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Desegregation in the U.S. West was a complex process given its multiracial character. The groups impacted by racial segregation and desegregation included Asian Americans, Mexican Americans, African Americans, and their white liberal allies as well as civil rights opponents. The axes of racial discrimination in the U.S. West were multiple compared to the black-white binary that shaped the Jim Crow South. De facto and de jure racial segregation in California and Texas were targeted for civil rights reform in the post–World War II years. While desegregation succeeded to a certain extent, U.S. cities are still highly segregated.
Desegregation efforts centered on policy geared toward equal access to public accommodations, housing, employment, and education. In housing, racial covenants in western cities were normative, drawing clear boundaries where ...