Guide to U.S. Elections

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    Editors' Note

    The sixth edition of CQ Press's Guide to U.S. Elections is published following the historic national elections of 2008, in which Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected president of the United States and whose principal opponent in the primary contest to win the Democratic Party nomination was a woman, Hillary Rodham Clinton. The significance of Obama's election included that fact that it had only been four or five decades since African Americans were often unable even to vote in many states and areas of the nation. The 2008 election was also notable because it drew into the campaigns and the voting booths thousands of young persons, just old enough to vote or still in their twenties, who had previously shunned electoral politics. In addition, the 2008 voting reaffirmed the growing strength of the Democratic Party and the declining fortunes of the Republican Party, at least for the near-term future. In addition to Obama's victory, Democrats won commanding control of both houses of Congress and in the process became the dominant party in all regions of the nation except the South.

    The revised Guide to U.S. Elections tells this remarkable story while, at the same time, setting the events of recent years in the context of the long historical development of politics and elections in the United States. The volume has been expanded in many ways to provide readers a logical and comprehensive explanation of voting—the fundamental act of self-government.

    The editors of this new edition have retained numerous features and content from earlier editions, including multiple means of accessing information, such as use of cross-reference page flags and several indexes. This edition also continues to emphasize the origins and development of U.S. elections at the federal and state levels as well as the rise of such important issues as campaign finance reform. Its historical background provides a framework for better understanding the comprehensive array of election returns that are the central feature of the Guide.

    Part 1: Elections in America. This section provides readers a broad overview of the U.S. elections system. The introductory chapter, “The Evolution of American Elections,” outlines the history of elections, with a particular emphasis on the last seventy years of the twentieth century and the early years of the twenty-first. This chapter also includes a list of election milestones for more than two hundred years.

    The second chapter, “Elections: An Expanding Franchise,” discusses the long—and often slow—expansion of the franchise in the United States from a highly restricted right to vote in its earliest days to the universal voting privilege that exists today.

    Part 2: Political Parties. First appearing in the previous edition, Chapter 3 on campaign finance was developed to chronicle the overriding importance—and influence—of campaign spending and contributions as they became one of the most controversial aspects of U.S. elections. Substantially revised for this edition, this chapter highlights the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 and its consequences, intended and otherwise. Chapter 4, “Politics and Issues, 1945–2008,” helps readers to better understand the historical context in which elections since World War II have been held.

    Chapter 5, “Political Party Development,” provides a history of the evolution of parties, examines party systems, and addresses the question of why two parties. Chapter 6, “Historical Profiles of American Political Parties,” profiles all major and most minor U.S. parties, many of which no longer exist.

    Part 2 also contains chapter 7, which discusses the southern electoral experience, including the historical significance of southern primaries that wielded a disproportionate impact upon the American electoral process during much of the twentieth century.

    Part 3: Presidential Elections. This section reviews all U.S. presidential races and includes a detailed elections chronology, nominating convention highlights, platforms, ballots, electoral college results (with accompanying maps), and popular vote returns for primaries and general elections.

    Part 4: Congressional Elections. This section provides detailed election returns for Congress from 1842 to the present in the House and from 1913 (when popular vote was first used) to the present in the Senate. The election data are supported by chapters explaining the history and evolution of voting for members of the legislative branch of government. Readers also will find in this section a listing of senators, their dates of service in office, and senate primary election returns.

    Part 4 also includes chapter 22 on the history of reapportionment and redistricting, the historically decennial process that realigns representation in the House after every census. The chapter discusses the unprecedented “mid-decade” redistricting in Texas during the 1990s that at the time helped promote the GOP into majority control of the House; the party would enjoy this majority until its fortunes started to decline in the 2006 elections. The chapter also examines the way that population location, growth, and decline have affected the allocation of House seats throughout U.S. history.

    Part 5: Gubernatorial Elections. This section follows the pattern of the previous sections with a detailed listing of general and primary returns for the election of governors, supported by chapter 27 discussing gubernatorial history. A list of governors and their dates in office is included.

    Finding Information

    A reader can locate information in a number of ways. The table of contents offers an overall view of the book's scope and allows quick access to major sections. Primary divisional headings direct a reader quickly to more specific information. A separate listing identifies tables, figures, and boxes.

    The reader can also turn to one of the six candidate indexes: presidential; House; Senate general; Senate primary; gubernatorial general; and gubernatorial primary. Each of these indexes lists the year(s) each candidate ran for office.

    The general index provides references to all sections of the Guide, except the popular returns, which are indexed in the candidate indexes. The general index can be used independently as a source of information separate from the candidate indexes.

    ICPSR and Other Election Data

    The bulk of election returns used in the Guide to U.S. Elections for presidential, gubernatorial, Senate, House, and southern primary races was supplied by the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) at the University of Michigan. Except where noted, returns through 1972 came from the ICPSR. (See box, ICPSR Historical Election Returns File, and details on the presentation of these returns in this book, pp. 753, 967, 1433, and 1597.)

    CQ Press is grateful to the ICPSR staff for its assistance and advice in supplementing this information since the first edition in 1975. We thank especially Richard C. Rockwell, executive director, and Erik W. Austin, director of archival development.

    Major sources used to update or supplement the ICPSR data are identified at the beginning of each section. The primary sources include the biennial America Votes series, compiled by Richard M. Scammon, Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook; and American State Governors, 1776–1976, Vol. 1, by Joseph E. Kallenbach and Jessamine S. Kallenbach. Additional valuable assistance in adding and correcting data and supplying missing full names has been provided by elections scholars Michael Dubin and Kenneth C. Martis.

    Contributors

    Any reference book of 2000 pages that was first published nearly thirty-five years ago is the work of many individuals, and this edition of the Guide is no exception.

    The sixth edition was under the general direction of volume editor David R. Tarr, former executive editor and director of book publishing at CQ Press, who also revised a number of chapters. He was assisted by Rhodes Cook, the editor of CQ Press's America Votes series, who shared reams of voting data from the 2008 election and answered many questions about earlier contests. Contributors to the volume include Gerald Pomper of Rutgers University; Joe Cantor, a retired expert on campaign finance with the Congressional Research Service for many years; David Hosansky, Miles Pomper, and John Moore, former Congressional Quarterly reporters; Deborah Kalb, Washington, D.C., a freelance writer and frequent contributor to CQ Press books; Fenton Martin, librarian of the Political Science Research Collection at Indiana University; and Doug Goldenberg-Hart, senior acquisitions editor at CQ Press.

    The volume was edited by former CQ Press staffer Jon Preimesberger.

    Their efforts have enhanced the foundation laid by those who contributed to one or more earlier editions. These contributors include Bob Benenson, Michael Dubin, Phil Duncan, Alan Ehrenhalt, Ronald D. Elving, Charles C. Euchner, Paul Finkelman, Warden Moxley, Patricia Ann O'Connor, Matt Pinkus, Jon Preimesberger, Robert H. Resnick, and Elizabeth Wehr.

    Editorial development of this edition of the Guide was under the direction of Andrea Pedolsky, Editorial Director of the Reference Information Group, and Associate Editor Andrea Cunningham.

    Production was coordinated by Emily Bakely. The volume was composed by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., indexed by Indexing Partners LLC, and proofread by Robin Bourjaily, Kate Macomber Stern, and Jan Wickline.

    Inevitably in a reference work of this size and complexity, errors and omissions occur. We are grateful to the diligent readers who have noted possible errors in earlier editions and have supplied additional details where existing information was missing or incomplete. In all cases, editors have attempted to verify new details brought to our attention and have made revisions where possible. CQ Press again invites comments and suggestions from scholars and other users of the Guide to U.S. Elections.

    The 2008 Election: Transforming American Politics

    Gerald M. Pomper, Board of Governors Professor of Political Science (Emeritus), Rutgers University

    The drama of the election of 2008 came from its leading man, Sen. Barack Obama of Illinois. As the first African American to be elected president of the United States—indeed the first national candidate of his race with a reasonable chance of winning—his ascent to power marked a transformation in American politics and an epochal ending to this nation's sad heritage of slavery and segregation. Obama's victory was also historically distinctive around the world, for he was the first African American elected leader of any nation where whites were the majority of the electorate. Obama's election was significant beyond its racial import. The immediate drama of 2008 was another turn in the longer plotline of American politics.

    In 2008 the institutional structure of the elections remained stable and normal by historical standards. Presidential victory, as prescribed in the Constitution, came from winning an absolute majority of the electoral college, where Obama gained 365 votes to his opponent Sen. John McCain's 173 votes. In all but two states (which allocated votes by district), these electoral votes were awarded to the candidate who received a majority of the state's popular vote. (Unlike the controversial results in the presidential election of 2000, and in the earlier 1876 contest, there were no disputes in the counting of the 2008 votes.)

    As is typical in the United States, the election featured only two significant parties: the Democrats and the Republicans. To win the single national office of the presidency (and gain the required electoral majority), politicians must form multistate coalitions. Although many minor parties entered the 2008 contest, they had no significant support, in contrast to previous elections where independent candidates deprived a major party candidate of a national victory. For instance, in 1992 Democratic candidate Bill Clinton won the presidency with only 43 percent of the popular vote over George H. W. Bush's 37 percent because H. Ross Perot of the Reform Party took almost 19 percent (but no electoral votes). In 2000 some supporters of Al Gore blamed Ralph Nader of the Green Party for the Democrats losing the election to Republican George W. Bush. Nader took nearly three million votes nationwide and won crucial shares in closely fought Florida and New Hampshire, where a win in either state would have given Gore the White House.

    The results of the 2008 election were quite different. The tally was resolute: Democrat Obama won 69.5 million votes, the largest vote in history for any candidate, achieving 53.7 percent of the national popular total and a margin of 9.5 million over Republican McCain. That was the most decisive presidential election victory in a generation, except for Ronald Reagan's second presidential election victory in 1984. The senator from Chicago became only the fourth Democratic nominee in U.S. history to win a decisive majority of the popular vote—joining the lonely figures in the party pantheon of Andrew Jackson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Lyndon Johnson. Restoring the Democrats to the White House, Obama reversed the outcome of George W. Bush's minority selection in 2000 and his thin 51.2 percent majority in 2004.

    The number of voters in the 2008 election increased to nearly 132 million, 61.6 percent of eligible adult citizens. Although this turnout was only a 1.5 percent increase over 2004, it represented a continuing revival of voting turnout from the low points in preceding decades. Voting participation rose more than 10 percent in a dozen states, while dropping slightly in six noncompetitive states. One reason for this increase was the spread of early mail and absentee voting, enabling voters to cast their ballots without traveling to polling stations. More than 30 million ballots were actually cast before the official election day, November 4. Overall turnout grew considerably among nonwhite voters, in response to the extended contest for the Democratic presidential nomination and Obama's candidacy. Minority voters constituted more than a quarter of the total turnout, the largest proportion ever recorded.

    Obama's campaign also changed the nation's electoral map. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, the Republican Party approached an “electoral lock” on the presidency, based on its dominance in the South, lower Midwest, Plains, and Mountain West. Democrats seemed confined to the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and the upper Midwest. To win the White House with this limited coalition, Democrats required victories in almost all of these states, neglecting wide swathes of the nation. (When Democrats lost just one critical state—Florida in 2000 and Ohio in 2004—they also lost the national electoral count.)

    Obama gained a national victory by carrying twenty-eight states, the District of Columbia, and a single electoral vote from Nebraska. He captured all states that supported John Kerry in 2004 as well as nine states that had voted for Bush. In contrast to four years earlier, Obama swept the Midwest, carried three of the former Confederate states in the South, and mobilized new voters to win three of the eight states in the Rocky Mountains. He may have laid the foundation for a “blue wall” of Democratic states, engendering the basis for long-term national victories.

    The patterns of individual voting also changed considerably, as Obama gained Democratic votes among virtually every social group, in particular younger voters and minority groups, whether African American, Hispanic, or Asian. Despite the concerns that racial prejudice would lose votes for Obama, a candidate of mixed racial parentage, whites (other than those in the Deep South) increased their support of the Democrats. The white shift was limited, as a majority continued to vote Republican as they have for forty years, but Obama actually fared better among white voters than most recent Democratic candidates, all of them Caucasians.

    In addition, Obama's financial success may have ended the utility of the federal regulation of presidential election spending begun in 1974. That system would have given the Democratic candidate government funds for the fall campaign, in return for a limitation of $84 million in his direct spending. Obama rejected the government money, instead relying on innovative solicitation of donations through the Internet. His campaign raised $750 million from more than three million contributors during the course of his nomination and general election efforts. In these combined efforts, he outspent McCain by a 3–1 margin, changing the parameters of money in politics.

    Obama accomplished this by recreating the larger conduct of campaigns, most notably moving American elections decisively into the era of computer and Internet politics. His campaign organization developed an e-mail list of 13 million addresses and sent more than one billion e-mail messages, sponsored 35,000 volunteer groups, 3.2 million Facebook enrollments, and made three million phone calls to spur turnout in the last four days before the election. The electronic campaign was reinforced by the most extensive ground canvas in U.S. presidential history, mobilizing millions of paid and volunteer staff to identify supporters, register them as voters, and get them to mark their ballots early or at the polls.

    If it is true that the election of 2008 changed American politics, it built on a long, rich and varied political tradition, a tradition that remains persistent, influential, and extensive. While the outcome of a presidential race often dominates election coverage, the full story must include what happens before voters go to the polls. Competitive elections have been held for more than two centuries in the United States, and the vote for the presidency is not the only vote that Americans cast. Nearly 550 federal offices, including representatives and senators, are contested over the six-year electoral cycle, and races for governorships and other state and local posts push into the thousands the total number of people chosen each year.

    To encompass such a vast array of information, Guide to U.S. Elections is conveniently divided into five parts to allow for quick and specific research. Parts 1, 2, and 3 outline the U.S. political system and electoral process. Parts 3, 4, and 5 make it possible for readers from Alabama to Wyoming to trace how their states have voted in presidential, congressional, and gubernatorial elections for as long as the states have been part of the Union. Last but not least, several thorough indexes make it easy to find information quickly.

    Part 1, “Elections in America,” is valuable in showing how the constitutional framework of a separately elected chief executive and legislature has survived for more than two centuries through a process of adaptation. While the United States has the oldest continuous history of competitive elections, suffrage was far from democratic for more than half this period. As Chapter 2, “Elections: An Expanding Franchise,” clarifies, the right to vote was initially restricted to adult white males with property, and some states followed the English practice of the period by not allowing Catholics or Jews to vote. In the nineteenth century, a large majority of white males were enfranchised, but women did not earn the right to vote until the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. For African Americans, although many were temporarily enfranchised after the Civil War, their right to vote was not guaranteed until the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Constitutional amendments since 1961 have also extended the presidential vote to residents of the District of Columbia, prohibited poll taxes, and lowered the voting age to eighteen. More recently, legislation has facilitated voting through “motor-voter” registration and improvements in electoral administration through the Help Americans Vote Act of 2002.

    Part 2 “Political Parties” explains that American elections take place within a structure of partisanship deeply rooted in the institutions and historical development of the U.S. political system, despite the Founders' disdain of “factions.” Chapter 5, “Political Party Development,” outlines that electoral competition between two parties emerged soon after the implementation of the Constitution, revived in the 1820s, and continued through a series of competitions among Federalists, Democrat-Republicans (soon renamed Democrats), Whigs, and Republicans. Although two major parties usually dominated, third, fourth, and other minor parties contested many elections. Since the Civil War, the basic competition has been between Republicans and Democrats, but the two parties have changed their relative positions back and forth and have regularly been challenged by other social and political movements.

    Chapter 6, “Historical Profiles of American Political Parties,” throws light on what is obscured by the assertion that the United States has a two-party system. Third parties have not won the White House or many seats in Congress but their interventions have sometimes determined which of the two leading parties won and forced changes in their positions. Chapter 7, “The Southern Electoral Experience,” explains how state institutions were used to maintain a system of racially biased competition in which whites could vote but African Americans could not until the federal courts and Congress guaranteed the right of people of all races to vote.

    Although presidential races are often turned into personality contests, they are also about issues, as Chapter 4, “Politics and Issues, 1945–2008,” illustrates. Democrats Harry Truman and Lyndon Johnson won elections emphasizing expansive social programs financed through taxation, while other Democratic candidates have lost on these same issues. Republican Ronald Reagan campaigned against big government and won two elections, while fellow Republican Barry Goldwater took a similar position and was buried in a landslide by Johnson and his Great Society program. Commitments of troops to battle overseas have long fostered political debate, as seen in controversies over American interventions in Iraq and, earlier, in Korea and Vietnam.

    The 2008 presidential race centered on economic issues, as the nation endured a financial collapse that threatened a plunge toward depression. The voters' retrospective disapproval of the Bush administration, on issues of the economy as well as the war in Iraq, boosted Obama and doomed McCain. Appeals to moral values, such as those involved in abortion or gay marriage, faded from their prominence in previous elections, such as in 2004, as voters focused more on the issues that affected their ability to make ends meet and keep their jobs.

    Presidential candidates may appeal to voters as personalities, but they owe their place on the ballot to the party that nominates them. Part 3, “Presidential Elections,” documents the changing path to securing the nomination. Chapter 9, “Chronology of Presidential Elections,” provides an overview of all of the major elections since the emergence of the electoral process to the election of Obama in 2008.

    The stage for presidential elections is set by the parties' nomination of candidates. From the launch of party politics until the mid-twentieth century, national conventions of party elites decided who would be the Democratic and Republican candidates. In recent years, however, primaries have become critical in winning party leadership, as described in Chapter 10 “Presidential Primaries.” The structure of primaries, however, has been inconsistent—changing over the years and held at different times and by different rules in the several states.

    The primary system has been transformed in recent years and was dramatically different in 2008. “Front-loading,” the shift of state contests to earlier dates, has resulted in a virtual national primary, with a near-majority of delegates to the national conventions chosen on a single day. For Republicans in 2008, the effect was the early victory of McCain. For Democrats, the effect was the early narrowing of the race to two candidates, Obama and Sen. Hillary Clinton of New York, who contended throughout the spring in a series of contests that eventually engaged voters in every state. The Democratic contest also stands out for the unprecedented exclusion of convention delegates chosen in defiance of the party's national nomination rules and the critical role of “superdelegates,” ex-officio party leaders and elected officials.

    Paralleling the dominant impact of primaries, the autonomous power of the national conventions further eroded in 2008, as discussed in Chapter 12, “Nominating Conventions.” The party meetings have become little more than ritual endorsements of the presidential candidates chosen in the earlier direct contests, and even the vice-presidential nominees are no longer selected by convention delegates. In 2008 the running mates—Delaware senator Joseph Biden and Alaska governor Sarah Palin, the first woman on a Republican ticket—were selected in advance by the prospective presidential nominees. Part 3 concludes with the roles and final tallies of the popular vote and electoral college vote in Chapter 16, “Popular Vote Returns for President,” and Chapter 17, “The Electoral College.”

    Electing a president is only one part of a U.S. national election, which also involves the choice of all 435 members of the House of Representatives and a third of the Senate, which is likely to determine which party controls the upper house of Congress. The outcome of elections for the House and Senate is critical in determining what a president can and cannot do domestically. Part 4, “Congressional Elections,” documents the results of elections for the House since 1824 and since the popular election of senators began in 1913. In the past three decades, an increase in split-ticket voting (an individual voting for candidates of different parties for president and for Congress) has led to an era of divided government, with different parties in control of the White House and Congress. Divided government has been deplored on the grounds that it blurs accountability for the actions of government and makes it more difficult for the president, the only official accountable to the nation as a whole, to carry through a party program. Nevertheless, it became typical after 1968; one party controlled both branches of the national government for only six years during the last third of the twentieth century.

    However, in the opening years of the twenty-first century, there has been some return to the historical patterns of one party-control of the White House and both houses of Congress. Republicans enjoyed this power during most of the first six years of the administration of George W. Bush. Democrats took control of both houses of Congress in 2006 and then increased their power in 2008 with Obama's capture of the presidency and increased margins of 257–178 in the House and 60–40 in the Senate. With parties in a position to enact their promised programs, these electoral turnabouts may presage a period of renewed party responsibility and accountability.

    However, at the level of the congressional district, elections to the House of Representatives are often uncompetitive. In 2008 the average representative won by a landslide, and in only fifty seats was the margin of victory less than 10 percent. In fifty-six seats around the country there was no real contest, because one party or the other failed to name a candidate. Still, competition was greater in 2008 than four years earlier, when only twenty seats had relatively close races and sixty-six had only one major party candidate.

    In a federal system, the governors of the fifty states are closer to their voters than is the president. Part 5, “Gubernatorial Elections,” outlines the outcome of gubernatorial elections from the beginning of the United States and gives an overview of the role of governor, with information on methods of election and term limits. The section also lists every governor who has served in the United States, including the short period for the new nation after the Revolutionary War but before the adoption of the Constitution.

    Given the number of offices up for election in a four-year period and the number of elections since 1789, any reference book on elections must be large to be useful. This sixth edition of the Guide to U.S. Elections is comprehensive, offering readers a one-stop service, bringing together results that would otherwise be scattered across many books and libraries and often unavailable or hidden on Web sites. It was designed to invite hours of browsing for insights into American politics of the past, present, and speculative future. New features build on decades of authoritative work on U.S. elections by CQ Press staff and their associates at Congressional Quarterly to present complex information clearly in both prose and in tables.

  • Appendix

    Appendix 1: Constitutional Provisions and Amendments on Elections

    Article I

    Section 2: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

    No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

    Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative… .

    When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

    Section 3: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years, and each Senator shall have one Vote.

    Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

    No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen… .

    Section 4: The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Place of Chusing Senators.

    The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

    Section 5: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business… .

    Article II

    Section 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows.

    Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

    [The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.]1

    The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

    No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

    Amendment XII

    (Ratified July 27, 1804)

    The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; … The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.—]1 The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

    Amendment XIV

    (Ratified July 9, 1868)

    Section 2: Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,1 and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

    Section 3: No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

    Amendment XV

    (Ratified February 3, 1870)

    The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

    Amendment XVII

    (Ratified April 8, 1913)

    The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualification requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

    When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

    This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

    Amendment XIX

    (Ratified August 18, 1920)

    The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

    Amendment XX

    (Ratified January 23, 1933)

    Section 1: The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of the Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

    Section 2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they by law appoint a different day.

    Section 3: If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

    Section 4: The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them… .

    Amendment XXII

    (Ratified February 27, 1951)

    No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative form holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

    Amendment XXIV

    (Ratified January 23, 1964)

    The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

    Amendment XXV

    (Ratified Feb. 10, 1967)

    Section 1: In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

    Section 2: Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

    Section 3: Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

    Section 4: Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

    Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

    Amendment XXVI

    (Ratified July 1, 1971)

    Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

    Notes

    Superseded by the Twelve Amendment.

    Changed to January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment.

    Superseded by the Nineteenth and Twenty-Sixth Amendments.

    Appendix

    Appendix 2: Population of the United States and Puerto Rico, 1790–2000

    Appendix

    Appendix 3: Changing Methods of Electing Presidential Electors, 1788–1836

    This chart shows the changing methods used by the states to elect presidential electors from 1788 to 1836. (See “Methods of Choosing Electors,” p. 820, Vol. I.)

    Appendix

    Appendix 4: Presidential Nominating Campaign Lengths, 1968–2008

    NOTE: Beginning of campaigns is determined by date of the formal annoucement.SOURCES: 1968-1984: Congressional Quarterly, (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1980), and Congressional Quarterly, 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1985), 387; 1988-1996: (1987), 2732; (1988), 1894, 1896, 1899; (1991), 3735; (1992), 66, 361, 556, 633, 1086; (1995), 2, 13, 15, 3025, 3606; (1996), 641, 716; 2000, 2004, 2008: compiled by the editors from news reports, various sources.

    Appendix

    Appendix 5: Victorious Party in Presidential Races, 1860–2008

    Appendix

    Appendix 6: Distribution of House Seats and Electoral Votes

    Appendix

    Appendix 7: Election Results, Congress and the Presidency, 1860–2008

    Appendix

    Appendix 8: Results of House Elections, 1928–2008

    Appendix

    Appendix 9: Sessions of the U.S. Congress, 1789–2009

    Appendix

    Appendix 10: Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789–2009

    Appendix

    Appendix 11: House Floor Leaders, 1899–2009

    Appendix

    Appendix 12: Senate Floor Leaders, 1911–2009

    Appendix

    Appendix 13: Election-Related Web Sites

    Thousands of Internet sites provide information about elections and politics. They are operated by candidates, political parties, interest groups, think tanks, trade associations, labor unions, businesses, government agencies, news organizations, polling firms, universities, and individuals.

    Election-oriented sites can have short lives. Many spring up just before a particular election and then go dark once the ballots are counted. The sites listed below, however, have proven themselves to be stable sources of ongoing election information—at least as of 2009, when this was written.

    Ballot Access News

    The full texts of the newsletter Ballot Access News from early 1994 to the present is available at this site. The newsletter publishes news about efforts around the country to overturn laws that restrict ballot access by candidates.

    Ballot Watch

    A database at Ballot Watch has details about initiatives and referendums that are moving toward qualification on state ballots or that have already qualified in states around the country. Users can search the database by subject, status, state, and type of measure.

    Census: Voting and Registration Data

    The U.S. Census Bureau operates this site, which has data about registration and voting by various demographic and socioeconomic groups. Data are available from 1964 to the present.

    CQ Politics

    CQ Politics is published by Congressional Quarterly and provides unique, compelling perspectives on politics, campaigns, and events on Capital Hill. Commonly covered subjects include the Supreme Court, upcoming elections, the economy, national security, Congress, and the White House.

    Electionline.org

    http://Electionline.org is produced by the Pew Center on the States' Election Initiatives. A nonpartisan, non-advocacy Web site, http://Electionline.org provides up-to-the-minute news and analysis on election reform.

    Electoral College Home Page

    Background information about how the electoral college operates is available at this site. It also has results for popular votes and electoral college votes in presidential elections from 1789 to the present and provisions of the U.S. Constitution and federal law pertaining to presidential elections.

    Federal Election Commission

    This site's main feature is a database of campaign finance reports filed from May 1996 to the present by House and presidential candidates, political action committees, and political party committees. Senate reports are not included because they are filed with the secretary of the Senate. Another valuable resource is the Combined Federal/State Disclosure and Election Directory, which provides detailed information about every federal and state office that collects campaign finance data or regulates election spending. For each office, the publication lists the types of data that are available and complete contact information, including a link to the office's Web site.

    Federal Election Reform Network

    This site is the home of the National Commission on Federal Election Reform, organized in the wake of the 2000 presidential election by the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia and the Century Foundation. Available on the site is the full text of the bipartisan commission's 114-page final report, issued July 31, 2001. Many of the commission's recommendations were incorporated in the Help America Vote Act signed by President George W. Bush on October 29, 2002.

    National Election Studies

    This site, operated by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research and Stanford University, provides a wealth of polling data regarding electoral behavior and public opinion from 1952 to the present.

    The New York Times: Politics

    Political stories from the current day's issue of the New York Times are available through this site. It also offers breaking Washington news stories from the Associated Press, archived Times stories about specific political topics, results from political polls, and political cartoons by a variety of artists.

    Opensecrets.org

    Both raw data about money in politics and reports that analyze all the numbers are available at this site. It is operated by the Center for Responsive Politics, a nonprofit research group. Numerous databases provide detailed campaign finance data for federal candidates and information about contributions by political action committees. The site also has lists of the top federal contributors by industry, profiles of every political action committee registered with the Federal Election Commission, data about soft money contributions, links to sources of state campaign finance data, reports with titles such as Influence Inc.: The Bottom Line on Washington Lobbyists and The Politics of Sugar, and much more.

    The Pew Research Center for the People & the Press

    The Pew site presents the results of polls regarding the press, politics, and public policy issues conducted from 1995 to the present. The polls measure public attitudes about topics such as China policy, Congress, the economy, elections, and the Internet's impact in elections.

    Political Money Line

    Political Money Line, which is operated by a private company, offers an extraordinary collection of federal campaign finance data. The site has lists of the top contributors from each state, lists of the leading political action committees in various categories, data on soft money contributions, numerous databases that provide itemized information about receipts and expenditures by federal candidates and political action committees, and much more. Most of the information is free, although some sections of the site are limited to subscribers.

    Political Resources on the Net

    Links to more than 24,000 election and politics-related Web sites around the world are presented at this site. The links lead to sites operated by political parties, organizations, governments, media outlets, and others. Users can search the whole site or browse the links by region or country.

    Political Science Resources: United States Politics

    This site of the University of Michigan Documents Center offers links to hundreds of Web sites about politics and elections. The listings are divided into more than two dozen categories, including campaign finance, cybercitizenry, elections, foreign policy, lobbying groups, news sources, political parties, primaries, public opinion, public policy issues, statistics, and think tanks, among others.

    Politico

    http://POLITICO.com is a multiplatform news source that reports on events in Congress, the interworkings of lobbying in Washington, and election campaigns. POLITICO shares editorial content with news outlets from across the country.

    Politics1

    Politics1 provides a huge set of annotated links to Web sites operated by candidates, political parties, election offices, and election news sources in states around the country. It also has links to sites for presidential candidates, the two major parties, third parties, and political news sources.

    Politicsonline

    This site's highlight is its large collection of links to news stories about how the Internet is being used in elections and politics around the world.

    Project Vote Smart

    The Project Vote Smart site provides biographies of thousands of candidates and elected officials in offices ranging from state legislator to president, voting records for members of Congress, detailed campaign finance data for members of Congress, the texts of ballot initiatives from states around the country, links to thousands of other political Web sites, and lots more.

    Voter Information

    This League of Women Voters site has links to information about state and local candidates around the country, details about how to register to vote, voter registration contact numbers for every state, and links to other election sites.

    Washingtonpost.com: On Politics

    The latest political news from the Washington Post and the Associated Press highlights this page. It also has archived stories about dozens of political issues, such as health care and gun control, election coverage, and more.

    Appendix

    Appendix 14: Political Party Abbreviations

    The following list provides a key to the political party abbreviations used in Guide to U.S. Elections, sixth edition. This list was developed by Congressional Quarterly from two sources for party designations: the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), for most election returns up to 1973; and the America Votes series (compiled biennially by CQ Press in Washington, D.C.) for most election returns after 1974. In cases of discrepancy, the ICPSR party designation was used.

    The election data obtained from the ICPSR contain nearly 1,500 different party labels. In many cases the party labels represent combinations of multiparty support received by individual candidates. However, in preparing the returns for publication, approximately 1,000 of the party labels were eliminated because the candidate(s) did not receive at least 5 percent of the votes cast. The names of the parties appear below in the form they were obtained from ICPSR and America Votes.

    A-AAnti-Adams

    A-AK RAnti-Addicks Republican

    ABAbolition

    A-BANKAnti-Bank

    AB-DAbolition-Democrat

    A-BEN DAnti-Benton Democrat

    A-BOSSAnti-Boss

    A-BROD DAnti-Broderick Democrat

    ACAnti-corruption

    A-CBAnti Carpet-Baggers

    ACPA Connecticut Party

    ADAdams Democrat

    A-D-FUSAnti-Democrat-Fusion

    AGAAmerican Grassroots lternative

    AG WHEELAgricultural Wheeler

    A JACAndrew Jackson

    A-JACAnti-Jackson

    A-JAC DAnti-Jackson Democrat

    A-KN DAnti-Know Nothing Democrat

    A-KN IAnti-Know Nothing Independent

    A-KN I DAnti-Know Nothing Independent Democrat

    AK RAddicks Republican

    A-LD DAnti-Land Distribution Democrat

    A-LEC DAnti-Lecompton Democrat

    A-LEC DRAnti-Lecompton Democrat and Republican

    ALIAlaskan Independent

    ALL PPAll Peoples

    ALNCAlliance

    A-LOT DAnti-Lottery Democrat

    AMAmerican

    A-MACHAnti-Machine

    A-MAINEAnti-Maine Law

    A-MASAnti-Mason

    A-MASCAnti-Masonic

    A-MASDNRAnti-Mason-Democrat-National Republican

    AM & EMANCAmerican and Emancipationist

    AMHAmerican Heritage

    AM IAmerican Independent

    AM LABAmerican Labor

    AM MOAmerican Party of Missouri

    AM NATAmerican National

    A-MON DAnti-Monopoly Democrat

    A-MONOPAnti-Monopoly

    AM RAmerican Republican

    AM&RAmerican and Republican

    A-NEBAnti-Nebraska

    A-NEB DAnti-Nebraska Democrat

    ANTI-CLINTAnti-Clinton

    ANTI-CL RAnti-Clinton Republican

    ANTI-FEDAnti-Federalist

    APAction Party

    APOLLOApollo Hall

    ARAdams Republican

    A-RENTAnti-Rent

    A-RPT DAnti-Redemption Democrat

    A-TAMAnti-Tammany

    A-TARIFFAnti-Tariff

    A-TAXAnti-Tax

    A-TRUSTAnti-Trust (A.T.)

    A VB DAnti-Van Buren Democrat

    A-WOLF DAnti-Wolf Democrat

    BALLOTBallot Reform

    BARN DBarnburner Democrat

    BCButter Congressional

    BENTON DBenton Democrat

    B MOOSEBull Moose

    BOLT DBolting Democrat

    BRECK DBreckinridge Democrat

    BROD DBroderick Democrat

    BRYANBryan Party

    BRYAN DBryan Democrat

    B-T RBrindle-Tail Republican

    B & T RBlack and Tan Republican

    BUCK RBucktail Republican

    BUSINESSBusiness Med

    BUT D & NButler Democrat and National

    BUT D & RButler Democrat and Greenback

    BUT RBut. Republican

    CConservative

    CALH DCalhoun Democrat

    CASS DCass Democrat

    CCChange Congress

    CDConservative Democrat

    CI/ICCitizen Independent or Independent Citizen

    CITCitizens

    CIT & CO DCitizen and County Democrat

    CITYCity Party

    CITY FUSCity Fusion

    CIV A‘Civ. A’

    CLAY DClay Democrat

    CLAY RClay Republican

    CLEAN GVClean Government

    CLINT RClinton Republican

    CLPCommonwealth Land Party

    CLUNEYCluney Taxpayers Good Government

    CNMCincinnatus Nonpartisan Movement

    COALITCoalition

    CO DCounty Democrat

    COLOREDColored

    COLOR RColored Republican

    COMCommunist

    CONSTConstitution

    CONSUConsumer

    CPCommonwealth Party

    CRConservative Republican

    CREOLECreole Faction

    CSCommon Sense

    CSICivil Service Independents

    CSR & D‘CSR' and Democrat

    CSTConstitutional

    CST UConstitutional Union

    DDemocrat

    D & AMDemocrat and American

    D & A-MASCDemocrat and Anti-Masonic

    D AM ILDemocrat, American, Independence League

    D & A-RENTDemocrat and Anti-Rent

    D & CDDemocrat and Co. Democrat

    D CITDemocratic Citizen

    D & CITDemocrat and Citizen

    D & CSTDemocrat and Constitution

    DENVER IDenver Independent Party

    D & F ALNCDemocrat and Farmers Alliance

    DFLDemocrat Farmer-Labor

    D & GDemocrat and Greenback

    D-HANKERDemocrat-Hanker

    DIDemocratic-Independent

    D & IDemocrat and Independent

    D & IDDemocrat and Independent Democrat

    D ILDemocrat, Independent League

    D & ILDemocrat and Independence League

    D IL A NPDem., Independent League, Amer., Nat'l. Progressive

    D IL ANPIDemocrat, Independent League, American, Nat'l Progressive, Ind.

    D IL NPRDemocrat, Independent League, National Progressive

    D-IPDemocrat-Independent Progressive

    D & I POPDemocrat and Independent Populist

    DISS DDissident Democrat

    DISTRIBDistributionist Candidate

    D & KEYDemocrat and Keystone

    D K & PROGDemocrat, Keystone and Progressive

    D & LDemocrat and Liberal

    D & LABDemocrat and Labor

    D-LAB-PPDemocrat-Labor-Peoples

    D-LAF IDemocrat-La Follette Independent

    D & LIBNDemocrat and Liberation

    D & LPDemocrat and Law Preservation and Liberty

    D LP & LDemocrat, Law Preservation and Liberty

    DNDemocratic National

    DN & FSD.N. and F.S. (Free Silver)

    D-NG LABDemocrat-National Green Labor

    D NPRDemocrat National Progressive

    D & NSDemocrat and National Silver

    DODD IDodd Independent

    D-OPDemocrat-Other Parties

    DOUG DDouglas Democrat

    D & PDemocrat and Prohibition

    D & POPDemocrat and Populist

    D-POP IDemocrat-Populist Independent

    DPOP PFSDemocrat, Populist, Prohibition & Free Silver

    D-PPDemocrat-Peoples

    DPPCDirect People's Candidate

    D & PPIDemocratic and People's Independent

    D PPI & PRDemocrat, People's Independent and Progressive

    D & PRIDemocrat and Progressive Independent

    D PR & ILDemocrat, Progressive and Independence League

    D & PROGDemocrat and Progressive

    D-PRO-TNDemocrat-Progressive-Townsend

    DPUSD.P.U.S.

    D-R Democratic-Republican

    D & RECDemocrat and Recovery

    D REFDemocrat Reform

    D & RESUBDemocrat and Resubmission

    D R & SOCDemocratic, Republican, Socialist

    DR SOC PDemocratic, Republican, Socialist, Prohibition

    D SILDemocratic (Silver)

    D & SILVERDemocrat and Silver

    D SMDemocrat (S.M.)

    D SOCDemocratic Socialist

    D & SOCDemocrat & Socialist

    D SOCIALDemocratic Social

    D & UN LABDemocrat and Union Labor

    D-WMDemocrat-Working Man

    ECREconomic Recovery

    EMANCIPEmancipation

    ENVIRONEnvironment

    EPElec. Prog.

    EREqual Right

    E TAXEqual Tax

    FACP RFather Coughlin's Principles, Republican

    F ALNCFarmers' Alliance

    FB R‘Free Bridge' Republican

    FEDFederalist

    FEDLFederal

    FEDL ABFederal Abolition

    FEDR LABFederated Labor

    FFFour Freedoms

    FILL AMFillmore American

    F-LABFarmer-Labor

    FLA PPFlorida People's Party

    F PLAYFair Play

    FREM AMFremont American

    FS CLNFree Soil Coalition

    F SILFree Silver

    F SIL RFree Silver Republican

    F SOILFree Soil

    F SOIL DFree Soil Democrat

    F SOIL WFree Soil Whig

    FS & SCFree Soil and Scattering

    FTPFor the People

    FUSFusion

    FUS-D-POFusion-Democrat-Populist

    FUS RFusion Republican

    GGreenback

    GDGreenback Democrat

    G & DGreenback and Democrat

    G LABGreenback Labor

    G LAB & PGreenback Labor and Prohibition

    G LAB RGreenback Labor Republican

    GOLD DGold Democrat

    GOOD GOVGood Government

    G & PGreenback and Prohibition

    G & RGreenback and Republican

    GREENGreen

    G & TAMGreenback and Tammany

    HARD DHard Democratic

    HARD D & AMHard Democrat and American

    HC WHenry Clay Whig

    HEHonest Elections

    HGHonest Government

    HIG RHiggins Republican

    HLHigh Life

    H LICHigh License

    HUNKER DHunker Democrat

    IIndependent

    IAIndependent American

    I ALNCIndependent Alliance

    ICIndependent Conservative

    I CIT ALIndependent Citizens Alliance

    IDIndependent Democrat

    I & DIndependent and Democrat

    I DEMOCIndependent Democracy

    I D-RIndependent Democratic Republican

    ID & OPPIndependent Democrat and Opposition

    ID R & PIndependent Democratic Republican and Prohibition

    IFCIndependents for Change

    IFPIndependents for Perot

    IGIndependent Greenback

    IG & RIndependent Greenback and Republican

    I LEAGUEIndependence League

    I LGIndependent League

    IL & NPRIndependent-National and National Progressive

    I-NIndependent-National

    INDIndependence (New York)

    IND CONG‘Ind. Cong.'

    INDEPIndependence

    IND GOVTIndustrial Government

    INDLIndustrialist

    INDUSTIndustrial

    I N-PARTIndependent Non-Partisan

    IPIndependent Party

    I-POIndependent-Public Ownership

    INSIndependent Neighbors

    IPP CHIndependent People's Choice

    I PROGIndependent Progressive

    I-PROG-RIndependent-Progressive-Republicans

    I-PR-SOCIndependent-Progressive-Socialist

    IR, I-RIndependent Republican

    I.R.I.R.

    I RAD RIndependent Radical Republican

    IR & DIndependent Republican and Democrat

    I REFIndependent-Reform

    I REF DIndependent Reform Democrat

    IR & PIndependent Republican and Prohibition

    IRR UIrregular Union

    IRR WIrregular Whig

    ISIllinois Solidarity

    I SOCIndependent Socialist

    IVIndependent Voters

    I VTIndependent Vermonters Party

    I WIndependent Whig

    JACJackson

    JAC & ARJackson and Adams Republican

    JAC DJackson Democrat

    JAC RJackson Republican

    JACS RJacksonian Republican

    JEFFJefferson

    JEFF DJefferson-Democrat

    JEFFSJeffersonian

    JOBLESSJobless

    KEYKeystone

    KNKnow-Nothing

    K POPKolbite Populist

    LLiberal

    LABLabor

    LAB & POPLabor and Populist

    LAB-RLabor-Republican

    LAB REFLabor Reform

    LAB REF & PLabor Reform and Prohibition

    LAFLa Follette

    LAF ILa Follette Independent

    LANCASTLancaster

    LAW ENFLaw Enforcement

    LAW ORDLaw and Order

    LAW PRESLaw Preservation

    LD DLand Distribution Democrat

    LFDLincoln Fair Deal

    LIBLiberty

    LIBER WLiberation Whig

    LIBERTLibertarian

    LIFLong Island First

    LINLin.

    LINCOLNLincoln

    L-LAB DLiberal-Labor-Democratic

    LOCOFOCOLocofoco

    L & O WLaw and Order Whig

    LOW TAX DLow Tax Democrat

    LRLiberal Republican

    LRULa Raza Unida

    LULiberty Union

    LW & BLight Wines and Beer

    LW RLily-White Republican

    MCK SMMcKinley Sound Money

    MID ROADMiddle of the Road Populist

    MINN TAXMinnesota Taxpayers

    MLPMunicipal League Party (M.L.)

    MOD RModerate Republican

    MOZART DMozart Democrat

    MRMinstrel Republican

    NNational Party

    NANew Alliance

    NAMNative American

    N AMNational American

    NC RNorth Carolina Republican

    NDNational Democrat

    NDPANational Democratic Party of Alabama

    NEBNebraska

    NEB DNebraska Democrat

    NEIGHNeighborhood

    NEW DEALNew Deal

    NEW INew Independent

    NEW LEADNew Leadership

    NFNuclear Freeze

    NGNational Greenback

    NLNatural Law

    NON PARTNon Partisan

    NON PLNonpartisan League

    NPNational Prohibition

    N PROGNational Progressive

    NRNational Republican

    NR-A-MASNational Republican-Anti-Mason

    N SILVERNational Silver

    N SRNational States Rights

    NULLNullifier

    NULL DNullifier Democrat

    NULL NRNullification-National Republican

    N UNIONNational Union

    OBOpen Book

    OLD AGEOld Age Pension

    OLD ROld Republican

    OPOccion Popular

    OPPOpposition

    OPP DOpposition Democrat

    OPP ROpposition Republican

    OPP & SCOpposition and Scattering

    PProhibition

    P & DProhibition and Democrat

    P D-R & PRProhibition, Democrat-Republican and Progressive

    P D SOCProhibition, Democrat, Socialist

    PEACE DPeace Democrat

    PERS LIBPersonal Liberty

    P & F ALNCProhibition and Farmer's Alliance

    PFPPeace and Freedom

    P-LABPopulation-Labor

    POPPopulist

    POP & DPopulist and Democrat

    POP IPopulist Independent

    POP & RPopulist and Republican

    POP SILPopulist Silver

    POP & SL DPopulist and Silver Democrat

    POPU GOVPopular Government

    PPPeople's

    PP CANDPeople's Candidate, The

    PP & DPeople's and Democrat

    PP-D-S-RPeople's-Democrat-Silver-Republican

    PP IPeople's Independent

    PPL DR SPeople's Party Labor, Democratic Republican, Silver

    PP & RPeople's and Republican

    PRC TOWNPRC, Townsend

    PRG SOCProgressive Social

    PRI RPrimary Republican

    PRO-BANKPro-Bank

    PROGProgressive

    PROG-BMRProgressive-Bull Moose-Roosevelt

    PROG & BUSProgressive and Businessmen's

    PROG DProgressive Democrat

    PROG D & PProgressive-Democrat and Prohibition

    PROG & ILProgressive and Independence League

    PROG-PProgressive-Prohibition

    PROG RProgressive Republican

    PTProtectionist

    PUB OWNPublic Ownership

    PURE POLPure Politics

    RRepublican

    RADRadical

    RAD RRadical Republican

    R AMRepublican American

    R & A-MONORepublican and Anti-Monopoly

    R AM & PRRepublican, American and Progressive

    R & A-TAMRepublican and Anti-Tammany

    R & A-TRRepublican and Anti-Trust Republican

    R & BMRepublican and Bull Moose

    RBM & PRRepublican, Bull Moose and Progressive

    R & CFRepublican and City Fusion

    RCF & LPRepublican City Fusion and Law Preservation

    R CF & RECRepublican, City Fusion, and Recovery

    RCIRich County Independent

    R CITRepublican Citizens

    R CST & CFRepublican, Constitutional, and City Fusion

    R-D Republican-Democrat

    RDCRepublican Delegate Convention

    R-D-PRepublican-Democrat-Prohibition

    R-D-PR-CRepublican-Democrat-Progressive-Commonwealth

    R-D-PROGRepublican-Democratic-Progressive

    R D P TRepublican, Democrat, Progressive, Townsend

    R D TRepublican, Democrat, Townsend

    READJReadjuster

    REDEM DRedemption Democrat

    REFReform

    REF DReform Democrat

    REGRegular

    REG DRegular Democrat

    REPEALRepeal

    REPEAL LRepeal League

    R & F ALNCRepublican and Farmer's Alliance

    R-FFRepublican-Federalist Fusion

    R-F-LABRepublican-Farmer Labor

    R F-L-PRepublican, Farmer-Labor-Prohibition

    RGRepublican Greenback

    R-G-FUSRepublican-Greenback-Fusion

    R-GOLD DRepublican-Gold Democrat

    R & IDRepublican and Independent Democrat

    R & ILRepublican and Independence League

    RIL A NPRepublican Ind League, Amer. Nat'l Progressive

    RIL & NPRRepublican, Independent League and National Progressive

    RIL P NPRepublican, Independent League, Prohibition, Nat'l Progressive

    R IL PRRepublican, Independence League and Progressive

    R & IVRepublican and Independent Voters

    R K & WASHRepublican, Keystone, and Washington

    RKW & ROPRRepublican, Keystone, Washington and Roosevelt Progressive

    R & LABRepublican and Labor

    R & LPRepublican and Law Preservation

    R MCK CITRepublican, McKinley Citizen

    R & NDRepublican and National Democrat

    R & NGRepublican and National Greenback

    R & NPRepublican and Nonpartisan

    R NPRRepublican, Nat'l Progressive

    R NPR AMRepublican, Nat'l Progressive, American

    RORoosevelt

    ROBINSONRobinson Citizens Party

    ROB RRob. Republican

    R-OPRepublican-Other Parties

    RO PROGRoosevelt Progressive

    RO SOC DRoosevelt Social Democrat

    ROYAL OAKRoyal Oak

    RPRate Payers Against LILCO

    R & PRepublican and Prohibition

    RP & DCRepublican Party and Delegate Convention

    RPIRoss Perot Independent

    R P NPRRepublican, Prohibition, Nat'l Progressive

    R POP FURepublican Populist Fusion

    RP & PROGRepublican, Prohibition, and Progressive

    R PR ILRepublican, Progressive, Independence League

    R & PROGRepublican and Progressive

    R-SIL RRepublican-Silver Republican

    R & SOCRepublican and Socialist

    R SOC & LPRepublican, Socialist, and Law Preservation

    R & SQDEALRepublican and Square Deal

    RTRepublican, Townsend

    R & TEMPRepublican and Temperance

    RTLRight to Life

    R & ULRepublican and Union Labor

    R-UNIONRepublican-Union

    R & VICRepublican and ‘Vic'

    R VIC & CFRepublican, ‘Vic', and City Fusion

    R & WASHRepublican and Washington

    R & YDRepublican and Young Democracy

    SECSecessionist

    SEC DSecession Democrat

    SEC WSecessionist Whig

    SILENTSilent Majority

    SIL-RSilver Republican

    SIL-R-DSilver-Republican-Democrat

    SINGLE TSingle Tax

    SISStaten Island Secession

    SM DSound Money Democrat

    SOCSocialist

    SOC & F-LSocialist and Farmer-Labor

    SOCIAL DSocial Democrat

    SOC LABSocialist Labor

    SOC & LPSocialist and Law Preservation

    SOC & PROGSocialist and Progressive

    SOC WORKSocialist Workers

    SO DSouthern Democrat

    SOFT DSoft Democrat

    SOFT D & AMSoft Democrat and American

    SOJScales of Justice

    SO RTSSouthern Rights

    SO RTS DSouthern Rights Democrat

    SOR WSouthern Rights Whig

    SPPStraight People Party

    SRState Rights

    SR DState Rights Democrat

    SR FTState Rights Free Trader

    SR WState Rights Whig

    SSR DState's Rights Democrat

    SSR NULLState's Rights Nullifier

    STAL DStalwart Democrat

    STAL SILStalwart Silver

    STATE DState Democrat

    STC DState Credit Democrat

    STICKERSticker

    TAFT‘Taft for President'

    TAMTammany

    TAM DTammany Democrat

    TAM D & ULTammany Democrat and Union Labor

    TAM & NY DTammany and New York Democracy

    TAXU.S. Taxpayers

    TAYLOR WTaylor Whig

    TCP-LITax Cut Party-Long Island

    TEMPTemperance

    TEMP REFTemperance Reform

    TFCTwenty-First Century

    THIRDThe Third Party

    TOLToleration

    TOWNTownsend

    TOWN-C-LTownsend-Coughlin-Labor

    TOWN OAPTownsend Old Age Pension

    TOWN SJTownsend Social Justice

    TOWN-SJDTownsend-Social Justice, Democratic

    TCPTTaxpayers Party to Cut Taxes

    UUnited

    U CITUnited Citizen

    U LABUnited Labor

    ULTRA ABUltra Abolitionist

    UNUnion

    UN DUnion Democrat

    UN LABUnion Labor

    UN LAB & DUnion Labor and Democrat

    UNP RUnpledged Republican

    UN PROGUnion Progressive

    UN RUnion Republican

    UN & SQDUnion and Square Deal

    UNTUnionist

    UN WUnion Whig

    USLPU.S. Labor Party

    UTUnity

    U TAXUnited Taxpayers

    UVDUltra-Veto Democrat

    VB DVan Buren Democrat

    VB RVan Buren Republican

    VETS FVeterans Farmer

    VETS VVeterans Victory

    VGVermont Grassroots

    VIVoice of Independence

    VLVoters League

    VRVoter Rights

    WWhig

    W & AMWhig and American

    W & A-MASCWhig and Anti-Masonic

    W-A-RENTWhig Anti-Rent

    WASHWashington

    WCP AMWorkers (Communist) Party of America

    WELFAREWelfare

    WFWorking Families

    W FSWhig Free Soil

    WILDCATWildcat

    WILSON IWilson Independent

    WLWorkers League

    WMWorkingmen

    WM PENNWilliam Penn

    WMP/LWorkingman's Party or League

    WOLF-DWolf Democrat

    WP AMWorkers Party of America

    WRITE INWrite In

    YDYoung Democracy

    YD & RYoung Democrat and Republican

    YOUNGMANYoungman

    Appendix

    Appendix 15: Selected Bibliography

    Part I Elections in America

    Abramson, Paul R., John Herbert Aldrich, and David W. Rohde. Change and Continuity in the 2004 and 2008 Elections. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    Alvarez, R. Michael. Information and Elections. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997.

    Alvarez, R. Michael, and Thad E. Hall. Electronic Elections: The Perils and Promises of Digital Democracy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008.

    Alvarez, R. Michael, Thad E. Hall, and Susan D. Hyde. Election Fraud: Detecting and Deterring Electoral Manipulation. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2008.

    Ansolabehere, Stephen, and James M. Snyder. The End of Inequality: One Person, One Vote and the Transformation of American Politics. New York: Norton, 2008.

    Avey, Michael J. The Demobilization of American Voters: A Comprehensive Theory of Voter Turnout. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1989.

    Banks, Christopher P., David B. Cohen, and John Clifford Green. The Final Arbiter: The Consequences ofBush v. Gorefor Law and Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005.

    Baumgartner, Jody C., and Peter L. Francia. Conventional Wisdom and American Elections: Exploding Myths, Exploring Misconceptions. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

    Benenson, Bob, and John Leo Moore. Elections A to Z. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Berelson, Bernard, Paul F. Lazerfeld, and William A. McPhee. Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.

    Bibby, John F., and Brian F. Schaffner. Politics, Parties, and Elections in America. 6th ed. Boston: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008.

    Billitteri, Thomas J. Campaign Finance Reform: Have Efforts to Rein in Political Donations Failed? Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Black, Earl, and Merle Black. Divided America: The Ferocious Power Struggle in American Politics. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007.

    _____. The Vital South: How Presidents Are Elected. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992.

    Brady, Henry E., and Richard Johnston, eds. Capturing Campaign Effects. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006.

    Buchanan, Bruce. Renewing Presidential Politics: Campaigns, Media, and the Public Interest. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996.

    Campbell, Angus, Gerald Gurin, and Warren E. Miller. The Voter Decides. Evanston, Ill.: Row, Peterson, 1954.

    Campbell, Angus, Philip E. Converse, Warren E. Miller, and Donald E. Stokes. The American Voter. New York: Wiley, 1960.

    Campbell, Angus, Philip E. Converse, Warren E. Miller, and Donald E. Stokes. Elections and the Political Order. New York: Wiley, 1966.

    Campbell, James E. The Presidential Pulse of Congressional Elections. 2nd ed. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1997.

    Campbell, James E., and James C. Garand. Before the Vote: Forecasting American National Elections. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2000.

    Cantor, Joseph E., and R. Sam Garrett. Campaign Finance Legislation in Congress. New York: Novinka, 2008.

    Carmines, Edward G., and James A. Stimson. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.

    Carroll, Susan J., and Richard Logan Fox. Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

    Chen, Kevin. Political Alienation and Voting Turnout in the United States, 1960–1988. San Francisco: Mellon Research University Press, 1992.

    Conway, M. Margaret. Political Participation in the United States. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.

    Conway, M. Margaret, Gertrude A. Steuernagel, and David W. Ahern. Women and Political Participation: Cultural Change in the Political Arena. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    Corrado, Anthony, Thomas E. Mann, Daniel R. Ortiz, and Trevor Potter. The New Campaign Finance Sourcebook. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.

    Crigler, Ann N., Marion R. Just, and Edward J. McCaffery. Rethinking the Vote: The Politics and Prospects of American Election Reform. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

    Cummings, Milton C. Congressmen and the Electorate: Elections for the U.S. House and the President, 1920–1964. New York: Free Press, 1966.

    Davies, Philip, and Bruce I. Newman. Winning Elections with Political Marketing. New York: Haworth Press, 2006.

    DiClerico, Robert E. Political Parties, Campaigns and Elections. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2000.

    _____. Voting in America: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2004.

    Dinkin, Robert J. Voting in Revolutionary America: A Study of Elections in the Original Thirteen States, 1776–1859. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.

    Doppelt, Jack C., and Ellen Shearer. Nonvoters: America's No-Shows. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1999.

    Downs, Anthony. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper, 1957.

    Edsall, Thomas B., and Mary D. Edsall. Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics. New York: Norton, 1991.

    Enelow, James M., and Melvin J. Hinich. The Spatial Theory of Voting: An Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

    Farrand, Max, ed. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. 4 vols. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966.

    Farrar-Myers, Victoria A., and Diana Dwyre. Limits and Loopholes: The Quest for Money, Free Speech, and Fair Elections. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Felchner, Morgan E. Voting in America. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2008.

    Fiorina, Morris P. Retrospective Voting in American National Elections. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981.

    Flanigan, William H., and Nancy H. Zingale. Political Behavior of the American Electorate. 11th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

    Fowler, James H., and Oleg Smirnov. Mandates, Parties, and Voters: How Elections Shape the Future. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007.

    Freeman, Jo. We Will Be Heard: Women's Struggles for Political Power in the United States. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

    Garrow, David J. Protest at Selma: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1978.

    Gelman, Andrew. Red State, Blue State, Rich State, Poor State: Why Americans Vote the Way They Do. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008.

    Ginsberg, Benjamin, and Martin Shefter. Politics by Other Means: The Declining Importance of Elections in America. New York: Basic Books, 1990.

    Goehlert, Robert U., and Fenton S. Martin. CQ's Guide to Modern Elections: An Annotated Bibliography, 1960–1996. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999.

    Graham, Gene. One Man, One Vote: Baker vs. Carr and the American Levelers. Boston: Little, Brown, 1972.

    Grant, J. Tobin, and Thomas J. Rudolph. Expression vs. Equality: The Politics of Campaign Finance Reform. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2004.

    Green, John Clifford. The Faith Factor: How Religion Influences American Elections. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2007.

    Greenblatt, Alan. Changing U.S. Electorate: Are Demographic Trends Reshaping U.S. Politics? Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Grofman, Bernard, and Chandler Davidson, eds. Controversies in Minority Voting: The Voting Rights Act in Perspective. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1992.

    Grofman, Bernard, Lisa Handley, and Richard G. Niemi. Minority Representation and the Quest for Voting Equality. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

    Gross, Donald A., and Robert K. Goidel. The States of Campaign Finance Reform. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2003.

    Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist Papers with Letters of Brutus. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

    Haynes, George H. The Election of Senators. New York: Henry Holt, 1906.

    Heard, Alexander, and Donald S. Strong. Southern Primaries and Elections, 1920–1949. University: University of Alabama Press, 1950.

    Herrnson, Paul S. Congressional Elections: Campaigning at Home and in Washington. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Herrnson, Paul S., Colton C. Campbell, Marni Ezra, and Stephen K. Medvic. Guide to Political Campaigns in America. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    Hill, David Lee. American Voter Turnout: An Institutional Perspective. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2006.

    Hohenstein, Kurt. Coining Corruption: The Making of the American Campaign Finance System. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2007.

    Holbrook, Thomas M. Do Campaigns Matter? Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1996.

    Huckfeldt, Robert, and Carol W. Kohfeld. Race and the Decline of Class in American Politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

    Hutson, James H. Supplement to Max Farrand's the Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987.

    Jacobson, Gary C. The Politics of Congressional Elections. 7th ed. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2009.

    Junn, Jane, and Kerry Lee Haynie. New Race Politics in America: Understanding Minority and Immigrant Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

    Kallen, Thomas P. Campaign Finance: Background, Regulation and Reform. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science, 2009.

    Key, V. O., Jr., and Milton C. Cummings Jr. The Responsible Electorate: Rationality in Presidential Voting, 1936–1960. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966.

    Kleppner, Paul. Who Voted? The Dynamics of Electoral Turnout, 1870–1980. New York: Praeger, 1982.

    Kluver, Randolph, Nicholas Jankowski, Kirsten Foot, and Steven M Schneider, eds. The Internet and National Elections: A Comparative Study of Web Campaigning. New York: Routledge, 2007.

    Kornbluh, Mark L. Why America Stopped Voting: The Decline of Participatory Democracy and the Emergence of Modern American Politics. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

    La Raja, Raymond J. Small Change: Money, Political Parties, and Campaign Finance Reform. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2008.

    Lawson, Steven F. In Pursuit of Power: Southern Blacks and Electoral Politics, 1965–1982. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

    Lewinson, Paul. Race, Class and Party: A History of Negro Suffrage and White Politics in the South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1932.

    Lockerbie, Brad. Do Voters Look to the Future?: Economics and Elections. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008.

    Mann, Thomas E. Unsafe at Any Margin: Interpreting Congressional Elections. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1978.

    Mark, David. Going Dirty: The Art of Negative Campaigning. Updated ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009.

    Mayer, Robert H. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2004.

    Mayer, William G., ed. The Swing Voter in American Politics. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2008.

    Mayhew, David R. Congress: The Electoral Connection. 2nd ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005.

    McCaffrey, Paul, ed. U.S. Election System. New York: Wilson, 2004.

    McDonald, Michael, and John Curtis Samples. The Marketplace of Democracy: Electoral Competition and American Politics. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute/Brookings Institution Press, 2006.

    McDonald, Michael D., and Ian Budge. Elections, Parties, Democracy: Conferring the Median Mandate. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

    McGovney, Dudley O. The American Suffrage Medley. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949.

    Miller, Warren E., and J. Merrill Shanks. The New American Voter. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

    Morton, Rebecca B. Analyzing Elections. New York: Norton, 2006.

    Myers, Victoria A., and Diana Dwyre. Limits and Loopholes: The Quest for Money, Free Speech, and Fair Elections. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New York: Harper and Row, 1944.

    Nardulli, Peter F. Popular Efficacy in the Democratic Era: A Reexamination of Electoral Accountability in the United States, 1828–2000. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005.

    Nelson, Michael. The Elections of 2004. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    _____. The Elections of 2008. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    Nicholson, Stephen P. Voting the Agenda: Candidates, Elections, and Ballot Propositions. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005.

    Nie, Norman H., Sidney Verba, and John R. Petrocik. The Changing American Voter. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.

    Niemi, Richard G., and Herbert F. Weisberg, eds. Classics in Voting Behavior. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1993.

    _____. Controversies in Voting Behavior. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1994.

    Ogden, Frederic D. The Poll Tax in the South. University: University of Alabama Press, 1958.

    Palazzolo, Daniel J., and James W. Ceaser. Election Reform: Politics and Policy. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2005.

    Percy, Herma. Will Your Vote Count? Fixing America's Broken Electoral System. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2009.

    Piven, Frances F., and Richard A. Cloward. Why Americans Don't Vote. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989.

    Pomper, Gerald M. Voter's Choice: Varieties of American Electoral Behavior. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1975.

    Pomper, Gerald M., et al. The Election of 2000: Reports and Interpretations. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House, 2001.

    Popkin, Samuel L. The Reasoning Voter: Communication and Persuasion in Presidential Campaigns. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

    Prendergast, William B. The Catholic Voter in American Politics: The Passing of the Democratic Monolith. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.

    Rosenstone, Steven J., and John Mark Hansen. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan, 1993.

    Rozell, Mark J., and Clyde Wilcox, eds. God at the Grass Roots 1996: The Christian Right in the American Elections. Lanham, Md,: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

    Samples, John C. The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

    Semiatin, Richard J. Campaigns on the Cutting Edge. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Shea, Daniel M., and Michael John Burton. Campaign Craft: The Strategies, Tactics, and Art of Political Campaign Management. 3rd ed. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2006.

    Smith, Eric R. A. N. The Unchanging American Voter. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

    Stanley, Harold W. Voter Mobilization and the Politics of Race: The South and Universal Suffrage, 1952–1984. New York: Praeger, 1987.

    Streb, Matthew J. Law and Election Politics: The Rules of the Game. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2005.

    Swain, Carol M. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993.

    Tate, Katherine. From Protest to Politics: The New Black Voters in American Elections. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993.

    Teixeira, Ruy A. The Disappearing American Voter. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1992.

    _____. Red, Blue and Purple America: The Future of Election Demographics. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2008.

    Teixeira, Ruy A., and Joel Rogers. America's Forgotten Majority: Why the White Working Class Still Matters. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

    Thernstrom, Abigail M. Voting Rights—and Wrongs: The Elusive Quest for Racially Fair Elections. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 2009.

    Thomas, Sue, and Clyde Wilcox. Women and Elective Office: Past, Present, and Future. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

    Thurber, James A., and Candice J. Nelson. Campaign Warriors: The Role of Political Consultants in Elections. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.

    Trent, Judith S., and Robert V. Friedenberg. Political Campaign Communication: Principles and Practices. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

    Urofsky, Melvin I. Money and Free Speech: Campaign Finance Reform and the Courts. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005.

    Utter, Glenn H., and Ruth Ann Strickland. Campaign and Election Reform: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2008.

    Verba, Sidney, and Norman H. Nie. Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality. New York: Harper and Row, 1972.

    Warren, Kenneth F., ed. Encyclopedia of U.S. Campaigns, Elections, and Electoral Behavior. Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2008.

    Wattenberg, Martin P. Is Voting for Young People?: With a Postscript on Citizen Engagement. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008.

    _____. Where Have All the Voters Gone? Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.

    Wayne, Stephen J. Is This Any Way to Run a Democratic Election? 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

    Weisberg, Herbert F., ed. Democracy's Feast: Elections in America. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House, 1995.

    Wilcox, Clyde. The Latest American Revolution? The 1994 Elections and Their Implications for Governance. New York: St. Martin's, 1994.

    Winograd, Morley, and Michael D. Hais. Millennial Makeover: MySpace, YouTube, and the Future of American Politics. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008.

    Wolfinger, Raymond E., and Steven J. Rosenstone. Who Votes? New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1980.

    Zelden, Charles L. The Supreme Court and Elections. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    Part II Political Parties

    Adkins, Randall E. The Evolution of Political Parties, Campaigns, and Elections: Landmark Documents, 1787–2007. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Alexander, Herbert E. Financing Politics: Money, Elections, and Political Reform. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1992.

    Arnett, A. M. The Populist Movement in Georgia. New York: Columbia University Press, 1922.

    Bass, Harold F. Historical Dictionary of United States Political Parties. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2000.

    Beck, Paul A., and Marjorie R. Hershey. Party Politics in America. 9th ed. New York: Longman, 2001.

    Bibby, John F., and L. Sandy Maisel. Two Parties—Or More? The American Party System. 2nd ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 2003.

    Bibby, John F., and Brian Shaffner. Politics, Parties, and Elections in America. 6th ed. Boston, Thomson-Wadsworth, 2008.

    Biersack, Robert, Paul S. Herrnson, and Clyde Wilcox. After the Revolution: PACs, Lobbies, and the Republican Congress. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999.

    _____, eds. Risky Business: PAC Decisionmaking in Congressional Elections. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1994.

    Binning, William C., Larry E. Esterly, and Paul A. Sracic. Encyclopedia of American Parties, Campaigns, and Elections. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.

    Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. The Money Men: The Real Story of Fund-Raising's Influence on Political Power in America. New York: Crown, 2000.

    Black, Earl, and Merle Black. Divided America: The Ferocious Power Struggle in American Politics. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007.

    Blue, Frederick J. The Free Soilers: Third Party Politics, 1848–1854. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973.

    Borden, Morton. Parties and Politics in the Early Republic, 1789–1815. Arlington Heights, Ill.: Davidson, Harlan, 1967.

    Brady, David W., and Mathew D. McCubbins, eds. Party, Process, and Political Change in Congress. Vol. 2, Further New Perspectives on the History of Congress. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007.

    Brennan, Mary C. Turning Right in the Sixties: The Conservative Capture of the GOP. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

    Brewer, Mark D. Party Images in the American Electorate. New York: Routledge, 2009.

    Brock, William. Parties and Political Conscience: American Dilemmas, 1840–1850. Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus International Publications, 1979.

    Brown, Clifford W., Jr., Lynda W. Powell, and Clyde Wilcox. Serious Money: Fundraising and Contributing in Presidential Nomination Campaigns. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

    Brown, Stuart G. First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1954.

    Bullock, Charles S., and Mark J. Rozell. The New Politics of the Old South: An Introduction to Southern Politics. 3rd ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

    Burbank, Matthew, Ronald J. Hrebenar, Robert C. Benedict, and Ronald J. Hrebenar. Parties, Interest Groups, and Political Campaigns. Boulder, Colo.: Paradigm, 2008.

    Burden, Barry C., and David C. Kimball. Why Americans Split Their Tickets: Campaigns, Competition, and Divided Government. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002.

    Burner, David. The Politics of Provincialism: The Democratic Party in Transition, 1918–1932. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986.

    Campbell, Colton C., and Nicol C. Rae, eds. The Contentious Senate: Partisanship, Ideology, and the Myth of Cool Judgment. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.

    Campbell, James E. Cheap Seats: The Democratic Party's Advantage in U.S. House Elections. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1996.

    Carmines, Edward G., and James A. Stimson. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.

    Chambers, William N., and Walter D. Burnham, eds. The American Party System: Stages of Political Development. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

    Cigler, Allan J., and Burdett A. Loomis, eds. Interest Group Politics. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

    Clawson, Dan, Alan Neustadt, and Denise Scott. Money Talks: Corporate PACs and Political Influence. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

    Clawson, Dan, Alan Neustadt, and Mark Weller. Dollars and Votes: How Business Campaign Contributions Subvert Democracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.

    Cohen, Jeffrey E., Richard Fleisher, and Paul Kantor. American Political Parties: Decline or Resurgence? Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.

    Cohen, Marty. The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations before and after Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

    Converse, Philip E. The Dynamics of Party Support: Cohort-Analyzing Party Identification. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1976.

    Conway, M. Margaret, Gertrude A. Steuernagel, and David W. Ahern. Women and Political Participation: Cultural Change in the Political Arena. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    Corrado, Anthony. Campaign Finance Reform: Beyond the Basics. New York: Century Foundation Press, 2000.

    CQ Press. Political Parties in America. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.

    Cummings, Milton C., Jr. Congressmen and the Electorate: Elections for the U.S. House and President, 1920–1964. New York: Free Press, 1966.

    Cunningham, Noble E. Jeffersonian Republicans: The Formation of Party Organization, 1789–1801. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

    David, Paul T. Party Strength in the United States, 1872–1970. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1972.

    DeVries, Walter, and V. Lance Tarrance Jr. The Ticket-Splitter: A New Force in American Politics. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Erdmans Publishing, 1972.

    DiClerico, Robert E. Political Parties, Campaigns and Elections. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2000.

    Donnelly, David, Janice Fine, and Ellen S. Miller. Money and Politics: Financing Our Elections Democratically. Boston: Beacon Press, 1999.

    Drew, Elizabeth. Whatever It Takes: The Real Struggle for Political Power in America. New York: Viking Books, 1997.

    _____. The Corruption of American Politics: What Went Wrong and Why. New York: Birch Lane Press, 1999.

    Dwyre, Diana, and Victoria A. Farrar-Myers. Legislative Labyrinth: Congress and Campaign Finance Reform. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.

    Eldersveld, Samuel J., and Hanes Walton Jr. Political Parties in American Society. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000.

    Ferguson, Thomas. Golden Rule: The Investment Theory of Party Competition and the Logic of Money-Driven Political Systems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

    Fiorina, Morris. Divided Government. New York: Longman, 2003.

    Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

    Fowler, James H., and Oleg Smirnov. Mandates, Parties, and Voters: How Elections Shape the Future. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007.

    Fritz, Sara, and Dwight Morris. Gold-Plated Politics: Running for Congress in the 1990s. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1993.

    Gais, Thomas L. Improper Influence: Campaign Finance Law, Political Interest Groups, and the Problem of Equality. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

    Gillespie, J. David. Politics at the Periphery: Third Parties in Two-Party America. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1993.

    Gelman, Andrew. Red State, Blue State, Rich State, Poor State: Why Americans Vote the Way They Do. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008.

    Glaser, James M. The Hand of the Past in Contemporary Southern Politics. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005.

    _____. Race, Campaign Politics, and the Realignment in the South. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996.

    Goidel, Robert K., Donald A. Gross, and Todd G. Shields. Money Matters: Consequences of Campaign Finance in U.S. House Elections. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999.

    Green, John, ed. Financing the 1996 Election. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

    Green, John C., and Daniel J. Coffey, eds. The State of the Parties: The Changing Role of Contemporary American Politics. 5th ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

    Hadley, Charles D., and Lewis Bowman, eds. Party Activists in Southern Politics: Mirrors and Makers of Change. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1998.

    Hershey, Marjorie Randon. Party Politics in America. 13th ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2009.

    Hetherington, Marc J., and William J. Keefe. Parties, Politics, and Public Policy in America. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

    Hicks, John D. The Populist Revolt: A History of the Farmer's Alliance in the People's Party. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1961.

    Hofstadter, Richard. The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780–1840. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.

    Huckfeldt, Robert, and Carol W. Kohfeld. Race and the Decline of Class in American Politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

    Jacobson, Gary C. Money in Congressional Elections. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1980.

    Jewell, Malcolm E., and Sarah M. Morehouse. Political Parties and Elections in American States. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.

    Karol, David. Party Position Change in American Politics: Coalition Management. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

    Katz, Richard S. A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 2007.

    Keefe, William J. Parties, Politics, and Public Policy in America. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1998.

    Keith, Bruce E., David B. Magleby, Candice J. Nelson, Elizabeth Orr, Mark C. Westlye, and Raymond E. Wolfinger, eds. The Myth of the Independent Voter. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

    Kent, Frank R. The Democratic Party: A History. New York: Century, 1928.

    Kipnis, Ira. American Socialist Movement, 1897–1912. Chicago, Haymarket Books, 2004.

    Kornbluh, Mark Lawrence. Why America Stopped Voting: The Decline of Participatory Democracy and the Emergence of Modern American Politics. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

    Kraut, Alan M., ed. Crusaders and Compromisers: Essays on the Relationship of Antislavery Struggle to the Antebellum Party System. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.

    Kruschke, Earl R. Encyclopedia of Third Parties in the United States. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1991.

    Kubiak, Greg D. The Gilded Dome: The U.S. Senate and Campaign Finance Reform. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.

    Kuzenski, John C., Laurence W. Moreland, and Robert P. Steed, eds. Eye of the Storm: The South and Congress in an Era of Change. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001.

    Lamis, Alexander P. The Two-Party South. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

    La Raja, Raymond J. Small Change: Money, Political Parties, and Campaign Finance Reform. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2008.

    Lawrence, David G. The Collapse of the Democratic Presidential Majority: Realignment, Dealignment, and Electoral Change from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996.

    Lee, John H. The Origin and Progress of the American Party in Politics: Embracing a Complete History of the Philadelphia Riots in May and July, 1844. Salem, N.H.: Ayer, 1970.

    Livermore, Shaw, Jr. Twilight of Federalism: The Disintegration of the Federalist Party, 1815–1830. Staten Island, N.Y.: Gordian Press, 1972.

    Lowi, Theodore J., and Joseph Romance. A Republic of Parties? Debating the Two-Party System. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.

    Main, Jackson T. Political Parties before the Constitution. New York: Norton, 1974.

    Maisel, L. Sandy. American Political Parties and Elections: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

    _____, ed. The Parties Respond: Changes in the American Parties and Campaigns. 4th ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 2002.

    Maisel, L. Sandy, and Mark D. Brewer. Parties and Elections in America: The Electoral Process. 5th ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

    Malbin, Michael J., ed. Money and Politics in the United States: Financing Elections in the 1980s. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 1984.

    Mayer, George H. The Republican Party, 1854–1966. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.

    Mayer, William G. The Divided Democrats: Ideological Unity, Party Reform, and Presidential Elections. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996.

    Mayhew, David R. Parties and Policies: How the American Government Works. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2008.

    _____. Placing Parties in American Politics: Organization, Electoral Settings, and Government Activity in the Twentieth Century. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986.

    McCormick, Richard P. The Second American Party System: Party Formulation in the Jacksonian Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973.

    McKay, Kenneth. The Progressive Movement of 1924. New York: Octagon, 1966.

    Milkis, Sidney M. The President and the Parties: The Transformation of the American Party System Since the New Deal. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

    Miller, Warren E., and M. Kent Jennings. Parties in Transition: A Longitudinal Study of Party Elites and Party Supporters. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1986.

    Morgan, Wayne. From Hayes to McKinley: National Party Politics, 1877–1896. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1969.

    Mutch, Robert E. Campaigns, Congress and Courts: The Making of Federal Campaign Finance Law. New York: Praeger, 1988.

    Nelson, Michael. The Presidency, the Public, and the Parties. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Nivola, Pietro S., and David W. Brady. Red and Blue Nation?: Characteristics and Causes of America's Polarized Politics. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution on War, 2006–2008.

    Phillips, Kevin P. The Emerging Republican Majority. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1969.

    Pinchot, Amos R. E. History of the Progressive Party, 1912–1916. New York: New York University Press, 1958.

    Pomper, Gerald M. Passions and Interests: Political Party Concepts of American Democracy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992.

    Rapoport, Ronald, and Walter J. Stone. Three's a Crowd: The Dynamic of Third Parties, Ross Perot, and Republican Resurgence: With a New Afterword. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2008.

    Reichley, James A. The Life of the Parties: A History of American Political Parties. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

    Robinson, Edgar E. The Evolution of American Political Parties. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1924.

    Rosenblum, Nancy L. On the Side of the Angels: An Appreciation of Parties and Partisanship. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008.

    Rosenstone, Steven J., Roy L. Behr, and Edward H. Lazarus. Third Parties in America: Citizen Response to Major Party Failure. 2nd ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.

    Ross, Earle D. The Liberal Republican Movement. New York: AMS Press, 1971.

    Rozell, Mark J., and Clyde Wilcox. Interest Groups in American Campaigns: The New Face of Electioneering. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

    Sabato, Larry, and Howard R. Ernst. Encyclopedia of American Political Parties and Elections. New York: Checkmark Books, 2007.

    Schattschneider, E. E. Party Government: American Government in Action. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2004.

    Schefter, Martin. Political Parties and the State: The American Historical Experience. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994.

    Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. History of U.S. Political Parties. 4 vols. New York: Bowker, 1981.

    Schlesinger, Joseph A. Political Parties and the Winning of Office. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991.

    Shafer, Byron E., ed. The End of Realignment? Interpreting American Electoral Eras. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

    Shafer, Byron E., and Richard Johnston. The End of Southern Exceptionalism: Class, Race, and Partisan Change in the Postwar South. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2009.

    Sinclair, Barbara. Party Wars: Polarization and the Politics of National Policy Making. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006.

    Smallwood, Frank. The Other Candidates: Third Parties in Presidential Elections. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1983.

    Smith, Theodore C. Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the Northwest. New York: Arno Press, 1969.

    Sorauf, Frank J. Inside Campaign Finance: Myths and Realities. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992.

    Steed, Robert P., Laurence W. Moreland, and Tod A. Baker, eds. Southern Parties and Elections: Studies in Regional Political Change. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997.

    Stonecash, Jeffrey M. Class and Party in American Politics. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 2000.

    _____. Political Parties Matter: Realignment and the Return of Partisan Voting. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2006.

    Sundquist, James L. Dynamics of the Party System. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Brooking Institution Press, 1983.

    Thayer, George. Who Shakes the Money Tree? American Campaign Financing Practices from 1789 to the Present. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974.

    Timberlake, James H. Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1912–1925. New York: Random House, 1969.

    Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. New York: Vintage, 1990.

    Ware, Alan. The American Direct Primary: Party Institutionalization and Transformation in the North. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

    Wattenberg, Martin P. The Decline of the American Political Parties 1952 to 1996. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998.

    White, John Kenneth, and Daniel M. Shea. New Party Politics: From Jefferson and Hamilton to the Information Age. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2004.

    Part III Presidential Elections

    Abbott, David W., and James P. Levine. Wrong Winner: The Coming Debacle in the Electoral College. New York: Praeger, 1991.

    Abramowitz, Alan, and Larry Sabato. The 2008 Elections. New York: Longman, 2009.

    Abramson, Paul R., John H. Aldrich, and David W. Rohde. Change and Continuity in the 2004 and 2006 Elections. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

    Aldrich, John H. Before the Convention: Strategies and Choices in Presidential Nomination Campaigns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

    American Enterprise Institute. Direct Election of the President. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 1977.

    Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Shanto Iyengar. Going Negative: How Political Ads Shrink and Polarize the Electorate. New York: Free Press, 1995.

    Archer, J. Clark, Stephen J. Lavin, Kenneth C. Martis, and Fred M. Shelley. Historical Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections 1788–2004. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

    Asher, Herbert. Presidential Elections and American Politics: Votes, Candidates, and Campaigns since 1952. 5th ed. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks-Cole, 1992.

    Barber, James D. The Presidential Character: Predicting Performance in the White House. 4th ed. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2009.

    Bartels, Larry M. Presidential Primaries and the Dynamics of Public Choice. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988.

    Bennett, Robert W. Taming the Electoral College. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Law and Politics, 2006.

    Berns, Walter, ed. After the People Vote: A Guide to the Electoral College. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 2004.

    Best, Judith. The Choice of the People? Debating the Electoral College. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996.

    Bickel, Alexander M. Reform and Continuity: The Electoral College, the Convention, and the Party System. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.

    Black, Earl, and Merle Black. The Vital South: How Presidential Elections Are Won. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992.

    Blumenthal, Sidney. The Permanent Campaign. Rev. ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.

    Boiler, Paul F., Jr. Presidential Campaigns. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

    Buchanan, Bruce. Presidential Campaign Quality: Incentives and Reform. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

    _____. The Policy Partnership: Presidential Elections and American Democracy. New York: Routledge, 2004.

    Buchanan, Bruce. Renewing Presidential Politics: Campaigns, Media, and the Public Interest. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996.

    Buell, Emmett H., and William G. Mayer. Enduring Controversies in Presidential Nominating Politics. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2004.

    Buell, Emmett H., and Lee Sigelman. Attack Politics: Negativity in Presidential Campaigns since 1960. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.

    Burnham, Walter D. Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics. New York: Norton, 1971.

    Butler, Roger L. Claiming the Mantle: How Presidential Nominations Are Won and Lost before the Votes Are Cast. Cambridge, Mass.: Westview Press, 2004.

    Byrne, Gary C., and Paul Marx. The Great American Convention: A Political History of Presidential Elections. Palo Alto, Calif.: Pacific Books, 1977.

    Campbell, James E. The American Campaign: U.S. Presidential Campaigns and the National Vote. 2nd ed. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2008.

    Ceaser, James W. Presidential Selection: Theory and Development. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979.

    Ceaser, James W., and Andrew Busch. Upside Down and Inside Out: The 1992 Elections and American Politics. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993.

    Ceaser, James W., Andrew Busch, and John J. Pitney. Epic Journey: The 2008 Elections and American Politics. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009.

    Chase, James S. Emergence of the Presidential Nominating Convention: 1789–1832. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973.

    Cohen, Marty. The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations before and after Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

    Congressional Quarterly. Selecting the President: From 1789–1996. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.

    Cook, Rhodes. The Presidential Nominating Process: A Place for Us? Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

    _____. Race for the Presidency: Winning the 2008 Nomination. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    _____. United States Presidential Primary Elections, 2000–2004: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

    _____. U.S. Presidential Primary Elections, 1968–1996. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.

    CQ Press. National Party Conventions, 1831–2008. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    ________. Presidential Elections, 1789–2008. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    Craig, Stephen C. The Electoral Challenge: Theory Meets Practice. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

    Cravit, Lawrence. The Forty-Year Parallel in Presidential Elections. New York: Vantage Press, 1980.

    Davis, James W. National Conventions in an Age of Party Reform. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1983.

    _____. U.S. Presidential Primaries and the Convention System: A Sourcebook. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1997.

    Denton, Robert E., Jr., ed. The 2008 Presidential Campaign: A Communication Perspective. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield.

    DiClerico, Robert E. The American President. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2000.

    _____. Political Parties, Campaigns and Elections. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2000.

    DiClerico, Robert E., and James W. Davis. Choosing Our Choices: Debating the Presidential Nominating Process. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

    Eaton, Herbert. Presidential Timber: A History of Nominating Conventions, 1868–1960. New York: Free Press, 1964.

    Edwards, George C. Why the Electoral College Is Bad for America. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005.

    Ewing, Cortez A. M. Presidential Elections from Abraham Lincoln to Franklin Roosevelt. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972.

    Farnsworth, Stephen J., and S. Robert Lichter. The Nightly News Nightmare: Television's Coverage of U.S. Presidential Elections, 1988–2004. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

    Fenno, Richard F., Jr. The Presidential Odyssey of John Glenn. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1990.

    Fortier, John C., and Walter Berns. After the People Vote: A Guide to the Electoral College. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 2004.

    Friedenberg, Robert V. Communication Consultants in Political Campaigns: Ballot Box Warriors. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1997.

    Glennon, Michael J. When No Majority Rules: The Electoral College and Presidential Succession. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1992.

    Goldstein, Michael L. Guide to the 2004 Presidential Election. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.

    Green, John Clifford. The Faith Factor: How Religion Influences American Elections. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2007.

    Hacker, Kenneth L., ed. Presidential Candidate Images. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

    Haskell, John. Fundamentally Flawed: Understanding and Reforming Presidential Primaries. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996.

    Havel, James T. U.S. Presidential Candidates and the Elections: A Biographical and Historical Guide. New York: Macmillan Library Reference, 1996.

    Haworth, Paul L. The Hayes-Tilden Disputed Presidential Election of 1876. 1906. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1979.

    Heale, M. J. The Presidential Quest: Candidates and Images in American Political Culture, 1787–1852. New York: Longman, 1982.

    Herzke, Allen D. Echoes of Discontent: Jesse Jackson, Pat Robertson, and the Resurgence of Populism. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1993.

    Hillygus, D. Sunshine, and Todd G. Shields. The Persuadable Voter: Wedge Issues in Presidential Campaigns. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008.

    Huckfeldt, Robert, and John Sprague. Citizens, Politics, and Social Communication: Information and Influence in an Election Campaign. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

    Hull, Christopher C. Grassroots Rules: How the Iowa Caucus Helps Elect American Presidents. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Law and Politics, 2008.

    Jackson, John S., and William Crotty. The Politics of Presidential Selection. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. Electing the President, 2008: The Insiders' View. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

    _____. Packaging the Presidency: A History and Criticism of Presidential Campaign Advertising. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

    Jensen, Merrill, ed. The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections, 1788–1790. Madison, Wis.: Madison House, 1991.

    Johnson, Donald B. National Party Platforms. Rev. ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978.

    Just, Marion R., et al. Crosstalk: Citizens, Candidates, and the Media in a Presidential Campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

    Kamarck, Elaine C. Primary Politics: How Presidential Candidates Have Shaped the Modern Nominating System. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2009.

    Kapeluck, Branwell D., Laurence W. Moreland, and Robert P. Steed. A Paler Shade of Red: The 2008 Presidential Election in the South. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2009.

    Keech, William R., and Donald R. Matthews. The Party's, Choice. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1976.

    Kessel, John H. Presidential Campaign Politics. 4th ed. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks-Cole, 1992.

    Key, V. O., Jr. The Responsible Electorate: Rationality in Presidential Voting, 1936–1960. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966.

    Kleppner, Paul. Who Voted? The Dynamics of Electoral Turnout, 1870–1980. New York: Praeger, 1982.

    Kleppner, Paul, and Walter D. Burnham. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.

    Kraus, Sidney. Televised Presidential Debates and Public Policy. 2nd ed. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.

    Lazarsfeld, Paul Felix, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet. The People's Choice: How the Voter Makes Up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2005.

    Longley, Lawrence D., and Neal R. Peirce. The Electoral Primer. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996.

    Magleby, David B., J. Quin Monson, and Kelly D. Patterson. Dancing without Partners: How Candidates, Parties, and Interest Groups Interact in the Presidential Campaign. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

    Maisel, L. Sandy. Parties and Elections in America: The Electoral Process. 5th ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

    Mayer, William G. The Making of the Presidential Candidates 2008. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

    _____, ed. In Pursuit of the White House 2000: How We Choose Our Presidential Nominees. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House, 1999.

    Mayhew, David R. Divided We Govern: Party Control, Lawmaking and Investigations, 1946–2002. 2nd ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005.

    McCubbins, Matthew D., ed. Under the Watchful Eye: Managing Presidential Campaigns in the Television Era. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1992.

    McGillivray, Alice V. Presidential Primaries and Caucuses: 1992, A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1992.

    McKee, Thomas H. The National Conventions and Platforms of All Political Parties, 1789–1905: Convention, Popular and Electoral Vote. New York: AMS Press, 1971.

    Menefee-Libey, David. The Triumph of Campaign-Centered Politics. New York: Chatham House, 2000.

    Miller, Arthur H., and Bruce E. Gronbeck, eds. Presidential Campaigns and American Self Images. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1994.

    Miller, Warren E., and Teresa E. Levitin. Leadership and Change: Presidential Elections from 1952 to 1976. Cambridge, Mass.: Winthrop, 1976.

    Minow, Newton N., and Craig L. LaMay. Inside the Presidential Debates: Their Improbable Past and Promising Future. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

    Moore, John L. Elections A to Z. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999.

    Nelson, Michael, ed. The Elections of 2008. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    _____, ed. The Elections of 2004. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    _____, ed. Guide to the Presidency. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    _____, ed. Historical Documents on Presidential Elections, 1787–1988. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1991.

    _____, ed. The Presidency and the Political System. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    _____, ed. The Presidency, the Public, and the Parties. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Nimmo, Dan. The Political Persuaders: The Technique of Modern Election Campaigns. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1999.

    Norrander, Barbara. Super Tuesday: Regional Politics and Presidential Primaries. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1992.

    Panagopoulos, Costas. Rewiring Politics: Presidential Nominating Conventions in the Media Age. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007.

    Peters, Gerhard, John T. Woolley, and Michael Nelson, eds. The Presidency A to Z. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Pika, Joseph H., and Richard Watson. The Presidential Contest. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1995.

    Polsby, Nelson W., Aaron Wildavsky, and David A. Hopkins. Presidential Elections: Strategies and Structures of American Politics. 12th ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

    Pomper, Gerald M., et al. The Election of 2000: Reports and Interpretations. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House, 2001.

    Price, Tom. Political Conventions: Have They Outlived Their Usefulness? Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 2008.

    Ragsdale, Lyn. Vital Statistics on the Presidency: George Washington to George W. Bush. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    Robinson, Edgar E. The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1947.

    _____. They Voted for Roosevelt: The Presidential Vote, 1932–1944. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1947.

    Roseboom, Eugene H. A History of Presidential Elections: From George Washington to Jimmy Carter. 4th ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979.

    Rosenstone, Steven J., Roy L. Behr, and Edward Lazarus. Third Parties in America: Citizen Response to Major Party Failure. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984.

    Runyon, John H. Source Book of American Presidential Campaign and Election Statistics, 1946–1968. New York: Ungar, 1971.

    Sabato, Larry. Get in the Booth!: A Citizen's Guide to the 2008 Election. New York: Pearson Longman, 2009.

    Sanders, Arthur B. Losing Control: Presidential Elections and the Decline of Democracy. New York: Peter Lang, 2007.

    Scammon, Richard M. America Votes: A Handbook of Contemporary Election Statistics. Vols. 1–2. New York: Macmillan, 1956–58. America Votes. Vols. 3–5. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1959–64. America Votes. Vols. 6–11. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1966–1975.

    Scammon, Richard M., and Alice V. McGillivray. America Votes. Vols. 12–21. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1977–1995.

    Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes. Vols. 22–28. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1997–2009.

    Schantz, Harvey L., ed. American Presidential Elections: Process, Policy, and Political Change. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

    Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Coming to Power: Critical Presidential Elections in American History. New York: Chelsea House, 1981.

    _____, ed. Running for President: The Candidates and Their Images. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.

    Schlesinger, Arthur M., Fred L. Israel, and William P. Hansen. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–2001. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2002.

    Schroeder, Alan. Presidential Debates: Fifty Years of High-Risk TV. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

    Shafer, Byron. Bifurcated Politics: Evolution and Reform in the National Party Convention. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

    Singer, Aaron, ed. Campaign Speeches of American Presidential Candidates, 1928–1972. New York: Ungar, 1976.

    _____. Campaign Speeches of American Presidential Candidates, 1948–1984. New York: Ungar, 1985.

    Smith, Steven S., and Melanie J. Springer. Reforming the Presidential Nomination Process. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2009.

    Squire, Peverill, ed. The Iowa Caucuses and the Presidential Nominating Process. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1989.

    Stephenson, D. Grier, Jr. Campaigns and the Court: The U.S. Supreme Court in Presidential Elections. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

    Sullivan, Denis G., Jeffrey L. Pressman, and F. Christopher Arterton. Explorations in Convention Decision-Making: The Democratic Party in the 1970s. San Francisco: Freeman, 1974.

    Tenpas, Kathryn D. Presidents as Candidates: Inside the White House for the Presidential Campaign. New York: Garland, 1997.

    Thurber, James A., and Candice J. Nelson, eds. Campaigns and Elections American Style. 2nd ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 2004.

    Troy, Gil. See How They Ran: The Changing Role of the Presidential Candidate. Rev. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

    Tugwell, Rexford G. How They Became President: Thirty-Five Ways to the White House. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965.

    Wattenberg, Martin P. The Rise of Candidate-Centered Politics: Presidential Elections of the 1980s. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991.

    Wayne, Stephen J. The Road to the White House 2008: The Politics of Presidential Elections. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2008.

    Wayne, Stephen J., and Clyde Wilcox. The Election of the Century and What It Tells Us about the Future of American Politics. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2002.

    West, Darrell M. Air Wars: Television Advertising in Election Campaigns, 1952–2008. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    White, Theodore H. America in Search of Itself: The Making of the President, 1956–1980. New York: Harper and Row, 1982.

    Witcover, Jules. No Way to Pick a President. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999.

    Part IV Congressional Elections

    Abramowitz, Alan I., and Jeffrey A. Segal. Senate Elections. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992.

    The Almanac of American Politics. Washington, D.C.: National Journal, 1972– .

    Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Shanto Iyengar. Going Negative: How Political Ads Shrink and Polarize the Electorate. New York: Free Press, 1995.

    Baker, Gordon E. The Reapportionment Revolution: Representation, Political Power, and the Supreme Court. New York: Random House, 1966.

    Bartels, Larry M., and Lynn Vavreck, eds. Campaign Reform: Insights and Evidence. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003.

    Bass, Jack, and Walter DeVries. Transformation of Southern Politics: Social Change and Political Consequence since 1945. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.

    Benjamin, Gerald, and Michael J. Malbin, eds. Limiting Legislative Terms. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1992.

    Brady, David W. Critical Elections and Congressional Policy Making. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1988.

    Brady, David W., John F. Cogan, and Morris B. Fiorina, eds. Continuity and Change in House Elections. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 2001.

    Burrell, Barbara C. A Woman's Place Is in the House: Campaigning for Congress in the Feminist Era. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002.

    Butler, David, and Bruce E. Cain. Congressional Redistricting: Comparative and Theoretical Perspectives. New York: Macmillan, 1992.

    Campbell, James E. The Presidential Pulse of Congressional Elections. 2nd ed. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997.

    Carroll, Susan J. Women as Candidates in American Politics. 2nd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

    Congressional Quarterly. Congressional Districts in the 1990s. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1993.

    _____. Congressional Elections: 1946–1996. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.

    _____. Politics in America. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1965–1987.

    Cook, Rhodes. How Congress Gets Elected. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.

    Cook, Rhodes, and Alice V. McGillivray, comps. U.S. Primary Elections: 1997–1998: Congress and Governors: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1999.

    Cortner, Richard C. The Apportionment Cases. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1970.

    CQ Press. Electing Congress. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    ________. Guide to Congress, 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    CQ'sPolitics in America. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1989– .

    Cummings, Milton C. Congressmen and the Electorate: Elections for the U.S. House and the President, 1920–1964. New York: Free Press, 1966.

    Currinder, Marian. Money in the House: Campaign Funds and Congressional Party Politics. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2009.

    Davidson, Roger H., Walter J. Oleszek, and Frances E. Lee. Congress and Its Members. 12th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2010.

    Dixon, Robert G., Jr. Democratic Representation: Reapportionment in Law and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

    Dodd, Lawrence D., and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, eds. Congress Reconsidered. 9th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

    Doron, Gideon, and Michael Harris. Term Limits. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2000.

    Dubin, Michael J. United States Congressional Elections, 1788–1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st through 105th Congresses. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1998.

    Eilperin, Juliet. Fight Club Politics: How Partisanship Is Poisoning the House of Representatives. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006.

    Election Data Book: A Statistical Portrait of Voting in America. Lanham, Md.: Bernan Press, 1993.

    Fenno, Richard F. Congress at the Grassroots: Representational Change in the South, 1970–1998. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

    _____. Home Style: House Members in Their Districts. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978.

    _____. The Making of a Senator: Dan Quayle. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1989.

    _____. Senators on the Campaign Trail: The Politics of Representation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

    Fiorina, Morris P. Congress: Keystone of the Washington Establishment. 2nd ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.

    Flanigan, William H., and Nancy H. Zingale. Political Behavior in Midterm Elections. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

    Fowler, Linda L. Candidates, Congress, and the American Democracy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993.

    Fox, Richard L. Gender Dynamics in Congressional Elections. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1997.

    Galderisi, Peter F., Marni Ezra, and Michael Lyons, eds. Congressional Primaries and the Politics of Representation. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.

    Galloway, George B. History of the House of Representatives. 2nd ed. New York: Crowell, 1976.

    Gaquin, Deirdre, and Katherine A. DeBrandt. The 110th Congressional District Atlas. Lanham, Md.: Bernan Press, 2008.

    Ginsberg, Benjamin, and Alan Stone, eds. Do Elections Matter? 3rd ed. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1996.

    Grofman, Bernard, ed. Race and Redistricting in the 1990. New York: Agathon Press, 1998.

    Gronke, Paul. The Electorate, the Campaign, and the Office: A Unified Approach to Senate and House Elections. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

    Herrnson, Paul S. Congressional Elections: Campaigning at Home and in Washington. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    _____. Playing Hardball: Campaigning for the U.S. Congress. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2001.

    Jacobson, Gary C. The Electoral Origins of Divided Government: Competition in U.S. House Elections, 1946–1988. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990.

    _____. No Holds Barred: Negativity in U.S. Senate Campaigns. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2004.

    _____. The Politics of Congressional Elections. 7th ed. New York: Longman, 2009.

    Kahn, Kim F., and Patrick J. Kenney. The Spectacle of U.S. Senate Campaigns. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999.

    Krousser, J. Morgan. Colorblind Justice: Minority Voting Rights and the Undoing of the Second Reconstruction. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

    Lau, Richard R., and Gerald M. Pomper. Negative Campaigning: An Analysis of U.S. Senate Elections. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

    Lublin, David. The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests in Congress. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997.

    Luce, Robert. Legislative Principles: The Historic Theory of Lawmaking by Representative Government. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1930.

    Magleby, David B., ed. Outside Money: Soft Money and Issue Advocacy in the 1998 Congressional Elections. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

    Magleby, David B., and J. Quin Monson. The Last Hurrah? Soft Money and Issue Advocacy in the 2002 Congressional Elections. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2004.

    Magleby, David B., and Kelly D. Patterson, eds. The Battle for Congress: Iraq, Scandal, and Campaign Finance in the 2006 Election. Boulder, Colo.: Paradigm, 2008.

    Magleby, David B., J. Quin Monson, and Kelly D. Patterson, eds. Electing Congress: New Rules for an Old Game. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.

    Maisel, L. Sandy, and Darrell M. West. Running on Empty? Political Discourse in Congressional Elections. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

    Makinson, Larry, and Joshua F. Goldstein. Open Secrets: The Encyclopedia of Congressional Money and Politics. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1996.

    Mann, Thomas E., and Norman J. Ornstein. Renewing Congress. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1993.

    Mark, David. Going Dirty: The Art of Negative Campaigning. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009.

    Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts 1789–1983. New York: Free Press, 1982.

    Matteson, David M. The Organization of the Government under the Constitution. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.

    Matthews, Donald R. U.S. Senators and Their World. New York: Norton, 1973.

    Mayhew, David R. Congress: The Electoral Connection. 2nd ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005.

    _____. Electoral Realignments: A Critique of an American Genre. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2004.

    McGillivray, Alice V. Congressional and Gubernatorial Primaries: 1991–1992: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1993.

    _____. Congressional and Gubernatorial Primaries: 1993–1994: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.

    McKee, Seth C. Republican Ascendency in Southern U.S. House Elections. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 2009.

    Merriner, James L., and Thomas P. Senter. Against Long Odds: Citizens Who Challenge Congressional Incumbents. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1999.

    Miller, Warren, Arthur Miller, and Edward Schneider. American National Data Sourcebook, 1952–1986. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.

    Mondak, Jeffery J., and Dona-Gene Mitchell, eds. Fault Lines: Why the Republicans Lost Congress. New York: Routledge, 2009.

    Monmonier, Mark. Bushmanders and Bullwinkles: How Politicians Manipulate Electronic Maps and Census Data to Win Elections. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

    Palmer, Barbara, and Dennis Michael Simon. Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling: Women and Congressional Elections. New York: Routledge, 2008.

    Parker, David C. W. The Power of Money in Congressional Campaigns, 1880–2006. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008.

    Paulson, Arthur C. Electoral Realignment and the Outlook for American Democracy. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2007.

    Regens, James L., and Ronald Keith Gaddie. The Economic Realities of Political Reform: Elections and the U.S. Senate. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

    Rohde, David W. Parties and Leaders in the Postreform House. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

    Rush, Mark E. Does Redistricting Make a Difference? Partisan Representation and Electoral Behavior. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2000.

    Rush, Mark E., and Richard L. Engstrom. Fair and Effective Representation?: Debating Electoral Reform and Minority Rights. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.

    Scammon, Richard M. America Votes: A Handbook of Contemporary Election Statistics. Vols. 1–2. New York: Macmillan, 1956–58. America Votes. Vols. 3–5. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1959–64. America Votes. Vols. 6–11. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1966–1975.

    Scammon, Richard M., and Alice V. McGillivray. America Votes. Vols. 12–21. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1977–1995.

    Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes. Vols. 22–28. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1997–2009.

    Scher, Richard K., Jon L. Mills, and John J. Hotaling. Voting Rights and Democracy: The Law and Politics of Districting. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1997.

    Schwab, Larry M. The Impact of Congressional Reapportionment and Redistricting. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1988.

    Silbey, Joel H., ed. The United States Congress: The Electoral Connection, 1789–1989. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Carlson Publishing, 1991.

    Skinner, Richard M. More than Money: Interest Group Action in Congressional Elections. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

    Steen, Jennifer A. Self-Financed Candidates in Congressional Elections. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006.

    Stonecash, Jeffrey M. Political Parties Matter: Realignment and the Return of Partisan Voting. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2006.

    Theriault, Sean M. The Power of the People: Congressional Competition, Public Attention, and Voter Retribution. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2005.

    Thomas, Sue, and Clyde Wilcox, eds. Women and Elective Office: Past, Present, and Future. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

    Thurber, James A. The Battle for Congress: Consultants, Candidates, and Voters. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2001.

    Vital Statistics on Congress. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1980–.

    Westlye, Mark C. Senate Elections and Campaign Intensity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

    Winburn, Jonathan. The Realities of Redistricting: Following the Rules and Limiting Gerrymandering in State Legislative Redistricting. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2008.

    Part V Gubernatorial Elections

    Bartley, Numan V. From Thurmond to Wallace: Political Tendencies in Georgia, 1948–1968. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1970.

    Bartley, Numan V., and Hugh D. Graham. Southern Elections: County and Precinct Data, 1950–1972. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978.

    Bass, Jack, and Walter DeVries. Transformation of Southern Politics: Social Change and Political Consequence Since 1945. New York: New American Library, 1977.

    Book of the States. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 1935–.

    Brooks, Clayton McClure. A Legacy of Leadership: Governors and American History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

    Bryce, James. The American Commonwealth. 1922. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1973.

    Carsey, Thomas M. Campaign Dynamics: The Race for Governor. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

    Ceaser, James, and Andrew Busch. Upside Down and Inside Out: The 1992 Elections and American Politics. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993.

    Congressional Quarterly. The People Speak: American Elections in Focus. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1990.

    Cook, Rhodes, and Alice V. McGillivray, eds. U.S. Primary Elections, 1995–1996: President, Congress, Governors: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.

    _____, eds. U.S. Primary Elections, 1997–1998: President, Congress, Governors: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1999.

    Cosman, Bernard. Five States for Goldwater: Continuity and Change in Southern Voting Patterns 1920–1964. University: University of Alabama Press, 1965.

    Council of State Governments. State Elective Officials and the Legislatures. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 1977–.

    CQ Press. American Political Leaders 1789–2005. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    Dubin, Michael J. United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1776–1860: The Official Results by State and County. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2003.

    Election Data Book: A Statistical Portrait of Voting in America. Lanham, Md.: Bernan Press, 1993.

    Engel, Michael. State and Local Government: Fundamentals and Perspectives. New York: P. Lang, 1999.

    Ewing, Cortez A. Primary Elections in the South: Study in Uniparty Politics. 1953. Reprint. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980.

    Giroux, Gregory. CQ's Guide to the 2008 Elections. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Glashan, Roy R. American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1775–1978. Westport, Conn.: Meckler Books, 1979.

    Grantham, Dewey W. Democratic South. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1963.

    Gray, Virginia, and Russell L. Hanson, eds. Politics in the American States. 9th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.

    Heard, Alexander, and Donald S. Strong. Southern Primaries and Elections 1920–1949. University: University of Alabama Press, 1950.

    Hollingsworth, Harold M., ed. Essays on Recent Southern Politics. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1970.

    Jacobstein, Helen L. The Segregation Factor in the Florida Democratic Gubernatorial Primary Election of 1956. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1972.

    Jewell, Malcolm E. Parties and Primaries: Nominating State Governors. New York: Praeger, 1984.

    Kallenbach, Joseph E., and Jessamine S. Kallenbach. American State Governors, 1776–1976. 3 vols. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1977,

    Key, V. O., Jr. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Knopf, 1949.

    Kousser, J. Morgan. The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restrictions and the Establishment of the One Party South, 1880–1910. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1974,

    Lamis, Alexander P. The Two-Party South. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

    Leal, David L. Electing America's Governors: The Politics of Executive Elections. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

    McGillivray, Alice V. Congressional and Gubernatorial Primaries: 1991–1992: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1993.

    _____. Congressional and Gubernatorial Primaries: 1993–1994: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.

    Mullaney, Marie Marmo. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States. Westport, Conn.: Meckler, 1985.

    Mullaney, Marie Marmo, and Roy R. Glashan. American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1979–1987. Westport, Conn.: Meckler, 1988.

    Ransone, Coleman B., Jr. The American Governorship. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.

    _____. The Office of the Governor in the United States. 1956. Reprint. Salem, N.C.: Ayer.

    Rusk, Jerrold G. A Statistical History of the American Electorate. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.

    Sale, Kirkpatrick. Power Shift: The Rise of the Southern Rim and Its Challenge to the Eastern Establishment. New York: Random House, 1975.

    Sanders, Randy. Mighty Peculiar Elections: The New South Gubernatorial Campaigns of 1970 and the Changing Politics of Race. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.

    Scammon, Richard M. America Votes: A Handbook of Contemporary Election Statistics. Vols. 1–2. New York: Macmillan, 1956–58. America Votes. Vols. 3–5. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1959–64. America Votes. Vols. 6–11. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1966–1975.

    Scammon, Richard M., and Alice V. McGillivray. America Votes. Vols. 12–21. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1977–1995.

    Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes. Vols. 22–28. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1997–2009.

    Sindler, Allan P. Huey Long's Louisiana: State Politics 1920–1952. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1956.

    _____, ed. Change in the Contemporary South. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1963.

    Smith, Kevin B., ed.State and Local Government. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999–.

    Sobel, Robert, and John Raimo, eds. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789–1978. 4 vols. Westport, Conn.: Meckler, 1978.

    Tindale, George B. The Disruption of the Solid Seuth. New York: Norton, 1972.

    Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South, 1877–1913. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1951.

    _____. Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End to Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

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