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The Gadsden Purchase resulted from the 1853 negotiations between the United States and Mexico for the purchase of the Mesilla Valley, south of the Territory of New Mexico (which included Arizona at the time). By the terms of the treaty, the United States acquired 29,670 square miles south of the Gila River for which the United States paid Mexico $10 million. Mexico had already ceded some two hundred thousand square miles of its northwestern lands, including what would become the present-day states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah. Also, Mexico had accepted a newly redrawn border between itself and the United States, according to the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an end to the Mexican-American War in 1848.

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