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  • Fascism now refers in most serious political science and historiographical usage to a revolutionary form of antiliberal nationalism that in its fanatical pursuit of national rebirth in the 1930s and 1940s, particularly in Germany, played a decisive role in causing the Spanish Civil War and World War II in Europe, and the resulting loss of many millions of military and civilian lives through war, persecution, forced labor, and genocide. As an ideology of total societal transformation, which inevitably becomes a totalitarian politico-military project when translated into practice, it arose out of the powerful growth of ultranationalism in nineteenth century Europe, but emerged fully as a discrete political force in many countries within the Europeanized world only in the aftermath of World War I. It was ...

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