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Chapter 4: National Political Influences on Environmental Policy
The last chapter sketched an evolving environmental policy system with two defining characteristics, notably, growth in reach and breadth and fragmentation and lack of rationalization in design and execution. These features substantially reflect how growing demand for environmental protection interacts with the institutions supplying policy outputs. Societal demands are aggregated through various mechanisms and mediated by supply-side political institutions. Demand and supply are endogenous, one causing the other such that supply-side institutions are influenced by demands, as institutions themselves are malleable, and supply-side forces are affected by political institutions, as public opinion and their means of aggregation are manipulable. Policy outputs then emerge out of this reinforcing interaction of demand and supply.
This chapter will ...