Foreign Policy in Comparative Perspective: Domestic and International Influences on State Behavior


Ryan K. Beasley, Juliet Kaarbo, Jeffrey S. Lantis & Michael T. Snarr

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    To Ellie, Quinn, Joshua, Megan, Madison, Ty, Isaiah, and Elise

    About the Contributors

    Olufemi A. Babarinde is academic director of the MBA in Global Management Program and associate professor of global business at Thunderbird School of Global Management. His areas of expertise include business in Sub-Saharan Africa, business issues in South Africa, the integration process of the European Union, international development, and regional integration agreements. He has authored and coauthored books, including The European Union and the Developing Countries: The Cotonou Agreement, with Gerrit Faber (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2005) and journal articles in the Thunderbird International Business Review and Journal of European Integration.

    Ryan K. Beasley is lecturer of international relations at the University of St. Andrews. His research examines the psychological influences on group foreign policy decision making, as well as the impact of institutional structures on foreign policy behavior. He has worked in Geneva, Switzerland, examining the impact of small arms and light weapons on humanitarian and development relief workers. His focus on political psychology has led to examinations of the role of problem representations in foreign policy, the psychology of legitimacy, as well as explorations of the impact of cognitive dissonance in political decisions. He has published articles in Foreign Policy Analysis, Political Psychology, and International Studies Review.

    Derick Becker is a visiting assistant professor at Colgate University, where he teaches a range of courses on African politics. His research interests include the role of ideas and markets on economic policy making, and the international political economy of the developing world. He has authored research works published in International Politics and Foreign Policy Analysis.

    Gabriel Cepaluni is assistant professor at São Paulo State University (UNESP). He has a PhD from the Department of Political Science at the University of São Paulo and was a visiting researcher in the Department of Government at Georgetown University (2008–2009). He is the coauthor of Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times (2010) with Tullo Vigevani and Patent Regime: United States X Brazil on the International Chessboard (2007). His recent publications include articles in Third World Quarterly and Contexto Internacional.

    Graeme A. M. Davies is a lecturer in international security in the School of Politics and International Studies at the University of Leeds (UK). His research and teaching interests include linkages between domestic politics and state conduct in the international system, international conflict, comparative foreign policy, and responding to “rogue state” behaviors. He has published articles in The Journal of Peace Research, Foreign Policy Analysis, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, and The Journal of Conflict Resolution.

    Rita Giacalone is professor of economic history at the Department of Economics, Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela), and coordinator of the Regional Integration Research Group (GRUDIR). Her latest publications on foreign relations issues are “An Assessment of European Union Cooperation towards the Andean Community (1992–2007)” in P. De Lombaerde & M. Schulz, eds. The Makability of Regions. The EU and World Regionalism (Ashgate, 2010); “Mercosur y Venezuela” in R. Dominguez & J. Roy, eds. España, la Unión Europea y la Integración Latinoamericana (European Studies Center, Miami University, 2010); and “Venezuela in Asymmetric Trade Negotiations: FTAA and EU” in P. De Lombaerde & S. Bilal, eds. Asymmetric Trade Negotiations (Ashgate, 2011).

    Sebastian Harnisch is professor of political science at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. His research and publications encompass German and United States foreign policy, European affairs, theories of international relations, nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and Korean affairs. His books include Germany as a Civilian Power: The Foreign Policy of the Berlin Republic (Manchester University Press, 2001) (coeditor Hanns W. Maull) and Role Theory in International Relations: Contemporary Approaches and Analyses (Routledge, 2011) (coeditors Cornelia Frank and Hanns W. Maull). His articles have appeared in Foreign Policy Analysis, European Security, German Politics, Asian Survey, and Pacific Review.

    Juliet Kaarbo is senior lecturer of politics and international relations in the School of Social and Political Science at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Her teaching and research interests include political psychology, leadership and decision making, group dynamics, foreign policy analysis, and parliamentary political systems. Areas of specialization include British, Dutch, German, Israeli, Japanese, Turkish, and U.S. foreign policy. Her research has appeared in academic journals, including International Studies Quarterly, European Journal of International Relations, International Studies Review, Foreign Policy Analysis, and International Interactions. She recently authored Coalition Politics and Cabinet Decision Making: A Comparative Analysis of Foreign Policy Choices (University of Michigan Press, 2012).

    Jeffrey S. Lantis is professor of political science/international relations at The College of Wooster. A former Fulbright Senior Scholar in Australia, his teaching and research interests include international security, foreign policy analysis, strategic culture, nonproliferation, and innovative pedagogy for the international studies classroom. His books include United States Foreign Policy in Action (Wiley-Blackwell, forthcoming 2012) and The Life and Death of International Treaties (Oxford University Press, 2009). His articles have appeared in Contemporary Security Policy, International Security, European Security, International Negotiation, Arms Control Today, and International Studies Review.

    Akitoshi Miyashita is a professor of international relations at Tokyo International University. His research and teaching interests include international relations of Asia-Pacific, Japanese foreign policy, and United States–East Asian relations. He has written journal articles and chapters in edited volumes. He is also the coeditor of Japanese Foreign Policy in Asia and the Pacific (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2001) and the author of Limits to Power: Asymmetric Dependence and Japanese Foreign Aid Policy (Lexington Books, 2003).

    Mariya Omelicheva is an assistant professor of political science at the University of Kansas. Her research and teaching interests include international and Eurasian security, counterterrorism and human rights, international law, and Russian foreign policy. She is the author of Counterterrorism Policies in Central Asia (Routledge, 2011) and many articles that have appeared in Europe-Asia Studies, International Studies Perspectives, International Studies Review, Journal of Human Rights, Terrorism and Political Violence, and Studies of Conflict and Terrorism.

    Binnur Ozkececi-Taner is an assistant professor of political science at Hamline University. Her teaching and research interests include foreign policy analysis, world politics, politics of the Middle East, regional and international security, coalition governments and party politics, and Turkish foreign policy. She published a book, titled Role of Ideas in Coalition Government Foreign Policymaking: The Case of Turkey between 1991 and 2002 (Brill/RoL Publishers, 2009), and other publications have appeared in Contemporary Security Policy, Foreign Policy Analysis, International Studies Review, Turkish Politics, British Journal of Middle Eastern Affairs, Political Science Quarterly, and Foreign Policy (Turkish).

    Tinaz Pavri is professor and chair of the Department of Political Science at Spelman College. Dr. Pavri's research and publication interests lie in the area of security studies and conflict resolution (particularly ethnonationalist and protracted conflicts), questions of national identity and the international political economy. Her geographic area of expertise is South Asia, including the conflict between India and Pakistan. She has published numerous articles in journals, including Negotiation Journal and Peace Review, and book chapters. She is coeditor of Population Diversity and the U.S. Army (Strategic Studies Institute Press, 1999).

    Michael T. Snarr is professor of political science and director of the Honors Program at Wilmington College. He is coeditor of Introducing Global Issues, now in its 5th edition (Lynne Rienner, 2011). His research focuses on Global South foreign policy and connections between globalization and local development. He has taught courses on Latin American politics, contemporary Mexico, and international organization. He has recently participated in delegations to Asia and the Middle East, including a congressional staff delegation to Afghanistan. He has served on the advisory boards of the Christian Peacemaker Teams, the Quaker United Nations Office, and the Friends Committee on National Legislation.

    Adrian Treacher is a lecturer in contemporary European studies in the Sussex European Institute at the University of Sussex (UK). His teaching and research interests include the international relations of the European Union, European security, and French foreign policy. He published French Interventionism: Europe's Last Global Player? (Ashgate, 2003), as well as numerous journal articles in European Foreign Affairs Review, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, European Security, International Peacekeeping, and Contemporary Security Policy.

    Tullo Vigevani is a professor at São Paulo State University (UNESP); researcher of the Center for Studies on Contemporary Culture (CEDEC); coordinator of the National Institute for Science and Technology for Studies on the United States (INCT-INEU). He published with Gabriel Cepaluni, Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times. The Quest for Autonomy From Sarney to Lula (Lexington Books, 2009); O Contencioso Brasil x Estados Unidos da Informática: Uma Análise Sobre Formulação da Política Exterior (Edusp, 1995). He has also published articles in Politica Internazionale, Nueva Sociedad, Third World Quarterly, Latin American Perspectives, Integration & Trade; Latin American Politics and Society, and The International Spectator.

    Brian White is a professor in the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield. He is also an associate professor of international relations in the Institut d'Etudes Politiques (Sciences-Po), Toulouse University. He was previously a professor at Warwick University and at Staffordshire University, where he was also head of department. White teaches and researches in the areas of foreign policy analysis, British and United States foreign policy, and security studies. More recently, he has been one of the pioneers of the relatively new study of European (EU) foreign and security policy.

    Stephen Wright is a professor of politics and international affairs at Northern Arizona University. His research and teaching interests include the political economy of development, regional integration, and African foreign policies. He is the editor of several books on African international relations, the author of Nigeria: Struggle for Stability and Status (Westview, 1998), and the author of numerous articles and book chapters on various aspects of African development and foreign policy.

    Zhiqun Zhu is the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur chair in East Asian politics and associate professor of political science and international relations at Bucknell University in Pennsylvania. A former chief assistant to the consul for press and cultural affairs at the American Consulate General in Shanghai, Dr. Zhu's teaching and research interests include Chinese politics and foreign policy, East Asian political economy, and international relations theory. He has authored and edited a number of books, including Understanding East Asia's Economic “Miracles” (Association for Asian Studies, 2009) and The People's Republic of China Today: Internal and External Challenges (World Scientific Publishing, 2010). His research articles have appeared in journals, including Asian Perspective, Global Economic Review, Journal of Asia-Pacific Affairs, and Yale Journal of International Affairs.


    This is the second edition of Foreign Policy in Comparative Perspective: Domestic and International Influences on State Behavior. As in the first edition, this collection of chapters presents a look at foreign policy in comparative perspective by focusing on thirteen countries and frames this presentation with theoretical insights on how internal and external factors influence states' foreign affairs.

    The need for this book is clear. There are many courses on comparative foreign policy, comparative security policy, international security, foreign policy analysis, and foreign policy decision making taught at universities and colleges throughout the world, yet no other book presents a wide selection of states in an accessible, empirically-grounded, and theoretically-informed manner. Given the positive reaction to the first edition, we maintained a similar structure for this book. Updates to this edition include a survey of contemporary theories and scholarship in the introductory and concluding chapters, more integration and standardization of theoretical points throughout the country chapters, and, of course, a thorough updating of the content of the country chapters. Many chapters also represent original contributions written for this edition by new authors.

    We continue to believe in the importance of theoretically-driven comparisons to gain a greater understanding of the nature and explanations of foreign policy in general. Though some scholars have abandoned the term comparative foreign policy because of its past association with positivist, inductive, and quantitative approaches, comparisons of foreign policy behavior often reveal similarities and differences that are the building blocks of further social scientific exploration. The variation in state responses to recent international events, such as the Iraq War, the humanitarian crisis in Darfur, and the global economic crises, reminds scholars and students alike that states often respond very differently to similar situations.

    We chose the countries in this book to allow for meaningful comparisons relevant to the theories and issues that are current in foreign policy analysis and international relations theory. In addition, they tend to be the countries with which students are most familiar. We also committed to include a variety of types of states so that the book is more than a collection of essays about “great powers.” Although the country chapters are grouped regionally in the book, they also stand alone, and instructors can easily modify the order of presentation. We chose not to group countries into a single chapter, treating them as a particular region (such as Africa or Latin America). Although the country chapters in this book speak to common concerns shared by states within a region, they also illustrate important variations. In addition, we are excited to include two new countries in this second edition (Turkey and Venezuela), both of which have fascinating and intriguing contemporary foreign policies and provide a nice complement to the other selected countries.

    The focus of each country chapter is the substance and explanations of the state's foreign policies. Chapters are divided into sections dealing with the historical context of the country's foreign policy, external factors, internal factors, and how these factors play out in examples of contemporary foreign policy issues. In this way, each case contributes to the overall theme of the book—understanding domestic and international influences on foreign policy.

    We include pedagogical features in this book to encourage students to think critically and connect the theoretical discussion of the first chapter to the material in the country chapters. Chapter 1 introduces various explanations of foreign policy derived from theories of international relations and research on its domestic sources; these are then linked to explanations of country foreign policy decision making outlined in each case chapter. Chapter 1 also includes a list of questions for students to consider as they read the remaining chapters. Editors' introductions summarize the themes of each country chapter and compare the countries to others in the book at critical points. Each country chapter is organized consistently to include sections on internal and external factors. Finally, the concluding chapter brings together the important points of the country chapters and compares the foreign policies of states, according to the theoretical expectations presented in Chapter 1. The chapter discusses linkages between external and internal factors, as observed throughout the book, and draws implications for future foreign policy analysis. This approach may serve as the foundation for case teaching, in-depth comparative analysis assignments, simulations, or issue-area research projects.


    We express our appreciation to the editorial staff members at CQ Press for their support and encouragement for the second edition. The publishing team, including Elise Frasier (our main point of contact) was a pleasure to work with throughout the process. The eleven (!) external reviews of the first edition were a tremendous aid in the revision of the text. We thank Marijke Breuning, University of North Texas; Sebastian Harnisch, University of Heidelberg (who went on to become a contributor to this edition); Jason Kirk, University of Pennsylvania; Anika Leithner, Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo; Ronald Linden, University of Pittsburgh; Arijit Mazumdar, University of St. Thomas; Heather Mbaye, University of West Georgia; Boyka Stefanova, University of Texas, San Antonio; Bertjan Verbeek, Radboud University Nijmegen; and Yi Edward Yang, James Madison University, for their careful reading and constructive comments and suggestions. We are also grateful for a workshop grant from the International Studies Association in 2000, which brought together the editors and contributors for a critical set of meetings to launch the project.

    The contributors to this volume deserve much credit—as a group they created a collection of fine chapters; as individuals they overcame professional, personal, and national challenges to produce a finished product on our timeline. We are particularly grateful to those authors who have been with us throughout both editions and we genuinely welcome those who just joined us for this edition. We feel privileged to work with such a talented group of scholars.

    Finally, we reflect on our common bonds of education, training in the study of comparative foreign policy, and friendship forged during our graduate school days at The Ohio State University. Much has occurred in the twelve years since this textbook project was first launched. Just after the first edition of this book was published, for example, we worked with our colleagues and students to understand the events of September 11, 2001, and the ensuing war on terror. Since then, world leaders have risen and fallen, and countries have struggled with economic, political, and social challenges. Observing these events—and their impacts on the lives of citizens around the world—has fueled our professional work and strengthened our personal commitments to seek innovative policy solutions.

    R. K. B., St. Andrews, ScotlandJ. K., Edinburgh, ScotlandJ. S. L., Wooster, OhioM. T. S., Wilmington, Ohio

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