Global Environmental Politics: Power, Perspectives, and Practice


Ronnie D. Lipschutz

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    To Mary, Maia, and Eric

    The polis, properly speaking, is not the city-state in its physical location; it is the organization of the people as it arises out of acting and speaking together, and its true space lies between people living together for this purpose, no matter where they happen to be.

    —Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition


    My all-time favorite cartoon was published on September 17, 1985. Drawn by Richard Guindon, it shows two startled scientists staring at their computers as a colleague runs into the lab amid a flurry of sheets of paper. “The ecosystem collapsed again! Frogs! We need more frogs!” he shouts. A few years later, in a case of life imitating art, the headline of a New York Times article read: “Scientists Confront an Alarming Mystery: The Vanishing Frog.” Biologists and ecologists were finding that “amphibians are rapidly disappearing from many ponds, rivers, mountains and rain forests around the world.” A professor at the University of California, Berkeley, reminisced that “[m]eadows where frogs were as thick as flies are now silent.”* Why were they disappearing in the first place? What did this mean? Who could save them?

    The tale of vanishing frogs is by no means unique: in more recent years, similar warnings have been issued about many other species, both animal and vegetable. In virtually all cases, humans seem to be the culpable party, although there is no end of efforts to pin the blame on nature. What's worse, at the same time that many living things seem to be in decline, nonliving stuff appears to be taking over. Personal computers, junk cars, paper, toxic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions—all are being generated in ever-increasing quantities and dumped in the fewer and fewer sites willing or able to take them. Indeed, during the 1990s, electronic devices seemed to proliferate beyond all reason, like some alien invader intent on conquering Earth. One can hear the scientists shrieking: “The ecosystem collapsed again! Computers! We need fewer computers!”

    If we ask, Who can save the frogs? (and, by implication, nature), the answer is not so clear. There are plenty of candidates—governments, scientists, corporations, consumers, control systems, coalitions—and a plethora of books advancing all kinds of propositions and positions. Some, such as Bjørn Lomborg and the late Julian Simon, both economists cited in this book, assure us there is no problem at all. This is the best of all environmental worlds, and it can only get better. Air and water are cleaner, ecosystems healthier, and resources cheaper than ever before. But just in case something should go awry, they continue, “economic growth” can save both frogs and nature. After all, rich countries have cleaned up their environments because their inhabitants can afford to and want to. Therefore, the best solution to environmental problems in general is for countries to get wealthier. Even better, depending on economic growth means that no one has to change his or her behavior; all that is necessary is to make more, ship more, buy more, and dump more. But does it not seem a bit odd that, confronted by a growing environmental crisis of global proportions, our “best” response is to do more of exactly that which has brought on the crisis in the first place?

    Not everyone thinks that getting the economics right will solve the problem. Like Guindon's scientists, many believe that technology can save us. Fossil fuels are dirty and produce carbon dioxide, but we can't live without energy. In fact we'll always need more, so we must shift, as soon as possible, to alternatives. We know how to manufacture solar cells, clean up coal, harness the wind, and mine uranium. Someday, we might have nuclear fusion. That won't solve all our environmental problems—even nuclear fusion will generate some radioactive wastes—but it will deal with the most pressing ones, such as climate change. Still, if we have these answers, why haven't the necessary policies been put in place? If we know that it's not nice to fool with Mother Nature, surely we have no choice but to stop our fooling? Yet we don't. More research is needed, say some scientists and numerous think tankers, business executives, and politicians, especially those associated with the current Bush administration and U.S. coal and oil companies.

    Many who study and practice global environmental politics—scholars, diplomats, policy experts—put their faith in international institutions and interstate cooperation. Air pollution and climate change do not respect boundaries, they say, and must be handled via collaborative international arrangements and law. There is no shortage of such institutions and, by now, they number in the thousands. Nonetheless, the problem-solving ability of such institutions has proved difficult to assess. They take time to organize, and time might be the one thing we don't have. The apparent failure of diplomacy has motivated a search for new methods. If governments cannot save the environment, perhaps the market can! Where have we heard that before?

    This book will not reassure you that others are dealing effectively with environmental problems or that international negotiations and bargaining will solve them or that corporations can become good “global citizens” and business can “green the planet.” None of those reassurances is more than a faint hope, at best. The paradox in all this is that, in most cases, we know how to protect the environment. We could begin tomorrow. The beliefs, practices, and technologies enabling us to use less energy, produce less pollution, catch less fish, log less timber, manufacture fewer cars and computers, and have fewer children are all available now. We don't do these things because the problems we face are political and cannot be addressed by economists, scientists, or diplomats devising ever more complex schemes, arcane technologies, and unenforceable agreements. Only enough angry and idealistic people working together politically to change old practices and energize new ones will be able to save the frogs. Only politics can save the environment.

    That might sound pretty normative, and it is. This book is an incitement to act in the face of what seem to be overwhelming problems, forces, and agents, because social change does not take place by itself. This book demands that you practice politics with others of like mind and hope. “Practice” means acquiring consciousness and knowledge about nature as well as becoming actively engaged in the places where we live, love, work, and play. “Politics” does not mean the politics of liberal markets and liberal democracy, which have come to treat everything as a matter of neoclassical economics. Rather, what it means is a democratic politics, one that gives to nature as much as we take from it, one that is ethically based and rooted in “right” relationships between humans and nature, one that does not leave all decision making and action to far-away representatives and agencies.

    In marking out a path to the practice of politics, therefore, this book offers both an exploration of global environmental politics—framing basic issues and clarifying core problems, such as climate change, biodiversity, and overconsumption—and a critical analysis of conventional approaches to the protection of the global environment. The objective is to provoke both instructors and students to think more skeptically about the litany of environmental solutions offered to date. In order to establish that critique, Chapter 1 begins with an overview of the problem, the tools we will use to probe it, and the philosophical stance that underpins this book. In Chapter 2 I provide an overview of the major competing philosophical perspectives on nature and its protection—cooperation, competition, development, antidomination—and discuss how those perspectives are reflected in both literature and practice. In Chapter 3 I examine and critique the neoclassical economic approach to the environment—pollution as an externality, resources as inputs to production—and the impact of globalization on nature. In Chapter 4 I explore the rationale for political action and some of the ways in which it can be affected. International environmental regimes remain important, of course, in protecting and restoring the environment, and states remain significant actors in global environmental politics. Chapter 5 offers both a description and an analysis of these conventional approaches to understanding the international politics of the environment. Finally, given the normative aim of this book and the argument that reliance only on markets, science, and institutions is likely to make our problems worse, Chapter 6 provides both the rationale for political action and the forms it might take.

    International institutions, markets, science, and even green consumerism are, to be sure, all part of the necessary equation, but unless we organize and act collectively, in social movements aimed at revitalizing democracy and politics, we shall save neither the frogs nor the planet nor ourselves. But don't simply accept this book without critical reflection. For those who want to learn more, find this volume too much to digest, or wish to temper the book's strongly normative thrust with more moderate analyses, each chapter includes a substantial list of other books on the same or similar topics. They should be consulted, too.


    In many ways, this book is the culmination of more than twenty-five years of work on “environmental issues.” I was introduced to the environment through brief sojourns at the Union of Concerned Scientists (1978–1979), the Massachusetts Audubon Society (1980), and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (1981–1983). Graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley (1982–1987), the founding and operation of the Pacific Institute for Studies in Environment, Development and Security (1987–1990), and thirteen years at the University of California, Santa Cruz, have left me ever more critical (some would say cynical), demanding, and hopeful about the earth's future. That knowledge and those attitudes are all reflected in this book.

    No book is ever written by one person, and this book is no exception. I can hardly begin to list those who, along the way, in one fashion or another, made mostly unknowing contributions to what appears here. A short, but hardly complete, list would include Ken Conca, Rick Diamond, Peter Euben, Margaret FitzSimmons, Cathleen Fogel, David Goodman, Lee Grodzins, John Holdren, the late Henry Kendall, Gabriela Kutting, Karen Litfin, Michael Maniates, Judith Mayer, Matt Patterson, and Gene Rochlin. In writing the many papers, articles, and books whose parts have, one way or another, ended up scattered throughout this text, I am indebted to so many other people that I cannot begin to list them. (I, of course, fully indemnify them all of any responsibility for what appears here.) For insightful and thought-provoking reviews of the proposal and manuscript, I thank John A. Agnew, University of California, Los Angeles; Peter Haas, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Angela C. Halfacre, College of Charleston; Patricia Keilbach, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs; Karen Litfin, University of Washington; Gerald Thomas, the John Howard Society of Canada; and Yael Wolinsky-Nahmias, Northwestern University. For assistance and advice in the research, editing, and work that led to the final product, I am especially grateful to Angela McCracken, Elise Frasier, Charisse Kiino, Joanne S. Ainsworth, and Sally Ryman. Finally, for so many years of patience, tolerance, and love, I thank Mary, Maia, and Eric.

    RonnieD.LipschutzSanta Cruz, California June 2003

    * Sandra Blakeslee, “Scientists Confront an Alarming Mystery: The Vanishing Frog,” New York Times, Feb. 20, 1990, C4; for a detailed bibliography of materials on the disappearing frogs, see Kathryn Phillips, “Traking [sic] the Vanishing Frog,” online at (6/22/03).

  • Notes

    Chapter 1. What Are “Global Environmental Politics?”

    1. Juan Forero, “In Ecuador's Banana Fields, Child Labor Is Key to Profits,” New York Times, July 13, 2002, nat'l ed., p. A1; Adelien van de Kasteele, “The Banana Chain: The Macroeconomics of the Banana Trade” (paper presented at the International Banana Conference, Brussels, May 4–6, 1998), online at (7/8/02); see also Banana Link, online at

    2. Anne-Claire Chambron, “Bananas: The ‘Green Gold’ of the TNCs,” U.K. Food Group, 1999, online at Banana Link, (4/4/03); Anne-Claire Chambron, “Straightening the Bent World of the Banana,” European Fair Trade Association, Feb. 2000, online at Banana Link, (4/4/03); “Bananas: The Facts,” New Internationalist, Oct. 1999, online at (2/18/03).

    3. “Bananas: The Facts.”

    4. B. L. Turner et al., The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

    5. Max Oelschlaeger, The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991).

    6. Lynn White Jr., “The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis,” Science 155 (1967): 1203–1207; Anna L. Peterson, Being Human: Ethics, Environment, and Our Place in the World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), chap. 2.

    7. Leo Marx, The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964); Carolyn Merchant, TheDeath of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution (New York: Harper and Row, 1980).

    8. Christopher Stone, Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects (Los Altos, Calif.: Kaufmann, 1974); Michael J. Zimmerman, The Nature of Intrinsic Value (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001); Alan Gregg, “A Medical Aspect of the Population Problem,” Science 121 (May 13, 1955): 681–682; Warren M. Hern, “Why Are There So Many of Us? Description and Diagnosis of a Planetary Ecopathological Process,” online at (4/4/03); Ramon G. McLeod, “Humans are ‘Planetary Malignancy,’ Scientist Says,” San Francisco Chronicle, Aug. 1, 1994, p. A3.

    9. George Sessions, “Deep Ecology: Introduction,” in Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, 3d ed., ed. Michael E. Zimmerman et al. (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2001), pp. 157–174.

    10. David Harvey, Spaces of Hope (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), chap. 9.

    11. Stephen D. Krasner, ed., International Regimes (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983).

    12. James O'Connor, “Three Ways to Look at the Ecological History and Cultural Landscapes of Monterey Bay,” in Natural Causes: Essays in Ecological Marxism (New York: Guilford Press, 1998), pp. 71–93.

    13. Donna Haraway, “Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s,” Socialist Review 80 (1985): 65–108.

    14. Peterson, Being Human, chap. 5.

    15. See Mitchell Dean, Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society (London: Sage, 1999).

    16. John Gaventa, Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980).

    17. Thomas Risse, “Constructivism and International Institutions: Toward Conversations Across Paradigms,” in Political Science: The State of the Discipline, ed. Ira Katznelson and Helen Milner (New York: Norton, 2002), pp. 597–626, online at (3/27/03)

    18. Gaventa, Power and Powerlessness.

    19. Walter L. Adamson, Hegemony and Revolution: A Study of Antonio Gramsci's Political and Cultural Theory (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), pp. 170–171.

    20. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York: Pantheon, 1977). Dean, Governmentality.

    21. Nicholas G. Onuf, World of Our Making: Rules and Rule in Social Theory and International Relations (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1989).

    22. Paul Wapner, Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996).

    23. Karen Litfin, Ozone Discourses: Science and Politics in Global Environmental Cooperation (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), p. 13.

    24. Michel Foucault, “Truth and Power,” in Power/Knowledge, trans. Colin Gordon (New York: Pantheon, 1980), pp. 109–133.

    25. Peterson, Being Human.

    26. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Oakeshott ed. (1651; New York: Macmillan, 1962). John Locke, Two Treatises of Government (1689–1690; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960).

    27. Oran R. Young, Resource Regimes: Natural Resources and Social Institutions (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982); Ronnie D. Lipschutz, with Judith Mayer, Global Civil Society and Global Environmental Governance: The Politics of Nature from Place to Planet (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), pp. 33–34.

    28. John H. Davis, “Proposals Concerning the Concept of Habitat and a Classification of Types,” Ecology 41 (July 1960): 537–541.

    29. Gil Friedman and Harvey Starr, Agency, Structure, and International Politics: From Ontology to Empirical Inquiry (London: Routledge, 1997).

    30. David Dessler, “What's at Stake in the Agent-Structure Debate?” International Organization 43 (summer 1989): 441–474; Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “Because People Matter: Studying Global Political Economy,” International Studies Perspective 2 (2001): 321–339.

    31. Warren Magnusson and Karena Shaw, eds., A Political Space: Reading the Global through Clayoquot Sound (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003).

    32. Thomas DeGregori, “Resources Are Not; They Become: An Institutional Theory,” Journal of Economic Issues 21 (September 1987): 1241–1263.

    33. See Ronnie D. Lipschutz and Judith Mayer, “Not Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Rights, Rules, and the Renegotiation of Resource Management Regimes,” in The State and Social Power in Global Environmental Politics, ed. Ronnie D. Lipschutz and Ken Conca (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. 246–273; Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society; Thom Kuehls, Beyond Sovereign Territory: The Space of Ecopolitics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).

    34. Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory (New York: Knopf, 1995), chaps. 2, 3.

    35. Kuehls, Beyond Sovereign Territory.

    36. Ibid.

    37. Ved. P. Nanda, International Environmental Law and Policy (Irving-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Transnational, 1995), pp. 76–78, 83–86.

    38. Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “Environmental History, Political Economy, and Policy: Re-discovering Lost Frontiers in Environmental Research,” Global Environmental Politics 1 (August 2001): 72–91.

    39. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

    40. Andrew Goudie, The Human Impact on the Natural Environment (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000).

    41. Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation, 2d ed. (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).

    42. See Lipschutz and Conca, The State and Social Power.

    43. Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy,” in Democracy and Difference, ed. Seyla Benhabib (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996), pp. 31–45.

    44. Penina M. Glazer and Myron P. Glazer, The Environmental Crusaders: Confronting Disaster and Mobilizing Community (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998); Christopher Rootes, ed., Environmental Movements: Local, National and Global (London: Frank Cass, 1999); Patrick Novotny, Where We Live, Work, and Play: The Environmental Justice Movement and the Struggle for a New Environmentalism (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000); David N. Pellow, Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002).

    45. Timothy Luke, Ecocritique: Contesting the Politics of Nature, Economy, and Culture (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997).

    46. Peter Gourevitch, Politics in Hard Times (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986).

    47. Krasner, International Regimes.

    48. Oran R. Young, International Governance: Protecting the Environment in a Stateless Society (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1994).

    49. Jonathan Schell, The Fate of the Earth (New York: Knopf, 1982).

    Chapter 2. Deconstructing “Global Environment”

    1. Deborah Stone, Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making (New York: Norton, 1997).

    2. Peterson, Being Human.

    3. John Meyer, Political Nature: Environmentalism, and the Interpretation of Western Thought (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001).

    4. See, for example, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (New York: Pocket Books, 1964).

    5. Peter Kropotkin, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, ed. Paul Avrich (London: Allen Lane, 1972).

    6. Johan Galtung, “Violence, Peace, and Peace Research,” Journal of Peace Research 3 (1969): 167–192.

    7. Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977).

    8. But see Martin Shaw, Theory of the Global State: Globality as an Unfinished Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

    9. Robert Jackson, Quasi-states: Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Third World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

    10. Harold Sprout and Margaret Sprout, The Ecological Perspective on Human Affairs (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965); Ronnie D. Lipschutz, When Nations Clash: Raw Materials, Ideology, and Foreign Policy (New York: Ballinger/Harper and Row, 1989); Michael T. Klare, Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2001).

    11. Nicholas J. Spykman, America's Strategy in World Politics (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1942); Lipschutz, When Nations Clash.

    12. On German expansionism: Lipschutz, When Nations Clash; on war in Pacific: Jonathan Marshall, To Have and Have Not: Southeast Asian Raw Materials and the Origins of the Pacific War (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); on 1991 Gulf war: Klare, Resource Wars.

    13. Daniel Yergin, “A Crude View of the Crisis in Iraq,” Washington Post Outlook, Dec. 8, 2002, online at,1307,5067,00.html (3/25/03).

    14. Peter Gleick, “Water and Conflict: Fresh Water Resources and International Security,” International Security 18 (summer 1993): 79.

    15. Joyce Starr, “Water Wars,” Foreign Policy 82 (spring 1991): 17–30; Mirian Lowi, “Rivers of Conflict, Rivers of Peace,” Journal of International Affairs 49 (1995): 123–144; Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “The Nature of Sovereignty and the Sovereignty of Nature: Problematizing the Boundaries between Self, Society, State, and System,” in The Greening of Sovereignty in World Politics, ed. Karen D. Litfin (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998), pp. 109–138.

    16. Peter Beaumont, “Water and Armed Conflict in the Middle East: Fantasy or Reality?” in Conflict and the Environment, ed. Nils Petter Gleditsch (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997), pp. 355–374; Steve Lonergan, “Water Resources and Conflict: Examples from the Middle East,” in Gleditsch, Conflict and the Environment, pp. 375–384; Anne H. Ehrlich, Peter Gleick, and Ken Conca, “Resources and Environmental Degradation as Sources of Conflict” (draft of background paper for Working Group 5, prepared for the Fiftieth Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, “Eliminating the Causes of War,” Queens’ College, Cambridge, Aug. 3–8, 2000), on-line at (4/4/03).

    17. João Pacheco de Oliveira Filho, “Frontier Security and the New Indigenism: Nature and Origins of the Calha Norte Project,” in The Future of Amazonia, ed. David Goodman and Anthony Hall (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990), pp. 155–176.

    18. Klare, Resource Wars.

    19. Garrett Hardin, “Life Boat Ethics: The Case against Helping the Poor,” Psychology Today, Sept. 1974, pp. 38–43, 124–126, online at (4/4/03).

    20. Thomas F. Homer-Dixon and Jessica Blitt, eds., Ecoviolence: Links among Environment, Population, and Security (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998); Thomas F. Homer-Dixon, Environment, Scarcity, and Violence (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999).

    21. Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population (1778; Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1998).

    22. Eric B. Ross, The Malthus Factor (London: Zed Books, 1998).

    23. Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze, eds., The Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze Omnibus (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999).

    24. Donella H. Meadows et al., The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind (New York: Universe Books, 1972).

    25. Paul Ehrlich, The Population Bomb (New York: Ballantine, 1968), p. xi.

    26. Hans Morgenthau, Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace (New York: Knopf, 1948).

    27. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776; New York: Knopf, 1991); Emma Rothschild, Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001).

    28. Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1761; New York: A. M. Kelley, 1966); Fred Hirsch, Social Limits to Growth (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976).

    29. Onuf, World of Our Making.

    30. Lipschutz and Conca, The State and Social Power.

    31. But see Judith Goldstein, Miles Kahler, Robert O. Keohane, and Anne-Marie Slaughter, eds., Legalization and World Politics (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001).

    32. Ronald Coase, “The Problem of Social Cost,” Journal of Law and Economics 3 (1960): 1–44.

    33. Daniel Altman, “Just How Far Can Trading of Emissions Be Extended?” New York Times, May 31, 2001, nat'l ed., p. C1.

    34. Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965); Russell Hardin, Collective Action (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982).

    35. Olson, Logic of Collective Action.

    36. Gareth Porter, Janet Welsh Brown, and Pamela S. Chasek, Global Environmental Politics (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2000), p. 147.

    37. Stephen D. Krasner, International Regimes; Robert O. Keohane, International Institutions and State Power (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1989), chap. 1.

    38. Cathleen A. Fogel, “Greening the Earth with Trees: Science, Storylines, and the Construction of International Climate Change Institutions” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Cruz, 2002).

    39. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Report of Working Group II of the IPCC, 2001, online at (4/5/02).

    40. Murray Bookchin, The Ecology of Freedom, rev. ed. (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1992).

    41. Thomas Princen, “Consumption and Its Externalities: Where Economy Meets Ecology,” Global Environmental Politics 1 (Aug. 2001): 11–30.

    42. Bookchin, Ecology of Freedom, pp. xx–xxii.

    43. Kropotkin, Mutual Aid, chap. 2.

    44. John Clark, “A Social Ecology,” in Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology 2d ed., ed. Michael E. Zimmerman et al. (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1998), pp. 416–440; quotations on p. 421.

    45. Peterson, Being Human, chap. 5; Umeek of Ahousaht (E. Richard Atleo), “Commentary: Discourses in and about Clayoquot Sound: A First Nations Perspective,” in Magnusson and Shaw, A Political Space, pp. 199–208.

    46. Clark, “A Social Ecology,” p. 433.

    47. Ibid., p. 435.

    48. G. W. F. Hegel, The Philosophy of History, trans J. Sirbee (1837; New York: Dover, 1956).

    49. Michael Vincent McGinnis, ed., Bioregionalism (London: Routledge, 1999); Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “Bioregionalism, Civil Society, and Global Environmental Governance,” in McGinnis, Bioregionalism, pp. 101–120; Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society, chap. 4.

    50. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society, chap. 4.

    51. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Knopf, 1999); Joseph E. Stiglitz, Globalization and Its Discontents (New York: Norton, 2002).

    52. Eric R. Wolf, Europe and the People without History (1982; reprint, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

    53. See, for example, Goudie, Human Impact on the Natural Environment, chap. 1.

    54. E. L. Jones, The European Miracle: Environments, Economies, and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981); Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983); Eric J. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

    55. Jan Knippers Black, Development in Theory and Practice: Bridging the Gap (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1991).

    56. Ramachandra Guha, The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalaya, expanded ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).

    57. Philip G. Cerny, “Structuring the Political Arena: Public Goods, States, and Governance in a Globalizing World,” in Global Political Economy: Contemporary Theories, ed. Ronen Palan (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 21–35.

    58. Sen, Development as Freedom; Richard W. Franke and Barbara H. Chasin, Kerala: Radical Reform as Development in an Indian State, 2d ed. (Oakland, Calif.: Food First, 1994).

    59. Ramesh Mishra, Globalization and the Welfare State (Cheltenham, England: Elgar, 1999).

    60. WCED, Our Common Future.

    61. Gerald Foley and Patricia Moss, Improved Cooking Stoves in Developing Countries (London: Earthscan, 1985); Michael F. Maniates, “Organizing for Rural Energy Development: Improved Cookstoves, Local Organizations, and the State in Gujarat, India” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1990).

    62. Norman A. Bailey, “Foreign Direct Investment and Environmental Protection in the Third World,” in Trade and the Environment: Law, Economics, and Policy, ed. Durwood Zaelke, Paul Orbuch, and Robert F. Houseman (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1993), pp. 133–143.

    63. Paul Ekins, “The Kuznets Curve for the Environment and Economic Growth: Examining the Evidence,” Environment and Planning 29 (1997): 805–830; William Harbaugh, Arik Levinson, and David Wilson, “Reexamining the Empirical Evidence for an Environmental Kuznets Curve,” National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) working paper no. w7711, May 2000, online at (4/12/02).

    64. Quoted in Robin Broad, John Cavanaugh, and Walden Bello, “Development: The Market Is Not Enough,” Foreign Policy 81 (winter 1990): 144.

    65. Steven Bernstein, The Compromise of Liberal Environmentalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001); Johannesburg Summit 2002 (World Summit on Sustainable Development [WSSD]), online at (4/11/03).

    66. Kevin Watkins, with Penny Fowler, Rigged Rules and Double Standards: Trade, Globalisation, and the Fight against Poverty (London: Oxfam, 2002), pp. 94–121, online at (4/11/03).

    67. David Dollar and Aart Kraay, “Spreading the Wealth,” Foreign Affairs 81, (Jan–Feb. 2002): 120–133; but see also James K. Galbraith, “By the Numbers,” Foreign Affairs 81, (July/Aug. 2002). Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion, “How Did the World's Poorest Fare in the 1990s?” World Bank Development Research Group, 2000, online at (7/15/02).

    68. Arthur P. J. Mol, Globalization and Environmental Reform: The Ecological Modernization of the Global Economy (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001).

    69. Bailey, “Foreign Direct Investment.”

    70. J. C. H. Chai and B. K. Chai, “China's Floating Population and Its Implications,” International Journal of Social Economics 24 (1997): 1038–1052; see also John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (New York: Viking, 1939).

    71. Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization, rev. ed. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000).

    72. Kate O'Neill, Waste Trading among Rich Nations: Building a New Theory of Environmental Regulation (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000); Thomas Princen, Michael Maniates, and Ken Conca, Confronting Consumption (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002).

    73. PC World, “Old PCs Flood the Waste Stream,” Apr. 14, 2000, online at,aid,16273,00.asp (11/7/02).

    74. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development (Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1980).

    75. WCED, Our Common Future, p. 8.

    76. Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “Wasn't the Future Wonderful? Resources, Environment, and the Emerging Myth of Global Sustainable Development,” Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 2 (1991): 35–54; Sharachchandra B. Lele, “Sustainable Development: A Critical Review,” World Development 19 (1991): 607–621.

    77. Clean Development Mechanism, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, online at (4/11/03); Michael Toman and Marina Cazorla, “The Clean Development Mechanism: A Primer,” Weathervane (Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1998), online at (4/11/03).

    78. Michael Redclift, Sustainable Development: Exploring the Contradictions (London: Methuen, 1987); David Reid, Sustainable Development: An Introductory Guide (London: Earthscan, 1985); Wolfgang Sachs, ed., The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power (London: Zed Books, 1992).

    79. Thomas F. Homer-Dixon, The Ingenuity Gap (New York: Knopf, 2000).

    80. Herman Daly, Steady-State Economics, 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1991).

    81. Herman Daly and John Cobb Jr., For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989), p. 76, chap. 11.

    82. World Resources Institute (WRI), World Resources 2000–2001 (Washington, D.C.: WRI, 2001), table ERC.5, online at (7/17/02).

    83. Ken Conca, “Consumption and Environment in a Global Economy,” Global Environmental Politics 1 (Aug. 2001): 53–71.

    84. Robert H. Wade, “The Rising Inequality of World Income Distribution,” Finance and Development 38 (Dec. 2001), pp. 37–39, online at (4/8/03).

    85. Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, 2d ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958); Foucault, “Truth and Power.”

    86. Thom Kuehls, “The Environment of Sovereignty,” in Magnusson and Shaw, A Political Space, pp. 179–198.

    87. Michael Mann, The Sources of Social Power: The Rise of Classes and Nation-states, 1760–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), vol. 2, chap. 2.

    88. David Pepper, Eco-socialism: From Deep Ecology to Social Justice (London: Routledge, 1993), p. 67.

    89. Joseph A. Schumpeter, “The Process of Creative Destruction,” in Joseph A. Schumpeter Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy (New York: Harper and Row, 1975), pp. 81–86.

    90. Philip R. Pryde, Environmental Management in the Soviet Union (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

    91. Pepper, Eco-socialism, p. 234.

    92. Ibid., pp. 235–236.

    93. Karen J. Warren, “Ecofeminism: Introduction,” in Zimmerman et al. Environmental Philosophy, 3d ed., pp. 253–272; Joni Seager, Earth Follies: Coming to Feminist Terms with the Global Environmental Crisis (London: Routledge, 1993); Catriona Sandilands, The Good-Natured Feminist: Ecofeminism and the Quest for Democracy (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999).

    94. Zimmerman et al., Environmental Philosophy, 3d ed.

    95. Ariel Salleh, Ecofeminism as Politics: Nature, Marx, and the Postmodern (London: Zed Books, 1997).

    96. Ibid., p. 14.

    97. Ibid., pp. 13, 17.

    98. Ibid., pp. 12–13, 54, 53, 192.

    99. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking, or the Wild” (1862), part 2, para. 18, online at; William Chaloupka, “There Must be Some Way Out of Here: Strategy, Ethics, and Environmental Politics,” in Magnusson and Shaw, A Political Space, pp. 67–90.

    100. Sessions, “Deep Ecology;” Warwick Fox, “The Deep Ecology–Ecofeminism Debate and Its Parallels,” Environmental Ethics 11 (spring 1989): 5–25.

    101. Josef Keulartz, The Struggle for Nature: A Critique of Radical Ecology, trans. Rob Keuitenbrouwer (London: Routledge, 1998).

    102. On power, domination, and the environment, see Matthew Paterson, Understanding Global Environmental Politics: Domination, Accumulation, Resistance (Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 2000). Foucault, “Truth and Power;” Michel Foucault, “Governmentality,” in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, ed. Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 87–104.

    103. Foucault, “Governmentality;” Dean, Governmentality.

    104. Foucault, “Governmentality,” p. 93.

    105. Foucault, “Truth and Power,” p. 119.

    106. Dean, Governmentality, p. 99.

    107. Ibid.

    108. William Ophuls and A. Stephen Boyan, Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity Revisited: The Unraveling of the American Dream (New York: Freeman, 1992); Robert L. Heilbroner, An Inquiry into the Human Prospect: Looked at Again for the 1990s, 3d ed. (New York: Norton, 1991).

    Chapter 3. Capitalism, Globalization, and the Environment

    1. Smith, The Wealth of Nations.

    2. Thom Kuehls, “The Environment of Sovereignty.”

    3. David W. Pearce and R. Kerry Turner, Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990), chap. 14.

    4. Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991); Jonathan Nitzan and Shimson Bichler, The Global Political Economy of Israel (London: Pluto Press, 2002), chap. 5.

    5. Pearce and Turner, Economics of Natural Resources, chap. 18; Yergin, The Prize; Yergin, “A Crude View.”

    6. “Oil Price History and Analysis,” Energy Economics Newsletter, online at (4/11/03); but see also Nitzan and Bichler, Global Political Economy of Israel, p. 230.

    7. Jennifer Clapp, Toxic Exports: The Transfer of Hazardous Wastes from Rich to Poor Countries (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001).

    8. Norman Myers and Julian Simon, Scarcity or Abundance? A Debate on the Environment (New York: Norton, 1994).

    9. Pearce and Turner, Economics of Natural Resources, chap. 19; Olli Tahvonen, “Economic Sustainability and Scarcity of Natural Resources: A Brief Historical Review” (Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 2000), on-line at: (4/5/02).

    10. Goudie, Human Impact on the Natural Environment, chap. 9.

    11. Coase, “Problem of Social Cost.”

    12. Princen, Maniates, and Conca, Confronting Consumption.

    13. Ibid.; E. F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered (New York: Harper and Row, 1973).

    14. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts Tables, table 1.1, online at (5/23/03).

    15. Data from the UN Development Programme, “Human Development Indicators,” Human Development Report 1999 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988), table 12, online at (4/16/03).

    16. WRI, World Resources 2000–2001, table ERC.5.

    17. Princen, Maniates, and Conca, Confronting Consumption.

    18. Mark Sanford, “The ‘Quail’ Effect in Telemarketing: Notes on Emotional Labor” (paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Culture and Communication, Philadelphia, Oct. 5, 1989), online at (5/22/03).

    19. Malcolm Gladwell, “The Science of Shopping,” New Yorker, Nov. 1996, pp. 66–75.

    20. Richard Bernstein and Ross H. Munro, The Coming Conflict with China (New York: Knopf, 1997).

    21. Jim Puckett et al., “Exporting Harm: The High Tech Trashing of Asia,” Basal Action Network and Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, Feb. 25, 2002, online at (7/15/02).

    22. WCED, Our Common Future.

    23. Bailey, “Foreign Direct Investment.”

    24. Ekins, “The Kuznets Curve;” Harbaugh, Levinson, and Wilson, “Reexamining the Empirical Evidence.”

    25. A more sophisticated discussion of the relationship between labor costs and profits can be found in Robert Pollin, Justine Burns, and James Heintz, “Global Apparel Production and Sweatshop Labor: Can Rising Retail Prices Finance Living Wages,” Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2001 (revised 2002), online at (4/11/03).

    26. Princen, Maniates, and Conca, Confronting Consumption; Glazer and Glazer, Environmental Crusaders; Christopher Rootes, ed., Environmental Movements: Local, National, and Global (London: Frank Cass, 1999); Novotny, Where We Live; David N. Pellow, Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002).

    27. Pearce and Turner, Economics of Natural Resources, pp. 134–140, 148–153.

    28. Ian J. Bateman and Kenneth G. Willis, eds., Valuing Environmental Preferences: Theory and Practice of the Contingent Valuation Method in the U. S., EU, and Developing Countries (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).

    29. See the Land Trust Alliance, “Millions of Acres Conserved by Voluntary Action,” press release, Sept. 12, 2001, online at (4/11/03); Luke, Ecocritique.

    30. Luke, Ecocritique, chap. 3.

    31. Robert Costanza, et al., “The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital,” Nature, May 15, 1997, pp. 253–260.

    32. See, for example, Nuffield Council on Bioethics, Genetically Modified Crops: The Ethical and Social Issues, May 1, 1999, chap. 3, online at (4/11/03).

    33. See, for example, Mohan Wali, “Ecology Today: Beyond the Bounds of Science,” Nature and Resources, June 1999, pp. 38–50.

    34. Sanger Institute, “The Measure of Man,” press release, Dec. 5, 2002, online at (4/11/03).

    35. Lois Wingerson, Unnatural Selection: The Promise and the Power of Human Gene Research (New York: Bantam Books, 1998).

    36. Locke, Two Treatises of Government; Kuehls, “The Environment of Sovereignty.”

    37. Markku Oksanen, “Privatising Genetic Resources: Biodiversity Preservation and Intellectual Property Rights” (paper presented at the Conference on Environmental Justice, University of Melbourne, Australia, Oct. 1–3, 1997), online at (7/17/02).

    38. A. Agrawal, “Dismantling the Divide between Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge,” Development and Change 26 (1995): 413–439; Crucible Group, People, Plants, and Patents: The Impact of Intellectual Property on Trade, Plant Biodiversity, and Rural Society (Sterling, Va.: Stylus, 1994).

    39. Terry L. Anderson and Donald R. Leal, “Free Market versus Political Environmentalism,” Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 15 (spring 1992): 297–310; Terry L. Anderson and Donald R. Leal, Free Market Environmentalism Today (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2001).

    40. Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), chap. 1.

    41. Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science 162 (Dec. 13, 1967): 1243–1248; see also Daniel W. Bromley, ed., Making the Commons Work (San Francisco: ICS Press, 1992).

    42. Ostrom, Governing the Commons; Bromley, Making the Commons Work.

    43. Pearce and Turner, Economics of Natural Resources, chap. 8; Alan Gilpin, Environmental Economics: A Critical Overview (Chichester, England: Wiley and Sons, 2000), pp. 154–156.

    44. Altman, “Trading of Emissions.”

    45. See, for example, the Web site of the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA), 2002, online at (7/22/02).

    46. IPCC, Climate Change 2001.

    47. Warwick J. McKibbin and Peter J. Wilcoxen, “Climate Change after Kyoto: A Blueprint for a Realistic Approach,” Brookings Review 20 (spring 2002): 6–10.

    48. Jan Aart Scholte, Globalization: A Critical Introduction (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000).

    49. Mark Rupert, Producing Hegemony: The Politics of Mass Production and American Global Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995); Ronnie D. Lipschutz, After Authority: War, Peace, and Global Politics in the Twenty-first Century (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000).

    50. Angus Maddison, The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (Paris: Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001), pp. 173, 362, 175.

    51. Joseph C. K. Yam, “Capital Flows, Hedge Funds, and Market Failure: A Hong Kong Perspective” (paper presented at the 1999 Reserve Bank of Australia Conference, “Capital Flows and the International Financial System”) n. 1, online at (7/22/02).

    52. Globalization latest in a process: Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson, Globalization in Question: The International Economy and the Possibilities ofGovernance, 2d ed. (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999); globalization began about 1500: Scholte, Globalization, chap. 3.

    53. Rupert, Producing Hegemony; Mark Rupert, Ideologies of Globalization: Contending Visions of a New World Order (London: Routledge, 2000).

    54. Jeffrey Leonard, Pollution and the Struggle for the World Product: Multinational Corporations, Environment, and International Comparative Advantage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); M. Mani and D. Wheeler, “In Search of Pollution Havens? Dirty Industries in the World Economy, 1960–1995,” World Bank Policy Research Department, Environment, Infrastructure and Agriculture Division, Poverty, Environment, and Growth working paper no. 16, Apr. 1997, online at (4/12/02).

    55. UN Environment Programme (UNEP), “The State of the Environment—Asia and the Pacific, Social and Economic Background,” Global Environmental Outlook 2000 (Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP/Earthscan, 1999), online at (4/15/02).

    56. Gary Gereffi and Olga Memedovic, “The Global Apparel Value Chain: What Prospects for Upgrading by Developing Countries?” (Vienna: UNIDO, 2003), online at (4/11/03).

    57. Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technology (New York: Knopf, 1971).

    58. Benjamin Cashore, “What Should Canada Do When the Softwood Lumber Agreement Expires?” (a Web site devoted to Canadian policy issues), Apr. 20, 2001, online at (4/16/02).

    59. A. K. Thompson, Post-harvest Technology of Fruit and Vegetables (Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1996).

    60. Piers Blaikie and Harold Brookfield, Land Degradation and Society (London: Methuen, 1987); Rod Burgess, Marisa Carmona, and Theo Kolstee, eds., The Challenge of Sustainable Cities: Neoliberalism and Urban Strategies in Developing Countries (London: Zed Books, 1997).

    61. Iddo K. Wernick, Robert Herman, Shekhar Govind, and Jesse H. Ausubel, “Materialization and Dematerialization: Measures and Trends,” Daedalus 125 (summer 1996): 171–198.

    62. Wade, “Rising Inequality;” see also Global Policy Forum, “Inequality of Wealth and Income Distribution,” online at (4/11/03).

    63. David A. Sonnenfeld, “Greening the Tiger? Social Movements’ Influence on Adoption of Environmental Technologies in the Pulp and Paper Industries of Australia, Indonesia, and Thailand” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Cruz, 1996).

    64. Mol, Globalization and Environmental Reform; David A. Sonnenfeld and Arthur P. J. Mol, “Globalization, Governance, and the Environment,” American Behavioral Scientist 45, special issue (May 2002).

    65. Ulrich Beck, Ecological Politics in an Age of Risk (Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, Polity Press, 1995); Maarten Hajer, The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995).

    66. Ken Conca, “Consumption and Environment in a Global Economy,” Global Environmental Politics 1 (Aug. 2001): 55.

    67. Sen, Development as Freedom.

    Chapter 4. Civic Politics and Social Power: Environmental Politics “On the Ground”

    1. Lipschutz and Conca, The State and Social Power.

    2. Lipschutz, “Environmental History;” Doreen Massey, “Places and Their Pasts,” History Workshop Journal, no. 39 (1995): 182–192; Denis Cosgrove, “Geography Is Everywhere: Culture and Symbolism in Human Landscapes,” in Horizons in Human Geography, ed. Derek R. Gregory and Rex Walford (London: Macmillan, 1985), pp. 118–135.

    3. Alejandro Colas, International Civil Society: Social Movements in World Politics (Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, Polity Press, 2002).

    4. Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000).

    5. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society.

    6. Lipschutz, “Environmental History.”

    7. Karl Marx, Capital, vol. 1, The Process of Production of Capital, chap. 7, online at (2/22/03).

    8. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), p. 200.

    9. Karl Marx, The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852; New York: International Publishers, 1963), chap. 1.

    10. William Cronon, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York: Norton, 1991).

    11. David E. Nye, ed., Technologies of Landscapes: From Reaping to Recycling (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999).

    12. O'Connor, “Three Ways to Look at the Ecological History.”

    13. Malcolm Margolin, The Ohlone Way: Indian Life in the San Francisco-Monterey Bay Area (Berkeley, Calif.: Heyday Books, 1978).

    14. Rice Odell, The Saving of the San Francisco Bay (Washington, D.C.: Conservation Foundation, 1972); Jane Kay, “Reclaiming the Bay,” San Francisco Chronicle, April 6, 2003, p. A12.

    15. Thomas Dunlap, Nature and the English Diaspora (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

    16. O'Conner, “Three Ways to Look at the Ecological History.”

    17. Robert Elliot, Faking Nature: The Ethics of Environmental Restoration (London: Routledge, 1997).

    18. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society, chap. 4.

    19. Jack M. Hollander, The Real Environmental Crisis: Why Poverty, Not Affluence, Is the Environment's Number One Enemy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).

    20. James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998).

    21. Piers Blaikie, The Political Economy of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries (New York: Wiley, 1985); Blaikie and Brookfield, Land Degradation.

    22. Johan Galtung, Human Rights in Another Key (Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, Polity Press, 1995), chap. 2.

    23. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society, pp. 242–245; John Agnew, “Representing Space: Space, Scale, and Culture in Social Science,” in Place/Culture/Representation, ed. James Duncan and David Ley (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 251–271, 262.

    24. Olson, Logic of Collective Action; Ostrom, Governing the Commons.

    25. Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract and Discourses, trans. G. D. H. Cole (1762; New York: Dutton, 1950), p. 238.

    26. Olson, Logic of Collective Action; Kenneth Waltz, Man, the State, and War (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959).

    27. Emma Rothschild, Economic Sentiments, chap. 5.

    28. Smith, Theory of Moral Sentiments; Hirsch, Social Limits to Growth.

    29. Ophuls and Boyan, Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity Revisited; Heilbroner, An Inquiry into the Human Prospect.

    30. Susan J. B. Buck, “No Tragedy on the Commons,” Environmental Ethics 7 (spring 1985): 49–61; David Feeny, Fikret Berkes, Bonnie J. McCay, and James M. Acheson, “The Tragedy of the Commons: Twenty-Two Years Later,” Human Ecology 18 (1990): 1–19.

    31. Ostrom, Governing the Commons; Bromley, Making the Commons Work.

    32. Philippe Fontaine, “Who Is Afraid of the Past? Economic Theorists and Historians of Economics on Altruism,” History of Economics, Oct. 19, 1998, online at (4/11/03).

    33. Michel Crozier, Samuel P. Huntington, and Joji Watanuki, The Crisis of Democracy: Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission (New York: New York University Press, 1975); Samuel P. Huntington, American Politics: The Promise of Disharmony (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1981).

    34. Avner de-Shalit, Why Posterity Matters: Environmental Policies and Future Generations (London: Routledge, 1995); Edith Brown Weiss, In Fairness to Future Generations: International Law, Common Patrimony, and Intergenerational Equity (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Transnational, 1989).

    35. Thomas Princen, “Consumption and Its Externalities: Where Economy Meets Ecology,” Global Environmental Politics 1 (Aug. 2001): 19.

    36. Carolyn Raffensperger and Joel A. Tickner, Protecting Public Health and the Environment: Implementing the Precautionary Principle (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999); Tim O'Riordan, James Cameron, and Andrew Jordan, eds., Reinterpreting the Precautionary Principle (London: Cameron May, 2001).

    37. This, in essence, is the argument presented in John McMurtry, Value Wars: The Global Market versus the Life Economy (London: Zed Books, 2002).

    38. James Coleman, Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press 1990), p. 242.

    39. Magnusson and Shaw, A Political Space.

    40. Stone, Should Trees Have Standing?

    41. Karl Marx, The German Ideology (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1938).

    42. Justin Rosenberg, The Empire of Civil Society (London: Verso, 1994).

    43. Stanley I. Benn and Gerald F. Gaus, “The Liberal Conception of the Public and the Private,” in Public and Private in Social Life, ed. Stanley I. Benn and Gerald F. Gaus (London: Croom Helm, 1983), pp. 31–66.

    44. Rosenberg, Empire of Civil Society, chap. 5.

    45. Carole Pateman, “Feminist Critiques of the Public/Private Dichotomy,” in Benn and Gaus, Public and Private in Social Life, pp. 281–303.

    46. Ibid.

    47. Colas, International Civil Society.

    48. Crozier, Huntington, and Watanuki, The Crisis of Democracy; Huntington, American Politics.

    49. Bourgeois activity: Karl Marx, “On the Jewish Question,” in Karl Marx and Frederich Engels: Collected Works, vol. 3, Marx and Engels: 1843–1844 (1844; London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1975). Central to public polities: Hegel, The Philosophy of History; Putnam, Bowling Alone.

    50. Colas, International Civil Society.

    51. Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “Reconstructing World Politics: The Emergence of Global Civil Society,” Millennium 21 (winter 1992/93): 389–420; Helmut Anheier, Marlies Glasius, and Mary Kaldor, eds., Global Civil Society, 2001 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

    52. Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics, 2d ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); Doug McAdam, John D. McCarthy, and Meyer N. Zald, Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

    53. Timothy W. Luke, “On the Political Economy of Clayoquot Sound: The Uneasy Transition from Extractive to Attractive Models of Development,” in Magnusson and Shaw, A Political Space, pp. 91–112.

    54. Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “The Environment and Global Governance,” in Global Governance in the Twenty-First Century, ed. J. N. Clarke and G. R. Edwards (Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, in press).

    55. Samuel P. Hays, Beauty, Health, and Permanence: Environmental Politics in the United States, 1955–1985 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Linda Lear, Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature (New York: Henry Holt, 1997).

    56. Gerard J. DeGroot, ed., Student Protest: The Sixties and After (London: Longman, 1998).

    57. Victor Cohn, 1999: Our Hopeful Future (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1956).

    58. See, for example, Harrison Brown, The Challenge of Man's Future (New York: Viking, 1954).

    59. Lear, Rachel Carson.

    60. Tarrow, Power in Movement.

    61. Chris Harman, The Fire Last Time: 1968 and After, 2d ed. (London: Bookmarks, 1998); Barbara Ehrenreich and John Ehrenreich, Long March, Short Spring: The Student Uprising at Home and Abroad (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1969).

    62. Lipschutz, After Authority.

    63. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society, chap. 5; Fred Rose, Coalitions across the Class Divide: Lessons from the Labor, Peace, and Environmental Movements (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000); Jane I. Dawson, Eco-Nationalism: Anti-Nuclear Activism and National Identity in Russia, Lithuania, and Ukraine (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1996).

    64. Richard Howitt, Rethinking Resource Management: Justice, Sustainability, and Indigenous Peoples (London: Routledge, 2001).

    65. Ronald Inglehart, Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990).

    66. Manuel Castells, The Rise of the Network Society (Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1996).

    67. Luke, Ecocritique; Marx, The German Ideology.

    68. Brian Milani, Designing the Green Economy: The Postindustrial Alternative to Corporate Globalization (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000), chap. 11.

    69. Joel Makower, “Consumer Power,” in Our Future, Our Environment, ed. Noreen Clancy and David Rajeski, issue paper 207 (Arlington, Va.: RAND, 2001), chap. 4, at: (4/15/03).

    70. Julie H. Guthman, “Agrarian Dreams? The Paradox of Organic Farming in California” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 2000); Catherine R. Greene, “U.S. Organic Farming Emerges in the 1990s: Adoption of Certified Systems,” Agriculture information bulletin no. 770, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, D.C., 2001.

    71. Tarrow, Power in Movement.

    72. George Soros, Open Society: Reforming Global Capitalism (New York: Public Affairs, 2000); Stiglitz, Globalization.

    73. Anheier, Glasius, and Kaldor, Global Civil Society 2001; Marlies Glasius, Mary Kaldor, and Helmut Anheier, eds., Global Civil Society 2002 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

    74. Susan Strange, The Retreat of the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); Mishra, Globalization and the Welfare State.

    75. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree.

    76. Louis W. Pauly, Who Elected the Bankers? Surveillance and Control in the World Economy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1997).

    77. Lloyd Gruber, Ruling the World: Power Politics and the Rise of Supranational Institutions (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000).

    78. Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “Doing Well by Doing Good? Transnational Regulatory Campaigns, Social Activism, and Impacts on State Sovereignty,” in Challenges to Sovereignty: How Governments Respond, ed. John Montgomery and Nathan Glazer (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 2002), pp. 291–320.

    79. Russell J. Dalton, The Green Rainbow: Environmental Groups in Western Europe (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994); Wolfgang Rüdig, ed., Green Politics Two (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992).

    80. Fritjof Capra and Charlene Spretnak, Green Politics: The Global Promise (New York: Dutton, 1984).

    81. Elizabeth Bomberg, Green Parties and Politics in the European Union (London: Routledge, 1998).

    82. Ibid.

    83. “Green Achievements in Europe,” online at (1/21/03).

    84. “Green Party Election Results,” see online at (1/21/03).

    85. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society.

    86. Norman Long and Ann Long, eds., Battlefields of Knowledge: The Interlocking of Theory and Practice in Social Research and Development (London: Routledge, 1992).

    87. Colas, International Civil Society; Walter L. Adamson, Hegemony and Revolution: A Study of Antonio Gramsci's Political and Cultural Theory (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980).

    88. Robert Cox, Production, Power, and World Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987); Rosenberg, Empire of Civil Society.

    89. Wade, “Rising Inequality.”

    90. G. William Domhoff, Who Rules America? Power and Politics, 4th ed. (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2002); Thomas R. Dye, Who's Running America? The Bush Restoration, 7th ed. (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002).

    91. Marshall Berman, All That Is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982).

    92. Hans-Peter Martin and Harald Schumann, The Global Trap: Globalization and the Assault on Democracy and Prosperity, trans. P. Camillar (London: Zed Books, 1997); Stiglitz, Globalization.

    93. Stiglitz, Globalization; Sen, Development as Freedom; Jagdish Bhagwati, Free Trade Today (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2002).

    94. Jonathan A. Fox and L. David Brown, eds., The Struggle for Accountability: The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998).

    95. Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998).

    96. Stephen J. Kobrin, “The MAI and the Clash of Globalizations,” Foreign Policy, fall 1998, online at (4/8/03).

    97. Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “The Clash of Governmentalities: The Fall of the UN Republic and America's Reach for Imperium,” Contemporary Security Policy 23, no. 3 Dec. 2002: 214–231.

    98. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society, chaps. 4–5; see also the Web sites of The River Network,; International Rivers Network,; Global Rivers Environmental Education Network,

    99. The River Network, National Directory of River and Watershed Conservation Groups, online at (3/15/03).

    100. Magnusson and Shaw, A Political Space.

    101. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society, p. 220.

    102. Much of the following comes from ibid., pp. 114–117. Citations to the original sources can be found there. Additional information comes from the Web site of the Mattole Restoration Council, at: (1/22/03).

    103. Barry Laffan, Communal Organization and Social Transition: A Case Study from the Counterculture of the Sixties and Seventies (New York: Lang, 1997).

    104. See Roger LeRoy Miller, “Can Hemp Cultivation Be Stopped?” California Economic Case Studies, case study no. 14, 2001, pp. 14-1–14-3, online at (4/8/03).

    105. Bonnie Glantz, “A Failed Alliance,” North Coast Journal, Jan. 1995, online at (1/22/03).

    106. The Middle Mattole Conservancy, online at; Sanctuary Forest, online at; and the Mill Creek Watershed Conservancy, online at (1/22/03).

    107. Daniel Faber, ed., The Struggle for Ecological Democracy: Environmental Justice Movements in the United States (New York: Guilford Press, 1998).

    108. Christopher H. Foreman, The Promise and Peril of Environmental Justice (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998).

    109. Guy Standing, Global Labour Flexibility: Seeking Distributive Justice (Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 1999); Ann P. Bartel, “The Migration Decision: What Role Does Job Mobility Play?” American Economic Review 69 (1979): 775–786.

    110. Andrew Szasz, Ecopopulism: Toxic Waste and the Movement for Environmental Justice (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994), pp. 42–44.

    111. Ibid.

    112. Clapp, Toxic Exports.

    113. Mol, Globalization and Environmental Reform.

    114. Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “Sweating It Out: NGO Campaigns and Trade Union Empowerment,” Development in Practice (forthcoming). Virginia Haufler, A Public Role for the Private Sector: Industry Self-Regulation in a Global Economy (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2001); Aseem Prakash, Greening the Firm: The Politics of Corporate Environmentalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000); Ronie Garcia-Johnson, Exporting Environmentalism: U.S. Multinational Chemical Corporations in Brazil and Mexico (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000).

    115. Lipschutz, “Doing Well by Doing Good?;” Lipschutz, “The Clash of Governmentalities.”

    116. Leonard, Pollution and the Struggle for the World Product; Mani and Wheeler, “In Search of Pollution Havens?”

    117. Edna Bonacich and Richard Appelbaum, Behind the Label: Inequality in the Los Angeles Apparel Industry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).

    118. Haufler, Public Role for the Private Sector.

    119. Joseph Cascio, Gayle Woodside, and Philip Mitchell, ISO 14000 Guide: The New International Environmental Management Standards (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996); Clapp, Toxic Exports, chap. 6.

    120. John G. Ruggie, “The Theory and Practice of Learning Networks: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Global Compact,” Journal of Corporate Citizenship 5 (spring 2002): 27–36.

    121. Leslie Rockenbach, The Mexican-American Border: NAFTA and Global Linkages (New York: Routledge, 2001).

    122. Rachel Kamel and Anya Hoffman, eds., The Maquiladora Reader: Cross-border Organizing Since NAFTA (Philadelphia: Mexico-U.S. Border Program, American Friends Service Committee, 1999).

    123. Joseph DiMento and Patricia Doughman, “Soft Teeth in the Back of the Mouth: The NAFTA Environmental Side Agreement Implemented,” Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 10 (spring 1998): 651–752.

    124. Altha Cravey, Women and Work in Mexico's Maquiladoras (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998).; U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), U.S.-Mexico Border: Despite Some Progress, Environmental Infrastructure Challenges Remain (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000); see also Border EcoWeb, online at

    125. Haufler, Public Role for the Private Sector; Karl Schoenberger, Levi's Children: Coming to Terms with Human Rights in the Global Marketplace (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000).

    126. Ruth Pearson and Gill Seyfang, “New Hope or False Dawn? Voluntary Codes of Conduct, Labour Regulation, and Social Policy in a Globalising World,” Global Social Policy 1 (Apr. 2001): 49–78.

    127. Lipschutz, “Sweating It Out.”

    128. John Heilprin, “EPA Eases Clean Air Requirements on Power Plants,” Washington Post, Nov. 22, 2002.

    129. Anil Markandya, “Eco-Labeling: An Introduction and Review,” in Eco-Labelling and International Trade, ed. Simonetta Zarrilli, Veena Jha and René Vossenaar, (Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 1997), pp. 1–20; Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “Why Is There No International Forestry Law? An Examination of International Forestry Regulation, Both Public and Private,” UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 19 (2001): 155–182.

    130. Cascio, Woodside, and Mitchell, ISO 14000 Guide.

    131. Sophie Higman et al., The Sustainable Forestry Handbook (London: Earthscan, 1999).

    132. Pearson and Seyfang, “New Hope or False Dawn?”

    133. Greene, “U.S. Organic Farming.”

    134. See the Web site of Pest Management at the Crossroads, “Discussion on USDA's Rule Implementing the National Organic Farming Act of 1990,” online at (4/15/03).

    135. Raffensperger and Tickner, Protecting Public Health; O'Riordan, Cameron, and Jordan, Reinterpreting the Precautionary Principle.

    136. Archon Fung, Dana O'Rourke, and Charles Sabel, “Realizing Labor Standards: How Transparency, Competition, and Sanctions Could Improve Working Conditions Worldwide,” Boston Review 26, (Feb./Mar. 2001), online at (7/15/02).

    137. Bonacich and Appelbaum, Behind the Label; Lipschutz, “Clash of Governmentalities.”

    138. DiMento and Doughman, “Soft Teeth.”

    139. Keck and Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders; Paul Wapner, Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996); Jackie Smith and Hank Johnston, eds., Globalization and Resistance: Transnational Dimensions of Social Movements (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002).

    140. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society, chap. 7; Patrick Novotny, Where We Live.

    Chapter 5. The National Origins of International Environmental Policies and Practices: “My Country is in the World”

    1. Porter, Brown, and Chasek, Global Environmental Politics.

    2. Lipschutz, When Nations Clash.

    3. The locus classicus for this definition is found in Krasner, International Regimes.

    4. See, for example, Young, International Governance; Robert O. Keohane and Mark A. Levy, eds., Institutions for Environmental Aid: Pitfalls and Promise (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996).

    5. Robert O. Keohane, International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International Relations Theory, pp. 1–20 (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1989).

    6. Krasner, International Regimes, p. 1.

    7. Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977).

    8. Robert L. Friedheim, Toward a Sustainable Whaling Regime (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001); M. J. Peterson, “Whales, Cetologists, Environmentalists, and the International Management of Whaling,” International Organization 46 (winter 1992): 187–224.

    9. See, for example, Peter Larkin, “An Epitaph for the Concept of Maximum Sustained Yield,” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106 (1977): 1–11; Marc Mangell, Baldo Marinovic, Caroline Pomeroy, and Donald Croll, “Requiem for Ricker: Unpacking MSY,” Bulletin of Marine Science 70 (2002): 763–81, online at (4/15/03).

    10. William T. Burke, The New International Law of Fisheries: UNCLOS 1982 and Beyond (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).

    11. Anderson and Leal, “Free Market versus Political Environmentalism;” Anderson and Leal, Free Market Environmentalism Today.

    12. Mishra, Globalization and the Welfare State; Cerny, “Structuring the Political Arena.”

    13. Rupert, Producing Hegemony; Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree.

    14. Rosenberg, Empire of Civil Society; Liah Greenfeld, The Spirit of Capitalism: Nationalism and Economic Growth (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001).

    15. Scott, Seeing Like a State; Peter A. Hall and David Soskice, eds., Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

    16. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 1991); Gellner, Nations and Nationalism; Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780.

    17. David A. Lake and Donald S. Rothchild, eds., The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and Escalation (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987); Beverly Crawford and Ronnie D. Lipschutz, eds., The Myth of “Ethnic Conflict”: Politics, Economics, and “Cultural” Violence (Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley; International and Area Studies Press, 1987).

    18. Lipschutz, When Nations Clash.

    19. O'Connor, “Three Ways to Look at the Ecological History;” Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society, chap. 5; Lipschutz, “Environmental History.”

    20. Jones, The European Miracle.

    21. Greenfeld, The Spirit of Capitalism.

    22. Mann, Sources of Social Power, vol. 2, chap. 2.

    23. Anderson, Imagined Communities.

    24. Lipschutz, “Why Is There No International Forestry Law?”

    25. Dunlap, Nature and the English Diaspora.

    26. Cerny, “Structuring the Political Arena.”

    27. Mishra, Globalization and the Welfare State; Strange, Retreat of the State; Steven K. Vogel, Freer Markets, More Rules: Regulatory Reform in Advanced Industrial Countries (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1996).

    28. Bernstein, Compromise of Liberal Environmentalism.

    29. Sen, Development as Freedom.

    30. Anatole France, Le Lys Rouge (1894); trans. as The Red Lily (New York: Current Literature, 1910), p. 87.

    31. Gaventa, Power and Powerlessness.

    32. Harold D. Lasswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When, How (New York: P. Smith, 1936).

    33. Louis Hartz, The Liberal Tradition in America (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1955), part 6.

    34. Hirsch, Social Limits to Growth.

    35. Ibid.; Daly, Steady-State Economics.

    36. David E. Camacho, ed., Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles: Race, Class, and the Environment (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1998).

    37. David M. Roodman, The Natural Wealth of Nations: Harnessing the Market for the Environment (New York: Norton, 1998).

    38. Black, Development in Theory and Practice.

    39. Johannesburg Summit 2002, online at (4/11/03).

    40. Peter Gleick, The World's Water, 2000–2001 (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2000).

    41. World Health Organization (WHO), Global Water Supply and Sanitation 2000: Assessment Report (New York: United Nations, 2001), sec. 1.1, online at (7/25/02).

    42. Melissa Master, “Water: Just Another Commodity?” Across the Board, July 2002, The Conference Board, online at (2/19/03).

    43. Water revenues: ibid. Number of people and countries: Brad Knickerbocker, “Privatizing Water: A Glass Half-Empty?” Christian Science Monitor, Oct. 24, 2002, online at (2/19/03).

    44. Peter Gleick et al., “The New Economy of Water: The Risks and Benefits of Globalization and Privatization of Fresh Water” (Oakland, Calif: Pacific Institute, 2002), online at (2/19/03).

    45. Karl Wittfogel, Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1957); Donald Worster, Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West (New York: Pantheon, 1985); Mark Reisner, Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water (New York: Viking, 1986).

    46. Michael Wood, Legacy: The Search for Ancient Civilization (New York: Sterling, 1995).

    47. Worster, Rivers of Empire; Scott, Seeing Like a State.

    48. Nick Middleton, The Global Casino: An Introduction to Environmental Issues (London: Hodder Arnold, 1999), chap. 9.

    49. Sandra Postel, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity (New York: Norton, 1997).

    50. James Witt, “Remarks at Project Impact Summit,” Washington, D.C., Dec. 13, 1999, online at (7/25/02).

    51. Postel, Last Oasis.

    52. Colin Green, “Who Pays the Piper? Who Calls the Tune?” UNESCO Courier, Feb. 1999, pp. 22–24.

    53. Zach Willey and Adam Diamant, “Water Marketing in the Northwest: Learning by Doing,” Water Strategist 10 (summer 1996).

    54. Emanuele Lobina, “Cochabamba: Water War,” Public Services International Research Unit, University of Greenwich, online at (2/19/03).

    55. Ibid.

    56. Jim Schultz, “Bolivia's War over Water,” Democracy Center, 2000, online at (5/14/02).

    57. Lobina, “Cochabamba.”

    58. Unchanged situation: Jennifer Hattam, “Who Owns Water?” Sierra 86 (Sept. 2001), online at Aguas lawsuit: Center for International Environmental Law, “Secretive World Bank Tribunal Bans Public and Media Participation in Bechtel Lawsuit over Access to Water,” Feb. 12, 2003, online at (2/19/03).

    59. Goudie, Human Impact on the Natural Environment, p. 204.

    60. Fogel, “Greening the Earth with Trees.” Susanna Hecht and Alexander Cockburn, The Fate of the Forest: Developers, Destroyers, and Defenders of the Amazon (New York: HarperCollins, 1990).

    61. Victor Menotti, “Forest Destruction and Globalisation,” Ecologist 29 (May–June 1999): 180–181.

    62. See ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organisation) Secretariat, “Reduced Impacts, Increased Costs?” ITTO Newsletter 6, no. 3 (1996), online at (2/19/03).

    63. Lipschutz, “Why Is There No International Forestry Law?”

    64. Scott, Seeing Like a State, p. 14.

    65. See, for example, Richard H. Grove, Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens, and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600–1860 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995); Guha, The Unquiet Woods.

    66. Grove, Green Imperialism, chap. 3.

    67. Scott, Seeing Like a State, pp. 19–20.

    68. Ibid., pp. 11–12.

    69. Magnusson and Shaw, A Political Space.

    70. Guha, The Unquiet Woods.

    71. Glenn Martin, “California's Rural Economy: Boom Times Long Gone, a Small Town Struggles for Survival,” San Francisco Chronicle, Mar. 24, 2003, online at (3/25/03).

    72. See, for example, Scott, Seeing Like a State, p. 20.

    73. N. Patrick Peritore, Third World Environmentalism: Case Studies from the Global South (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999), chap. 4.

    74. Madhav Gadgil and Ramachandra Guha, This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).

    75. Guha, The Unquiet Woods.

    76. Peritore, Third World Environmentalism, p. 71.

    77. O. P. Dwivedi, India's Environmental Policies, Programmes, and Stewardship (Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 1997), p. 91.

    78. Ibid., p. 92; Peritore, Third World Environmentalism, p. 69.

    79. Thomas Weber, Hugging the Trees: The Story of the Chipko Movement (New York: Viking, 1988); Guha, The Unquiet Woods.

    80. Guha, The Unquiet Woods, Epilogue.

    81. Ibid., pp. 201–202.

    82. Ronnie D. Lipschutz, “Global Civil Society and Global Environmental Protection: Private Initiatives and Public Goods,” in Evaluating Alternative Policy Instruments for Environmental Protection, ed. Michael Hatch (Albany: State University of New York Press, forthcoming); Lipschutz, “Why Is There No International Forestry Law?”

    83. David Goodman and Anthony Hall, eds., The Future of Amazonia (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990).

    84. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), “Intergovernmental Working Group on Forests,” online at (2/703).

    85. IISD, “A Brief History of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests,” online at (2/7/03).

    86. Ibid.

    87. United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), “IPF/IFF Process (1995–2000),” online at (2/7/03); UNFF, “History and Milestones of Global Forest Policy,” online at (2/7/03).

    88. Fogel, “Greening the Earth with Trees,” p. 129.

    89. Ibid.

    90. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), “The Economic, Social, and Environmental Chambers,” 2002, online at (2/7/03).

    91. Meridian Institute, “Comparative Analysis of the Forest Stewardship Council and Sustainable Forestry Initiative Certification Programs,” Oct. 2001, online at (2/6/03).

    92. FSC, “Forest Stewardship Council A.C. By-laws,” Document List, revised Nov. 2002, online at (2/7/03).

    93. FSC United States (FSCUS), “Buyers Groups,” online at (4/15/03).

    94. FSCUS, “Results/Impacts,” Jan. 15, 2003, online at (2/7/03).

    95. See C. M. Mater, W. Price, and V. A. Sample, “Certification Assessments on Public and University Lands: A Field-Based Comparative Evaluation of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) Programs,” Pinchot Institute for Conservation, Washington, D.C., June 2002, online at (2/7/03).

    96. Nicole Freris and Klemens Laschefski, “Seeing the Wood from the Trees,” online at (5/23/03); Klemens Laschefski and Nicole Freris, “Saving the Wood,” Ecologist 31, no. 6 (2001), online at (5/23/03).

    97. Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition (CSFCC), “Mutual Recognition,” 2002, online at (2/2/03); Lipschutz, “Why Is There No International Forestry Law?;” Lipschutz, “Global Civil Society.”

    98. Pierre Hauselmann, “ISO Inside Out: ISO and Environmental Management,” International Discussion Paper (Surrey, England: World Wildlife Fund, 1997), p. 3.

    99. Ibid.

    100. Amy P. Lally, “ISO 14000 and Environmental Cost Accounting: The Gateway to the Global Market,” Law and Policy in International Business 29, no. 4 (1998): 4.

    101. Cascio, Woodside, and Mitchell, ISO 14000 Guide.

    102. Lally, “ISO 14000 and Environmental Cost Accounting,” p. 3.

    103. Hauselmann, “ISO Inside Out.”

    104. Ibid.

    105. CSFCC, “ISO Forestry Working Group Completes Technical Report,” ISO/TC207/WG2, Forestry, Nov. 1997, online at (9/9/99).

    106. Stephen Bass et al., Certification's Impacts on Forests, Stakeholders, and Supply Chains (Stevenage, England: Earthprint, 2001), online at (2/5/03).

    107. Lipschutz, “Global Civil Society.”

    108. Oliver Cadot and David Vogel, “France, the United States, and the Biotechnology Dispute,” Brookings Institution Foreign Policy Studies, January 2001, online at (2/21/03).

    109. Data show no untoward effects: Robert Lalasz, “The Role of Agricultural Science and Technology in Reducing Hunger, Improving Livelihoods, and Increasing Economic Growth,” Environmental Change and Security Project, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, D.C., Nov. 21, 2001, online at (4/15/03). Data disputed: David Gibbs, “Globalization, the Bioscience Industry, and Local Environmental Responses,” Global Environmental Change 10 (2002): 252; Barbara Adam et al., “The Politics of GM Food: Risk, Science, and Public Trust,” Special Briefing no. 5, U.K. Economic and Social Research Council (Oct. 1999), online at (7/26/02).

    110. “Europeans, Science, and Technology,” Eurobarometer 55.2, Dec. 2001, p. 7, online at (2/21/03).

    111. Potential environmental impacts: D. Ferber, “Risks and Benefits: GM Crops in the Cross Hairs,” Science, Nov. 26, 1999, online at (4/12/02); M. Perelman, “The Costs of Capitalist Agriculture: A Challenge to Radical Political Economy,” Review of Radical Political Economics 32, no. 2 (2000): 317–330; Stanley W. B. Ewen and Arpad Pusztai, “Effect of Diets Containing Genetically Modified Potatoes Expressing Galanthus nivalis Lectin on Rat Small Intestine,” Lancet 354 (Oct. 16, 1999): 1353–1354 (see also the editorial in that issue). GMOs found in crops: Katie Eastham and Jeremy Sweet, “Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): The Significance of Gene Flow through Pollen Transfer,” European Environment Agency Environmental Report no. 28, 2002, online at (2/21/03); GRAIN, “GMOs Found in Food Aid to Latin America,” Seedling 18 (June 2001), online at (4/15/03).

    112. International Food Information Council Foundation, “More U.S. Consumers See Potential Benefits to Food Biotechnology,” IFIC Background, Mar. 2001, online at (2/21/03).

    113. Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, “Public Sentiment about Genetically Modified Food,” Summary of Findings, Mar. 2001, online at (2/21/03).

    114. Lalasz, “The Role of Agricultural Science.”

    115. Ibid.

    116. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), “Questions and Answers on the European Food Safety Authority,” Brussels, Dec. 18, 2001, Memo/01/1248 Revised, online at (2/24/03).

    117. Andrew Osborn and John Vidal, “Tough European Line on GM Labeling,” Guardian, July 4, 2002, online at,3604,748882,00.html (2/24/03).

    118. David Teather, “US Halts Plan to Foist GM Food on Europe,” Guardian, Feb. 21, 2003, online at,2763,900030,00.html (4/24/03); Elizabeth Becker, “U.S. Contests Europe's Ban on Some Food,” New York Times, May 14, 2003, sec. C, p. 1.

    119. Codex Alimentarius, Understanding the Codex Alimentarius (Rome: FAO/WHO, 1999), at: (2/24/03).

    120. Gourevitch, Politics in Hard Times, chap. 1; see also Kees Van der Pijl, Transnational Classes and International Relations (London: Routledge, 1998).

    121. Mirian Hood, Gunboat Diplomacy, 1895–1905: Great Power Pressure in Venezuela (London: Allen and Unwin, 1975); Rosenberg, Empire of Civil Society.

    122. Robert Gilpin, War and Change in World Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981); Stephen Gill, American Hegemony and the Trilateral Commission (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

    123. U.S. EPA, “The United States of America's Third National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,” online at (4/15/03).

    124. Natalia S. Mitrovitskaya, Margaret Clark, and Ronald G. Purver, “North Pacific Fur Seals: Regime Formation as a Means of Resolving Conflict,” in Polar Politics: Creating International Environmental Regimes, ed. Oran R. Young and Gail Osherenko (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1993), pp. 22–55.

    125. Peterson, “Whales, Cetologists, Environmentalists.”

    126. Edward L. Miles, Global Ocean Politics: The Decision Process at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, 1973–1982 (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1998).

    127. James K. Sebenius, Negotiating the Law of the Sea (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984).

    128. Krasner, International Regimes, pp. 1–22, 355–368; Susan Strange, “Cave! Hic dragones: A Critique of Regime Analysis,” in Krasner, International Regimes, pp. 337–354.

    129. Graham Allison, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971); Morton Halperin, Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1974); Stephen D. Krasner, “Are Bureaucracies Important? (Or, Allison Wonderland),” Foreign Policy 7 (summer 1972): 159–179.

    130. Andrew Simms, “Farewell Tuvalu,” Observer, Oct. 28, 2001, online at (7/26/02).

    131. John Braithwaite and Peter Drahos, Global Business Regulation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

    132. Ibid.

    133. Ibid.

    134. Ellen M. F. ‘t Hoen, “Access to Medicines Should Not Be a Luxury for the Rich but a Right for All” (paper presented at the Third Medicine Vigilance Seminar, Konohana Kaikan, Osaka, Oct. 26–27, 2002), online at (4/15/03).

    135. See, for example, Consumer Project on Technology, “Court Case between 39 Pharmaceutical Firms and the South African Government,” online at (4/15/03).

    136. Clapp, Toxic Exports.

    137. Elizabeth Bomberg, Green Parties and Politics in the European Union (London: Routledge, 1998).

    138. See, for example, Henning Arp, “Technical Regulation and Politics: The Interplay between Economic Interests and Environmental Policy Goals in EC Car Emission Legislation,” in Environmental Policy in the European Union: Actors, Institutions and Processes, ed. Andrew Jordan (London: Earthscan, 2002), pp. 256–274.

    139. Sonia Mazey and Jeremy Richardson, “Environmental Groups and the EC: Challenges and Opportunities,” in Jordan, Environmental Policy in the European Union, pp. 141–156; Bomberg, Green Parties and Politics, chap. 6.

    140. David Vogel, Trading Up: Consumer and Environmental Regulation in a Global Economy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995).

    141. Ibid., pp. 85–87.

    142. Duales System Deutschland AG, “Der Grüne Punkt,” online at: (4/15/03).

    143. Albert Weale et al., Environmental Governance in Europe: An Ever Closer Ecological Union? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 420.

    144. Vogel, Trading Up, pp. 82–93.

    145. Christine Whitehouse, “Driven to Distraction,” Time International 155 (Feb. 14, 2000): 65–66.

    146. John McCormick, Environmental Policy in the European Union (Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2001), p. 178.

    147. Keck and Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders.

    148. In March 2002 a portion of the Larsen Ice Shelf disintegrated, suggesting that perhaps such a cataclysm is not out of the realm of possibility. See “Antarctic Ice Shelf Collapses,” Ice Shelves and Icebergs in the News, Mar. 18, 2002, online at: (2/25/03).

    Chapter 6. Global Environmental Politics and You: “The World is My Country”

    1. C. Goldberg, “1500 March in Boston to Protest Biotech Food,” New York Times, Mar. 27, 2000, online at (3/27/00).

    2. Cited in ibid.

    3. Smith and Johnston, Globalization and Resistance; Robin Broad, ed., Global Backlash: Citizen Initiatives for a Just World Economy (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002).

    4. Chantal Mouffe, The Democratic Paradox (London: Verso, 2000).

    5. See, for example, Nancy Fraser, “Social Justice in the Age of Identity Politics: Redistribution, Recognition, and Participation,” Distinguished Lecture at the Centre for Theoretical Studies, Essex University, England, 1999, online at (2/15/00).

    6. Stone, Policy Paradox.

    7. Cited in ibid., p. 26.

    8. Lasswell, Politics.

    9. Hardin, “Tragedy of the Commons.”

    10. Thomas Frank and Matt Weiland, eds., Commodify Your Dissent: The Business of Culture in the New Gilded Age (New York: Norton, 1997).

    11. Lipschutz, After Authority.

    12. Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961).

    13. Smith, Theory of Moral Sentiments.

    14. Anthropocentric: Bookchin, Ecology of Freedom. Biocentric: Sessions, “Deep Ecology.”

    15. Meyer, Political Nature; Keulartz, The Struggle for Nature.

    16. Ophuls and Boyan, Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity Revisited; Heilbroner, An Inquiry into the Human Prospect.

    17. William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature (New York: Norton, 1995).

    18. Michael E. Soulé and Gary Lease, eds., Reinventing Nature? Responses to Postmodern Deconstruction (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1995).

    19. Stone, Should Trees Have Standing?

    20. Ulrich Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (London: Sage, 1992); Beck, Ecological Politics.

    21. Haraway, “Manifesto for Cyborgs.”

    22. Sen, Development as Freedom; Dimitris Stevis and Valerie J. Asseto, eds., The International Political Economy of the Environment (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2001).

    23. Polanyi, The Great Transformation, p. 3.

    24. Ellen Wood, The Origins of Capitalism: A Longer View (London: Verso, 2002).

    25. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (New York: Continuum, 2000), p. 106.

    26. Foucault, “Truth and Power,” p. 119.

    27. Barbara Epstein, “Why Post-Structuralism Is a Dead End for Progressive Thought,” Socialist Review 25, no. 2 (1995): 83–119.

    28. Arendt, The Human Condition, p. 198.

    29. Ibid., p. 200.

    30. Ibid., p. 199.

    31. Ibid., p. 198; second emphasis added.

    32. Iris Marion Young, Justice and the Politics of Difference (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990), p. 227, quoting Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964), p. 7.

    33. Young, Justice and the Politics of Difference, p. 234.

    34. Lipschutz, with Mayer, Global Civil Society.

    35. Olson, Logic of Collective Action. Tarrow, Power in Movement; McAdam, McCarthy, and Zald, Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements.

    36. Mouffe, The Democratic Paradox.

    Citations of Authors

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