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  • Hawai'i, the fiftieth state in the United States of America, comprises more than 130 volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean, with the eight largest being Hawai'i, Kaho‘olawe, Kauai, Lana‘i, Maui, Moloka‘i, Niihau, and O‘ahu. The islands were, and are being, created by a hot spot in the Earth's mantle that has existed for at least seventy million years. Among the active volcanoes in Hawai'i are the East Maui Volcano, Hualalai, Kilauea, Lo'ihi, Mauna Kea, and Mauna Loa.

    The first Hawaiians, or Kanaka Maoli, are descended from Polynesians that arrived in multiple migrations to the Hawaiian Islands beginning more than one thousand years ago. Among the nonnative plants that they introduced to the islands were bananas, breadfruit, coconuts, sugarcane, and taro. Politically and socially, the Hawaiians organized ...

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