Elections A to Z

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Edited by: David R. Tarr & Bob Benenson

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      About the Authors

      The original edition of Elections A to Z was written largely by John L. Moore with assistance from a number of Congressional Quarterly writers and CQ Press sponsoring editor Shana Wagger. Mr. Moore, who died in 2010, had a long journalistic career with Congressional Quarterly including service in the news department of the CQ Weekly magazine and, later, as assistant director in the book publishing division that today is known as CQ Press. Mr. Moore was the author of Speaking of Washington, published by CQ Press, and was involved in numerous other reference works on Congress and the federal government, including as volume editor of CQ's Guide to U.S. Elections.

      The second edition was revised by Mr. Moore working with other seasoned CQ writers including David Hosansky, Patricia Ann O'Connor, Ron de Paolo, Kenneth Jost, and Bruce Maxwell. The third edition was revised by Bob Benenson, a thirty-year veteran of political reporting and CQ political editor from 1998 until 2010, and staff writer Gregory Giroux.

      The new edition was revised by Bob Benenson, currently a freelance author based in Chicago, and David R. Tarr, former executive editor of CQ Press and editor of numerous CQ Press reference volumes. The editors are grateful to Doug Goldenberg-Hart, Senior Acquisitions Editor, January Layman-Wood, Reference Development Supervisor, and Sarah Walker, Associate Editor, for their excellent support.

      About this Book

      Elections A to Z is part of CQ Press's five-volume American Government A to Z series, which provides essential information about the history, powers, and operations of the three branches of government; the election of members of Congress and the president; and the nation's most important document, the Constitution. In these volumes, CQ Press's writers and editors present engaging insight and analysis about U.S. government in a comprehensive, ready-reference encyclopedia format. The series is useful to anyone who has an interest in national government and politics.

      Elections A to Z offers accessible information about the historical foundations of U.S. elections, including the constitutional amendments that expanded the franchise to minorities, women, and youth; qualifications for office; pivotal events and groundbreaking candidates; campaign regulations and strategies; and the roles of political consultants, the media, and political parties. It also covers recent trends in House, Senate, presidential, and some state-level elections.

      The fourth edition of Elections A to Z has been thoroughly updated to incorporate important contemporary events, such as the 2010 midterm elections that shifted party control in the House back to Republicans and brought into that chamber a new collection of deeply conservative members who, in 2011, used their influence to push the GOP even further to the right and in the process thwarted efforts at bipartisan agreement on major financial issues. The new edition discusses the emergence of the Tea Party movement that helped boost Republican candidates in 2010 elections and controversies over legislation in some states to require voters to show picture identifications to vote and to reduce opportunities for early voting. Editors have extensively updated developments in primary scheduling, campaign finance reform—including the important Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission decision in 2010—voting technology, and political participation. Also updated are discussions on reapportionment and redistricting for the next decade following the 2010 census. Also examined in more detail in this volume is the growing impact of social networking and new media, such as Twitter and Facebook, on the electoral scene.

      The extensive appendix contains updated material on election topics including historical election returns, political party leadership and conventions, state government, and women, blacks, and Hispanics in Congress.

      Preface

      The first decade of the twenty-first century, as observed by those who participate in and chronicle elections as well as ordinary election buffs, was remarkable: tumultuous, volatile, angry, and unpredictable. And yet, as the nation headed into a national election in 2012 that promised to be one of the more important votes of recent times, the patterns and customs of the American system of choosing leaders—and in the process casting judgment on the leaders and their actions—was as recognizable as it was from the beginning of the nation.

      As always, there is an accepted and peaceful transfer of power when the voters decide it is time for that to occur. The election process since the nation's early days has been defined largely by two dominant political parties, Republicans and Democrats or their predecessors—albeit with the periodic rise of third-party movements whose policies and ideas often find their way into the platforms of the dominant parties. Also, as has been frequently seen, elections may encompass significant differences of opinions among voters about the nature, the purpose, and the goals that should be pursued by the office holders elected by the voters.

      The 2000s decade—if not a fundamental break from the past—stood out for the strains the nation encountered during the period. The election outcomes reflected those strains. Some traumatic events were unexpected, principally the terrorist attacks by Islamic extremists on September 11, 2001, even though similar—if far less serious—assaults on American interests had preceded it outside U.S. borders. Some were from decisions in the aftermath of September 11 to engage the nation in two lengthy and grinding wars from which the United States was still trying to find ways to extract itself as the 2012 voting approached. And others were self-inflicted, most notably the great economic recession that began in 2007 following the collapse of a vast housing bubble in which value seemed to go only up, until it burst.

      The volatile political landscape to the decade was reflected in the mirror of elections beginning in 2000, almost a year before the September 11 attacks, when Republican George W. Bush won a disputed and extraordinarily narrow victory in the presidential Electoral College when contested vote counts in one state, Florida, were awarded to him by a 5–4 ruling of the Supreme Court, even though the national popular vote was won by his opponent, Democrat Al Gore.

      The Bush administration then embarked on controversial actions that became the foundation for increasing national discord for the decade, most notably a military invasion of Iraq to topple dictator Saddam Hussein on grounds that his regime was developing weapons of mass destruction, a presumed threat that turned out to be false. Bush, and the Congress that was controlled by Republicans for more than half the decade, stated a commitment to conservative fiscal principles but oversaw a rapid expansion of the national debt by enacting significant cuts in taxes, even while military spending was rapidly escalating, and creating expensive new programs in education (“No Child Left Behind”) and health care (the Medicare prescription drug benefit).

      Initially, Americans of both parties rallied behind Bush in his self-proclaimed “war on terror,” and election judgments reflected that support. With the exception of a short time in the Senate, Republicans retained a congressional majority won first in 1994 and the president won reelection in 2004, this time by a small but clear majority.

      It was after his reelection that the nation's voters began to shift, first as the Iraq war and a lesser conflict in nearby Afghanistan, which had provided a safe haven for the al Qaeda terrorists who committed the September 11 attacks, dragged on without an end in sight, then in 2005 when the federal government stumbled in providing relief to the human misery in New Orleans and elsewhere on the Gulf Coast caused by Hurricane Katrina, and especially by 2008 when the housing bubble burst and the economy—nationally and globally—all but collapsed. The first judgment by voters was rendered in 2006 when Democrats recaptured control of Congress for the first time since 1994. The second, and more decisive judgment, came in 2008 when Barack Obama won the presidency for the Democrats and his party significantly increased its congressional majorities.

      Fully in control of two of the federal government branches for the first time in more than a decade and a half, Democrats undertook an aggressive and largely progressive agenda in a variety of areas but most notably in economic stimulus involving billions of federal dollars, financial support for banks and the troubled domestic auto industry that also totaled in the billions, tough financial regulation in the wake of economic collapse, and—most controversially—complex and far-reaching changes in the nation's health care system.

      For their efforts, Democrats were punished two years later, in 2010 midterm elections, by the iron law of retrospective voting in which a deeply disaffected group of angry voters went to the polls and tossed out fifty-four House incumbents, all but two Democrats, thereby returning control of that chamber to the GOP. It was the largest number of incumbents sacked in one election since at least 1952. Voters also dismissed a bevy of Senate Democrats allowing a Republican pickup of six seats—not enough for majority control but ample to block Democratic initiatives and appointments.

      The world of pundits concluded that the volatility came from the absence of devoted Democrats who backed Obama two years earlier, an energized Republican base that had moved more dramatically conservative, the continuing economic troubles with unemployment still at or above 9 percent, and a less quantifiable but nevertheless perceptible anxiety among some voters that a distant national government was intruding on their lives as never before.

      Still, as the preface to this volume noted in 2007, much about American government at the beginning of a new century had not changed even with the roller coaster of voter sentiment of the 2000s. The tripartite government structure—executive, legislative, and judicial branches—was unchanged. The fundamental principal of federalism that defined America's political structure—federal and state governments dividing powers while sharing loyalty from citizens—was as vibrant as ever. And the nation remained a basically market-oriented society that eschewed other social and economic systems tried elsewhere. All this and more was still true in 2012.

      Indeed, the 2000s elections provided many instances of the continually evolving strengths of deciding matters at the ballot box, albeit not always neatly and without ambiguity.

      Two events in 2008 built on the long, sometimes painfully slow, march of broadening participation in the electoral process, from an early understanding of “the people” to mean propertied white men to the modern concept that also includes women, minorities, and young adults. One of those events was the election of Obama, the first African American chosen for the highest office in the land. The second was the success of his principal opponent for the Democratic nomination, Hillary Rodham Clinton, a New York senator at the time and former first lady during the presidency of her husband Bill Clinton. Although she eventually came up short in the nomination contest with Obama, she became the first female in American history with a legitimate chance of being elected president, and ended up being chosen by Obama to serve as his secretary of state.

      Making sense of these ever-changing electoral trends is a primary purpose of Elections A to Z. The user will find in the more than 225 entries an approachable but definitive explanation of the nation's electoral process, from the historical developments leading to today's headlines to examinations of events behind those headlines.

      The vast majority of the articles have been updated to reflect new information and more than half have been extensively revised. Campaign financing, for example, is discussed in multiple entries, including a description of the much discussed—and highly controversial—Supreme Court decision in 2010 (Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission) giving new free speech rights to corporations and unions that may—or may not—result in vast new political advocacy spending that could markedly alter campaign strategies and the flow of money into elections. New to the book is a separate entry on the Tea Party movement that emerged in 2009 and played a big role in Republican activism in 2010. Whether the Tea Party proves to be a limited-time event or a model of a future and much more conservative Republican Party may be seen in 2012 voting.

      Among the dozens of articles that Elections A to Z editors have revised to account for changing issues in elections are the following: the impact of the decennial census in 2010 on reapportionment of House seats between states and redistricting within states that may alter political power balances for the next decade; changes in the political makeup of both major political parties and the growing role of independent voters; the rapidly expanding influence and use of the Internet and new media in politics; controversies over voter identification at the ballot box and early voting before the normal election day; the huge role of money in politics; and the increasing stampede among states to hold early presidential primaries.

      The first decade of the twenty-first century was unlike any other since the 1930s and 1940s swept away an old global order and made possible more than a half century of social, economic, and political changes. Historians are not likely to credit the 2000s with that outsized role in the years that follow, but the decade has illuminated both the change and the continuity in the American electoral system. The volatility of the period leading up to the important 2012 national election may also prove to have cast a bright light on the American voters' attitude toward the never fully answered—or answerable—question of the fundamental nature and purpose of government and the government's proper role in society.

      List of Entries

    • Appendix

      Changes in Democrats' Nominating Rules

      Appendix

      Democratic Party's Reform Commissions on Presidential Selection

      Appendix

      Republican Party's Reform Committees on Presidential Selection

      Appendix

      Political and Election Websites

      Thousands of Internet sites provide information about elections and politics. They are operated by candidates, political parties, interest groups, think tanks, trade associations, labor unions, businesses, government agencies, news organizations, polling firms, universities, and individuals.

      These sites can have very short lives. Many spring up just before a particular election and then disappear once the ballots are counted. The sites listed below, however, have proven themselves to be stable sources of ongoing election information—at least as of mid-2011.

      American National Election Studies

      ANES conducts questionnaires and public opinion polls to determine why Americans vote as they do on election day. This website offers a rich collection of data on voting, public opinion, and political participation.

      The full text of the newsletter Ballot Access News from early 1994 to the present is available at this site. The newsletter publishes news about efforts around the country to overturn laws that restrict ballot access by candidates. It is run by Richard Winger who has been one of the most tireless advocates of broader ballot access. The site also contains extensive information on minor parties nationwide.

      A database at Ballot Watch has details about initiatives and referendums that are moving toward qualification on state ballots or that have already qualified in states around the country. You can search the database by subject, status, state, and type of measure.

      The U.S. Census Bureau operates this site, which has data about registration and voting by various demographic and socioeconomic groups. Data are available from 1964 to the present.

      Center for Public Integrity

      Investigative reports and databases on lobbying firms and political spending are among the features on this site. CPI emphasizes government transparency and investigative journalism.

      This website resulting from the merger of Congressional Quarterly, long-time publisher of the CQ Weekly magazine, and Capitol Hill newspaper Rollcall examines congressional activity including elections and election maps, candidate lists and ratings, and other detailed overage of Washington political news.

      This site, from CQRollCall, presents data on campaign finance and lobbying from the 1979–1980 election cycle to the present. It also includes quick links to information on contribution limits and filings calendars. Most information is free, although some sections of the site are limited to subscribers.

      This site is produced by the Pew Center on the States' Election Initiatives. A nonpartisan, non-advocacy site, http://Electionline.org provides current news and analysis on election reform.

      Background information about how the Electoral College operates is available at this site. It also has results for popular votes and Electoral College votes in presidential elections from 1789 to the present and provisions of the U.S. Constitution and federal law pertaining to presidential elections.

      Federal Election Commission

      This site's main feature is a database of campaign finance reports filed from May 1996 to the present by House and presidential candidates, political action committees, and political party committees. The site also includes Senate reports, which are first filed with the Senate public records office. Another valuable resource is the Combined Federal/State Disclosure and Election Directory, which provides detailed information about every federal and state office that collects campaign finance data or regulates election spending. For each office, the publication lists the types of data that are available and complete contact information, including a link to the office's website.

      Federal Election Reform Network

      This site is the home of the National Commission on Federal Election Reform, organized in the wake of the 2000 presidential election by the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia and the Century Foundation. Available on the site is the full text of the bipartisan commission's 114-page final report, issued July 31, 2001. Many of the commission's recommendations were incorporated in the Help America Vote Act signed by President George W. Bush on October 29, 2002.

      The Hill is a newspaper focused on congressional activity. It publishes daily when Congress is in session, focusing on business, lobbying, campaigns, and legislative activity.

      International Foundation for Election Systems

      One of this site's highlights is its collection of links to websites operated by election commissions and other election-related organizations in countries around the world. It also provides a worldwide election calendar, links to news about current elections, and a newsletter titled Elections Today.

      Political stories from the current day's issue of the New York Times are available through this site. It also offers breaking Washington news stories from the Associated Press, archived Times stories about specific political topics, results from political polls, and political cartoons by a variety of artists.

      Both raw data about money in politics and reports that analyze all the numbers are available at this site. It is operated by the Center for Responsive Politics, a nonprofit research group. Numerous databases provide detailed campaign finance data for federal candidates and information about contributions by political action committees. The site also has lists of the top federal contributors by industry, profiles of every political action committee registered with the Federal Election Commission, data about soft money contributions, links to sources of state campaign finance data, reports with titles such as Influence Inc.: The Bottom Line on Washington Lobbyists and The Politics of Sugar, and much more.

      The Pew Research Center for the People & the Press

      The Pew site presents the results of polls regarding the press, politics, and public policy issues conducted from 1995 to the present. The polls measure public attitudes about topics such as China policy, Congress, the economy, elections, and the Internet's impact in elections.

      Political Resources on the Net

      Links to more than 24,000 election and politics-related websites around the world are presented at this site. The links lead to sites operated by political parties, organizations, governments, media outlets, and others. You can browse the links by region or country, and you also can search the whole site.

      Political Science Resources: United States Politics

      This site of the University of Michigan Documents Center offers links to hundreds of websites about politics and elections. The listings are divided into more than two dozen categories, including campaign finance, cybercitizenry, elections, foreign policy, lobbying groups, news sources, political parties, primaries, public opinion, public policy issues, statistics, and think tanks, among others.

      http://POLITICO.com is a multiplatform news source that reports on events in Congress, lobbying in Washington, and election campaigns. The site maintains a sizeable reporting staff in Washington and also is published in print form.

      Politics1 provides a huge set of annotated links to websites operated by candidates, political parties, election offices, and election news sources in states across the country. It also has links to sites for presidential candidates, the two major parties, third parties, and political news sources.

      This site's highlight is its large collection of links to news stories about how the Internet is being used in elections and politics around the world.

      Project Vote Smart

      The Project Vote Smart site provides biographies of thousands of candidates and elected officials in offices ranging from state legislator to president, voting records for members of Congress, detailed campaign finance data for members of Congress, the texts of ballot initiatives from states around the country, links to thousands of other political websites, and lots more.

      This site features maps detailing the results of recent presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections by state. It also includes polling information and predictions for upcoming elections. Note to users: the site reverses the use of blue and red colors often employed by news organizations to designate Republicans and Democrats.

      Voter Information

      This League of Women Voters site has links to information about state and local candidates around the country, details about how to register to vote, voter registration contact numbers for every state, and links to other election sites.

      Washingtonpost.com: Politics

      The latest political news from the Washington Post and the Associated Press highlights this page. It also has archived stories about dozens of political issues, such as gun control and health care, election coverage, and more.

      Yahoo! News: Politics

      Hundreds of news stories about politics and elections are available through this Yahoo! page. Sources include the Associated Press, Reuters, and other news organizations.

      Appendix

      National Party Chairs, 1848–2011

      Appendix

      Major Platform Fights

      1860 Democratic.

      A minority report on the slavery plank, stating that the decision on allowing slavery in the territories should be left to the Supreme Court, was approved, 165 to 138. The majority report (favored by the South) declared that no government—local, state, or federal—could outlaw slavery in the territories. The acceptance of the minority report precipitated a walkout by several dozen southern delegates and the eventual sectional split in the party.

      1896 Democratic.

      The monetary plank of the platform committee, favoring free and unlimited coinage of silver at a ratio of 16 to 1 with gold, was accepted by the convention, which defeated a proposed gold plank, 626 to 303. During debate, William Jennings Bryan made his famous “Cross of Gold” speech supporting the platform committee plank, bringing him to the attention of the convention and resulting in his nomination for president.

      1908 Republican.

      A minority report, proposing a substitute platform, was presented by Sen. Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin. Minority proposals included increased antitrust activities, enactment of a law requiring publication of campaign expenditures, and popular election of senators. All the proposed planks were defeated by wide margins; the closest vote, on direct election of senators, was 114 for, 866 against.

      1924 Democratic.

      A minority plank was presented that condemned the activities of the Ku Klux Klan, then enjoying a resurgence in the South and some states in the Midwest. The plank was defeated 542 7/20 to 543 3/20, the closest vote in Democratic convention history.

      1932 Republican.

      A minority plank favoring repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment (Prohibition) in favor of a state-option arrangement was defeated, 460 2/9 to 690 19/36.

      1948 Democratic.

      An amendment to the platform, strengthening the civil rights plank by guaranteeing full and equal political participation, equal employment opportunity, personal security and equal treatment in the military service, was accepted, 651 1/2 to 582 1/2.

      1964 Republican.

      An amendment offered by Sen. Hugh Scott of Pennsylvania to strengthen the civil rights plank by including voting guarantees in state as well as in federal elections and by eliminating job bias was defeated, 409 to 897.

      1968 Democratic.

      A minority report on Vietnam called for cessation of the bombing of North Vietnam, halting of offensive and search-and-destroy missions by American combat units, a negotiated withdrawal of American troops, and establishment of a coalition government in South Vietnam. It was defeated, 1,041 1/4 to 1,567 3/4.

      1972 Democratic.

      By a vote of 1,852.86 to 999.34, the convention rejected a minority report proposing a government guaranteed annual income of $6,500 for a family of four. By a vote of 1,101.37 to 1,572.80, a women's rights plank supporting abortion rights was defeated.

      1980 Democratic.

      The platform battle, one of the longest in party history, pitted President Jimmy Carter against his persistent rival, Sen. Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts. Stretching over seventeen hours, the debate focused on Kennedy's economics plank, which finally was defeated by a voice vote. Yet Carter was forced to concede on so many specific points, including Kennedy's $12 billion antirecession jobs programs, that the final document bore little resemblance to the draft initially drawn up by Carter's operatives.

      1992 Democratic.

      A tax fairness plank offered by former senator Paul E. Tsongas of Massachusetts was defeated by a vote of 953 to 2,287. The plank called for a delay in any middle-class tax cut and tax credit for families with children until the deficit was under control.

      Appendix

      Democratic Conventions, 1832–2008

      Appendix

      Republican Conventions, 1856–2008

      Appendix

      Chief Officers and Keynote Speakers at Democratic National Conventions, 1832–2008

      Appendix

      Chief Officers and Keynote Speakers at Republican National Conventions, 1856–2008

      Appendix

      General Election Debates, 1960–2008

      Appendix

      U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents

      Appendix

      Summary of Presidential Elections, 1789–2008

      Appendix

      2008 Popular Vote Summary, Presidential

      Appendix

      Distribution of House Seats and Electoral Votes

      Appendix

      Law for Counting Electoral Votes in Congress

      Following is the complete text of Title 3, section 15, of the U.S. Code, enacted originally in 1887, governing the counting of electoral votes in Congress:

      Congress shall be in session on the sixth day of January succeeding every meeting of the electors. The Senate and House of Representatives shall meet in the Hall of the House of Representatives at the hour of 1 o'clock in the afternoon on that day, and the President of the Senate shall be their presiding officer. Two tellers shall be previously appointed on the part of the Senate and two on the part of the House of Representatives, to whom shall be handed, as they are opened by the President of the Senate, all the certificates and papers purporting to be certificates of the electoral votes, which certificates and papers shall be opened, presented, and acted upon in the alphabetical order of the States, beginning with the letter A; and said tellers, having then read the same in the presence and hearing of the two Houses, shall make a list of the votes as they shall appear from the said certificates; and the votes having been ascertained and counted according to the rules in this subchapter provided, the result of the same shall be delivered to the President of the Senate, who shall thereupon announce the state of the vote, which announcement shall be deemed a sufficient declaration of the persons, if any, elected President and Vice President of the United States, and, together with a list of votes, be entered on the Journals of the two Houses. Upon such reading of any such certificate or paper, the President of the Senate shall call for objections, if any. Every objection shall be made in writing, and shall state clearly and concisely, and without argument, the ground thereof, and shall be signed by at least one Senator and one Member of the House of Representatives before the same shall be received. When all objections so made to any vote or paper from a State shall have been received and read, the Senate shall thereupon withdraw, and such objections shall be submitted to the Senate for its decision; and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall, in like manner, submit such objections to the House of Representatives for its decision; and no electoral vote or votes from any State which shall have been regularly given by electors whose appointment has been lawfully certified to according to section 61 of this title from which but one return has been received shall be rejected, but the two Houses concurrently may reject the vote or votes when they agree that such vote or votes have not been so regularly given by electors whose appointment has been so certified. If more than one return or paper purporting to be a return from a State shall have been received by the President of the Senate, those votes, and those only, shall be counted which shall have been regularly given by the electors who are shown by the determination mentioned in section 51 of this title to have been appointed, if the determination in said section provided for shall have been made, or by such successors or substitutes, in case of a vacancy in the board of electors so ascertained, as have been appointed to fill such vacancy in the mode provided by the laws of the State; but in case there shall arise the question which of two or more of such State authorities determining what electors have been appointed, as mentioned in section 5 of this title, is the lawful tribunal of such State, the votes regularly given of those electors, and those only, of such State shall be counted whose title as electors the two Houses, acting separately, shall concurrently decide is supported by the decision of such State so authorized by its law; and in such case of more than one return or paper purporting to be a return from a State, if there shall have been no such determination of the question in the State aforesaid, then those votes, and those only, shall be counted which the two Houses shall concurrently decide were cast by lawful electors appointed in accordance with the laws of the State, unless the two Houses, acting separately, shall concurrently decide such votes not to be the lawful votes of the legally appointed electors of such State. But if the two Houses shall disagree in respect of the counting of such votes, then, and in that case, the votes of the electors whose appointment shall have been certified by the executive of the State, under the seal thereof, shall be counted. When the two Houses have voted, they shall immediately again meet, and the presiding officer shall then announce the decision of the questions submitted. No votes or papers from any other State shall be acted upon until the objections previously made to the votes or papers from any State shall have been finally disposed of.

      NOTES:

      Section 6 provides for certification of votes by electors by state governors.

      Section 5 provides that if state law specifies a method for resolving disputes concerning the vote for presidential electors, Congress must respect any determination so made by a state.

      Appendix

      Election Results: Congress and the Presidency, 1860–2010

      Appendix

      Incumbents Reelected, Defeated, or Retired, 1946–2010

      Appendix

      Blacks in Congress, 41st–112th Congresses, 1869–2011

      Appendix

      Hispanic Americans in Congress, 45th–112th Congresses, 1877–2011

      Appendix

      Women in Congress, 45th—112th Congresses, 1877–2011

      Appendix

      Senate Votes Cast by Vice Presidents

      Appendix

      State Government

      Appendix

      Selected Bibliography

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      Alexander, Herbert E. Financing Politics: Money, Elections, and Political Reform, 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1992.

      Almanac of American Politics. Washington, D.C.: National Journal, 1972.

      Asher, Herbert. Polling and the Public: What Every Citizen Should Know, 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2011.

      Baker, Richard A. The Senate of the United States: A Bicentennial History. Malamar, Fla.: Krieger Publishing, 1988.

      Bendavid, Naftali. The Thumpin’: How Rahm Emanuel and the Democrats Learned to Be Ruthless and Ended the Republican Revolution. New York: Doubleday, 2007.

      Benjamin, Gerald, and Michael J. Malbin. Limiting Legislative Terms. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1992.

      Bennett, Robert W. Taming the Electoral College. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Law and Politics, 2006.

      Bogdanor, Vernon, ed. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Political Science. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1991.

      Boller, Paul F. Jr. Presidential Campaigns, rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

      Book of the States. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 1935–.

      Broder, David S. Democracy Derailed: Initiative Campaigns and the Power of Money. New York: Harcourt, 2000.

      Bruni, Frank. Ambling into History: The Unlikely Odyssey of George W. Bush. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

      Campbell, Angus, Philip E. Converse, Warren E. Miller, and Donald E. Stokes. The American Voter. New York: Wiley, 1960.

      Cappella, Joseph A., and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. The Spiral of Cynicism: The Press and the Public Good. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

      Cigler, Allan J., and Burdett A. Loomis. Interest Group Politics, 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2011.

      Cohen, Marty. The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations before and after Reform. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2008.

      Congress and the Nation, vols. 1–12 1945–2008. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1969–2010.

      Congressional Quarterly Almanac, yearly editions. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

      Cook, Rhodes. The Presidential Nominating Process: A Place for Us? Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

      Currie, James T. The United States House of Representatives. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger Publishing, 1988.

      Davidson, Roger H., Walter J. Oleszek, and Frances E. Lee. Congress and Its Members. 13th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2011.

      Edsall, Thomas Byrne. The New Politics of Inequality. New York: W. W. Norton, 1984.

      Fenno, Richard F. Home Style: House Members in Their Districts. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978.

      Fensenthal, Dan. Topics in Social Choice: Sophisticated Voting, Efficacy and Proportional Representation. New York: Praeger, 1990.

      Finkelman, Paul, and Peter Wallenstein, eds. Encyclopedia of American Political History. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.

      Flanigan, William H., and Nancy H. Zingale. Political Behavior of the American Electorate, 12th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2011.

      Gillespie, J. David. Politics at the Periphery: Third Parties in Two-Party America. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1993.

      Graber, Doris A. Mass Media and American Politics, 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.

      Graber, Doris A. Media Power in Politics, 6th ed. Washington, D.C., 2010.

      Graber, Doris A., Denis McQuail, and Pippa Norris, eds. The Politics of News, The News of Politics, 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Graham, Gene. One Man, One Vote: Baker v. Carr and the American Levellers. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1972.

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