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Portland's path to having a reputation as one of the nation's most livable cities has not always been smooth. Corruption, profiteering, and wide-open vice characterized the City of Roses at the turn of the twentieth century, and every era has had its own controversies and rivalries: disputes over railroad franchises and rights-of-way, women's suffrage, public versus private power, Prohibition, and the siting of freeways, to name a few. Colorful personalities—from Populist Sylvester Pennoyer, who served as Oregon's governor from 1887 to 1895 and then Portland's mayor from 1896 to 1898, to tavern-owner-turned-mayor Bud Clark, who served as mayor from 1985 to 1993—have emerged in every period, as the city has grown and its government has evolved from a small group of volunteers to a complex ...

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