Guide to U.S. Economic Policy

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Edited by: Robert E. Wright & Thomas W. Zeiler

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    About the Editors

    Robert E. Wright is the Nef Family Chair of Political Economy and founding director of the Thomas Willing Institute for the Study of Financial Markets, Institutions, and Regulations at Augustana College in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Previously, Dr. Wright taught at New York University's Stern School of Business, the University of Virginia, Temple University, and elsewhere. He teaches courses on the history of capitalism, Native American economic history, and HBO's The Wire, among other topics.

    He is the author or co-author of fifteen books, including Wealth of Nations Rediscovered (2002); First Wall Street (2005); Financial Founding Fathers (2006); One Nation Under Debt (2008); Fubarnomics (2010); and Corporation Nation (2014). He is currently working on books about entrepreneurship in South Dakota and America's fifty largest bank holding companies.

    Dr. Wright is a board member of Historians Against Slavery, an NGO dedicated to using historical insights to help reduce the number of coerced laborers worldwide. He is also the editor of Cambridge University Press's series Slavery Since Emancipation and was the founding editor of Pickering and Chatto's Financial History monograph series. He is a member of the editorial board of Financial History, the magazine of the Museum of American Finance in New York.

    Thomas W. Zeiler is professor of history and director of the Program on International Affairs at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Dr. Zeiler is also the former chair of the Department of History. Having conducted extensive research on the international economy, U.S. foreign economic policy, and globalization, he has published Free Trade, Free World: America and the Advent of GATT (1998); Globalization and the American Century (2003), with co-editor Alfred Eckes; and Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy: A Diplomatic History (2012), with co-editor Robert J. McMahon.

    Dr. Zeiler is currently doing research on free markets, free trade, and globalization. He has held Fulbright lecture awards to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Tokyo, Japan. He served as the president of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations (SHAFR) in 2012 and, from 2010 to 2014, as editor of Diplomatic History, the journal of record in the field of U.S. foreign relations. He also serves on the Historical Advisory Committee on Documentation at the U.S. Department of State.

    Contributors

    Michele Alacevich

    Columbia University

    Greg Anderson University of Alberta

    Robert D. Atkinson

    Information Technology and Innovation Foundation

    Nazan Bedirhanoğlu

    Binghamton University, State University of New York

    Steven Camarota

    Center for Immigration Studies

    David J. Cowen

    New York University Stern School of Business

    Museum of American Finance

    Christopher Dietrich

    Fordham University

    Bradley T. Heim

    Indiana University

    Jill M. Hendrickson

    University of St. Thomas

    Sara Hsu

    New Paltz, State University of New York

    Louis Johnston

    St. John's University

    Jules Kaplan

    University of Colorado

    Mark R. Killenbeck

    University of Arkansas School of Law

    Christopher Kobrak

    ESCP Europe

    University of Toronto

    Darrell J. Kozlowski

    Independent Scholar

    David Lowery

    Penn State University

    Mark Lytle

    Bard College

    Daniel Margolies

    Virginia Wesleyan College

    Neal P. McCluskey

    Center for Educational Freedom

    Cato Institute

    Lauri McNown

    University of Colorado Boulder

    Reynold F. Nesiba Augustana College

    Walter Park

    American University

    Kathleen Britt Rasmussen

    U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian

    Catherine E. Rudder

    George Mason University

    Robert W. Smith

    Worcester State University

    Richard Sylla

    New York University, Stern School of Business

    Museum of American Finance Board of Trustees

    Jason E. Taylor

    Central Michigan University

    Aidan R. Vining

    Simon Fraser University

    Dustin Walcher

    Southern Oregon University

    Ellen R. Wald

    University of Georgia

    David L. Weimer

    University of Wisconsin–Madison

    David M. Wight

    University of California, Irvine

    Robert E. Wright

    Augustana College, South Dakota

  • Appendix A: A Chronology of Economic Policy Events

    1790 Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton (in office 1789–1795) issues his Second Report on the Public Credit and calls for a national bank; Congress passes a bill establishing the Bank of the United States in 1791

    1792 Congress passes the Coinage Act of 1792, establishing the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia; the first coins—copper cents—begin circulating in March 1793

    1816 Secretary of the Treasury Alexander James Dallas (in office 1814–1816) calls for high tariffs on goods that were being manufactured in the United States, lower duties on goods that might be manufactured in the United States, and the lowest tariffs on goods that could only be imported

    1816 Congress authorizes the second Bank of the United States, the charter of which runs for twenty years

    1819 In McCulloch v. Maryland, Chief Justice John Marshall (in office 1801–1835) rules that a state does not have the right to tax an institution operating under a federal charter; in addition, the Bank of the United States is constitutional under the elastic clause

    1819 The Panic of 1819 begins, causing widespread foreclosures, a collapse in real estate prices, high unemployment, and a severe decline in manufacturing and agricultural production

    1824 In a speech before Congress, Henry Clay calls for the creation of an American market tied together through internal improvements and the encouragement of domestic manufactures, i.e., the American System

    1832 President Andrew Jackson (1829–1837) orders the withdrawal of federal funds from the Bank of the United States; by 1837, the cash reserves of the national government are distributed among eighty-seven state banks, known as “pet banks”

    1873 The Panic of 1873 begins and lasts until 1879; multiple events lead to this economic crisis: land and railroad speculation in the United States; postwar (Franco-Prussian War of 1871) recession in Europe; property losses from fires in Chicago and Boston; and the Coinage Act of 1873, which reduced the money supply in the United States

    1877 In Munn v. Illinois, the Supreme Court rules that the U.S. Constitution grants Congress broad regulatory authority and the power to “to regulate commerce among the several states;” Congress establishes the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

    1893 A serious economic depression, known as the Panic of 1893, begins, lasting for about four years; a major cause of this depression is a series of bank failures resulting from shaky railroad financing

    1900 Congress, with President William McKinley's (1897–1901) full support, enacts the Gold Standard Act

    1902 President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909) orders the Justice Department to prosecute Northern Securities for monopolistic practices that violate the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890

    1906 Congress, with President Roosevelt's strong support, passes the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act; Congress establishes the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to provide federal standards and inspections that would ensure the safety of food and drugs

    1907 The financial crisis known as the Panic of 1907, or the Bankers’ Panic of 1907, is triggered after a failed attempt to corner the market on stock of the United Copper Company; the banks that lent money to the scheme suffer runs that quickly spread to other banks and trusts across the nation

    1913 The Sixteenth Amendment is ratified, allowing the imposition of a federal income tax; Congress passes the Federal Reserve Act on December 23, 1913, which is signed by President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) that same day, creating the Federal Reserve System

    1914 Congress creates the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); the Federal Reserve begins operations as World War I breaks out in Europe

    1921 Congress passes the Budget and Accounting Act, recognizing the need for fiscal coordination within the federal government; the act creates the Bureau of the Budget (BOB) within the Department of the Treasury

    1929 The stock market crashes in October, exacerbating the recession that began in August

    1930 Congress passes, and President Herbert Hoover (1929–1933) signs, the Smoot-Hawley Act, raising tariffs to the highest levels in more than one hundred years; other nations retaliate by raising tariffs on U.S. goods, further damaging the economy

    1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945) is inaugurated as president and begins “100 Days” of economic reform to implement New Deal policies to end the Great Depression; Congress passes the Banking Act of 1933, which stabilizes the commercial banking industry for several decades by insuring deposits and limiting bankers’ discretion, and takes the United States off the gold standard

    1935 Congress passes, with President Roosevelt's full support, the Social Security Act, initiating the creation of a nationwide safety net for the elderly

    1937 The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), which was passed in 1935, guaranteeing workers the right to collective bargaining; union membership soars

    1938 Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which makes minimum wage rates and maximum work hours a part of the American labor market for certain, narrow parts of the labor force; the FLSA establishes a 40-cent minimum wage and a forty-hour workweek, mandated payment of time-and-a-half for hours worked over this limit, and forbids the employment of workers under age sixteen outside of family enterprises

    1939 World War II (1939–1945) begins in Europe; President Roosevelt begins preparing the nation for war economically, socially, and psychologically; the United States becomes “the arsenal of democracy” as the nation supplies materiel to the Allies (Britain, free France and Poland, and eventually the Soviet Union)

    1944 Forty-four nations meet at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, and create two new international economic institutions: the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (later known as the World Bank)

    1946 A feared postwar recession is avoided as domestic consumption soars, a result of pent-up demand for consumer goods not purchased during the Great Depression or World War II

    1946 The Council of Economic Advisers is founded to assist and advise the president in the preparation of the annual Economic Report, gather authoritative information concerning economic developments and trends, develop and recommend to the president national economic policies to foster and promote free enterprise, and furnish studies, reports, and recommendations on matters of federal economic policy

    1947 U.S. secretary of state George C. Marshall (in office 1947–1949) calls for a comprehensive economic program to aid struggling European economies; the European Recovery Act, also known as “the Marshall Plan,” pumps more than $12 billion into the European economy over the next four years

    1947 Twenty-three countries establish the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), adopting a framework for trade liberalization, reducing tariffs and other restrictions on international trade

    1950 The U.S. National Security Council issues NSC-68, a top-secret policy paper, during the presidency of Harry S. Truman (1945–1953); one of the most significant statements of U.S. policy in the course of the Cold War, the paper calls for sweeping peacetime military spending to combat communism

    1954 The Internal Revenue Act of 1954 reorganizes and revises the Internal Revenue Code, modernizing it and creating twenty-four graduated tax brackets

    1964 President Lyndon B. Johnson (1964–1969) launches his Great Society programs

    1965 Congress establishes Medicare for the elderly and Medicaid for the poor

    1967 The Kennedy Round of GATT negotiations conclude, resulting in an average tariff reduction of 35 percent

    1970 President Richard M. Nixon (1969–1974) reorganizes the Bureau of the Budget into the Office of Management and Budget to better monitor programs and budgets

    1971 President Nixon “closes the gold window” by unilaterally cancelling the convertibility of U.S. dollars into gold; the Bretton Woods System of fixed exchange rates unravels and is replaced by floating exchange rates determined by global supply and demand conditions

    1974 Congress passes the Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, which establishes the bipartisan Congressional Budget Office (CBO); the Trade Reform Act passes and the Tokyo Round of GATT begins

    1979 The Iranian Revolution leads to a drastic increase in the price of oil; tight monetary policy in the United States to control inflation leads to a recession that lasts until late 1982

    1984 Congress passes the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, which increases revenue by reducing a number of tax benefits, placing some controls on popular tax shelters and increasing excise taxes

    1985 Congress passes the bipartisan Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 to force fiscal responsibility on Congress and on the president

    1986 With the urging of President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989), Congress passes the Tax Reform Act of 1986, a sweeping overhaul of the U.S. tax code; the number of tax brackets is reduced to four, while a number of credits, deductions, and exclusions are repealed or limited; corporate income tax rates are lowered and topped at 34 percent

    1990 Congress passes the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA), addressing the deficit problem by raising the top marginal tax rates and the alternative minimum tax rate and limiting itemized deductions

    1994 The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect on January 1; linking the economies of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, NAFTA is the largest free trade zone in the world

    1994 The Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act allows banks to branch across state lines more easily

    1995 Congress passes the Lobby Disclosure Act of 1995, requiring that all organizations directly contacting legislators and spending at least $20,500 over a six-month period must register with Congress

    1997 Congress enacts the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, a bipartisan agreement to eliminate the federal budget deficit

    1999 Congress passes the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act, which further deregulates the financial industry

    2001 The Republican-controlled Congress passes the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act, cutting taxes by almost $1 trillion and eliminating the estate tax

    2002 Congress passes the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, establishing new standards for all U.S. public company boards, management, and public accounting firms; the bill is enacted in response to a number of major corporate accounting scandals, including Enron, Tyco International, and Adelphia, which cost investors billions of dollars and shook public confidence in U.S. securities markets

    2006 U.S. housing prices peak early in the year but decline in late 2006 and into 2007; housing foreclosures soar; the bursting of the housing bubble is a major cause of the Great Recession of 2007–2009

    2007 Federal Reserve chair Ben Bernanke (in office 2006–2014) cuts the discount rate four times between August 2007 and December 2007 in response to the lack of credit available in the economy; the economic downturn known as the Great Recession begins in late 2007 and lasts until 2009, but the economy remains sluggish well into 2014

    2008 In October 2008, Congress passes, and President George W. Bush (2001–2009) signs, the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act, also known as the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), which authorizes the Department of the Treasury to purchase “troubled assets” from banks and other financial institutions in an effort to steady the economy

    2009 President Barack Obama (2009–) signs the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), which is designed to create jobs, extend unemployment benefits and social welfare provisions, and stimulate the economy

    2010 Congress passes, with President Barack Obama's full support, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)

    2010 The Dodd-Frank Act is enacted to better regulate financial institutions; the law aims to eliminate “too-big-to fail” policies, enhance accountability and transparency in the financial system, and protect consumers from abusive financial practices

    2011 Senator Susan Collins (R-ME; in office 1997–) introduces the Clearing Unnecessary Regulatory Burdens (CURB) Act, a bill requiring federal regulatory agencies to submit to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) showing the impact of new regulations in terms of improving the economy, protecting health and safety, cleaning the environment, and eliminating discrimination

    2012 Congress passes the Tax Payer Relief Act of 2012, which raises tax rates on incomes of more than $450,000 from 35 percent to 39.6 percent, on capital gains and dividends from 15 percent to 20 percent, and on estates worth more than $5 million from 35 to 40 percent

    2013 The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) launches the enrollment Web site of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on October 1

    2014 Janet Yellen is sworn in as chair of the Federal Reserve System, the first woman to hold that office

    Appendix B: Key Federal Agencies Charged with Economic Policy Decisions

    All departments, agencies, and bureaus have an impact on economic policymaking. Some, such as the Council of Economic Advisers, have a direct hand in shaping economic policy, affecting the entire nation as well as the global economy. Others, such as the various agencies within the Environmental Protection Agency, have a lesser impact, requesting funding and then spending the appropriated funds on projects and programs determined by Congress or the White House. These bureaucratic entities also show how economic policy is interrelated with political and diplomatic decision making.

    The Executive Branch

    The Executive Office of the President

    • Council of Economic Advisers
    • Council on Environmental Quality
    • National Security Staff
    • Office of Administration
    • Office of Management and Budget
    Department of the Treasury
    • Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
    • Bureau of Engraving and Printing
    • Bureau of Fiscal Service
    • Community Development Financial Institutions Fund
    • Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)
    • Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
    • Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
    • Office of Domestic Finance
    • Office of Federalism and Financial Intelligence
    • United States Mint
    Department of Defense
    • Department of the Army
    • Department of the Navy
    • Department of the Air Force
    • Joint Chiefs of Staff
    • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
    • Defense Contract Audit Agency
    • Defense Contract Management Agency
    • Defense Finance and Accounting Service
    • Defense Information Systems Agency
    • Defense Intelligence Agency
    Department of State
    • Budget and Planning
    • Bureau of the Comptroller and Global Financial Services
    • Bureau of Counterterrorism
    • Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs
    • Office of U.S. Foreign Assistance Resources
    • Office of Foreign Missions
    • Bureau of Information Resource Management
    • Bureau of Energy Resources
    Department of Justice
    • Antitrust Division
    • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
    • Civil Rights Division
    • Executive Office for Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Forces
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation
    • Office for Victims of Crime
    • Office on Violence Against Women
    • Tax Division
    Department of Health and Human Services
    • Administration for Children and Families (ACF)
    • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
    • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    • Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
    • Indian Health Service (IHS)
    • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
    • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
    Department of Education
    • Office of Communications and Outreach
    • Office for Civil Rights
    • Office of Legislation and Congressional Affairs
    • Office of the Chief Financial Officer
    • Office of the Chief Information Officer
    • Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development
    • Office of Educational Technology
    Department of the Interior
    • Bureau of Indian Affairs
    • Bureau of Land Management
    • Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
    • Bureau of Reclamation
    • Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement
    • National Park Service
    • Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement
    • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
    • U.S. Geological Survey
    Department of Agriculture
    • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
    • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
    • Economic Research Service (ERS)
    • Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
    • Office of Budget and Program Analysis (OBPA)
    • Office of the Chief Economist (OCE)
    • Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO)
    • Office of Congressional Relations (OCR)
    Department of Commerce
    • Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)
    • Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS)
    • U.S. Census Bureau
    • Economic Development Administration (EDA)
    • Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA)
    • International Trade Administration (ITA)
    • Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA)
    • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
    • National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
    • U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
    Department of Labor
    • Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
    • Employee Benefits Security Administration
    • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO)
    • Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs
    • Office of Labor-Management Standards (OLMS)
    • Office of Workers’ Compensation Programs
    • Veterans’ Employment & Training Service
    Department of Energy
    • Energy Information Agency
    • National Nuclear Security Administration
    • Office of Fossil Energy
    • Office of Nuclear Energy
    • Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs
    • Office of Economic Impact and Diversity
    • Office of Management
    • Office of the Chief Financial Officer
    • Office of Public Affairs
    Department of Homeland Security
    • National Protection and Programs Directorate
    • Science and Technology Directorate
    • Directorate for Management
    • Office of Policy
    • Office of Health Affairs
    • Office of Intelligence and Analysis
    • Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
    • United States Customs and Border Protection
    • United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
    • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
    • United States Secret Service
    Department of Housing and Urban Development
    • Office of Chief Financial Officer
    • Office of Chief Human Capital Officer
    • Office of Chief Information Officer
    • Office of Chief Procurement Officer
    • Office of Community Planning and Development
    • Office of Congressional/Intergovernmental Relations
    • Office of Equal Employment Opportunity
    • Office of Fair Housing/Equal Opportunity
    Department of Veterans Affairs
    • Office of Budget
    • Office of Advisory Committee Management
    • Office of Congressional and Legislative Affairs
    • Office of Construction and Facilities Management
    • Office of Information and Technology
    • Office of Management
    • Office of Operations, Security and Preparedness
    • Office of Policy and Planning
    • Office of Public and Intergovernmental Affairs
    • Office of Regulation Policy and Management
    • OMB Reporting
    Environmental Protection Agency
    • Office of Administration and Resources Management
    • Office of Air and Radiation
    • Office of the Chief Financial Officer
    • Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
    • Office of Environmental Information
    United States Trade Representative
    • Office of Economic Affairs
    • Office of Monitoring and Enforcement
    • Office of Policy Coordination and Information
    • Office of Public and Media Affairs
    • Office of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Multilateral Affairs
    • Office of Trade and Development
    The Legislative Branch
    Congressional Budget Office
    • Budget Analysis Division
    • Financial Analysis Division
    • Health, Retirement, and Long-Term Analysis Division
    • Macroeconomic Analysis Division
    • Management, Business, and Information Services Division
    • Microeconomic Studies Division
    • National Security Division
    • Tax Analysis Division

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