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The New Deal (1933–39) was a set of economic and social measures enacted by Congress and implemented by the federal government early in the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It constituted a response to the Great Depression of the 1930s and a departure from the concept of limited government. In the American West, New Deal programs changed the political and physical landscape of the region and had lasting political consequences.

At the dawn of the New Deal era, the western United States was already undergoing rapid change. The two pillars of the economy in most western states—agriculture and mining—had been damaged by the Depression but not as badly as in other regions. In 1932 agricultural income remained at or above the national average in most ...

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