approach their subjects from the perspective [Page xxii]they considered most compelling and appropriate, while pointing readers wherever possible to alternative or contending interpretations. A number of the contributions reflect the fresh and innovative approaches that have marked much of the newer scholarly literature about U.S. foreign relations. Efforts to place U.S. foreign relations in the widest possible international perspective are well represented here; so, too, are efforts to explicate America's external behavior in terms of such constructs as culture, ideology, race, and gender. State-to-state relations are well covered throughout the work, as is natural and appropriate, but many essays also stress the role of nonstate actors and the importance of intercultural interchanges, unofficial contacts, and commercial and intellectual linkages.
Every one of the forty substantive chapters that follow is organized in a similarly distinctive format. In addition to an analytical narrative that forms the heart of each contribution, the essays all contain an important primary source (“In Their Own Words”) tied to one of the essay's main themes. These range from public speeches, to foreign policy “doctrines,” to once top secret policy documents, and much more. In addition, the essays all include a “Public Portrait,” or brief biography, of a leading figure, American or non-American, who is featured prominently in the narrative or whose career proves emblematic of a key trend or theme sketched therein. Each essay features as well one or more “Key Concepts,” developed in a short section that explicates one of the chief concepts, principles, or policies highlighted in that particular chapter. Finally, and significantly, the authors each provide a longer section, termed “Shifts in Foreign Policy,” which critically examines a central event or turning point during the period covered by their essays.
We are convinced that the multiplicity of voices and approaches contained in this comprehensive volume constitutes a singular strength. It is our conviction that the rich diversity represented here will expose readers most effectively to the complexities of America's interactions, past and present, with the larger world, and to the vast scholarly literature that this subject has inspired. It is our fondest hope that the Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy will stimulate much fruitful discussion and debate. We would be delighted if the wide-ranging collection of essays offered here also inspires continued engagement with and further reading about the history and role of American foreign relations.10.4135/9781452235370.d1
- Volume I
The Handbook of Key Diplomatic Terms, Events, and Organizations[Page 607]
This handbook is a guide to identifying and understanding the essential concepts, rationales, incidents, and treaties that have been a part of and that have shaped U.S. diplomatic history since the nation's beginning. The handbook also defines nongovernmental players, international organizations or groups that often influence American foreign policy. Dates are included throughout to help the reader recognize the historical context of each term. For additional explanation, each entry is cross-referenced to the chapter(s) in which it is also discussed.A
Adams-Onís Treaty (1819): Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, agreement reached between the governments of Spain and the United States. U.S. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and the Spanish Minister to the United States, Don Luis de Onís y Gonzalez, negotiated the agreement in order to settle differences between the two nations. Under the terms of the treaty, Spain ceded East Florida to the United States. In exchange, the United States assumed payment of Americans’ claims against the Spanish government, up to $5 million, for damages caused by Native American raids. The treaty also established the border between the western edge of the Louisiana Territory and Spanish Mexico. The boundary was established beginning at the Sabine River north from the Gulf of Mexico to the thirty-second parallel north, then due north to the Red River, west along the Red River to the one-hundredth meridian west, north to the Arkansas River, west to its headwaters, north to the forty-second parallel, and finally westward along that parallel to the Pacific Ocean. See alsoChapter 2.
African Union (AU): Launched in 2002, international organization of fifty-three independent African nations which replaced the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and is based loosely on the European Union (EU). The AU is Africa's foremost institution and major organization for the promotion of socioeconomic assimilation of the continent, leading to greater unity and solidarity among African countries and peoples. It is based on the common vision of a united and strong Africa; the need to build a partnership between governments and all segments of civil society, including women, youth, and the private sector; and the objective of establishing the necessary conditions that enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and international negations. As a continental organization, it focuses on the promotion of peace, security, and stability for the implementation of the development of Africa. See alsoChapter 37.
al Qaeda: Established in 1988, international terrorist organization, founded by the fundamentalist militant Osama bin Laden, which calls for global jihad. Al Qaeda transliterates from the Arabic as “the base.” Al Qaeda ideologues envision the complete elimination of any foreign, namely Western, influences in Muslim nations and the creation of a new Islamic caliphate. Among the organization's reported beliefs are that a Christian-Jewish alliance is conspiring to destroy Islam and that the killing of civilians is religiously justified. Al Qaeda has attacked civilian and military targets in numerous nations, including Tanzania, Kenya, Turkey, Great Britain, and Spain. Most notably, al Qaeda was responsible for the September 11 attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C., in 2001, to which the U.S. government responded by launching a War on Terror. In May 2011, bin Laden was killed at his hideout in Abbottabad, Pakistan, by U.S. Navy Seals. Other al Qaeda members are presumed to be based in the mountainous tribal border region between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Known al-Qaeda affiliates operate in Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen, Somalia, Libya, Egypt, the Maghreb, and the far western regions of China. See alsoChapters 34 and 40.
AlabamaClaims: A disagreement between the United States and Great Britain concerning the capture, damage, or [Page 608]destruction of a number of Union merchant ships during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The CSS Alabama and other Confederate raiders were built in British ports, and the British government allowed the Confederacy to buy these vessels, after which the British-built ships attacked Northern shipping and helped break the Union blockade of Southern ports. The North claimed that these actions violated Britain's official stance of neutrality. After the war, the United States demanded that Britain pay for the damage. Discussion of the issue dragged on for several years. Finally, in 1872, after international arbitration supported the American position, Britain settled the issue by paying the United States $15.5 million for the damages inflicted by the warships built in Britain and sold to the Confederacy, thus ending the dispute and ensuring friendly relations. The use of arbitration led to a movement to codify international law with the hope of finding peaceful solutions to international disputes. See alsoChapter 3.
Allied powers: Name given to the nations of Great Britain, France, and Russia during World War I (1914–1918). These first three Allied powers were also known as the Triple Entente. Joining the Triple Entente's fight against the Central powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria, were Japan, Italy, and, in 1917, the United States, as well as numerous other nations. The Allies defeated the Central powers when Germany agreed to an armistice on November 11, 1918. The name was used again during World War II (1939–1945) to describe the nations fighting the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan. The victorious Allied powers included Great Britain, France, Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxemburg, and many other European nations. The Soviet Union joined the Allies on June 22, 1941, after Adolf Hitler's armies invaded. The United States joined the Allies after the December 7, 1941, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and numerous other nations joined the Allies as the war progressed. Italy surrendered unconditionally to the Allies in September 1943, and Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 8, 1945. Japan continued fighting until after the United States dropped atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945. See alsoChapters 8 and 9.
ambassador: The highest ranking diplomat representing a nation, an ambassador who has plenipotentiary authority. In modern usage, most ambassadors on foreign postings carry the full title of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary. See alsoChapter 2.
America First Committee (AFC): Organization opposed to U.S. involvement in World War II (1939–1945), which insisted on a policy of isolationism as the war spread through western Europe. Founded in September 1940 by two Yale University scholars, R. Douglas Stuart and Kingman Brewster, the group drew upon the widespread noninterventionist sentiment present in the United States after World War I (1914–1918). The AFC eventually grew to include about 850,000 members. Among its backers were Robert McCormick, the wealthy and influential publisher of the Chicago Tribune, and Robert Wood, chairperson of the board of Sears Roebuck and Co. One of the most prominent and outspoken members of the AFC was Charles A. Lindbergh, who, in 1927, had become the first pilot to fly solo across the Atlantic. The AFC also gained the support of many members of Congress, including senators William Borah of Idaho, Burton Wheeler of Montana, and Gerald Nye of North Dakota. Rather than military intervention, the AFC supported the development of homeland defenses to make the United States invulnerable to foreign attack. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, the AFC promptly disbanded. See alsoChapter 13.
apartheid: A legally sanctioned system of racial segregation and oppressive government policies in South Africa, enforced between 1948 and 1994 by the ruling National Party. The term apartheid comes from the Afrikaans word meaning “apartness.” It was coined in the 1930s, but the policy dates back to white settlement in 1652. Following the general election of 1948, new legislation classified inhabitants into racial groups (“white,” “black,” “coloured,” and “Indian”), and residential areas were segregated, sometimes by forced removals. Apartheid sparked significant internal resistance and violence as well as a long trade embargo against South Africa. Beginning in the 1980s, popular uprisings and protests were met with the banning of opposition and imprisoning of antiapartheid leaders. As unrest spread and became more turbulent, state organizations responded with increasing repression and state-sponsored violence. Although reforms to apartheid in the 1980s failed to quell opposition, in 1990, President Frederik Willem de Klerk began negotiations to end apartheid, culminating in 1994 in a multiracial democratic election. The African National Congress (ANC), under Nelson Mandela who became South Africa's first black president, won the 1994 elections. See alsoChapter 21.
appeasement: The strategy of settling conflicts by meeting the demands of an opponent. The concept or policy of appeasement is associated most often with the 1938 Munich Agreement, in which British and French leaders conceded German control of a region of western Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland, which had a large ethnic German population. See alsoChapters 12 and 14.
arbitration: A dispute resolution process in which the disputing parties submit to a neutral third party who examines all the appropriate evidence and then makes a decision that [Page 609]resolves the dispute. An early example of proposed arbitration in U.S. diplomatic history is the 1794 Jay Treaty, in which the British agreed to settle a number of disagreements through arbitration, thus helping establish the precedent. See alsoChapters 2 and 4.
armistice: The cessation of fighting between warring parties, which may be temporary or which may lead to a permanent end of the war. World War I (1914–1918) ended with the armistice of November 11, 1918, which led to an uneasy peace under the Treaty of Versailles (1919). The fighting of the Korean War (1950–1953) terminated with the armistice of July 27, 1953. Technically, a state of war still exists between the Koreas, because the countries have not signed a formal peace treaty. See alsoChapters 9 and 19.
arms race: The competition for military superiority between two or more nations to build the best armed forces, which includes increasing the size of the army and navy, stockpiling larger numbers of weapons, and improving military technology. In general, no absolute goal exists, only the relative goal of remaining ahead of the competitors. Beginning about 1890, an arms race occurred among the European Powers of Germany, France, Russia, and Great Britain. One of the primary causes of World War I was an arms race. After 1933, Japan, Italy, and Germany steadily developed their armed forces to make them equal or superior to the existing forces of France, Britain, and the United States. At the beginning of the Cold War, a nuclear arms race broke out between the United States and the Soviet Union. See alsoChapters 21 and 24.
Atlantic Charter (1941): Agreement reached between President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945) and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on August 9, 1941. Meeting secretly on the British battleship Prince of Wales off the Newfoundland coast, the two leaders framed and announced the charter, which set out the joint aims of Great Britain and the United States, including a common set of principles against Nazi aggression. The charter renounced territorial aggrandizement and proclaimed “the rights of all peoples” to choose their form of government. It also affirmed freedom of the seas and expressed hope for the “abandonment of the use of force” in international affairs. It further promised “freedom from fear and want” and called for the establishment of an international body to serve as an arbiter of disputes and protector of the peace, thus laying the foundation for the Charter of the United Nations (UN) in 1945. See alsoChapter 13.
Axis powers: During World War II (1939–1945), the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, who fought and lost against the Allies—Great Britain, France, the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and a host of other nations. Italy surrendered unconditionally to the Allies in early September 1943; Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 8, 1945; Japan continued fighting until August 1945. See alsoChapter 14.B
balance of power: The existence of parity and stability between competing nations. Preserving a balance of power between nations has probably existed since ancient times. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich organized what became known as the Concert of Europe, or the Congress of Vienna, to prevent the rise of a single dominant state or coalition and to establish a balance of power in Europe. In the later years of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union, two superpowers, attempted to attain a balance of power through détente. See alsoChapter 1.
Bay of Pigs: Failed invasion of Cuba in April 1961 by anti-Castro forces who were aided secretly by the United States. The covert military operation had the approval of the outgoing administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961). Soon after President John F. Kennedy (1961–1963) took office, a group of Cuban émigrés, who had been planning to overthrow the Communist regime of Fidel Castro, invaded Cuba at the Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs). They hoped, with the help of uprisings in Cuba, to oust Castro and establish a more democratic government. They were disastrously defeated. Castro's forces were forewarned and well armed, and the uprisings within Cuba did not occur. In addition, the invading exiles did not have adequate weapons and almost no air cover for their landing. Most of the invaders, more than eleven hundred, were captured, and 114 were killed. See alsoChapter 31.
Berlin airlift: The American and British response to the Soviet blockade of Berlin, Germany, which began in summer 1948. After World War II (1939–1945), Germany was divided into four zones with the Soviet Union, the United States, Great Britain, and France each occupying one zone. Similarly, the German capital of Berlin was divided into four occupation zones. After the United States, Britain, and France set up a common German government (which later became West Germany) in the zones they controlled in summer 1948, the Soviets blockaded all roads, railroads, and canals leading from West Germany to Berlin. Were the blockade successful, two million Berliners in the western sector would either starve or succumb to communism. Fearing that war might result if the Western powers sent armed forces to relieve Berlin, the United States and Britain decided to airlift food and supplies to the city. Through summer 1948 and winter 1948–1949, American and British planes flew about 2.5 million tons of food and supplies, [Page 610]including coal, to the West Berliners. On May 12, 1949, after establishing a separate government in East Berlin, the Soviets finally ended the blockade. Berlin, however, remained a contentious issue between the West and the Soviet Union until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. See alsoChapter 24.
Berlin Wall: Barrier between East Berlin and West Berlin (in East Germany), construction of which began in August 1961 at the direction of the Soviet Union. The wall, built of concrete and wire, became one of the most significant symbols of the Cold War; erected in the middle of a politically divided city, it was supposed to stop the emigration of East Germans to the freer and more prosperous West. In response to the Soviet's provocative action, President John F. Kennedy (1961–1963) enlarged all branches of the military and sent additional troops to Europe. He also sent Vice President Lyndon Johnson to West Berlin to assure its citizens of the determination of the United States to protect the city. Later in July 1963, Kennedy himself went to West Berlin to demonstrate U.S. solidarity with the city. The Berlin Wall remained a potential hot spot until the fall of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989. The wall was demolished that same year. See alsoChapters 24 and 28.
big stick diplomacy: Foreign-policy principle associated with President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909), especially concerning his policies in Latin America. The term originated from the African proverb, “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” Wielding his “big stick,” Roosevelt used force or the implication of force throughout the Caribbean region to obtain rights to build the Panama Canal, to control Cuba's internal affairs through the Platt Amendment, and to protect U.S. interests by deploying American troops to several Latin American nations. See alsoChapters 7 and 9.
bilateral: Of or referring to an agreement between two agencies, parties, or nations. Bilateralism is a foreign policy strategy that describes the political and cultural relations between two nations; for example, the United States and Canada cooperate bilaterally on issues of defense. The vast majority of diplomatic relations takes place on the bilateral level. See alsoChapters 14 and 19.
Boxer Rebellion: In China, a 1900 uprising by a secret organization called the Boxers (in Chinese, “righteous, harmonious fists”). The Boxers took over foreign property, massacred about 300 foreigners, and besieged other outsiders in Peking (now Beijing), China's capital. The four major European powers, Great Britain, France, Germany, and Russia, joined by the United States and Japan, sent a joint expeditionary force to protect their nationals and their property. Many believed that China would be carved up as each nation established its own Chinese colonies. U.S. Secretary of State John Hay announced that it was the policy of the United States to preserve Chinese territory and safeguard the principles of the open door policy. Reluctantly, the other powers agreed and China was not occupied. However, China was forced to pay a huge indemnity of $333,000,000 for damage sustained during the rebellion. The U.S. share was about $24,000,000; realizing that this sum was too much, American officials gave back half of it to provide for education for Chinese students coming to the United States. See alsoChapter 6.
Bretton Woods system: An organized method of global monetary management that established the ground rules for international trade and finance among the world's major industrial nations. The Bretton Woods system was the first example of agreed-upon financial policies and institutions designed to govern monetary affairs among independent nations. As World War II (1939–1945) was still raging, 730 delegates from all forty-four Allied nations gathered in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, at the Mount Washington Hotel, for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. During the first three weeks of July, the delegates deliberated upon and signed the Bretton Woods agreements, thus laying the groundwork to rebuild a stable international economic system and establishing the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which today is part of the World Bank Group. In 1945, these organizations became operational after the required number of countries ratified the agreement. Based on a stable U.S. dollar with a value fixed in gold, the agreements became obsolete by March 1973, as foreign economies grew stronger and the dollar grew relatively weaker. See alsoChapter 16.
brinkmanship: The art or practice, especially in international affairs, of seeking advantage over opponents by creating the impression that one is willing and able to push an extremely dangerous situation to the brink of disaster, rather than concede. In 1956, after ten years of Cold War with the Soviet Union, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, who served under President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961), pointed out the paradoxical situation: “The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art. If you cannot master it, you inevitably get into war. If you try to run away from it, if you are scared to go to the brink you are lost.” Perhaps the most infamous example of brinkmanship was the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. See alsoChapters 21 and 24.C
capitalism: Economic system based on free enterprise in which individuals or businesses, rather than government, [Page 611]own the means of production: land, labor, and capital. In a capitalist society, where there is an unrestricted exchange of ideas, individuals or businesses also contribute entrepreneurship. The system was proposed by Scottish philosopher Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations. See alsoChapter 10.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): Independent federal agency created at the beginning of the Cold War and charged with gathering and providing national security intelligence to senior U.S. foreign policymakers. President Harry S. Truman (1945–1953) signed the National Security Act of 1947, officially establishing the agency. The National Security Act charged the CIA with coordinating the nation's intelligence activities and correlating, evaluating, and disseminating intelligence affecting national security. The agency is organized into four basic parts: the National Clandestine Service, the Directorate of Intelligence, the Directorate of Science & Technology, and the Directorate of Support. Together, these groups carry out the intelligence cycle, the process of collecting, analyzing, and distributing intelligence information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals to U.S. government officials. The director of the agency is nominated by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate and serves to manage the CIA's operations, personnel, and budget. In addition, the director has several staffs who deal with public affairs, human resources, protocol, congressional affairs, and legal issues. CIA operations are usually secret and sometimes create scandals when revealed; an example of this is President Richard M. Nixon's (1969–1974) pressuring the agency to cover up ex-agents’ break-in at the Democratic Party's headquarters in 1972. On December 17, 2004, President George W. Bush (2001–2009) signed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, which restructured the intelligence community by abolishing the positions of director of central intelligence and deputy director of central intelligence. In their stead, the act created the positions of the director of the Central Intelligence Agency and director of National Intelligence (DNI), which oversee the Intelligence Community and the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC). See alsoChapter 18.
Central powers: Name given to the nations of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria, who fought against the Allies—Great Britain, France, Italy, the United States, and others—during World War I (1914–1918). See alsoChapter 8.
Citizen Genêt Affair: A 1793 incident in which Edmond Charles Genêt, the recently appointed ambassador of the new French Republic (proclaimed after the 1789 French Revolution), failed to present his credentials to President George Washington (1789–1797) in Philadelphia, then the nation's capital. Genêt landed instead at Charleston, South Carolina, where he was greeted with great enthusiasm. He ignored Washington's recently issued Proclamation of Neutrality, which declared the United States to be at peace with Great Britain and France and warned the citizenry to perform no hostile acts against either nation. Genêt persuaded Americans to aid the French cause and hired American ships to serve as privateers to attack British ships. Because Spain was also fighting against France, he encouraged frontier leaders to attack the Spanish in Louisiana and Florida. His actions were a flagrant violation of U.S. neutrality. When Genêt finally arrived in Philadelphia, Washington received him with cold formality and refused his requests for aid. Undaunted by the president's rebuff, Genêt continued to appeal to the American people to help the French. Washington, now thoroughly provoked, asked the French government to recall its irresponsible envoy. See alsoChapter 1.
Cold War: The sharp tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from about 1946 until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, which entailed diplomatic, ideological, and indirect military confrontations. Joseph Stalin (the leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1953) believed it impossible for his Communist nation to exist side by side with the imperialist West. The Soviet Union, and later the People's Republic of China, precipitated crises around the globe in central Europe, Asia, and Africa. The issue facing the West became how to contain and prevent the spread of communism and a major war. Thus there began a cold war between the two sides which was characterized by a nuclear arms race and proxy wars. See alsoChapters 17, 20, and 24.
communism: A political and economic system in which communal property is owned by the state and the state controls the economy, often through a single political party such as the Communist Party of the (former) Soviet Union. The Marxist-Leninist version of communism that was practiced in the Soviet Union in the twentieth century called for the abolition of class structures and advocated the overthrow of the capitalist system, based on private ownership, by the proletariat. See alsoChapter 18.
Communist Party: Political organization that advocates the principles of communism through a Communist form of government. Hundreds of Communist parties exist throughout the world; in some nations, such as the People's Republic of China, Cuba, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Communist Party maintains absolute control of the state, including the rights of its citizens. In the United States, the Communist Party is a minor third party. See alsoChapters 16 and 17.[Page 612]
containment: U.S. foreign policy designed to prevent the Soviet Union and its allies from spreading communism to other nations. In July 1947, in an anonymous article, State Department official George F. Kennan expressed the basic and guiding idea behind American activity in the Cold War. He wrote, “The main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of long-term patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies….” See alsoChapter 17.
Convention of 1800: Treaty reached between the United States and France which abrogated all earlier treaties between the two nations, thus formally releasing the United States from its defensive alliance with the French Republic. The Convention also ended the Quasi War with France (which occurred between 1798 and 1800), restoring peace between the two nations. See alsoChapter 1.
covert aid: Military or political assistance given to a nation, rebel group, or other faction in such a way that the parties giving the aid may be known, but their responsibility cannot be proved. See alsoChapter 38.
cowboy diplomacy: Term used derisively by critics of U.S. policy, which they view as heavy-handed and which may include the use of threats, intimidation, or direct military action. The term was used first to describe the big stick policies of Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909); more recently, critics have used the term in reference to the policies of Ronald Reagan (1981–1989) and George W. Bush (2001–2009). See alsoChapters 7 and 28.
Cuban Missile Crisis: Critical confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union precipitated when the Soviets began establishing missile bases in Cuba in 1962; also the development that is generally considered the incident that almost moved the Cold War into a nuclear conflict. The Soviets had been sending Cuba military supplies and weapons, but the installation of missiles that could be launched against the United States, threatening its security and military superiority, brought dramatic American reaction. President John F. Kennedy (1961–1963) immediately declared a quarantine against all arms shipments to Cuba and sent naval and air units to intercept incoming Soviet vessels. He announced that the launching of a missile attack against any nation in the Western Hemisphere would bring “full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.” The United States and the Soviet Union stood at the brink of war. After several tense days, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev (in power 1953–1964) declared that “in the interest of peace,” the Soviet Union would destroy its missile sites in Cuba and withdraw its missiles. Kennedy praised Khrushchev's “statesmanlike decision” and agreed not to invade Cuba, as well as to remove certain types of missiles from Europe and Turkey. See alsoChapter 20.D
D-Day: June 6, 1944, the day the Allied invasion of Normandy (in France) began in an effort to liberate mainland Europe from Nazi occupation. Planning for the operation, code-named “Overlord,” began two years in advance under the direction of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allied Supreme Commander. Before the D-Day landings, Allied planes heavily bombed the French region and smashed German lines of communication all the way to Paris. A fleet of more than 4,500 warships, freighters, and other landing craft carried the initial force of 176,000 American, British, and Canadian troops. Allied forces recaptured Paris in August 1944, and, aiming at the heart of Germany, slowly but steadily advanced toward Berlin, the German capital. See alsoChapters 14 and 15.
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ): Buffer area separating two enemy nations in which soldiers, weapons, and military installations are forbidden. In the twentieth century, one well-known DMZ was at the seventeenth parallel, which separated North Vietnam from South Vietnam. Also, since the 1953 armistice ending the Korean War (1950–1953), the DMZ along the thirty-eighth parallel has separated North Korea from South Korea. See alsoChapter 19.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS): Created in 2003, the cabinet department charged with preventing terrorist attacks on American soil. The department's establishment was a direct result of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Proposed by President George W. Bush (2001–2009) in June 2002, Congress approved the new department later that year, and it began operation in January 2003. The DHS coordinates various security functions that were handled previously by several different federal departments and agencies. In addition to working to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, the DHS is responsible for coordinating information about terrorist threats and reviewing the vulnerability of the nation's infrastructure to possible attack. The department also enforces trade and immigration laws and protects against financial crimes, such as preventing counterfeiting of the nation's money. See alsoChapter 39.
Department of State, United States: The oldest executive department of the U.S. government, established in 1781 under the Articles of Confederation as the Department of Foreign Affairs. After the ratification of the Constitution in 1788, the department was reorganized as the Department of State, and President George Washington (1789–1797) [Page 613]appointed Thomas Jefferson the first secretary of state. The secretary of state is the president's official adviser on foreign affairs and international diplomacy and is the highest ranking member of the cabinet. The secretary is in charge of State Department operations and is responsible for the overall direction, coordination, and supervision of American foreign policy. See alsoChapters 16 and 17. détente: A French term that literally means a “relaxation of tension.” It was used to describe the easing of Cold War tensions among the United States, the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China in the 1970s under President Richard M. Nixon (1969–1974) and President Gerald R. Ford (1974–1977). See alsoChapter 25.
disarmament: The policy and process of limiting, reducing, or destroying weapons. Disarmament may refer to the elimination of one type of weapon, such as nuclear warheads; complete disarmament refers to the removal of all weaponry, including conventional arms. States or groups may be compelled to disarm or negotiate disarmament through agreements. See alsoChapters 11, 20, and 39.
Dollar Diplomacy: An American policy, often associated with President William Howard Taft (1909–1913), which used the economic power of the United States to further the nation's business and political interests in Latin America and East Asia. The term, coined by President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909), involved American banks providing loans to foreign nations, thus increasing U.S. leverage within those nations. Taft, as well as his secretary of state, Philander C. Knox, believed that a major goal of foreign policy was political and economic stability abroad, which in turn would benefit American business interests. For example, dollar diplomacy was in evidence during the construction of the Panama Canal, the protection of which was behind many American interventions in the early twentieth century. See alsoChapter 7.
domino theory: The concept, popular from the 1950s to the 1980s, that if one crucial nation in an area fell under Communist control, neighboring states would do so as well, falling like dominos. The theory, first cited by President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961), was behind the American policy of containment during the Cold War and was used to justify American intervention around the globe. See alsoChapter 23.E
embargo: A governmental ban or prohibition of trade with a particular nation, intended to isolate and weaken the other nation. Examples include the Arab oil embargo of 1973 against nations that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War and the American embargo against exports to Cuba that has been in effect since 1960. See alsoChapters 1 and 26.
embassy: The building that houses an ambassador and staff, most often located in the nation's capital; also, the diplomatic mission to a nation, usually permanent in nature. Embassies (the building and grounds) do not enjoy full extraterritorial status and are not sovereign territory of the represented state; the premises of diplomatic missions remain under the jurisdiction of the host state while enjoying special privileges, such as immunity from most local laws, by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961). Diplomats themselves retain full diplomatic immunity, and the host country may not enter the premises of the mission without permission of the represented country. See alsoChapter 27.
envoy: A representative of a sovereign government, often with a rank below that of an ambassador, sent on a special diplomatic mission. See alsoChapter 1.
European Union (EU): A cooperative league of twenty-seven (as of 2012) European member states whose goals include promoting economic growth, removing trade and immigration barriers, and maintaining peace. The roots of the EU go back to the 1949 Council of Europe, an agreement among Western European nations to cooperate further among themselves. Starting with six original members, the organization officially became the European Union in 1992, when the founding nations signed the Treaty of Maastricht. EU citizens may travel between member nations without a passport or other documentation. The organization has eliminated trade barriers among member nations and, in 2002, introduced the euro as a unit of common currency (although some member nations have opted not to use the euro). In late March 2003, troops from EU nations took over NATO's peacekeeping activities in the Balkan Peninsula. See alsoChapter 31.
expansionism: A national policy to extend control over additional territory, either peacefully or through military aggression. The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 is an example of peaceful expansionism; the policies of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in the 1930s are examples of militaristic expansionism. See alsoChapter 2.F
failed states: Nations that are perceived to have fallen far short of providing some of the basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government. Among the characteristics of failed states are the loss of physical control of its territory, the erosion of legitimate authority to make decisions, the [Page 614]inability to provide minimal public services, and the inability to interact with other states in the international community. In addition, usually, failed states are plagued by widespread corruption and criminal activity, refugees, and sharp economic decline. Political observers differ in determining whether a nation is a failed state; however, most consider Somalia, Chad, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Afghanistan, and Haiti to be failed states. See alsoChapters 27, 34, and 35.
fascism: Radical type of government that promotes extreme nationalism and promises to improve the nation, usually through military conquest. Political and economic power are in the hands of a dictator or a powerful central government; however, unlike communism or socialism, the government does not legally control ownership of all property. In World War II (1939–1945), fascist regimes arose in Mussolini's Italy, Hitler's Germany, and Imperial Japan. See alsoChapter 11.
Fascist Party: Founded in 1919, a political party that supports fascism, a national dictatorial movement that emphasizes the state over the individual and is opposed to both communism and democracy. Italy's Fascist Party rose in the 1920s under Benito Mussolini (in power 1922–1943). See alsoChapter 14.
Federalists: Government leaders and other individuals who supported ratification of the proposed Constitution of the United States between 1787 and 1789. The Federalist Papers are documents that lay out the reasons for their support. Those opposed to the ratification of the Constitution were known as Antifederalists. Later, in the 1790s, when the first political parties emerged, the Federalist Party founded by Alexander Hamilton controlled the new government during the administrations of presidents George Washington (1789–1797) and John Adams (17971801). In opposition to the Federalist Party, the Democratic-Republican Party was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Note, however, that the Federalists who supported the ratification of the Constitution are not necessarily synonymous with the members of the Federalist Party. For example, James Madison, known as “the Father of the Constitution,” was a strong ratification supporter; later, he became a staunch Democratic-Republican. See alsoChapter 1.
First Continental Congress: First governing body of the thirteen united colonies, established to present a single voice of opposition to Great Britain's taxation policies, especially the Coercive Acts (1774), which were passed in response to the Boston Tea Party (1773). Delegates from all the colonies except Georgia attended the First Continental Congress, which assembled in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, which declared that the Coercive Acts were not to be obeyed, that Massachusetts collect taxes but withhold them from the royal governor until the Coercive Acts were repealed, and that strict economic sanctions be put into effect against Britain. The resolves also called for the people to arms themselves and form militias, and they pledged that all the colonies would support Massachusetts if attacked. To implement the economic sanctions, the congress adopted the Continental Association, a strict and extremely successful boycott against Britain which included imports and exports. In response, many British merchants angrily petitioned Parliament to repeal the Coercive Acts. British leaders, however, viewed the boycott as a symbol of rebellion for which the colonists must be punished. Tensions continued to rise between Great Britain and the colonies, leading to the battles of Lexington and Concord (1775). See alsoChapter 1.
Five Power Treaty: Agreement among the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan to limit naval armaments. Also known as the Washington Naval Treaty, it was negotiated in Washington, D.C., between November 1921 and February 1922. An attempt to limit the naval arms race that began after World War I (1914–1918), the treaty enjoyed limited success; at first, the signatories limited new naval construction and decommissioned many vessels, but by 1936, Japan declared that it would no longer abide by the treaty's terms. See alsoChapter 11.
foreign minister: A member of the cabinet who helps form foreign policy for a sovereign head of state. In the United States, this position is occupied by the secretary of state; the position in other nations may be known as the minister of foreign affairs, minister for external affairs, or the minister of foreign relations. See alsoChapter 11.
Fourteen Points: Promulgated by President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) in January 1918, a set of principles designed to serve as a blueprint for peace at the end of World War I (1914–1918). In his ambitious Fourteen Points, Wilson called for an end to secret diplomacy, the removal of economic barriers to trade, freedom of the seas, reduction of armaments, and the adjustment of colonial claims. He also pressed for the German evacuation of Russian, Belgian, Serbian, and Romanian territories; the German return of the Alsace-Lorraine to France; adjustment of the Italian frontier; self-determination for all national groups; and the recreation of an independent Poland. His final point advocated the formation of “a general association of nations” to guarantee the “political independence and territorial integrity of great and small states alike.” Realization of this proposal was Wilson's highest goal during the Paris Peace Conference, which resulted in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; [Page 615]however, following strong opposition from isolationists in the U.S. Senate, the treaty failed to be ratified. See alsoChapters 9 and 10.
free trade: A policy of international commerce in which merchants are permitted to trade with minimal interference from their respective governments. For example, The North American Free Trade agreement (NAFTA) is a trilateral agreement among the United States, Canada, and Mexico which seeks to remove barriers to commerce; it went into effect on January 1, 1994. Another massive free trade bloc is the European Union (EU), which, as of 2012, includes twenty-seven members and has taken on political, social, and diplomatic functions. The EU pursues free trade among its members, but not with outsiders. See alsoChapters 31 and 34.G
GATT: Signed in 1947, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was a multilateral accord designed to regulate trade, and especially to reduce tariffs, among more than one hundred countries. According to the preamble of the founding document, the purpose of the GATT was the “substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences, on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis.” In 1995, GATT was superseded by the World Trade Organization (WTO). See alsoChapters 16 and 34.
Geneva Conventions: Formulated in international meetings in Geneva, Switzerland, a series of four treaties and three protocols of international law that require the humanitarian treatment of civilians in a war zone, as well as the same treatment for the sick, wounded, and prisoners of war (POWs). The First Geneva Convention, held in 1864, laid the foundations of humanitarian law whereby participants agreed to universal written rules to protect the victims of conflicts; the obligation to extend care without discrimination to wounded and sick military personnel; and respect for and the marking of medical personnel, vehicles, and other equipment using a red cross on a white background. In 1906, additional agreements to govern the treatment of sick, wounded, or shipwrecked armed forces at sea were reached and signed in The Hague in the Netherlands. The third Geneva Convention, held in 1929, addressed the treatment of prisoners of war, calling also for the release and repatriation of POWs at the end of hostilities. The Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) required the humanitarian treatment of civilians in a war zone and outlawed total war, in addition to expanding upon earlier protections. The singular term Geneva Convention is used often to refer to the 1949 agreements.
Three subsequent protocols have amended the 1949 agreements. Protocol I, adopted in 1977, calls for increased protections of civilians in international conflicts, including outlawing indiscriminate attacks on civilian populations and the destruction of food, water, and other items needed for survival. It also forbids conscription of children under the age of fifteen but allows for voluntary participation by persons under that age. Protocol II, also adopted in 1977, addresses issues of internal conflicts (as opposed to international conflicts), and, in deference to the sovereignty of national governments, it is more limited in scope. It requires that persons taking no active part in hostilities should be treated humanely, including military personnel who are no longer active as a result of sickness, injury, or detention. Approved in 2005, Protocol III added the Red Crystal as an emblem to be used by medical or religious personnel. This symbol may be used in place of the Red Cross. International law prohibits the misuse of these emblems. See alsoChapter 29.
genocide: Systematic murder of a national, racial, religious, political, or ethnic group with the intent of annihilating that group. The term genocide was coined in 1944 by Raphael Lemkin, a Polish-Jewish legal scholar. In his Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1944, Lemkin includes an extensive legal analysis of German rule in countries occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II (1939–1945), along with a definition of genocide: “the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group.” Lemkin's concept of genocide as an offense against international law was widely accepted by the international community. It became one of the legal bases of the Nuremberg Trials, during which twenty-four Nazi leaders were charged with conducting “deliberate and systematic genocide—namely, the extermination of racial and national groups….” Following the Holocaust, the extermination of more than six million European Jews by the Nazis, Lemkin pushed for international laws to define and forbid genocide. In 1946, the first session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution that affirmed that genocide was a crime under international law but did not provide a legal definition of the crime. Then, in 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, which, in Article 2, legally defines the crime as: “… any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) killing members of the group; (b) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; and (e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.” Horrific incidents of genocide have occurred recently in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and Darfur in Sudan. See alsoChapter 30.[Page 616]
Gentlemen's Agreement (1907): An informal agreement between the United States and the Japanese Empire which limited immigration from Japan and reversed the segregation of Japanese schoolchildren in San Francisco, California. In 1906 and 1907, diplomatic relations between the United States and Japan grew strained when San Francisco attempted to segregate Japanese children in its schools. At this time, American public opinion, especially in California, strongly opposed further Japanese emigration to the United States. The Empire of Japan looked upon this development as an insult and demanded equal treatment as a world power, especially after its 1905 victory over Russia. President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909) brought pressure to stop the segregation of schoolchildren and obtained from Japan an agreement to end the emigration of Japanese agricultural workers. See alsoChapter 7.
Gilded Age: Lasting roughly from the end of the Civil War (1861–1865) to about 1900, a period of rapid change and economic growth in the United States. The term Gilded Age was coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their book, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (1873). The era was characterized by new inventions, rapid industrialization, the growth of big business, the accumulation of wealth by entrepreneurs and industrialists, and ostentatious displays of prosperity by the rich. At the same time, the rate of urbanization increased significantly, city living conditions worsened, and workers toiled long hours under unsafe and often filthy conditions. The unionization of workers also increased during this time. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the nation had become the world's leading industrial power, surpassing Great Britain and Germany. The economic and social ills of this era led to the rise of the Progressive Era. See alsoChapter 4.
glasnost: Social policy of free and open discussion of economic and political problems initiated by Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev (in power 1985 to 1991) in the late 1980s in an attempt to save the Soviet Union from collapse. The then new policy of political and cultural openness produced unintended consequences. Gorbachev had weakened the nation's system of internal political repression, greatly limiting the ability of the central Communist government to impose its will on the Soviet Union's fifteen member republics. Ultimately, with an end to seventy-five years of single-party rule by the Communist Party, glasnost was a determining factor leading to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. See alsoChapter 29.
globalization: The effect produced when regional economies, societies, and cultural traditions become globally interconnected through a vast system of complex interactions, ranging from formal treaties to international investments and social networking. The foundation of globalization is economic expansion and connectivity; the goal is to create a single, universal market for goods and services, and this economic activity then spills over into the environment, culture, political systems, economic development, and physical well-being in societies worldwide. In the years since World War II (1939–1945), and especially during the past two decades, many governments have adopted free-market economic systems, thus greatly increasing their own productive potential and creating new opportunities for international trade and investment. In addition, governments have negotiated remarkable reductions of trade barriers and established international agreements, such as NAFTA and the EU, to promote globalized trade in goods, services, and investment. Technology has been the other major force in globalization. Advances in information science have given consumers, investors, and businesses valuable new tools for identifying and pursuing economic opportunities, including faster and more informed analyses of economic trends around the world, easy transfers of assets, and collaboration with worldwide partners. Still, globalization remains controversial, with proponents arguing that it allows poor countries to develop economically and opponents claiming that the creation of an unregulated international free market has benefited multinational corporations in the West at the expense of local enterprises, local cultures, and common citizens. See alsoChapter 34.
Good Neighbor Policy: Embraced by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945), an essentially successful U.S. foreign policy indicating that the United States would cooperate, rather than forcibly intervene, in the affairs of Latin American nations. The policy aimed to promote friendly relations and mutual defense arrangements among the nations of the Western Hemisphere. After World War I (1914–1918), American public opinion turned against imperialism and intervention in Latin America. In 1931, President Herbert Hoover (1929–1933) did not intervene when several Latin American countries filed to pay their debts, and in 1932, he withdrew U.S. marines from Nicaragua. Under Roosevelt, relations grew friendlier, and Secretary of State Cordell Hull arranged reciprocal tariff reductions in Latin America. In 1936, Roosevelt withdrew the last American marines from Haiti, and in that same year, he made a triumphal tour of Latin America. Cooperation from Latin American neighbors helped the United States win World War II (1939–1945). See alsoChapter 12.
Great Depression: The worldwide economic collapse in the 1930s. In the United States, the Great Depression began with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929, and ended with World War II (1939–1945). During the Depression, trade, income, prices, profits, and tax revenues declined sharply; almost all nations of the world were affected. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's (1933–1945) New Deal was designed [Page 617]to pull the United States out of the Depression. Most countries set up relief programs to aid their citizenry and many endured some sort of political upheaval. In some nations, desperate citizens turned toward nationalist demagogues, the most infamous being Adolf Hitler (in power 1933–1945), setting the stage for World War II (1939–1945). See alsoChapters 12 and 13.
Guantánamo: U.S. detention facility in southeastern Cuba. The southern portion of Guantánamo Bay has been under U.S. control since the 1903 Cuban-American Treaty, which granted the United States a perpetual lease of the area. Since then, the United States has operated a naval base there, nicknamed “Gitmo,” which covers about forty-five square miles (about 116 square kilometers). The facility, established in 2002 by the administration of George W. Bush (2001–2009), detains captured al-Qaeda personnel, as well as detainees from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Operated by the U.S. military under the Joint Task Force Guantánamo, the detention facility has come under severe criticism from human rights groups and much of the international community because of allegations of torture and other prisoner abuses, which the U.S. government denies. Although President Barack Obama (2009–) signed an order on January 22, 2009, to suspend the proceedings at Guantánamo and to have the controversial facility shut down within the year, the U.S. Senate would not support the administration. Instead, the Senate passed an amendment to the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2009 (by a 90–6 vote) to block funds needed for the transfer or release of prisoners held at the detention camp. On January 7, 2011, President Obama signed the 2011 Defense Authorization Bill, which contains provisions preventing the transfer of Guantánamo prisoners to the mainland or to other foreign countries, thus effectively stopping the closure of the camp. However, the president strongly objected to many of the bill's provisions and stated that he would work with Congress to rectify the measure. As of February 2011, more than 150 detainees remained at Guantánamo. See alsoChapter 35.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964): Authorization passed by a joint session of Congress that granted President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–1969) as commander in chief, almost unlimited power to conduct the war in Vietnam and to repel or prevent any future attacks against the U.S. military. On August 2, 1964, North Vietnamese gunboats allegedly attacked a U.S. destroyer, the USS Maddox, in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam, and two days later, another U.S. ship was supposedly attacked. In response, President Johnson ordered retaliatory attacks on North Vietnamese coastal bases. On August 7, Congress authorized the president to take “all necessary steps, including the use of armed forces” to assist any nation that requested aid in defense of its freedom under the provisions of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty. During fall 1964, Johnson sent larger and larger numbers of troops and equipment to help repel the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong. By mid-1966, the number of U.S. troops had grown to about 350,000. Seeking to restore limits on presidential authority to engage American forces without a formal declaration of war, the Resolution was repealed in 1971, and Congress passed the War Powers Resolution in 1973, over the veto of President Richard M. Nixon (1969–1974), who also had used the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to escalate U.S. involvement in Vietnam. The War Powers Resolution, which is still in effect, requires the president to consult with Congress regarding decisions that send U.S. forces into hostilities or imminent hostilities.
In 2005, a declassified National Security Agency study concluded that the Maddox had engaged the North Vietnamese Navy on August 2, but there may not have been any North Vietnamese Naval vessels present on August 4. The report stated, “It is not simply that there is a different story as to what happened; it is that no attack happened that night… In truth, Hanoi's navy was engaged in nothing that night but the salvage of two of the boats damaged on August 2.” See alsoChapter 23.
Gulf War:See Persian Gulf War.H
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901): Agreement between the United States and Great Britain, which was negotiated by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and the British ambassador to the United States, Lord Pauncefote. Under the terms of the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, Britain agreed to give the United States the right to build a canal across Panama, if the canal was to be open to all nations at equal charges. The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty negated the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, in which both nations renounced building a canal under the control of one nation. See alsoChapter 7.
Holocaust: The systematic, state-sponsored genocide of more than six million European Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. The term holocaust comes from the Greek, meaning “sacrifice by fire.” In 1933, when the Nazi Party came to power, the Jewish population of Europe stood at more than nine million. By 1945, the Nazis and their collaborators had killed nearly two out of every three European Jews as part of Adolph Hitler's so-called “Final Solution.” With organized executions and mass exterminations, Nazi leaders also targeted religious dissenters, the disabled, gypsies, and some Slavic peoples. See alsoChapter 14.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC): From 1938 to 1975, powerful but controversial committee of the [Page 618]United States House of Representatives, organized to investigate suspected disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and organizations suspected of having Communist ties. Through its power to subpoena witnesses and hold people in contempt of Congress, HUAC often pressured witnesses who testified to surrender names and other information that could lead to the apprehension of communists and Communist sympathizers. Most Americans agreed, especially after World War II (1939–1945) and with the growing fear of communism, that the U.S. government should expect that its secrets, particularly those of a military and diplomatic nature, were to be guarded closely. However, there was widespread disagreement over the necessity or desirability for limitations on freedom of speech and action.
In 1947, on President Harry S. Truman's (1945–1953) order, loyalty boards investigated all federal employees. Of the three million employees, about two hundred were dismissed, some on flimsy evidence, and about two thousand resigned. New revelations of actual or alleged Soviet spying along with Communist successes in Europe and Asia accentuated the concern of many people. In 1948, a former State Department official, Alger Hiss, was accused of having given State Department secrets to the Soviet Union in 1938 and 1939. During dramatic HUAC hearings, Hiss was convicted of perjury. Significantly, the accusatory interrogation employed by HUAC served as the model upon which the notorious Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-WI) would conduct his controversial investigative hearings in the early 1950s. Following Senator McCarthy's censure in late 1954, however, and his subsequent departure from the Senate, the American public grew increasingly wary of the outrageous “redbaiting” techniques employed by the HUAC, which was finally abolished in 1975. See alsoChapter 17.
human rights: The basic political, economic, and social rights and freedoms to which all people are entitled. The modern concept of human rights can be traced to the aftermath of World War II (1939–1945) and the subsequent founding of the United Nations (UN). In 1948, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; although the declaration was a nonbinding UN resolution, some people hold that it carries the force of international law. The declaration was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, which was chaired by former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. Of the thirty articles, Articles 1 through 6 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights state: “Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.” Beginning with the administration of President Jimmy Carter (1977–1981), the acceptance of human rights stands as a keystone of American foreign policy. See alsoChapter 34.I
immigration and foreign policy: The process of entering and settling in another country or area and the impact of such movement upon international relations. Other than the Native Americans, all people in the United States are immigrants or are descended from immigrants. Since the mid-nineteenth century and earlier, immigration, along with its impact on the nation, has been considered a foreign-policy issue. In the early years of the Republic, fewer than eight thousand people a year migrated to the United States, but after 1820, immigration gradually increased. From 1850 to 1930, the foreign-born population of the United States increased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million. During this era, few restraints on immigration existed as the rapidly expanding industrialized economy demanded more and more cheap labor.
Two notable exceptions to the open immigration policy were the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and President Theodore Roosevelt's (1901–1909) Gentlemen's Agreement (1907) with Japan. Both of these measures reflected Americans’ deep mistrust of nonwhite immigrants. Nonetheless, the highest percentage of foreign-born people in the United States was found in this period, peaking in 1890 at 14.7 percent.
Between 1880 and 1924, more than twenty-five million Europeans migrated to the United States. Following this period, immigration fell after Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1924, which favored European source countries that had already sent many migrants to the United States. This law reflected Americans’ anti-immigration views of the time.
Immigration patterns of the 1930s were dominated by the Great Depression, and, in the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than immigrated to it; immigration continued to fall throughout the 1940s and 1950s but increased again afterwards.[Page 619]
The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (which abolished the Immigration Act of 1924) removed immigration quotas and legal immigration to the United States surged, especially from nations in Asia and Latin America. By the 1980s, only 11 percent of new U.S. immigrants were European. The 1990 Immigration Act (IMMACT) modified and expanded the 1965 act; it significantly increased the total immigration limit to 700,000. After 2000, immigrants to the United States numbered about one million per year. Also, despite tougher border scrutiny after the September 11, 2001, attacks, nearly eight million immigrants came to the United States between 2000 and 2005—more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history. Almost half entered illegally. Mexico has been the leading source of new U.S. residents for more than two decades, and, since 1998, China, India, and the Philippines have been among the top four countries sending immigrants every year.
In 1990, President William J. Clinton (1989–2001) appointed the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, led by Barbara Jordan, which lasted until 1997. The commission made the most thorough examination of the impact of U.S. immigration policies on American life of any federal commission to date. One key recommendation called for reducing legal immigration to about 550,000 people a year. The commission's recommendations have yet to be implemented, however. Immigration policies and their effects on the nation remain extremely controversial issues and they are likely to remain so for years to come, thereby affecting the nation's foreign policy and relations with the rest of the world. See alsoChapters 2, 4, and 31.
imperialism: An expansionist policy of a stronger state's imposing political and economic control on weaker foreign colonies and possessions. The concept of American imperialism arose after the Spanish-American War (1898) and often refers to the military, economic, social, and cultural influences of the United States. The term was first widely applied to U.S. foreign policy by the American Anti-Imperialist League, founded in 1898 to oppose the Spanish-American War and the subsequent postwar military occupation of the Philippines. See alsoChapters 6 and 7.
impressment: Seizing by force, by a person or government; first used in U.S. history to describe the British practice of forcibly taking sailors from American ships. The impressment issue grew to crisis proportions during the wars with France (1793–1815), when Britain needed all the men that could be found and was careless about whom they impressed, often taking any able-bodied English-speaking sailor. The American government tried to help its sailors by providing them with documents attesting to their American citizenship, but the British largely ignored these papers. Impressment was a major issue that contributed to the U.S. declaration of war against Great Britain in 1812. The Treaty of Ghent (1814), which ended the War of 1812 (1812–1814), failed to address the issue of impressment. The British stopped the practice in 1814, after the defeat of the French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. See alsoChapter 1.
international law: A body of law—treaties, customs, resolutions, conventions, principles of law, and declarations of international organizations—that governs the conduct of independent nations in their relations with one another. Two basic categories of international law exist, public and private. Public international law focuses on governing relationships between or among different nations or between a nation and persons from another country. Private international law generally deals with individual concerns, such as civil or human rights issues, not only between a government and its own citizens but also in how its citizens are treated by other nations. The concept of international law has existed since the Middle Ages; in the mid-nineteenth century, international law became increasingly codified with the international acceptance of various agreements such as the Geneva Conventions. In the mid-twentieth century, the League of Nations was replaced by the United Nations, which today has become the center of researching and applying international law. Article 13 of the UN Charter obligates the General Assembly to initiate studies and make recommendations to encourage the development of international law and its codification. See alsoChapter 16.
International Monetary Fund (IMF): An organization of 187 member countries that work to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world. The IMF was conceived in July 1944, when representatives of forty-five countries meeting in the picturesque town of Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, agreed on a framework for worldwide economic cooperation that was to be established after World War II (1939–1945). These economic leaders believed that such a plan was necessary to avoid a repetition of the catastrophic economic policies that had contributed to the Great Depression and to assist with the rebuilding of the international economy after the war. The IMF came into formal existence in December 1945, when its first twenty-nine-member countries signed the Articles of Agreement. It began operations on March 1, 1947, functioning as a bank from which members could borrow money. Later that year, France became the first country to borrow from the IMF. Since its creation, the IMF has supervised the international monetary system to ensure exchange rate stability; it therefore encourages members to eliminate exchange restrictions that hinder trade. Since the worldwide economic downturn [Page 620]in 2008, the IMF has lent billions of dollars to countries to help boost the global economy that suffered from the deepest economic crisis since the Great Depression. See alsoChapter 16.
internationalism: A policy that advocates strong relations among nations, including economic and political cooperation, to the benefit of all involved. Since its involvement in World War II (1939–1945), before which its foreign policy was isolationist, the United States has been unabashedly internationalist in its policy and world view. As one of two superpowers after World War II, and as the world's sole superpower since the end of the cold war, the United States has worked to assist democratic movements, arbitrate disputes between nations, foster free trade, and defend human rights. See alsoChapters 15 and 16.
Iraq War: U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, which began on March 20, 2003, to overthrow Saddam Hussein. Based on mistaken intelligence that Hussein was stockpiling weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), prior to the war, President George W. Bush (2001–2009) and his administration had argued that the Iraqi dictator posed a serious threat to the United States and other nations. However, after the capitulation of Hussein's government, coalition forces found no WMDs, revealing that the intelligence information used to justify the invasion was faulty.
After the combat phase of the controversial invasion, coalition forces and the UN established a provisional government to rule Iraq until a democratic government could be established, and after the fall of Hussein's dictatorship, racial and religious tensions that had smoldered for decades exploded in the streets as widespread looting and violence erupted. Guerrilla forces, often called the insurgency, attacked civilians and soldiers alike.
Violence raged through 2003 and increased during 2004, with al-Qaeda-affiliated Abu Musab al-Zarqawi helping to drive the insurgency. In January 2005, the Iraqis elected the Iraqi Transitional Government to draft a permanent constitution. Although some violence and a widespread Sunni boycott marred the event, most of the eligible Kurd and Shia populace participated in the election. In a referendum held on October 15, 2005, a new Iraqi constitution was ratified; an Iraqi national assembly was elected in December, with participation from the Sunnis as well as the Kurds and Shia. Despite the slow steps toward self-government, insurgent attacks increased through 2005, and conditions in Iraq continued to deteriorate as bombings and attacks between Sunni and Shia sects raged throughout the following year. A December 18 Pentagon report found that insurgent attacks were averaging about 960 per week. In January 2007, President Bush proposed sending 21,500 more troops to combat the insurgency, as well as a job program for Iraqis, more reconstruction proposals, and $1.2 billion for these programs. By mid-2008, violence declined, and most of the American people called for the complete withdrawal of U.S. military force in Iraq. On December 4, 2008, the Iraqi government approved the U.S.-Iraq Status of Forces Agreement. It established that U.S. combat forces would withdraw from Iraqi cities by June 30, 2009, and that all U.S. forces would be completely out of Iraq by December 31, 2011. Since 2003, more than 5,000 American troops have died in Iraq. On February 27, 2009, President Barack Obama (2009–) announced at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in North Carolina that the U.S. combat mission in Iraq would end by August 31, 2010. The president added that a transitional force of up to 50,000 troops tasked with training the Iraqi Security Forces, conducting counterterrorism operations, and providing general support may remain until the end of 2011, when all U.S. military in fact left Iraq. See alsoChapters 35 and 40.
iron curtain: Following World War II, term used by Winston Churchill to describe the political and economic division of Europe into western democracies and eastern communist bloc nations dominated by the Soviet Union. Although the term was coined in 1945 in a speech by Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, it is more closely associated with Churchill's 1946 speech in Fulton, Missouri, when he described the realities of Soviet policy: “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent [of Europe]… I do not believe that Soviet Russia desires war. What they desire is the fruits of war and the indefinite expansion of their power and doctrines.” The popularized phrase “behind the iron curtain” was used to describe nations under Soviet control for more than forty years. See alsoChapter 16.
isolationism: Also known as noninterventionism, a foreign policy of political, economic, and cultural seclusion from alliances with other nations except to achieve specific short-term goals, such as winning a war. After World War I (1914–1918), American public opinion grew increasingly isolationist, a view that was reflected in the nation's elected officials. Thus, throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the United States rejected the League of Nations, negotiated treaties that promoted peace or outlawed war, and passed several neutrality acts that prevented or severely limited U.S. aid to warring nations. American isolationism ended on December 7, 1941, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, which brought the United States into World War II (1939–1945). See alsoChapter 11.J
Jay Treaty (1794): Agreement reached between the United States and Great Britain which attempted to resolve several [Page 621]issues that remained after the signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the War for Independence (1775–1783). Under the terms of the Jay Treaty, the British agreed to abandon their posts in the Northwest Territory on or before June 1, 1796; permit American vessels of less than seventy tons to trade in the British West Indies; and grant some trading privileges in the British East Indies. However, the British did not promise to stop seizing the cargoes of American ships trading with France, and no provision of the treaty addressed the ongoing British impressment of American sailors on the high seas. Significantly, the British did agree that a number of other disagreements would be settled by arbitration, thus establishing the important precedent of using arbitration as a means of settling international disputes. See alsoChapter 1.
jingoism: Extreme patriotism in the form of an aggressive foreign policy. The term is often used in reference to the foreign policy of President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909). See alsoChapter 6.K
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928): Signed in Paris, a multilateral international agreement that attempted to ensure world peace by renouncing war. In 1928, the U.S. Secretary of State, Frank B. Kellogg, entered into negotiations with the foreign minister of France, Aristide Briand, to secure a treaty that would outlaw war as an “instrument of national policy” between their two nations. Jointly, the two leaders crafted a treaty for other nations to sign as well. Under the terms of the pact, the signing nations, sixty-two in total, agreed to settle differences peacefully. The Kellogg-Briand Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris, was only a declaration of intentions; most nations were quite willing to say they supported peace, especially because no means to enforce the pact were established. See alsoChapter 11.
Korean War (1950–1953): Armed conflict between the Communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the democratic Republic of Korea (South Korea) and a proxy war between the Soviet Union and the United States. The war was the first military action taken to enforce the U.S. Cold War policy of containing communism.
At the end of World War II (1939–1945), Korea was divided at the thirty-eighth parallel, with the north ruled by Soviet-backed communists and the south in the hands of a government favorable to and aided by the United States. Allied leaders had made the division with the intention that the two regions eventually would be joined to form one independent nation. In spite of repeated efforts to unite the country, Korea remained divided, as neither the Soviet Union nor the United States would consent to unification that gave the other dominance. Suddenly, on June 25, 1950, Soviet-armed North Korea invaded South Korea, swept down the peninsula, and almost wholly occupied it. President Harry S. Truman (1945–1953) immediately asked for action by the UN Security Council and promptly dispatched American military aid to South Korea in what he called a “police action,” intending to justify his sending troops without a declaration of war. The Security Council was able to act because the Soviet Union was temporarily boycotting it, and its representative was not present to veto the council's actions. The council condemned the attack and asked the North Koreans to withdraw behind the thirty-eighth parallel; it also called on member nations of the UN to send assistance to the South. When the North's army did not withdraw, troops from seventeen nations participated in driving them back, although most of the fighting was done by South Korean and U.S. troops, who together made up 90 percent of the UN's forces. With the backing of the UN, Truman appointed General Douglas MacArthur as commander in chief of all UN forces. The North Korean offensive continued through fall 1950, when UN troops pushed them back to the thirty-eighth parallel. Then a major question arose: Would the Chinese communists send troops to help the North Koreans? At first, the Chinese intervened with “volunteers” and aircraft, and then launched a massive counter offensive in November 1950, driving back UN forces. MacArthur wanted to bomb Chinese supply lines in the northern province of Manchuria, but Truman refused because of the likelihood that such an action would lead to full-scale war with China. By June 1951, both sides indicated their willingness to negotiate an end to hostilities, and negotiations dragged on for months. A permanent armistice finally was signed on July 27, 1953, establishing a demilitarized zone on either side of the thirty-eighth parallel. As a formal peace treaty was never signed, technically, state of war still exists between the two Koreas. See alsoChapter 17.
Kyoto Protocol (2005): Linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an international agreement that sets binding targets for thirty-seven industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997, and entered into force on February 16, 2005. Under its terms, countries’ actual emissions must be monitored, and precise records are required of the trades carried out. By the end of the first commitment period of the Protocol, in 2012, a new international framework will need to be negotiated and ratified if the controls on greenhouse gas emissions are to continue to be reduced. See alsoChapter 32.[Page 622]L
League of Nations: A precursor of the United Nations, an international organization established by the Treaty of Versailles (1919) after the end of World War I (1914–1918). The idyllic vision of President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921), the League's goal was to provide postwar order and maintain world peace. At the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson headed a committee to draft the plan for the League, a plan ultimately accepted as part of the Treaty of Versailles. Article X of the League's Covenant provided that member nations would “respect and preserve … against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing independence of all members….” The league largely failed in its goals, as the European powers joined, but the United States did not. Many members of the U.S. Senate, which must ratify treaties, were staunchly opposed to the League, especially Article X, believing that it would commit U.S. troops to foreign conflicts. Senate leaders proposed drastic changes to the plan, but Wilson refused to compromise. In 1919, and again in 1920, the Senate voted on the League and both times the vote fell short of the required two-thirds majority. See alsoChapters 9, 10, and 11.
Lend-Lease Act (1941): Law proposed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945) and passed by Congress as a means to aid Great Britain's war effort in the fight against Nazi Germany prior to American entry into the conflict. Under the terms of the act, the United States would sell, transfer, lend, or lease war materials and supplies to any nation “whose defense was considered vital to the defense of the United States.” Any country would be aided in the way “the President deems satisfactory,” and repayment was to be made on the same terms. During spring and summer 1941, the United States provided assistance to Britain in multiple ways. Military officers of the two nations held talks on possible joint actions; American arms and planes went to Britain in ever-increasing quantities; the American navy began to patrol the North Atlantic to search for German submarines and report their presence to the British; and the United States turned over oil tankers to the British. Lend-lease was later extended to the Soviet Union, China, Australia, New Zealand, and other Allied nations. However, it also became an initial point of contention in the emerging Cold War when the Truman administration inadvertently cut off the aid to the USSR (and then restored it) in 1945. The total approximate amount of U.S. lend-lease during World War II was $50 billion. The act expired in September 1945, after the surrender by Japan. See alsoChapter 14.
Lusitania: British ship torpedoed off the southern coast of Ireland on May 7, 1915, by a German submarine, resulting in the loss of nearly twelve hundred lives, including 128 Americans. In early 1915, Germany had declared it would sink on sight every enemy merchant ship in the war zone around Great Britain and had warned Americans to stay out of the area. President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) protested the German policy without result, and after the sinking of the Lusitania, issued three notes of vigorous protest, to no avail. Later, in August 1915, two more Americans were killed when a German submarine sunk the British liner Arabic, after which, Germany promised that liners would not be sunk without warning and consideration for the lives of noncombatants. However, in spring 1916, a German submarine torpedoed the French ship, Sussex. See alsoChapter 13.M
mandates: In foreign policy, a term used to describe the legal status of former territories of the defeated Central powers (chiefly Imperial Germany and the Ottoman Empire) after World War I (1914–1918), which were to be administered by the governments of the victorious Allies. These lands were to be governed with due consideration of the inhabitants, under the supervision of the League of Nations. The nations administering mandated lands were forbidden to construct fortifications or raise an army within the mandates’ territory. See alsoChapters 9 and 10.
manifest destiny: The idea held to be true by many Americans in the pre-Civil War era that the United States was meant to expand across the North American continent, stretching from the Atlantic in the east to the Pacific in the west. Although the term manifest destiny was first used by John L. O'Sullivan in 1845 in the United States Magazine and Democratic Review in an article titled “Annexation,” the concept of westward expansion dates back to the time of the thirteen colonies and was expanded in the early years of the Republic. In the 1820s, Representative Francis Baylies of Massachusetts noted, “… our natural boundary is the Pacific Ocean. The tide of our population must roll on until that mighty ocean interposes its waters, and limits our territorial empire.” The term itself fell into disuse in the mid-nineteenth century, but the idea that the United States has a mission to promote and defend democracy throughout the world continues to have an influence on American political ideology and policy even today. See alsoChapter 2.
Marshall Plan: Foreign aid proposal put forth in 1947 by Secretary of State George C. Marshall to provide vast amounts of economic assistance to facilitate the recovery of Europe after World War II (1939–1945) and prevent further Soviet expansion into a weakened Western Europe. Officially known as the European Recovery Program (ERP), the [Page 623]plan stated that the United States would aid any government in recovery measures directed against “hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” To this end, from 1949 to 1952, the United States poured more than $13 billion into sixteen European countries. The Soviet gains in Europe stopped as the Western European nations rapidly regained their economic health. See alsoChapters 16 and 17.
MayagüezIncident: In May 1975, a military excursion usually considered the last official battle of the Vietnam War. After the last U.S. military forces departed from South Vietnam in April 1975, in what President Gerald R. Ford (1974–1977) called “a humiliating withdrawal,” U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia was to have officially ended. On May 12, 1975, however, an American merchant ship, the SS Mayagüez, was in a regular shipping lane in the Gulf of Thailand, about sixty miles from the coast of Cambodia but only about eight miles from the island of Poulo Wai, claimed by Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Gunboats of the Cambodian navy seized the Mayagüez and then began towing the ship to the Cambodian mainland. When word reached the White House, President Ford was determined to prevent the situation from deteriorating. In addition, after the embarrassing withdrawal from South Vietnam after the fall of Saigon, it was believed to be diplomatically important to counter a growing perception among U.S. allies and adversaries that America was “a helpless giant” and an unreliable ally.
After intense deliberation in the White House, an extravagant plan that employed two destroyers, one aircraft carrier, two marine units with twelve helicopters, and a huge array of Air Force fighters, bombers, and reconnaissance aircraft was approved. President Ford believed that it was better to use too much force rather than too little, and military operations began on the morning of May 15. The destroyer USS Holt was directed to seize the Mayagüez, while Marines, airlifted and supported by the Air Force, would rescue the crew. At the same time, the aircraft carrier Coral Sea would launch four bombing strikes on military targets on the Cambodian mainland to convince the Khmer Rouge, the Communist government of Cambodia, that the United States was serious; the bombing apparently convinced the Khmer Rouge leaders that they had underestimated U.S. resolve. As the American assault on nearby Kho-Tang Island was raging, a fishing boat approached another American ship with white flags flying. Aboard were the thirty-nine crew members of the Mayagüez. Although the ship and its crew were rescued, eighteen Marines and airmen were killed or missing in the assault and withdrawal from Kho-Tang, and twenty-three others were killed in a helicopter crash. The names of the Americans killed in this incident are among the last carved into the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. See alsoChapter 23.
Mexican-American War (1846–1848): Conflict between the United States and Mexico that began as a dispute over the southern boundary of Texas and concluded with an American victory. After the United States annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845, Mexico responded by breaking diplomatic relations. Mexico claimed that the southern boundary of Texas was the Nueces River, but Texas and the United States insisted that the border was farther south, at the Rio Grande. In early 1846, President James K. Polk (1845–1849), an ardent expansionist, ordered General Zachary Taylor to take up a position on the Rio Grande; thus, Polk purposely ordered Taylor to move into the disputed area. After several weeks, Mexican troops attacked the American soldiers. On May 11, 1846, Polk sent his war message to Congress, and two days later, Congress asserted that, “by act of the Republic of Mexico, a state of war exists between that government and the United States.” Fighting raged through the rest of 1846 and 1847, until the American troops under General Winfield Scott occupied Mexico City, the national capital, in September 1847. In 1848, representatives of the two nations signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in which Mexico was forced to recognize the annexation of Texas and the Rio Grande boundary. It also ceded California and New Mexico to the United States, helping to fulfill the concept of Manifest Destiny. This vast territory includes what is today the states of California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona and New Mexico, and small parts of Colorado and Wyoming—nearly half of Mexico's land. In return for this huge land cession, the United States paid Mexico $15 million and agreed to assume debts that Mexico owed citizens of the United States, which totaled about $3.25 million. See alsoChapter 2.
military-industrial complex: Coined by President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961) in his final speech to the nation, term used to describe the growing influence of the military on U.S. economy and culture. As one of the generals of World War II (1939–1945), Eisenhower was opposed to an independent role for the military in shaping defense policy. He warned against the consequences of a close connection between America's military establishment and the huge arms industry, predicting a misallocation of power. In his speech he noted, “We must never let the weight of this [military-industrial] combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.” See alsoChapter 24.
Monroe Doctrine (1823): Foreign policy principle warning European powers against involvement in the Western Hemisphere. Expressed by President James Monroe (1817–1825) in his December 1823 annual message to Congress, this policy became known as the Monroe Doctrine. It consists of two principle sections, the first aimed at Russia. It declared “… that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are [Page 624]henceforth not to be considered as subject to future colonization by any European powers….” The second section was aimed at those powers that might intervene in Latin America, stating, “that we should consider any attempt on their [European powers] part to extend to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety.” Monroe also made it clear that the United States would not interfere in European affairs, saying, “Our policy in regard to Europe … [is] not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its powers … [but] to cultivate friendly relations … and to preserve those relations by a frank, firm, and manly policy, meeting in all instances the just claims of every power, submitting to injuries from none.” Although the doctrine was neither binding nor part of international law, it lasted because it asserted a policy that the United States found to be profitable for many years to come. Later, the Monroe Doctrine would become the cornerstone of American foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere, establishing a precedent for future administrations. See alsoChapters 1 and 2.
most-favored-nation status: In international economic relations, a level of treatment accorded by one state to another for the purposes of international trade. In the early days of international trade, most-favored-nation status was attributed usually on a bilateral, state-to-state basis; one nation could enter into a most favored nation treaty with another nation. For example, under the terms of the 1794 Jay Treaty, the United States granted most-favored-nation trading status to Great Britain. Since the end of World War II (1939–1945), all members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have most-favored-nation status, and all receive the same trade benefits as all other members. See alsoChapter 16.
multilateral: Of or referring to an agreement among three or more parties, agencies, or national governments. In international relations, the term multilateralism refers to a foreign policy strategy in which multiple countries work in concert on global issues. International organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) are multilateral in nature. See alsoChapters 16 and 33.
Munich Conference: Meeting held in Munich, Germany, in September 1938, attended by representatives from Germany, Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and Italy. The Munich Pact, concluded at the conference, allowed Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia, where a majority of the population was ethnic German. Thus, the Allies allowed Germany to erase the boundaries established by the Versailles Treaty (1919) without taking military action. Upon his return to Britain, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (in power 1937–1940) delivered his famous “peace for our time” speech to delighted crowds in London. At the conference, it was also agreed that the sovereignty of Poland would be protected; Nazi Germany violated this part of the agreement by invading Poland on September 1, 1939, leading to the outbreak of World War II (1939–1945). Today, the conference is generally considered a failed act of appeasement toward Nazi Germany. See alsoChapter 15.
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): A national security policy and military strategy in which two opposing sides recognize that the full-scale use of nuclear weapons would result in the total destruction of both the attacker and the defender, and therefore agree not to attack. A policy based on MAD assumes that a war would have no victory nor armistice but only annihilation. It is based on the theory of deterrence, which calls for the deployment of powerful weapons as essential to threaten the enemy and prevent the opposing party's use of the same weapons. After World War II (1939–1945), both the United States and the Soviet Union gained a greater ability to deliver nuclear weapons into the interior of the opposing country. In the United States, the official nuclear policy was one of “massive retaliation,” a term coined by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, who served under President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961). This policy called for a massive attack against the Soviet Union if it were to invade Europe, regardless of whether the attack was conventional or nuclear. This policy was considered viable throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.
The original idea of MAD was modified in mid-1980, when President Jimmy Carter (1977–1981) adopted the concept of countervailing strategy. According to Secretary of Defense Harold Brown (in office 1977–1981), countervailing strategy's response to a Soviet attack was not to include the bombing of Russian population centers and cities, but first to kill the Soviet leadership and then attack military targets. This would be done in the hope of a Soviet surrender before that nation's total annihilation and the destruction of the United States. This modified version of MAD was seen as a winnable nuclear war, while still maintaining the possibility of assured destruction for at least one party. This policy was developed further during the presidency of Ronald Reagan (1981–1989) with the announcement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), intended to develop space-based technology to destroy Soviet missiles before they could reach the United States. Since the fall of communism and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, MAD has become irrelevant, as the United States and Russia have generally maintained a strategy of cooperation. During the administration of President William J. Clinton (1993–2001), another strategy was proposed: mutual assured safety. See alsoChapter 20.[Page 625]N
NAFTA: Trade agreement among the United States, Canada, and Mexico which went into effect on January 1, 1994. The North American Free Trade Agreement has led to greatly increased trade between the United States and its NAFTA partners. NAFTA created the world's largest free trade area, linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. See alsoChapters 31 and 34.
nation building: The process of creating a national identity using the power of the state so that eventually the unified nation and people create a stable government. After World War II (1939–1945), the term referred to the building of national identities in newly independent countries, especially in Africa, where colonial powers had drawn random borders without any sense of tribal loyalties or animosities. Nation building included creating all the trappings of a national identity—national flag, national airline, national stadium, national myths, as well as building infrastructure. More recently, the term nation building has come to be used in a different context, namely the use of military forces in the aftermath of a conflict to effect a transition to democracy. In this sense, the term describes the efforts of a foreign power to construct or install the institutions of a national government. See alsoChapter 40.
national interest: A plan that dictates a country's goals or ambitions, whether economic, political, cultural, or military. Nicoló Machiavelli is often considered the first political thinker to develop the concept of national interest. Today, the concept of “the national interest” is most often associated with political realists, as opposed to idealists, who seek to inject a sense of morality into foreign policy. In most countries, which goals and objectives constitute the national interest is a subject of much debate and controversy. See alsoChapters 35 and 39.
National Security Council (NSC): In the United States, the president's primary forum for coordinating foreign policy and national security issues. Established in 1947, and chaired by the president, the council advises the president on “the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security.” Policymakers created the NSC, convinced that the diplomacy of the Department of State was no longer adequate to contain the Soviet Union in light of the increasing tensions between that nation and the United States. Members include the vice president, the secretary of state, and the secretary of defense. The head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the military adviser to the council, and the director of National Intelligence is the intelligence adviser. The chief of staff to the president, counsel to the president, and the assistant to the president for economic policy are also invited to attend any NSC meeting. Other high-ranking government officials may be invited as necessary. The president appoints and the Senate confirms the national security adviser, who directs the various activities of the NSC staff. In 2009, President Barack Obama (2009–) merged the White House staff supporting the Homeland Security Council (HSC) and the National Security Council into one National Security Staff (NSS). Other nations have a similar advisory body. See alsoChapters 16, 17, and 40.
nationalism: A pride and passionate belief in one's country (often also a particular race, religion, or culture). Nationalists tend to believe their nation and its leaders can do no wrong, beliefs that have resulted in episdoes of genocide and ethnic cleansing. Germany under Adolf Hitler (in power 1933–1945) and Serbia under Slobodan Milo?evi? (in power 1997–2000) were nations that fueled extreme nationalist sentiment. See alsoChapter 33.
Nazi Party: National Socialist German Workers’ Party, active in Germany from 1919 to 1945 under Adolf Hitler. After taking power in 1933, Hitler proclaimed himself fürher, or leader, and with the support of the Nazi Party he rapidly transformed Germany into a police state. He advanced the idea that the Germans were a “master race” and that it was Germany's destiny to rule the world. The Nazis persecuted religious and cultural minorities imagined to be racially inferior and forced millions into death camps. Hilter's “final solution” was to exterminate more than six million European Jews in the Holocaust, a systematic campaign of genocide. With Germany's defeat in World War II, the Nazi Party collapsed. See alsoChapter 12.
Neutrality Acts: A series of laws passed by Congress in the 1930s, the decade before World War II (1939–1945), designed to keep the United States out of another conflict in Europe. These laws included a prohibition on the sale of arms to foreigners and of loans to European nations that still owed money from World War I (1914–1918), though restrictions were eased as the war in Europe loomed. See alsoChapter 13.
Nine-Power Treaty: Agreement reached in 1922, which was signed by nine nations: the United States, Great Britain, France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, China, the Netherlands, and Portugal. It was intended to make the 1899 Open Door Policy into international law. The treaty was unsuccessful as it lacked any means of enforcement; it was abrogated in 1931 when Japan invaded and seized Manchuria, a northern province of China, and established the puppet state of Manchukuo. See alsoChapter 11.
nonintervention: The foreign policy of avoiding conflict (not directly connected to self-defense) and alliances with other nations while still maintaining diplomatic relations.[Page 626]
In the early years of the Republic, U.S. foreign policy was essentially noninterventionist as the nation's political leaders followed the advice of President George Washington (1789–1797) to avoid “entangling alliances.” After the nation's participation in World War I (1914–1918), American public opinion strongly supported a policy of nonintervention, which was reflected in the nation's relations with other countries. See alsoChapter 13.
nonstate actors: Groups or organizations that are not nations but play a role in international relations. The number of nonstate actors has grown significantly since the end of World War II (1939–1945), and several types operate in the international community. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are groups, such as the United Nations (UN) or Doctors without Borders, which are typically considered a part of civil society. Multinational corporations (MNCs) are for-profit organizations that operate in three or more sovereign nations. Often the international media are considered nonstate actors because of the influence they exert on international issues. Violent nonstate actors are armed groups, including groups such as al Qaeda, Hamas, and Hezbollah. Criminal organizations, such as drug cartels or the Mafia are also nonstate actors. Religious groups, such as the Quakers, often are considered to be nonstate actors. For example, the Quakers are active in their international advocacy efforts and have in part founded other nonstate actors such as Amnesty International, Greenpeace, and OXFAM. Finally, transnational diaspora communities, such as the Roma in Europe, may be nonstate actors. See alsoChapter 40.
normalcy: Term coined by Republican Warren G. Harding during his campaign for the presidency in 1920. During the campaign, Harding noted, “America's present need” was not nostrums [reforms], but normalcy.” “The world,” he said, “needs to be reminded that all human ills are not curable by legislation.” Harding may have been alluding to the pleasant, peaceful life he had lived in Marion, Ohio, and in Washington, D.C., during his years as a senator. See alsoChapter 11.
North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD): A binational military command between the United States and Canada established in May 1958 to defend North American airspace by monitoring human-made objects in space. With its command center located at Cheyenne Mountain in Colorado, the headquarters are responsible for detecting, substantiating, and warning of attack against North America by aircraft, missiles, or spacecraft. Through exceptional binational cooperation, NORAD has proven itself effective in its roles of watching, warning, and responding, and thus continues to play an important role in the defense of Canada and the United States by evolving to meet today's threats of domestic and international attack. The events of September 11, 2001, confirmed NORAD's relevance to North American security by providing civil authorities with a powerful military response capability. In May 2006, the NORAD Agreement was renewed for the eighth time and a maritime warning mission was added. This aspect of the command entails a shared knowledge and understanding of the activities conducted in U.S. and Canadian maritime areas and inland waterways. See alsoChapters 16, 31, and 35.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): Signed in spring 1949, alliance among the United States, Canada, and ten European nations, for collective defense against a possible attack by the Soviet Union. From its founding, NATO encouraged political, military, economic, and cultural cooperation among its members. In addition to the United States and Canada, the other original members included the United Kingdom, France, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Portugal, Italy, and Iceland. In 1952, Greece and Turkey joined the alliance; West Germany was admitted in 1955 and Spain in 1982. After the reunification of Germany in 1990, the former East Germany was incorporated as well. After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, several former Communist nations also joined the alliance. Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary joined in 1999; Slovakia, Slovenia, Romania, and Bulgaria, as well as the former Soviet Republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, joined in 2004; and Croatia and Albania in 2009. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, NATO turned essentially to crisis management, sending peacekeeping troops into Bosnia, Herzegovina, Afghanistan, and Iraq. See alsoChapters 16 and 33.
Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (1968): Agreement to limit the spread of nuclear weapons and to promote the peaceful use of nuclear technology across the world. The treaty was proposed by Ireland and Finland, the first member states to sign, and it went into effect in 1970. More than 185 nations have signed the treaty, including the five recognized nuclear-weapon states: the United States, Russia, Great Britain, France, and China. Under the terms of the treaty, nuclear weapons states are permitted to keep their nuclear arsenals provided they do not transfer nuclear weapons to non-nuclear weapons states nor assist them in developing nuclear weapons. Three nations known to possess nuclear weapons are not part of the treaty: India, Pakistan, and North Korea. (North Korea acceded to the treaty, violated it, and in 2003 withdrew from it.) Israel, which has also refused to sign the treaty, maintains an official policy of “nuclear ambiguity,” meaning it has never admitted to having nuclear weapons. Instead, Israel has stated repeatedly that it would not be the first country to “introduce” nuclear weapons to the Middle East. Nonetheless, [Page 627]Israel is believed to possess between seventy-five and four hundred nuclear warheads and the ability to deliver them by missile, aircraft, or submarine. See alsoChapters 16 and 40.
nuncio: A permanent representative of the pope, vested with both political and ecclesiastical powers, appointed to the court of a sovereign or assigned to a definite territory. The special character of a nuncio, as distinguished from other papal envoys (such as legates) is that the office is specifically defined and limited to a definite district (his nunciature), where he must reside. His mission is general, embracing the interests of the Holy See. The office requires the appointment of a successor when the incumbent is recalled or dies. See alsoChapter 14.O
Open Door Policy: Proposed in 1898 by President William McKinley (1879–1901), guiding principle of U.S. economic strategy that the United States as well as Japan and the European powers have equal trading opportunities in China. In 1898, Great Britain suggested that the United States join with it in supporting equal trading opportunities in China, an open-door policy regardless of which countries held spheres of influence in China. Secretary of State John Hay responded, in 1899, by sending identical notes to Britain, Germany, France, Russia, Italy, and Japan, asking each nation to grant equal trade privileges to the other nations. Hay's proposal was not well received in Europe. Only Britain agreed, and with exceptions. Nevertheless, in July 1900, Hay boldly announced that all nations had given “final and definite” approval and that the Open Door Policy was, therefore, in effect. After 1899, the Open Door Policy merged into a doctrine with more general applicability, one that stated America's interest in providing equal opportunity and nondiscrimination for trade and investment worldwide. See alsoChapter 6.
Oregon Treaty (1846): Agreement between the United States and Great Britain which peaceably settled the Oregon question. By the 1840s, considerable dissention had developed between the United States and Great Britain over control of the Oregon Country. The United States claimed all of the territory south of Parallel 54 degrees 40 minutes north. Britain claimed the territory north of the forty-second parallel. In reality, however, the contested area was essentially the region between the Columbia River on the south and the forty-ninth parallel on the north. After the election of 1844, President James K. Polk (1845–1849), a fervent expansionist, accepted a British proposal to extend the international boundary along the forty-ninth parallel west to Puget Sound and south of Vancouver Island to the Pacific. Polk wisely avoided a possible war with Great Britain when war with Mexico seemed imminent. The U.S. states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming were carved from the land received by the United States. The British area became the Canadian province of British Columbia. See alsoChapter 2.
Organization of American States (OAS): Designed to address security issues and settle disputes, multinational organization made up of all thirty-five nations of the Western Hemisphere. The world's oldest regional organization, the OAS dates back to the First International Conference of American States, held in Washington, D.C., from October 1889 to April 1890. The International Union of American Republics was established at that conference, setting the stage for interhemispheric cooperation. The OAS came into being in 1948, with the signing of the OAS Charter in Bogotá, Colombia; the charter has been amended numerous times. The goal of the OAS, as stated in Article 1 of its Charter, is to establish among its member states “an order of peace and justice, to promote their solidarity, to strengthen their collaboration, and to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity, and their independence.” Today, the OAS comprises the thirty-five independent states of the Americas, and it has granted observer status to sixty-three states, as well as to the European Union (EU). It is the primary political, juridical, and social governmental forum in the Western Hemisphere. See alsoChapter 31.
Oslo Accords (1993): Officially known as the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements, or simply the Declaration of Principles (DOP), a milestone in the ongoing Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The accords marked the first direct, face-to-face agreement between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The accords were intended to be the framework for future negotiations and relations between the Israeli government and the Palestinians within which all outstanding “final status issues” between the two sides would be addressed and resolved. Negotiated in secret in Oslo, Norway, the accords were officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington, D.C., on September 13, 1993, in the presence of PLO chairman Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and President William J. Clinton (1993–2001). Most significant was the PLO's acceptance of the right of Israel to exist and its renouncing its claim to most of the territory on which Israel had been founded. In return, Israel agreed to gradually withdraw its forces from parts of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank and affirmed a Palestinian right of self-government within those areas; a Palestinian Interim Self-Government Authority was also created. Palestinian rule was to last for a five-year interim period during which permanent status negotiations would commence, no later [Page 628]than May 1996, to reach a final agreement. Major issues such as Israeli security and borders, the status of Jerusalem, Palestinian refugees, and the future of Israeli settlements were to be decided at these permanent status negotiations. However, the accords have not been implemented fully and their future as a template for peace has become increasingly clouded. See alsoChapter 38.P
Pan-American Congress (1889): The first of a series of conferences held among nations of the Western Hemisphere. U.S. Secretary of State James G. Blaine initiated the conference in 1889 to establish closer ties between the United States and Latin America, hoping that improved relations would open Latin American markets to U.S. trade. Gathered together in Washington, D.C., eighteen nations founded the International Union of American Republics. The Ninth International Conference of American States, held in Bogotá, Colombia, between March and May 1948, was led by U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall. At this meeting, member nations pledged to fight communism in the Americas. This event led to the birth of the Organization of American States (OAS) as it stands today. See alsoChapter 4.
peace dividend: Term used to describe the benefits that would arise from the decrease in defense spending after the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, many Western nations significantly cut military spending, thus freeing public money for other programs. See alsoChapters 28, 29, and 30.
peace with honor: Phrase used by President Richard M. Nixon (1969–1974) in a January 23, 1973, speech, announcing the Paris Peace Accord that ended American involvement in the Vietnam War (1945–1975). The accord specified that a cease-fire would take place four days later and that within sixty days of the cease-fire, the North Vietnamese would release all U.S. prisoners of war (POWs) and all American troops would withdraw from South Vietnam. The phrase is a variation of a campaign promise Nixon made in 1968, “I pledge to you that we shall have an honorable end to the war in Vietnam.” The phrase is considered euphemistic by critics, as Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, fell to the North in April 1975. See alsoChapter 23.
peaceful coexistence: Concept promulgated by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev (in power 1953–1964) that stated that Communist nations could peacefully exist with capitalist nations, as opposed to the Marxist-Leninist principle that communism and capitalism could never coexist in peace. The policy arose to reduce hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States, particularly as their growing arsenals led to the increased possibility of nuclear war. Khrushchev tried to demonstrate his commitment to peaceful coexistence by attending international peace conferences such as the Geneva Summit in 1955 and by traveling internationally. The policy also reflected a key shift in the Soviet Union's strategic military position—the move away from large, and possibly politically provocative, military ventures toward armed forces focused on proxy wars and the development of a strategic nuclear missile force. See alsoChapters 16 and 17.
peacekeeping: Term defined by the United Nations (UN) as “a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the Organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict create the conditions for lasting peace.” Peacekeepers observe peace processes in postconflict areas and help ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed. UN peacekeeping assistance may come in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing provisions, electoral support, and economic and social development. Thus, UN peacekeepers can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel. See alsoChapters 16, 34, and 40.
Pentagon: Five-sided office building located in Arlington County, Virginia, and home to the U.S. Department of Defense. The Pentagon is the largest office building in the world by floor area. Completed in 1943, the building itself, as well as the term Pentagon, has come to symbolize America's military might. On September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked American Airlines Flight 77 and crashed it into the western side of the Pentagon at 9:37 a.m., killing 189 people: fifty-nine innocent civilians aboard the plane, 125 people working in the building, and the five hijackers. See alsoChapter 35.
perestroika: A policy of economic and political “restructuring” begun by Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev (in power 1985–1991) in the late 1980s in an attempt to revive the languishing Soviet economy. Perestroika is considered to be a key factor in the fall of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, as well as a cause of the end of the Cold War. See alsoChapter 29.
Persian Gulf War (1991): Conflict between Iraq and a U.S.-led coalition of more than thirty nations, including Great Britain, France, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. The goal of the war was to drive the Iraqi army out of neighboring Kuwait, which Iraq had invaded on August 2, 1990, claiming that Kuwait was stealing Iraqi oil. Iraq then annexed Kuwait, which it had long claimed as its nineteenth province. During the Iraqi occupation, about one thousand Kuwaiti civilians [Page 629]were killed, and more than 300,000 people fled the country. The United Nations Security Council condemned the invasion and called for Iraq to withdraw immediately from Kuwait, which Iraq ignored; on November 29, the UN set January 15, 1991, as the deadline for Iraqi withdrawal. When Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein refused to comply, the UN-sanctioned invasion, known as Operation Desert Storm, was launched on January 17, 1991, under the leadership of U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf. The U.S.-led coalition began a massive air campaign, flying more than 100,000 sorties, dropping 88,500 tons of bombs, and widely destroying military and civilian infrastructure. In response, Iraq launched Scud missiles at Israel (in an unsuccessful attempt to widen the war and break up the coalition) and at Saudi Arabia. Coalition forces invaded Kuwait and Iraq on February 24, and over the next four days, encircled and defeated the Iraqis and liberated Kuwait. When President George H. W. Bush (1989–1993) declared a cease fire on February 28, most of the Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled. Although the exact number of Iraqi combat casualties is unknown, it is believed to have been between twenty thousand and thirty-five thousand fatalities. As of February 2011, the United States Department of Defense reported that U.S. forces suffered 148 battle-related deaths and another 145 deaths in noncombat accidents. See alsoChapters 38 and 39.
Pinckney's Treaty (1795): Also known as the Treaty of Madrid or the Treaty of San Lorenzo, agreement reached by the United States and Spain which settled several key disagreements between the two nations. Thomas Pinckney, then the U.S. ambassador to Great Britain, negotiated the treaty for the United States, and Don Manuel de Godoy represented Spain. Under the terms of Pinckney's Treaty, the lower Mississippi River was opened to navigation by Americans, and New Orleans was established as a “port of deposit” for American goods. Spain also recognized the borders of the United States as established by the Treaty of Paris of 1783, namely the Mississippi River as the western boundary and the thirty-first parallel as the southern boundary. See alsoChapter 1.
ping-pong diplomacy: Term that refers to the visit of ping pong players from the United States to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the early 1970s. The friendly games initiated a thaw in the relations between the United States and China, which at the time was considered one of America's staunchest foes. The games paved the way to a visit to China by President Richard M. Nixon (1969–1974) in 1972. The U.S. Table Tennis team was in Nagoya, Japan, in 1971, for the Thirty-first World Table Tennis Championship when, on April 6, they received an invitation to visit China. On April 10, 1971, the team became the first American sports delegation to set foot in Beijing, the Chinese capital, since 1949. In addition to playing friendly games of ping pong, the Americans also toured the Great Wall and the Summer Palace. President Nixon's subsequent visit to the People's Republic of China was an important step in formally normalizing relations between the two nations. During the week of June 9, 2008, a three-day Ping Pong Diplomacy event was held at the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, California. Original members of both the Chinese and American ping pong teams from 1971 were present and played. See alsoChapter 35.
Platt Amendment: A rider attached to the Army Appropriations Act passed by Congress in 1901, after victorious U.S. forces occupied Cuba following the Spanish-American War (1898). The amendment stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of U.S. troops remaining in Cuba, declared that Cuba could make no agreement that would affect its independence, stated that the United States could intervene to keep order, and stipulated that the United States was to be given land, by sale or lease, for naval bases. Guantánamo became one of these bases. Thus, although Cuba became independent in name, the nation in many ways remained under control of the United States. The amendment defined Cuban-U.S. relations until the 1934 Treaty of Relations. See alsoChapters 6 and 7.
Potsdam Conference (1945): Final meeting of the three great powers—the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union—in July and August 1945, held in Potsdam, near Berlin. As in other such meetings, Joseph Stalin (in power 1924–1953) represented the Soviet Union, but President Harry S. Truman (1945–1953) took the place of the late Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945), and Clement B. Attlee (1945–1951), as the new prime minister of Great Britain, replaced Winston Churchill (1940–1945, 1951–1955) as the talks went forward. The goal was to determine the fate of Germany and the lands it had invaded during World War II (1939–1945). By this time, Soviet armies occupied most of Eastern Europe, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, and Romania, and it became clear at this conference that Stalin was determined to retain control of these nations and make them satellites of the Soviet Union. Although the leaders of the Allied powers were determined to eliminate Nazi influence and prevent Germany from again becoming a military threat, little was accomplished at the conference. Germany and Austria were divided into four zones, with the Soviet Union, the United States, Britain, and France each occupying one zone. Western access to Berlin was acknowledged, but the Soviet Union refused to conclude any official agreement about the future of Germany. As there was no agreement on specific peace treaties, negotiations continued; not until 1947 were treaties worked out for Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, [Page 630]and Hungary. Significantly, the three leaders did agree to the prosecution of Nazi war criminals, leading to the Nuremburg Trials that began in November 1945 and lasted until October 1946. See alsoChapter 16.
Powell Doctrine: A term, created by the media, used to describe a list of specific questions promulgated by General Colin L. Powell before the beginning of the Persian Gulf War (1991). These diplomatic questions, which must be answered (in the affirmative) before military action is undertaken, are: “Is a vital national security interest threatened? Do we have a clear attainable objective? Have the risks and costs been fully and frankly analyzed? Have all other nonviolent policy means been fully exhausted? Is there a plausible exit strategy to avoid endless entanglement? Have the consequences of our action been fully considered? Is the action supported by the American people? Do we have genuine broad international support?” The Powell Doctrine is similar to a set of principles defined by Caspar Weinberger, defense secretary (in office 1981–1987) during the administration of Ronald Reagan (1981–1989). Although Powell rarely advocated force as the first solution to international conflict, he later expanded upon the doctrine, asserting that when a nation is at war, every resource should be used against the enemy, while at the same time minimizing U.S. casualties. In a 2009 interview, Powell noted that the doctrine also calls for the exhausting of all “political, economic, and diplomatic means,” before a nation should resort to military force. See alsoChapter 35.
prisoner of war (POW): In or after an armed conflict, an individual, either civilian or combatant, who is held by an enemy power. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase is in 1660. The Hague Convention (1907), the subsequent Geneva Convention (1929), and the 1949 update to the 1929 convention, covered the treatment of prisoners of war in detail. One of the major provisions of the convention makes it illegal to torture prisoners and states that prisoners can only be required to give their name, date of birth, rank, and service number. During the twentieth century, Imperial Japan and Nazi Germany were known to commit atrocities against prisoners of war during World War II (1939–1945). The German military used the Soviet Union's refusal to sign the Geneva Convention as a reason for not providing the necessities of life to Soviet POWs. North Korean and North and South Vietnamese forces regularly killed or mistreated prisoners taken during those conflicts. Since the Vietnam War (1945–1975), the official U.S. military term for enemy POWs is Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW). This change was introduced to distinguish between enemy and U.S. captives. See alsoChapters 9, 14, and 23.
proxy war: A war in which two nations support military action between other parties, rather than fighting each other directly. During the Cold War era, the Korean War (1950–1953) and the Vietnam War (1945–1975) were proxy wars between the United States and the Soviet Union. See alsoChapters 19 and 23.
puppet state: A nation that is controlled by another more powerful nation. A puppet state lacks independence, but the controlling power preserves all the external trappings of independence, such as a national flag, currency, and leadership. In the twentieth century, for example, Imperial Japan invaded Manchuria, a northern province of China, and established the puppet state of Manchukuo. See alsoChapters 12 and 13.Q
Quasi War: Lasting from 1798 to 1800, an undeclared war between the United States and France. After the XYZ Affair, indignation rose and many Americans called for war against France. Although President John Adams (1797–1801) was committed to peace, the United States and France fought each other at sea where American ships captured several French vessels and harassed French commerce in the Caribbean region. In 1800, after the French foreign minister, the Duc de Talleyrand, indicated that ministers from the United States would be received with all due respect, Adams sent a commission to France. By that time, First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte had assumed power and offered a more conciliatory diplomatic stance. As a result, the commission worked successfully with the French and signed the Convention of 1800 on September 30, ending the Quasi War. See alsoChapter 1.R
Reconstruction: Period in U.S. history immediately following the Civil War (1861–1865) to 1877, when President Rutherford B. Hayes (1877–1881) ordered the removal of federal troops from the vanquished South. After the turmoil of civil war, the South was in ruins, governmental functions stopped, and the economy was in shambles. Reconstructionera laws, supported by northern radical Republicans, attempted to restore the seceded states to the Union, establish new governments, and secure the rights of the recently freed slaves. After Hayes withdrew federal troops from the South in 1877, white supremacy was restored throughout the region. The Democratic Party took control of state and local governments and quickly passed laws, known as Jim Crow laws, which restricted the rights of African Americans and denied them many of the rights they had gained during Reconstruction, including the right to vote. Politically, the region became known as the “Solid South,” as it overwhelmingly supported the Democratic Party and was vital to the party's success. Many later foreign policy issues have their [Page 631]roots in the Reconstruction period. For example, during Reconstruction, the number of immigrants, mostly European, began to increase, thus creating a cheap labor force for rapid industrialization and improved agriculture, which later made the United States a world economic power. While Europeans were welcomed, for the most part, Asian immigrants were not. Anti-Chinese sentiments in California and the west ultimately resulted in the passage of the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act. Later, the informal 1907 Gentlemen's Agreement greatly limited Japanese immigration. See alsoChapters 3 and 4.
red scare: Term used after both World War I (1914–1918) and World War II (1939–1945) to describe the fear of rising communism in the United States. Near the end of World War I, a Communist revolution occurred in Russia, and its leaders supported revolution worldwide. The fear of communism mounted in the United States, especially after a wave of strikes and several isolated bombings in 1919 and 1920. The strikes and bombings were blamed on the communists and led the federal government to vigorously search for “Reds.” During this time, several hundred aliens were imprisoned and deported, often without due process of law. After World War II, a fear of communists infiltrating the government seized the nation, and the term red scare was again applied to this panic. Senator Joseph McCarthy's widespread accusations that the State Department was “thoroughly infested with Communists,” which he claimed posed a threat to national security, epitomized the red scare of the early 1950s. For more than three years, McCarthy and his zealous supporters mounted a paranoid crusade searching for Communist influences on American culture, even falsely accusing Republican officials in the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961) of favoring communism. McCarthy lost his following after the nation saw him on television tearing into witnesses during a hearing in which he accused the U.S. army of “softness on communism.” In December 1954, the U.S. Senate censured McCarthy for acting “contrary to senatorial ethics” and obstructing the “constitutional processes of the Senate.” See alsoChapters 16 and 17.
refugee: A person who has been forced to leave his or her home country and seek refuge elsewhere. The 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees defined a refugee as a person who “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country.” Under U.S. law, to apply for refugee status, the applicant must be located physically outside the United States. One year after legally being granted refugee status in the United States, the applicant may apply for a Green Card, indicating lawful permanent residence, and eventually for U.S. citizenship. See alsoChapters 16 and 23.
rivalries: In international relations, competition between nations or groups of nations. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and its satellite states and the United States and its allies exhibited worldwide rivalry, which led to competition in influencing nonaligned nations, a costly arms race, the space race, and a struggle to develop superior technologies. See alsoChapters 17, 26, and 28.
rogue states: Nations that reject international law and are considered to be threats to world peace. Rogue states are known to restrict human rights, sponsor terrorism, and seek weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). In the 1990s, the U.S. government considered North Korea, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, Sudan, and Yugoslavia to be rogue states. Yugoslavia was removed from the list after the overthrow of Slobodan Milo?evi? in 2000. Afghanistan was removed from the list after the 2001 U.S.-led invasion of that nation; Iraq was removed in 2003 after U.S.-led forces invaded and Saddam Hussein fled from power. Using diplomacy, Libya worked to remove itself from the list of rogue states. Rogue states are feared and condemned by the international community but are differentiated from “pariah states,” such as Zimbabwe and Myanmar (Burma), which restrict and abuse the human rights of their citizenry but are not perceived as threats beyond their own borders. See alsoChapter 35.
Roosevelt Corollary: Foreign policy pronouncement made by President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909) in his 1904 annual message to Congress in which he expanded upon the Monroe Doctrine (1823) in order to stipulate American involvement in Latin America. Asserting America's right to maintain order and protect American interests, Roosevelt declared: “If a nation [in Latin America] shows that it knows how to act with reasonable efficiency and decency in social and political matters, if it keeps order and pays its obligations, it need fear no interference from the United States. Chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of international police power.” Implicitly, Roosevelt was warning Europeans to stay out of Latin America. Throughout the early years of the twentieth century, the United States intervened in the affairs of several Latin American nations to protect property and lives and to collect debts. The United States took over the actual control of finances in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua. To enforce its will, the [Page 632]United States sent marines to Nicaragua and Haiti. This policy was renounced by the Good Neighbor Policy initiated in 1934 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945). See alsoChapter 7.
Root-Takahira Agreement (1908): Accord between the United States and Japan in which the two nations agreed to support “by all pacific means” the “independence and integrity of China” and to maintain the “principle of equal opportunity for commerce and industry of all nations,” that is, the Open Door Policy. See alsoChapter 7.S
Second Continental Congress (1775–1781): The de facto governing body of the thirteen united colonies during the War for Independence (1775–1783). Delegates to the First Continental Congress (1774) had agreed to hold another meeting in 1775 if Great Britain failed to end colonial grievances. Three weeks after the battles of Lexington and Concord (April 1775), twelve colonies sent representatives to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia. (Georgia did not send delegates until the following autumn.) The Congress assumed responsibility for the colonial troops around Boston and, by unanimous vote, appointed George Washington as commander in chief of the Continental Army. Tensions with Great Britain were high. In mid-1775, the Congress drew up a Declaration of Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms. In it, the delegates resolved to “… die freemen rather than live slaves,” but went on to note, “We have not raised armies with ambitious designs of separating from Great Britain and establishing independent states.” In July 1775, Congress adopted the Olive Branch Petition, reasserting the colonists’ loyalty to the Crown, but the following month King George III (reigned 1760–1820) refused to accept the petition and declared that the colonies were in a state of rebellion.
In December 1775, Parliament forbade all trade with the colonies, leading John Adams (then one of the Massachusetts representatives) to declare that this act “makes us independent in spite of supplications and entreaties.” After much debate, Congress adopted a resolution for independence, drawing up the declaration that Congress adopted on July 4. The Second Continental Congress then assumed directing the conduct of the War for Independence. The Congress requested that each colony send money to finance the war and printed nearly $250 million to that end. During the course of the war, the Congress also borrowed money from European nations: $5 million from France, $1.25 million from the Netherlands, and $200,000 from Spain. In 1778, delegates from the Congress negotiated an alliance with France, which ultimately led to the American victory at Yorktown in 1781. After more than a year of debate, on November 15, 1777, Congress passed and sent to the states for ratification the Articles of Confederation. Virginia was the first to ratify the Articles, on December 16, 1777, and Maryland became the last to do so, on February 2, 1781. Finally, on March 1, 1781, the Articles of Confederation were signed and Congress declared them ratified. On the next day, the same congressional delegates met as the new Congress of the Confederation. The Second Continental Congress established the American precedent of conducting diplomatic relations through foreign ministers and other governmental representatives. See alsoChapter 1.
sectionalism: Term used to describe the growing differences among the regions of the United States prior to the Civil War (1861–1865). In the early 1800s, while the North grew more industrialized and favored high tariffs to protect domestic industries, the South remained agricultural and opposed high tariffs, wanting to keep the cost of imported goods, upon which it depended, low. Southerners and northerners showed fierce loyalty to their regions rather than to the nation as a whole. The settlers of the West were mostly small farmers who wanted cheap land and demanded that the federal government make it available on easy terms. The Northern states had abolished slavery, and law prohibited slavery in the West; the South, however, increased its reliance on slave labor, especially after the 1793 invention of the cotton gin made cotton an extremely profitable crop. Slavery became a bitter sectional issue that ultimately led to the secession of the South and the Civil War. See alsoChapter 3.
self-determination: In international law, the principle that free nations have the right to develop their own economic, social, and cultural destinies. The right to self-determination is embodied in several international documents, including the Charter of the United Nations, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. See alsoChapter 14.
September 11, 2001: Date on which nineteen Islamic fundamentalists, members of the international terrorist group al Qaeda, hijacked four American airliners and crashed two planes into the twin towers of New York's World Trade Center and the third plane into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. The fourth plane, which the hijackers had directed toward either the White House or the Capitol, crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, as the crew and some of the passengers attempted to retake control of the plane. There were no survivors from any of the flights; nearly three thousand innocent people and the nineteen hijackers died. Among the 2,752 victims who died in the World Trade [Page 633]Center attacks were 343 firefighters and sixty police officers from New York City and the Port Authority as well as people from more than seventy countries.
The United States responded to the attacks by launching a so-called War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban regime, which had harbored Osama bin Laden, the leader of al Qaeda, and other terrorists. The U.S. Congress also passed the controversial USA PATRIOT Act, signed into law by President George W. Bush (2001–2009) on October 26, 2001, which greatly expanded the ability of law enforcement agencies to search telephone and e-mail communications as well as procure financial and other personal records. It also eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States and expanded the secretary of the treasury's power to regulate financial transactions, especially those involving foreign individuals and entities. The law further expanded the discretion of law enforcement officers and immigration authorities to detain and deport immigrants suspected of terrorism. Responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks marked a crucial turning point in domestic and international policies, including not only the constriction of civil liberties but also two costly wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Since 9/11, terrorist activities have increased around the globe. See alsoChapter 35, 39, and 40.
sharia law: The sacred law of Islam, which is based on the Quran. Examples are believed to have been set by the Prophet Mohammed. Muslims differ as to what exactly sharia requires. Sharia law deals with many of the same topics addressed by secular law, including crime, economics, and politics; it also addresses personal matters such as sexuality, hygiene, diet, prayer, and fasting. Where it has official status, sharia law is applied by Islamic judges. The reintroduction of sharia law is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements in Muslim countries. In the international media, it has come under significant criticism, particularly when punishments move away from established principles of international human rights. As examples, sharia law calls for the application of the death penalty for the crimes of adultery, blasphemy, apostasy, and homosexuality; amputations for the crime of theft; and flogging for fornication or public intoxication. See alsoChapters 38, 39, and 40.
shock and awe: A military doctrine based on the use of overwhelming power, dominant maneuvers, and spectacular displays of force, all designed to destroy the enemies’ will to fight and force them into submission. The doctrine was developed by Harlan K. Ullman and James P. Wade of the National Defense University (NDU) in 1996. The United States used a shock-and-awe strategy in the launching of the 2003 Iraq War. The term is used to describe the beginning of the invasion, not the long-lasting war nor the insurgency. See alsoChapter 35.
shuttle diplomacy: Term used in international diplomacy to describe the actions of a third-party intermediary between (or among) parties involved in a dispute. Usually, the intermediary travels, or shuttles, between the parties’ locations. The term became associated with U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's efforts to end the fighting during the 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and a coalition of Arab nations led by Egypt and Syria. See alsoChapter 26.
small state diplomacy: The concept that small states must use particularly wise and strategic diplomatic means in the global arena to ensure that common goals, issues, and problems are addressed, given that they lack the power, resources, and population to otherwise assert themselves. Iceland provides an example of successful small state diplomacy. In the early 1950s, Iceland's government, reacting to a trend in world affairs, extended its fisheries limits from four miles to twelve miles. Over the next quarter of a century, Iceland supported international organizations to extend fisheries limits aggressively and progressively to the now universally accepted two hundred miles. The principal asset of this small state was the skill, persistence, and thorough knowledge of its diplomatic corps. See alsoChapter 40.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930): Tax law passed by the United States Congress in 1930. Also known as the Tariff Act of 1930, the law raised tariffs on more than 200,000 imported goods. In return, U.S. trading partners passed retaliatory tariffs that ultimately reduced American exports and imports by more than half. At the time, most economists opposed the law, and today many economists believe that the Smoot-Hawley Tariff contributed to the severity of the Great Depression around the world. See alsoChapter 12.
socialism: A type of social and economic organization that advocates communal or public ownership of all property and control of the means of production. In Marxist theory, socialism is the type of governmment that arises after the proletariat takes over the means of production but before the state withers away and true communism is achieved. In a socialist society, the state controls the economy. See alsoChapters 11 and 14.
sovereignty: Term used to describe the quality of having supreme authority over a geographic region. Sovereign nations are independent and free to determine their own foreign policy with respect to other nations. See alsoChapter 16.
space race: Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to gain technological superiority in exploring outer space. The space race began on October 4, 1957, after the Soviets launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth, a launch that was [Page 634]immediately perceived as a threat to U.S. security. One direct effect of the launch was a significant increase in educational spending in the United States, as the nation attempted to “catch up” to the Soviet Union. About four months after the launch of Sputnik, the United States successfully launched the Juno I rocket, which carried the satellite Explorer I. The next phase of the race focused on sending a human into space; here, again, the Soviet Union was first, sending cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into space on April 12, 1961. Alan Shepard became the first American in space three weeks later, on May 5, 1961. On May 25 of the same year, President John F. Kennedy (1961–1963) announced the race to the moon in a special joint session of Congress: “I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth.” This feat was achieved by the United States on July 20, 1969, when astronaut Neil Armstrong disembarked from the lunar module, Eagle, and set foot on the surface of the moon. Although much of the technology that runs modern society was developed as a result of the space race, its legacy is mixed. See alsoChapter 17.
Spanish-American War (1898): Conflict between Spain and the United States which occurred as tensions between the two nations increased, especially over Spain's harsh treatment of Cuban rebels, which the yellow journalism of the time magnified. The spark that ignited the war was the sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine, which was docked in Havana to protect American lives and property. More than 260 sailors lost their lives. No one knows why the Maine exploded, but the American public, urged on by New York newspaper editors William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, quickly jumped to the conclusion that the Spanish had done it with a submarine mine. Public opinion nationwide demanded action. On April 11, 1898, although he was personally opposed to war, President William McKinley (1897–1901) asked Congress for authority to send American troops to Cuba to end the fighting there. On April 19, 1898, as Congress was considering McKinley's request, Senator Henry M. Teller of Colorado proposed the Teller amendment to ensure that the United States would not establish permanent control over Cuba after the war. The amendment, disavowing any intention of annexing Cuba, quickly passed both houses of Congress. The resolution also demanded Spanish withdrawal and authorized the president to use as much military force as he thought necessary to help Cuba gain independence from Spain.
McKinley signed the joint resolution on April 20, 1898, and the ultimatum was sent to Spain. In response, Spain broke off diplomatic relations with the United States on April 21. On the same day, the U.S. Navy began a blockade of Cuba. Spain declared war on April 23; on April 25, Congress declared that a state of war between the United States and Spain had existed since April 21, the day the blockade had begun.
Fighting lasted less than three months and hostilities ended on August 12. After more than two months of negotiations, the Treaty of Paris was signed on December 10, 1898, and ratified by the U.S. Senate on February 6, 1899. Under the terms of the peace treaty, the United States gained almost all of Spain's colonies, including the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Cuba formed its own government and attained independence on May 20, 1902. However, the United States imposed several restrictions on the new government, including prohibiting alliances with other countries, and it reserved the right to intervene. The United States also established a perpetual lease of Guantánamo Bay. The war is considered a turning point in U.S. foreign relations. See alsoChapter 6.
spheres of influence: An area or region over which another usually more powerful nation exerts significant economic, cultural, or political influence. Before the implementation of the Open Door Policy in 1900, China was divided into spheres of influence among Russia, Japan, Germany, Great Britain, and France. During the Cold War, Cuba, Eastern Europe, North Korea, Vietnam, and the People's Republic of China (until the Sino-Soviet split in 1961) were said to be under the Soviet sphere of influence. In a similar fashion, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe, and Oceania were often said to be under the sphere of influence of the United States. See alsoChapter 7.
Sputnik I: The first artificial satellite launched into outer space. With this achievement on October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union initiated the space race with the United States. A surprise to the United States, the launch created a sense of panic among many experts who believed that the Soviets could soon deploy a nuclear missile capable of reaching the United States. See alsoChapter 17.
START I (1991): A bilateral treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union which was signed in 1991, just before the collapse of the Soviet Union, and went into effect in 1994. The first Strategic Arms Reduction (START) proposal was made in 1982 by President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989). One of the most complex nuclear arms treaties ever negotiated, it reduced the number of nuclear warheads by about 80 percent. A second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II) was signed by President George H.W. Bush (1989–1993) and Russian President Boris Yeltsin (1991–1999) in early January 1993. The U.S. Senate ratified the treaty, but the Russian Duma did not. In 2001, the START II treaty was bypassed by the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT), signed by presidents George W. Bush (2001–2009) and Vladimir Putin (2000–2008) in May 2002. The START I treaty expired on December 5, 2009; in April 2010, a new START treaty was signed in Prague by Presidents Barack Obama (2009–) and Dmitri Medvedev (2008–). See alsoChapters 29, 39, and 40.[Page 635]
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT): Between November 1969 and May 1979, a series of discussions, held alternatively in Helsinki, Finland, and Geneva, Switzerland, between the United States and the Soviet Union to negotiate limits on armaments. In the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABMs), the two moved to end a competition to develop additional defensive systems. In an Interim Agreement on Certain Measures with Respect to the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, both superpowers took the first steps to reduce their most powerful land- and submarine-based offensive nuclear weapons. On January 20, 1969, the day that President Richard M. Nixon (1969–1974) assumed office, the Soviet foreign minister expressed an interest in discussing strategic arms limitations. In turn, the new president initiated, under the guidance of the National Security Council (NSC), an extensive review of the strategic, political, and verification aspects of the issues. In October, it was announced that the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks would begin in Helsinki on November 17, 1969, “for preliminary discussion of the questions involved.” The talks led to two-and-a-half years of SALT I negotiations.
In a summit meeting in Moscow, the first round of SALT ended on May 26, 1972, when President Nixon and General Secretary Brezhnev (in power 1964–1982) signed the ABM Treaty and the Interim Agreement on strategic offensive arms. SALT II negotiations began in November 1972 in Geneva. The primary goal of SALT II was to replace the Interim Agreement with a long-term treaty providing broad limits on strategic offensive weapons systems. A major breakthrough occurred at the Vladivostok meeting in November 1974 between President Gerald R. Ford (1974–1977) and General Secretary Brezhnev when both sides agreed to a basic framework for the SALT II agreement. President Jimmy Carter (1977–1981) and General Secretary Brezhnev signed the completed SALT II treaty in Vienna on June 18, 1979, and Carter transmitted it to the U.S. Senate on June 22 for ratification. On January 3, 1980, however, the president requested the Senate delay consideration of the treaty in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. In May 1982, President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989) stated he would not act to undercut the SALT agreements as long as the Soviet Union showed equal restraint. The Soviet Union again agreed to abide by the unratified treaty. See alsoChapter 25.
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): Developed in 1983 by President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989), plan that sought to end the threat of nuclear missiles with the use of land- and satellite-based systems to protect the United States from nuclear attacks. The initiative focused on strategic defense, rather than mutual assured defense (MAD). The elaborate plan was criticized as being unrealistic and quickly dubbed “Star Wars,” a reference to the popular movie of the 1970s. During the administration of President William J. Clinton (1993–2001), the program was renamed the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), which in turn was renamed the Missile Defense Agency in 2002. The United States has spent more than $100 million on space-based missile defense system research and holds a commanding lead in the field of space technology and warfare. See alsoChapter 29.
Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty: Officially, the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), better known as the Moscow Treaty, signed by presidents George W. Bush (2001–2009) and Vladimir Putin (2000–2008) in May 2002. Under the terms of this agreement, the parties agreed to reduce their nuclear arsenals to between 1,700 and 2,200 operational warheads each. The treaty went into effect on May 24, 2002, and expires on December 31, 2012. See alsoChapters 39 and 40.
summit meetings: Conferences of governments’ heads of state, often with a high level of media coverage, a prearranged agenda, and tight security, to attempt to satisfy mutual demands through negotiation rather than warfare. During the Cold War era, meetings held between U.S. presidents and Soviet or Chinese leaders were termed summits. Since that time, the number and types of summit meetings have significantly increased, with topics ranging from global warming to the world economy. See alsoChapters 30 and 33.
SussexPledge: Statement issued on May 4, 1916, by the German Imperial government promising once again to abandon unrestricted submarine warfare during World War I (1914- 1918). The pledge came about after the French ship, Sussex, was torpedoed in the English Channel, resulting in the injury of several Americans. The pledge temporarily averted U.S. participation in the war. In January 1917, Germany concluded that it could win the war if it resumed unrestricted warfare against the Allies before the United States could enter the war. Thus, the Sussex Pledge was rescinded. Resumption of unrestricted warfare by Germany and the interception of the Zimmermann Note led the U.S. Congress to declare war on Germany on April 6, 1917. See alsoChapters 8 and 9.T
Taliban: An Islamist militia group that ruled large parts of Afghanistan between 1996 and 2001 and practiced an extreme Sunni Muslim political and religious ideology. Although the Taliban controlled Kabul, Afghanistan's capital, and most of the country for more than five years, the Taliban's Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan received diplomatic recognition from only three nations: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. In the areas under [Page 636]their control, the Taliban imposed their strict interpretation of Islam. For example, women were required to wear the all-covering burqa, they were banned from public life, denied access to health care and education, and were forbidden to laugh in a manner that could be heard by others. Windows were required to be covered so that women could not be seen from the outside. The Taliban also imposed strict Islamic justice, amputating people's hands or arms when they were accused of stealing. Taliban hit squads carefully monitored the streets, conducting brutal public beatings.
During Taliban rule, Afghanistan was home to the international terrorist organization al Qaeda. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Mullah Omar, the Taliban leader, refused the demand of the United States to turn over Osama bin Laden, the leader of al Qaeda, who claimed responsibility for the attacks. The Taliban regime was overthrown quickly after the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001, known as Operation Enduring Freedom, but many of their leaders remain at large. Most of the Taliban fled to neighboring Pakistan, where they reorganized as an insurgency movement to fight against NATO-led forces and the democratic Islamic Republic of Afghanistan that had been established in late 2001. The Taliban routinely engage in terrorist acts against the civilian population of Afghanistan. According to a report by the United Nations, the Taliban were responsible for 76 percent of civilian casualties in Afghanistan in 2009. See alsoChapters 35, 39, and 40.
Tehran Conference (1943): The meeting of Joseph Stalin (in power 1924–1953), Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945), and Winston Churchill (1940–1945, 1951–1955), between November 28 and December 1, 1943, most of which was held at the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first World War II (1939–1945) conference among the Big Three: the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The primary aim of the meeting was to plan the final strategies in the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, and much of the discussion focused on the opening of a second front in Western Europe. In addition, the wartime leaders discussed relations with Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, and the postwar settlement. They agreed that Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy, would be launched during May 1944; that the military staffs of the three powers should keep in close touch with each other to ensure cooperation against the enemy; and that the borders of postwar Poland would be reconfigured to meet Stalin's demands. The three leaders also tentatively agreed to form a united nations organization, and the Soviet Union agreed to declare war against Japan once Germany was defeated. See alsoChapters 14 and 15.
Torrijos-Carter Treaties (1977): Two agreements between the United States and Panama, signed in Washington, D.C., on September 7, 1977, and abrogating the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty of 1903. The treaties are named after the two signers, U.S. President Jimmy Carter (1977–1981) and the Commander of Panama's National Guard, General Omar Torrijos, the de facto leader of Panama from 1968 to 1981. The treaties specified that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending U.S. control of the canal, which it had held since 1903. This first treaty, officially titled “The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal” and commonly known as the Neutrality Treaty, declared that the United States retained the permanent right to defend the canal from any threat that might interfere with its neutral service to ships of all nations. The second treaty, titled “The Panama Canal Treaty,” provided that as of noon on December 31, 1999, Panama would assume full control of canal operations and become principally responsible for its defense. Both treaties were ratified in Panama by a two-thirds vote held on October 23, 1977. The U.S. Senate ratified the first treaty on March 16, 1978, and the second treaty on April 18 by votes of sixty-eight to thirty-two. The treaties specified a timetable for the transfer of the canal, leading to a total handover of all land and buildings in the canal area to Panama. The most immediate consequence of this treaty was that the Canal Zone ceased to exist on October 1, 1979. The final phase of the treaty was completed on December 31, 1999. On this date, the United States relinquished control of the Panama Canal and all areas in what had been the Panama Canal Zone. See alsoChapter 31.
sanctions: In international relations, actions taken by nations or international organizations, such as the United Nations (UN), against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. There are several types of sanctions. Diplomatic sanctions are political measures taken to express disapproval or displeasure of a certain action through diplomacy or other political means, rather than affecting economic or military relations. Measures include limitations or cancellations of high-level government visits or expelling or withdrawing diplomatic missions. Economic sanctions can vary from imposing import duties on goods from the target nation, or blocking the export of certain goods to the target country, to a full naval blockade of a nation's ports in an effort to block specific goods, such as armaments. Two well-known examples of economic sanctions include the UN sanctions against Iraq (1990–2003) and the U.S. embargo against Cuba (1962-present). Military sanctions may range from targeted military strikes to degrade a nation's military capabilities, to an arms embargo to cut off supplies of arms. Sports sanctions are used as a way to crush morale of the general population in the target country. The only incident of sports sanctions being applied was the international sanctions against the Federal Republic [Page 637]of Yugoslavia between 1992 and 1995, enacted by UN Resolution 757. See alsoChapters 16 and 31.
torture: According to the United Nations Convention Against Torture (an advisory measure of the UN General Assembly), “… any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him, or a third person, information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to, lawful sanctions.” Torture is prohibited under international law and the domestic laws of most countries in the twenty-first century. Torture is a violation of human rights, and it is deemed to be unacceptable by Article 5 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Signatories of the Third Geneva Convention (1929) and Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) officially agree not to torture prisoners captured in armed conflicts. Torture is also prohibited by the United Nations Convention Against Torture, which has been ratified by more than 140 nations. See alsoChapters 14, 15, and 40.
Treaty of Ghent (1814): Agreement between the United States and Great Britain which ended the War of 1812 (1812–1814). In January 1814, President James Madison (1809–1817) learned that the British were willing to conclude a treaty. Consequently, American and British negotiators met at Ghent in what is now Belgium. The Americans demanded the abandonment of impressments, recognition of the rights of neutrals, and compensation for the loss of merchant vessels. The British wanted to use a part of the American Northwest as a buffer state between Canada and the United States, large cessions of American territory, and the surrender of American fishing rights off the Canadian coast. The final treaty, however, did not mention any of these issues. It simply provided for the end of hostilities and left each side with the same territory it held before the war. Not a word was included about impressment or neutral rights. Finally, it was agreed that any disputed boundaries between Canada and the United States would be settled through arbitration. See alsoChapter 1.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848): Agreement between the United States and Mexico which ended the Mexican-American War (1846–1848). Under the terms of this treaty, Mexico was forced to recognize the annexation of Texas and the Rio Grande as Texas’ southern boundary. It also ceded the provinces of California and New Mexico to the United States, which includes the present-day states of California, Nevada, and Utah; most of Arizona and New Mexico; and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Thus, Mexico gave up nearly half of its territory. The United States agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and to assume Mexico's debts to Americans, a sum totaling about $3.25 million. After much debate, the U.S. Senate ratified the treaty by a vote of thirty-eight to fourteen. See alsoChapter 2.
Treaty of Manila (1946): Agreement between the United States and the Philippines which granted full independence to the Philippines and relinquished American sovereignty over the islands. It was signed in Manila, the capital of the Philippines, on July 4, 1946. See alsoChapter 16.
Treaty of Paris of 1783: Agreement between the United States and Great Britain ending the War for Independence (1775–1783). Following the American victory at Yorktown (1781), American and British representatives in Paris discussed peace terms between September and November 1782. The principle American negotiators were Benjamin Franklin, the American minister to France; John Jay, the American minister to Spain; and John Adams, the American minister to the Netherlands. Under the terms of the treaty, Britain recognized American independence, and the boundaries of the new nation were extended from Canada and the Great Lakes in the north to the Mississippi River on the west and to the thirty-first parallel and Spanish Florida to the south. In addition, Britain agreed to return Florida to Spain and gave American fishers the right to fish off the coast of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. Both sides agreed to pay lawful debts to the other side, and the United States agreed to stop further confiscation of the property of loyalists (who had sided with the British during the war). The treaty was signed in Paris in September 1783. See alsoChapter 1.
Treaty of Versailles (1919): Agreement between the Allies and Germany which ended World War I (1914–1918) and essentially redrew the map of Europe. The term Treaty of Versailles inaccurately came to represent the series of treaties that ended the hostilities with the Central Powers: the Treaty of St. Germaine with Austria; the Treaty of Trianon with Hungary; the treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria; and the Treaty of Sevres with the Ottoman Empire. As a result of these peace settlements, France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, which Germany had taken after the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871). France also gained control of the rich coal deposits in Germany's Saar Basin for fifteen years. In the west, Germany gave up small areas to Belgium and Denmark. In the east, Germany lost large areas to the recreated Poland; included in the new Poland was a narrow strip of land along the Vistula River to the seaport of Danzig, [Page 638]which cut Germany in two. The new Poland also included lands formerly controlled by Austria-Hungary and Russia, and both Austria and Hungary were separated and greatly reduced in size and power. Italy received lands around the northern Adriatic Sea. Romania gained territory at the expense of Hungary, Bulgaria, and Russia. Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were recreated out of Russian territory, even though Russia, engaged in civil war, was not represented in Paris, where representatives met from Britain, France, and the United States. Germany lost all of its overseas possessions, and the Ottoman Empire lost its Arab lands in Asia. The devastated European countries no longer possessed the unrivaled global power they had once known.
At the insistence of President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921), most of these areas became mandates and not possessions of the victorious powers. The mandates were to be administered by the victorious nations under the supervision of the new League of Nations, established to maintain peace and avoid future wars. The Treaty of Versailles placed huge reparations on Germany and forced Germany, Austria, and Hungary to disarm almost completely; Germany was not allowed to manufacture or obtain war materials. There were 440 articles; Article X of the League's covenant provided that member nations would “respect and preserve … against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing independence of all members….” This provision was unacceptable to a majority of Republican senators, who asserted that it would involve “entangling alliances” and drag the nation into foreign wars. Democratic-leaning Irish Catholics and German Americans also opposed the treaty, because they believed that the treaty favored the British. Despite Wilson's efforts to sway public opinion in favor of the treaty, he refused to compromise on the inclusion of the League of Nations. Thus, the U.S. Senate never ratified the Treaty of Versailles. Congress passed the Knox-Porter Resolution, which brought a formal end to hostilities between the United States and the Central Powers. It was signed into law by President Warren G. Harding (1921–1923) on July 21, 1921. See alsoChapters 9, 10, and 11.
treaty power: The ability to conclude an accord with another sovereign state, usually concentrated in the executive authority of a government. Article II of the United States Constitution empowers the President of the United States to propose and negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries. These agreements become treaties between the United States and other countries after ratification by the United States Senate. See alsoChapters 1, 9, and 14.
Triple Alliance: Formed in May 1882 among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, agreement in which each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any two other great powers, or for Germany and Italy, an attack by France alone. At the outbreak of World War I (1914–1918), Italy refused to join its two allies, noting that the Triple Alliance was a defensive pact and that Germany and Austria-Hungary took the offensive. Later, in 1915, Italy joined the Allies against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. See alsoChapters 8 and 9.
Triple Entente: Alliance among Great Britain, France, and Russia formed in 1907 as a counter-weight to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. At the outbreak of World War I (1914–1918), Italy did not join its two allies; in 1915, it joined Great Britain, France, and Russia against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. See alsoChapters 8 and 9.
Truman Doctrine: Policy articulated by President Harry S. Truman (1945–1953) on March 12, 1947, pledging U.S. support of Greece and Turkey with military and economic aid to prevent those nations from falling under Soviet influence. In February 1946, George F. Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, sent to Truman his “Long Telegram,” in which he predicted that the Soviet Union would only respond to force and that the best way to respond to that nation's aggressive moves would be through a long-term strategy of containment; he hoped to prevent the spread of communism in Europe. In March 1947, Truman appeared before Congress and used Kennan's recommendations as the basis for what became known as the Truman Doctrine, the first in a series of containment moves by the United States. The doctrine was followed by economic restoration of Western Europe through the Marshall Plan (1947–1951) and the creation of NATO (1949) and served to buttress American Cold War policy in Europe and around the world. See alsoChapter 17.U
U-boat: Anglicized version of the German U-boot, itself shorthand for unterseeboot (undersea boat), the German submarines used against Allied warships and merchant ships during World War I (1914–1918) and again in World War II (1939–1945). The primary targets of U-boats were the merchant marine bringing supplies from the United States and the British Empire to the British Isles. Germany's unrestricted use of U-boats during World War I was a major cause of U.S. entry into that conflict. See alsoChapters 8, 9, and 10.[Page 639]
unconditional surrender: The complete surrender of a nation at the end of a war in which the defeated nation or party is prevented from dictating any terms once fighting ends. In the twentieth century, the most famous examples were the unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan, the leading Axis Powers at the end of World War II (1939–1945). See alsoChapters 9, 10, and 14.
unilateral: Undertaken by one party or nation only, when a second party or nation could or should have had input. Although unilateral action usually generates a backlash of international anger and opposition, it is the least complicated foreign-policy action, requiring no diplomacy, no consensus, and no multilateral support. Supporters of American unilateralism maintain that the United States is free to act alone to protect its interests and security. See alsoChapter 35.
United Nations (UN): International organization established after the end of World War II (1939–1945) to maintain world peace; the successor organization to the League of Nations. Late in 1944, representatives of four major Allied powers—the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China—met at Dumbarton Oaks, an estate near Washington, D.C., to develop concrete proposals for a united nations. In spring 1945, representatives from more than fifty nations met in San Francisco to set up the UN, and the fifty founding members signed the charter on June 26, 1945. (Poland, which was not represented at the meeting, signed the charter later and became one of fifty-one members.) The UN officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, after the United States, Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, China, and a majority of the signatory nations approved the charter. Today, the number of UN member states exceeds 190, each of whom has one vote in the General Assembly. The UN also includes a judicial branch, the International Court of Justice, and a peacekeeping body, the Security Council, which also can authorize military action, as well as the Secretariat, the Trusteeship Council, and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). See alsoChapters 16 and 17.
unrestricted submarine warfare: During wartime, the use of armed submarines to attack enemy merchant vessels without warning. This form of attack was used by German submarines, known as U-boats, during World War I (1914–1918) and World War II (1939–1945). It was a major reason for U.S. entry into World War I. During World War II, German submarines were extremely successful in the North Atlantic, sending more than eight million tons of shipping to the bottom of the sea in the first eleven months after the attack on Pearl Harbor. See alsoChapters 8, 9, and 14.V
Vietnam War (1945–1975): Conflict between Communist North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam, and a proxy war between the Soviet Union and the United States. More than two million troops fought in one of the most costly wars in American history. Before World War II (1939–1945), most of Southeast Asia was ruled by the French, and during the war, the Japanese occupied the area. At the end of the war, Communist leader Ho Chi Minh proclaimed Vietnam's independence; from his stronghold in the north, he led a war against the French and their Vietnamese supporters, which resulted in a French defeat in 1954. According to the Geneva Accords that ended the fighting, Vietnam was temporarily divided, pending elections. A Communist government was established in the north and a non-Communist regime in the south. When the leader of the south refused to hold the promised elections, opposition forces, the Viet Cong, began a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government.
The United States had been supporting the south with military and economic aid since 1950. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy (1961–1963) sent in about sixteen thousand troops as advisers, but they had little impact on the situation. In 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–1969), with authorization from Congress under the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964), escalated the military action against the communists. Subsequently, the number of American troops rapidly rose to more than one-half million. Despite the increased ground fighting, the heavy U.S. bombing of the north, and the destruction of about 20 percent of the area's landscape with toxic chemicals, the north would not capitulate. After lengthy negotiations, an unsteady peace was achieved in 1973, leading to the withdrawal of most U.S. forces. In 1975, the communists captured Saigon, the South Vietnamese capital, and unified the country, and remaining U.S. personnel were evacuated hurriedly from the country.
Domestically, the war divided the American people; antiwar protestors demonstrated against the U.S. role in Vietnam. Internationally, many viewed the fall of South Vietnam as a major defeat for the United States. Beginning in 1975, with the defeat of the United States, many political pundits and some government officials began to use the term Vietnam syndrome to describe the less interventionist and more cautious foreign policy of the nation. See alsoChapters 23 and 24.W
War of 1812: Conflict between the United States and Great Britain waged from 1812 through 1814. Among the causes of the war were the Americans’ belief that the British were [Page 640]supplying arms and munitions to the Native Americans on the western frontier, British interference with American trade on the high seas, and the impressment of American sailors to serve on British ships. With increased tensions between the two nations, Congress declared war on Great Britain on June 19, 1812. In January 1814, upon learning that the British were willing to negotiate a treaty, President James Madison (1809–1817) sent Albert Gallatin, Henry Clay, and John Quincy Adams to Ghent, in what is today Belgium, as the American peace commissioners. The Treaty of Ghent was finally signed on December 24, 1814. The Battle of New Orleans, the final major battle of the war, which occurred on January 8, 1815, was a stunning American victory but had no effect on the war's outcome. See alsoChapters 1 and 2.
War on Terrorism: A term used by President George W. Bush (2001–2009) following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, to describe an ongoing international military campaign to end state-supported terrorism. The so-called war began in 2001 with the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan to topple the Taliban, the fundamentalist Islamic regime that supported and sheltered al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, and continued in 2003 with the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. In an effort to reduce the power of al Qaeda and its affiliates, the war is also waged in the Philippines, the Horn of Africa, and Saharan Africa. To refer to those efforts today, the administration of President Barack Obama (2009–) replaced the term with “Overseas Contingency Operations.” See alsoChapters 35, 39, and 40.
War for Independence (1775–1783): Waged against the British, war in which the thirteen colonies won independence from Great Britain, then the most powerful nation on earth, resulting in the establishment of the United States of America. Tensions had been increasing since 1763, when Great Britain began imposing new and tighter restrictions on the colonies. In particular, the colonists objected to the passage of new tax laws without having representation in the British Parliament in London. On April 19, 1775, fighting broke out in the towns of Lexington and Concord in the Massachusetts colony. In July 1776, the Second Continental Congress, the governing body of the united colonies, issued a formal declaration of independence. A 1777 American victory at the Battle of Saratoga, in New York, brought France into the war as America's ally. The final major battle occurred in 1781 at Yorktown, Virginia, where American and French troops defeated the British and the French fleet prevented British naval units from reinforcing its army. The Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed in September of that year, officially ended the war. See alsoChapters 1 and 4.
War Powers Act (1973): Resolution passed by Congress, declaring its authority to share with the president decisions about declaring war and military involvements. Under the terms of this act, the president must report to Congress within forty-eight hours after committing forces to combat abroad, explaining the circumstances of the commitment. If Congress does not approve the action within sixty to ninety days, the president is required to withdraw the troops. The act was passed over the veto of President Richard M. Nixon (1969–1974), who believed it was unconstitutional on the grounds that the president is commander in chief of the armed forces. Since the act's passage, all presidents have complied with its terms. See alsoChapters 23 and 35.
war reparations: Payment required from a defeated nation to make amends for loss of life and property damages during wartime. For example, the 1919 Treaty of Versailles obligated Germany to pay huge war reparations, ultimately set at the equivalent of $33 billion. Germany, however, impoverished by the cost of World War I (1914–1918), and despite financial adjustments made during the 1920s, could not pay. Therefore, in 1931, under the recommendation of President Herbert Hoover (1929–1933), the Allies agreed to suspend Germany's reparation payments, canceling them at the 1932 Lausanne Conference. The harsh reparations imposed on Germany are cited often as a factor in the rise of Adolf Hitler (in power 1933–1945). See alsoChapters 9 and 13.
Washington Consensus: Term used to describe several policies outlined by economist John Williamson in 1989 in order to provide a set of directions for nations in need of economic assistance. Neither new nor novel, the ideas included in the Washington Consensus were a distillation of advice commonly provided by the World Bank, the U.S. Treasury, the International Monetary Fund, and other lending organizations. The term has come to be used derisively by critics of free market basics. See alsoChapter 31.
weapons of mass destruction (WMDs): Any weapon that can cause widespread loss of life and catastrophic damage to infrastructure. During the Cold War era, the term primarily referred to nuclear weapons, but today it also refers to chemical, biological, and radiological weaponry. In 2003, President George W. Bush (2001–2009) insisted that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was stockpiling weapons of mass destruction, thus posing a threat to Iraq's neighbors and the United States. After the March 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, however, no WMDs were found to support the president's and his advisers’ claims and faulty intelligence. In the United States, indictments and convictions have been obtained for possession and use of WMDs, such as shoe bombs, pipe bombs, and truck bombs. In the 2006 trial of Zacarias Moussaoui, the “20th hijacker” in the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the judge included aircraft used as missiles as WMDs and sentenced Moussaoui to life without parole. See alsoChapter 35.[Page 641]
Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842): Agreement reached between the United States and Great Britain that established a permanent boundary between Maine and Canada. This boundary had been in dispute since the signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the War for Independence (1775–1783). The outbreak of fighting between Maine settlers and trappers and Canadian lumberjacks in the late 1830s made it clear that a resolution was needed to avoid war. The treaty, negotiated by Secretary of State Daniel Webster and Alexander Baring (also known as Lord Ashburton, the British minister to the United States), resulted in the United States’ receiving about seven thousand square miles of the disputed area and Britain's receiving about five thousand square miles. Also, the treaty established a fixed boundary west from Lake Superior to the Lake of the Woods. See alsoChapter 2.
World Bank: Established in 1944, international organization that serves as a source for economic and technical assistance to developing nations. Not a bank in the traditional sense, it is made up of two bodies, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IRBD) and the International Development Association (IDA), which are owned by the 187 member countries. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., and charged with promoting sustainable economic development worldwide, the bank provides low-interest loans, interest-free credits, and grants for a wide array of purposes including health and education, infrastructure, and natural resource management. It also has evolved into an instrument that imposes rules and reforms on nations suffering from economic problems such as debt. See alsoChapters 15 and 16.
World Court: Term used to refer to the International Court of Justice (ICJ), as the International Criminal Court (ICC), and the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), all of which are located at The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICJ was established in 1945 by the UN Charter and is the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice, which had been established in 1922 and attached to the League of Nations. The main purpose of the ICJ, as the primary judicial organ of the United Nations (UN), is to settle legal disputes submitted by member nations and to provide opinions on legal questions submitted by the UN General Assembly and certain other international agencies. The ICC is a permanent tribunal established in 2002 to prosecute individuals for genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression. The PCA, established in 1899, is an administrative organization with the means to arbitrate international disputes, including disagreements over treaties, maritime and territorial boundaries, trade matters, and human rights. See alsoChapters 35 and 40.
World War I (1914–1918): Global conflict that launched a new era of total war that was ignited in June 1914 when a Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, as well as his pregnant wife. The incident occurred in Sarajevo, the capital of the Austrian province of Bosnia. At the time, few expected a major war to result, but the incident sparked worldwide conflagration. On July 23, Austria-Hungary sent an ultimatum to Serbia that, if accepted, would have humiliated Serbia and given Austria-Hungary dominance in the Balkans. Germany gave Austria-Hungary carte blanche, with a promise of full support. In turn, Russia informed Serbia of its support. Serbia rejected the ultimatum, and on July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and found itself at war with Russia as well. France backed Russia, and Germany fulfilled its promise by supporting Austria-Hungary. When Germany invaded Belgium in order to attack France, Great Britain joined France and Russia. Later, Italy joined the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Fighting raged in Europe and spread across the globe as the colonies of the belligerents became involved.
By 1917, the war in Europe reached a stalemate, settling into desperate trench warfare. To keep war material from reaching Britain, Germany implemented unrestricted submarine warfare, a move that caused the loss of innocent civilians, including Americans. Although protests from President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) led Germany to abandon its policy for a time, in early 1917, the Imperial German government resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in the hope of victory before the United States would enter the war. This resumption, plus the publication of the so-called Zimmermann Note, in which Germany encouraged Mexico to make war on the United States in return for lands lost in the Mexican War (1846–1848), led to Congress’ declaring war on Germany on April 6, 1917.
The arrival of American troops turned the tide of the war in favor of the Allies. In November 1918, the disillusioned German people forced their ruler, Kaiser Wilhelm II (in power 1888–1918), to abdicate and flee to the Netherlands. The armistice signed on November 11, 1918, marked the end of the fighting, and the war officially ended with the Treaty of Versailles (1919). The Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires were replaced by a number of smaller states, and the United States took on its new role as a global power. See alsoChapters 8, 9, and 10.
World War II (1939–1945): The most extensive global conflict in history, waged in Europe, Asia, and Africa, which began with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. During the 1930s, Japan, Italy, and Germany became increasingly aggressive, demanding territory and building up of their respective militaries. As soon as Adolf Hitler took power in 1933, he began to rearm Germany in spite of the [Page 642]limitations imposed on German armed forces by the Treaty of Versailles (1919). He reorganized Germany into a military state in which all citizens were “coordinated” to fit the Nazi military machine. In 1936, he moved German troops into the demilitarized zones of the Rhineland and, when France and Great Britain did not react, he kept troops there. A year earlier, Italian troops under the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini (in power 1922–1943) had invaded Ethiopia, and while the League of Nations protested ineffectually, the Italian troops easily conquered the weak African nation. In 1931, Japan took over the northern Chinese province of Manchuria and established the puppet state of Manchukuo, and in July 1937, Japanese troops again invaded northern China. Imperial Japan aimed to control eastern Asia from Korea to the East Indies and the entire western Pacific area, to create a “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.” By the late 1930s, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan had formed a military alliance, becoming known as the Axis powers. In Europe, Hitler demanded the Sudetenland, a region of Czechoslovakia. To avoid war, France and Great Britain appeased Hitler in the infamous Munich Pact of 1938. The following spring, Germany annexed all of Czechoslovakia. In 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Ribbontrop-Molotov Pact, an understanding in which the two nations agreed not to attack each other and divide Poland between them.
Temporarily assured of Soviet neutrality, Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. France and Britain declared war on Germany on September 3. Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Denmark, and Norway quickly succumbed to Nazi armies.
In the United States, public opinion was strongly against intervening in the war. However, President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945) realized that Hitler's ambitions knew no bounds and, if not stopped, Germany would someday attack the United States. As a result, Roosevelt sought to make the United States “an arsenal of democracy” and pushed for measures “short of war” to prepare the nation, including the first peacetime draft and the 1941 Lend-Lease Act to supply materiel to the Allies. In June 1941, Nazi armies invaded the Soviet Union, violating the Ribbontrop-Molotov Pact and bringing the Soviet Union into the war. On the early morning of December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched an attack on the U.S. base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; the U. S. Congress declared war on Japan the next day. Three days later, on December 11, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. Throughout most of 1942, the Axis powers easily achieved new victories: Japan in the Pacific, Germany in the Soviet Union and southeastern Europe, and Germany and Italy in North Africa. Then in November 1942, Britain and the United States invaded North Africa, pushing back the Axis troops. In 1943, Allied troops moved north on the Italian peninsula, and in September of that year, Italy surrendered unconditionally. On June 6, 1944, D-Day, American, British, and Canadian troops landed on the Normandy coast of France, thus beginning a push across France to the German capital of Berlin. As Allied forces moved east, Soviet troops moved west; soldiers from the two armies met in Germany in late April 1945, and Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 8. In the Pacific, war still raged and the Japanese refused to surrender.
In August 1945, President Harry S. Truman (1945–1953), who assumed the presidency after Roosevelt's death on April 12, authorized the dropping of the world's first atomic bombs on Japan. On August 6, the Enola Gay, a B-29 bomber, dropped the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima; three days later, a second atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki. The two bombs killed more than 100,000 Japanese and permanently injured thousands more. Still, the Japanese military refused to capitulate. The Emperor Hirohito forced the issue and insisted on an immediate surrender to avoid more bloodshed. The Empire of Japan surrendered unconditionally on August 14. See alsoChapters 14 and 15.
WTO: The only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. The goal of the World Trade Organization is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct business. Member nations, more than one hundred fifty, abide by a complex set of trade agreements that are mutually beneficial. The WTO came into being in 1995; it is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which had been established in the wake of World War II. Since 1999, meetings of the WTO have sparked widespread, and often violent, protests against free trade and globalization. See alsoChapters 31 and 34.X
XYZ Affair: Diplomatic affront to the United States committed by the Duc de Talleyrand, the French foreign minister, and his agents. The French government viewed the Jay Treaty (1794) with Great Britain as a repudiation of the 1778 Franco-American alliance. As a result, the French ordered the seizure of American ships bound for British ports. In response, many members of the pro-British Federalist Party demanded war against France. In 1797, determined to keep the nation out of war, President John Adams (1797–1801) sent a special commission, consisting of Charles C. Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry, to negotiate with the French government. However, Talleyrand's agents refused to meet with the American delegation unless assured that the United States would adopt a friendlier attitude toward France. Unofficially, they also demanded [Page 643]a bribe of $240,000. After months of wrangling, the American mission gave up. Adams, when reporting the incident to Congress, referred to the French agents as Messieurs X, Y, and Z and declared that he would “never send another minister to France without assurances that he will be received, respected, and honored as the representative of a free, powerful, and independent nation.” The incident became known as the XYZ Affair and sparked indignation across the United States. See alsoChapter 1.Y
Yalta Conference (1945): Meeting of the leaders of the Allied powers in February 1945, when the defeat of Germany seemed imminent. Held in the Crimean resort of Yalta, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1940–1945, 1951–1955), Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (in power 1924–1953), and President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945), the “Big Three,” tried to arrive at basic arrangements for the postwar world. Often referred to as the beginning of the Cold War, the conference was instrumental in the secret division of the continent and other regions into competing spheres of influence: the Western bloc (led by the United States) and the Eastern bloc (led by the Soviet Union). Roosevelt pressed for Soviet intervention in the war against Japan. The Soviet Union was to have dominance in Mongolia and occupy the Kurile Islands north of Japan. The Soviet Union was allotted eastern Poland, which it already held, while Poland, as compensation, was to receive land from Germany. In the European lands formerly conquered by Germany, new governments were to be established through free elections under the auspices of the three powers. Germany was to be divided into military zones and occupied by the armed forces of the major Allied nations, Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union. See alsoChapters 14 and 15.
yellow journalism: A type of press that presents little or no well-researched news, often using attention-grabbing headlines and wild exaggeration. Yellow journalism is often opinion masquerading as fact. The term comes from an 1890s comic, “Hogan's Alley,” which featured a character, dressed in yellow, known as the “yellow kid” and was published by Joseph Pulitzer in the New York World. Rival William Randolph Hearst, who published the New York Journal, was determined to compete; he hired away the “Hogan's Alley” cartoonist. In response, Pulitzer hired another artist to draw a second “yellow kid.” Quickly, the sensationalist stories published by the opposing newspapers became known as “yellow journalism.” The yellow journalism of New York's rival newspapers was a key factor leading to the Spanish-American War (1898). See alsoChapter 6.Z
Zimmermann Note: A diplomatic proposal by the German Imperial government to Mexico to make war against the United States. In January 1917, British cryptographers deciphered a telegram from the German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann to the German minister to Mexico, Heinrich von Eckhardt, offering U.S. territory, the states of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico, to Mexico in return for joining the German cause. Mexico declined the proposal, but the publication of the telegram enraged the American public and helped draw the United States into World War I (1914–1917). See alsoChapters 8 and 9.[Page 644]
Chapter Acronyms and Initialisms[Page 645]
AAA: Agricultural Adjustment Act [Chapter 12]
ABM: Anti-Ballistic Missile System [Chapter 25]
AC: Advisory Council [Chapter 14]
ACC: Allied Control Commission [Chapter 14]
ACRI: African Crisis Response Initiative [Chapter 37]
ACT: Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy [Chapter 37]
AFC: America First Committee [Chapter 13]
AFL-CIO: American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations [Chapter 34]
AFRICOM: African Command [Chapter 37]
AGOA: African Growth and Opportunity Act [Chapter 37]
AIOC: Anglo-Iranian Oil Company [Chapter 18]
AMG: Allied Military Government [Chapter 14]
ANC: African National Congress [Chapter 21]
ANZUS: Australia, New Zealand, and United States Treaty [Chapter 19]
APOC: Anglo-Persian Oil Company [Chapter 18]
ARAMCO: Arabian-American Oil Company [Chapter 18]
ARVN: Army of the Republic of Vietnam [Chapter 23]
AU: African Union [Chapter 37]
CAAA: Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act [Chapter 21]
CAFTA: Central American Free Trade Agreement [Chapter 31]
CBD: Convention on Biological Diversity [Chapter 32]
CBI: Caribbean Basin Initiative [Chapter 31]
CCP: Communist Chinese Party [Chapter 36]
CDAAA: Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies [Chapter 15]
CHAI: Clinton Health Access Initiative [Chapter 37]
CJTF: Combined Joint Task Forces [Chapter 33]
CJTF-HOA: Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa [Chapter 37]
CNAS: Center for a New American Security [Chapter 36]
COMECON: Council for Economic Assistance [Chapter 29]
Comintern: Communist International [Chapter 11]
CPA: Comprehensive Peace Agreement [Chapter 37]
CPSU: Communist Party of the Soviet Union [Chapter 25]
CPV: Chinese People's Volunteers [Chapter 19]
CSA: Confederate States of America [Chapter 3]
CSCE: Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe [Chapter 25]
DMZ: Demilitarized Zone [Chapter19]
DOD: Department of Defense [Chapter 32]
DOS: Department of State [Chapter 4]
DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo [Chapter 37]
DRV: Democratic Republic of Vietnam [Chapter 23]
EAC: European Advisory Commission [Chapter 14]
EAM: National Liberation Front (Greece) [Chapter 16]
ECLA: Economic Commission for Latin America [Chapter 22]
ERP: European Recovery Program [Chapter 32]
ESDI: European Security and Defense Identity [Chapter 33]
ESDP: European Security and Defense Policy [Chapter 33]
FCDA: Federal Civil Defense Administration [Chapter 20]
FEC: French Expeditionary Corps [Chapter 23][Page 646]
FTF: Feed the Future [Chapter 37]
GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [Chapter 34]
HIV/AIDS: Human Immuno-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome [Chapter 37]
HUAC: House Un-American Activities Committee [Chapter 17]
ICC: International Criminal Court [Chapter 37]
IEDs: Improvised Explosive Devices [Chapter 40]
IFOR: Implementation Force [Chapter 33]
IGOs: International Governmental Organizations [Chapter 39]
INGOs: International Non-Governmental Organizations [Chapter 39]
IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Chapter 32]
ISAF: International Security Assistance Force [Chapter 33]
ITT: International Telephone and Telegraph [Chapter 22]
IUCN: International Union for the Conservation of Nature [Chapter 32]
KANU: Kenya African National Union [Chapter 37]
KFOR: Kosovo Force [Chapter 33]
KLA: Kosovo Liberation Army [Chapter 33]
KMAG: Korean Military Advisory Group [Chapter 19]
KPA: Korean People's Army [Chapter 19]
LAFTA: Latin America Free Trade Area [Chapter 31]
LEP: League to Enforce Peace [Chapter 8]
MAP: Membership Action Plan [Chapter 33]
MCC: Millennium Challenge Corporation [Chapter 37]
MDC: Movement for Democratic Change [Chapter 37]
MFN: Most Favored Nation [Chapter 12]
MIRV: Multiple Independently Targeted Re-Entry Vehicle [Chapter 25]
MNR: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement [Chapter 22]
MONUSCO: United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [Chapter 37]
MPLA: Movement for the Liberation of Angola [Chapter 25]
NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People [Chapter 10]
NAM: Non-Aligned Movement [Chapter 21]
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration [Chapter 32]
NIRA: National Industrial Recovery Act [Chapter 12]
NMD: National Missile Defense [Chapter 34]
NNSC: Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission [Chapter 19]
NORAD: North American Aerospace Defense Command [Chapter 41]
NPT: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty [Chapter 25]
NRA: National Recovery Administration [Chapter 12]
NSD 26: National Security Directive 26 [Chapter 27]
NSDD 138: National Security Decision Directive [Chapter 27]
NSL: National Security League [Chapter 8]
NTBT: Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty [Chapter 25]
NTD: Neglected Tropical Disease Initiative [Chapter 37]
OAU: Organization of African Unity [Chapter 21]
OSCE: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe [Chapter 33]
PA: Palestinian Authority [Chapter 38]
PARP: PfP Planning and Review Process [Chapter 33][Page 647]
PCA: Permanent Court of Arbitration [Chapter 41]
PDBs: Presidential Daily Briefs [Chapter 35]
PDPA: People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan [Chapter 25]
PEPFAR: President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief [Chapter 37]
PFLP-GC: Palestinian Front for the Liberation of Palestine—General Command [Chapter 27]
PfP: Partnership for Peace [Chapter 33]
PKI: Communist Party of Indonesia [Chapter 21]
PMI: President's Malaria Initiative [Chapter 37]
PNW: Prevention of Nuclear War agreement [Chapter 25]
PWA: Public Works Administration [Chapter 12]
QDDR: Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review [Chapter 39]
ROC: Republic of China [Chapter 21]
RTA: Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act [Chapter 12]
RVN: Republic of Vietnam [Chapter 23]
SACEUR: Supreme Allied Commander Europe [Chapter 33]
SCAP: Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers [Chapter 16]
SDS: Students for a Democratic Society [Chapter 23]
SED: Strategic and Economic Dialogue [Chapter 36]
SFOR: Stabilization Force [Chapter 33]
SLBM: Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles [Chapter 20]
START: Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty [Chapter 29]
SVN: State of Vietnam [Chapter 23]
UFCO: United Fruit Company [Chapter 22]
UN 242: United Nations Resolution 242 [Chapter 26]
UNC: United Nations Command [Chapter 19]
UNEF: United Nations Emergency Force [Chapter 26]
UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme [Chapter 32]
UNFCCC: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change [Chapter 32]
UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [Chapter 37]
UNPROFOR: United Nations Protection Force [Chapter 33]
UNRRA: United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agency [Chapter 16]
USAMGIK: U.S. Army Military Government in Korea [Chapter 19]
USIA: U.S. Information Agency [Chapter 40]
WEU: Western European Union [Chapter 33]
WMO: World Meteorological Organization [Chapter 32][Page 648]
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