Congress and the Nation, 1945-1964, Vol. I: The 80th thru 88th Congresses
Congress and the Nation is the most authoritative reference on congressional trends, actions, and political and policy controversies. This award-winning series documents the most fiercely debated issues in recent American politics, providing a unique retrospective analysis of the policies the U.S. Congress. Organized by policy area, each chapter contains summaries of legislative activity, including bills passed, defeated, or postponed. No other authoritative source guides readers seamlessly through the policy output of the national legislature with the breadth, depth, and authority of Congress and the Nation.
Congress and the Nation is the most authoritative reference on congressional trends, actions, and political and policy controversies. This award-winning series documents the most fiercely debated issues in recent American politics, providing a unique retrospective analysis of the ...
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- Back Matter
Copyright by Sage Publications, Inc.
(Dates of service are inclusive, starting in year of service and ending as service ends, which usually is Jan. 3 of given year.)
The names in this index include, alphabetically, all Senators and Representatives who served in Congress from Jan. 3, 1945 through Jan. 3, 1965 — the 79th through 89th Congresses. The material is organized as follows: Name, Party, State (of service), Date of birth, Date of death (if applicable), Congressional service, Other important offices held or services rendered, such as Governor, Cabinet member, etc. Where names may cause confusion, relationship is cited. Where service dates are left open, Members were still serving in 1965.AAANDAHL, Fred G.
(R N.D.) April 9, 1897; House 1951—53; Gov. 1945—50; Asst. Secretary of the Interior 1953—61.ABBITT, Watkins M.
(D Va.) May 21, 1908; House 1948- .ABEL, Mrs. Hazel H.
(R Neb.) July 10, 1888; Senate Nov. 8, 1954—Dec. 31, 1954.ABELE, Homer E.
(R Ohio) Nov. 21, 1916; House 1963—65.ABERNETHY, Thomas G.
(D Miss.) May 16, 1903; House 1943- .ADAIR, E. Ross
(R Ind.) Dec. 14, 1907; House 1951- .ADAMS, Brock
(D Wash.) Jan. 13, 1927; House 1965- .ADAMS, Sherman
(R N.H.) Jan. 8, 1899; House 1945—47; Gov. 1949—53; Asst. to President Eisenhower 1953—Sept. 22, 1958.ADDABBO, Joseph P.
(D N.Y.) March 17, 1925; House 1961- .ADDONIZIO, Hugh J.
(D N.J.) Jan. 31, 1914; House 1949—62.AIKEN, George D.
(R Vt.) Aug. 20, 1892; Senate 1941- ; Lt. Gov. 1935—37; Gov. 1937—41.ALBERT, Carl
(D Okla.) May 10, 1908; House 1947- . Majority Whip 1955—1962; Majority leader 1962- .ALEXANDER, Hugh Q.
(D N.C.) Aug. 7, 1911; House 1953—63.ALFORD, Dale
(D Ark.) Jan. 28, 1916; House 1959—63.ALGER, Bruce
(R Texas) June 12, 1918; House 1955—65.ALLEN, A. Leonard
(D La.) Jan. 5, 1891; House 1937—53.ALLEN, John J. Jr.
(R Calif.) Nov. 27, 1899; House 1947—59.ALLEN, Leo E.
(R Ill.) Oct. 5, 1898; House 1933—61.ALLOTT, Gordon
(R Colo.) Jan. 2, 1907; Senate 1955- ; Lt. Gov. 1951—55.ALMOND, J. Lindsay Jr.
(D Va.) June 15, 1898; House 1946—48; Gov. 1958—62; Judge of Patent Court 1962- .ANDERSEN, H. Carl
(R Minn.) Jan. 27, 1897; House 1939—63.ANDERSON, Clinton P.
(D N.M.) Oct. 23, 1895; House 1941—45; Senate 1949- ; Secretary of Agriculture 1945—48.ANDERSON, Jack Z.
(R Calif.) March 22, 1904; House 1939—53; Admin. Asst. to President Eisenhower 1956—61.ANDERSON, John B.
(R Ill.) Feb. 15, 1922; House 1961- .ANDERSON, LeRoy H.
(D Mont.) Feb. 2, 1906; House 1957—61.ANDERSON, William R.
(D Tenn.) June 17, 1921; Presidential consultant 1963—64; House 1965 - .ANDRESEN, August H.
(R Minn.) Oct. 11, 1890—Jan. 14, 1958; House 1925—33; 1935—58.ANDREWS, Charles O.
(D Fla.) March 7, 1877—Sept. 18, 1946; Senate 1937—46.ANDREWS, George W.
(D Ala.) Dec. 12, 1906; House 1944- .ANDREWS, Glenn
(R Ala.) Jan. 15, 1909; House 1965- .ANDREWS, Mark
(R N.D.) May 19, 1926; House: 1963- .ANDREWS, Walter G.
(R N.Y.) July 16, 1889—March 5, 1949; House 1931—49.ANFUSO, Victor L.
(D N.Y.) March 10, 1905; House 1951—53, 1955—63.ANGELL, Homer D.
(R Ore.) Jan. 12, 1875; House 1939—55.ANNUNZIO, Frank
(D Ill.) Jan. 12, 1915; House 1965 - .ARENDS, Leslie C.
(R Ill.) Sept. 27, 1895; House 1935- ; Republican Whip 1943- .ARMSTRONG, O.K.
(Orland) (R Mo.) Oct. 2, 1893; House 1951—53.ARNOLD, Samuel W.
(R Mo.) Sept. 21, 1879; House 1943—49.ASHBROOK, John M.
(R Ohio) Sept. 21, 1928; House 1961- ; Young Republican Nat. Chairman 1957—59.ASHLEY, Thomas L.
(D Ohio) Jan. 11, 1923; House 1955- .ASHMORE, Robert T.
(D S.C.) Feb. 22, 1904; House 1953- .ASPINALL, Wayne N.
(D Colo.) April 3, 1896; House 1949- .AUCHINCLOSS, James C.
(R N.J.) Jan. 19, 1885; House 1943—65.AUSTIN, Warren R.
(R Vt.) Nov. 12, 1877—Dec. 25, 1962; Senate 1931—46; U.S. Representative to UN 1946—53.AVERY, William H.
(R Kan.) Aug. 11, 1911; House 1955—65; Gov. 1965- .AYRES, William H.
(R Ohio) Feb. 5, 1916; House 1951- .BBAILEY, Cleveland M.
(D W.Va.) July 15, 1886; House 1945—47; 1949—63.BAILEY, Josiah W.
(D N.C.) Sept. 14, 1873—Dec. 15, 1946; Senate 1931—46.BAKER, Howard H.
(R Tenn.) Jan. 12, 1902—Jan. 7, 1964; House 1951—64.BAKER, Irene B.
(R Tenn.) Nov. 17, 1901; (Widow of Howard H. Baker); House: March 10, 1964—65.BAKEWELL, Claude I.
(R Mo.) Aug. 9, 1912; House 1947—49; 1951—53.BALDWIN, H. Streett
(D Md.) Aug. 21, 1894—Oct. 19, 1952; House 1943—47.BALDWIN, John F.
(R Calif.) June 28, 1915; House 1955- .BALDWIN, Joseph Clark
(R N.Y.) Jan. 11, 1897—Oct. 27, 1957; House 1941—47.BALDWIN, Raymond E.
(R Conn.) Aug. 31, 1893; Senate 1946—49; Gov. 1939—40, 1943—46.BALL, Joseph H.
(R Minn.) Nov. 3, 1905; Senate 1940—42; 1943—49.BANDSTRA, Bert
(D Iowa) Jan. 25, 1922; House 1965- .BANKHEAD, John H. II
(D Ala.) July 8, 1872—June 12, 1946; Senate 1931—46.BANTA, Parke M.
(R Mo.) Nov. 21, 1891; House 1947—49.BARDEN, Graham A.
(D N.C.) Sept. 25, 1896; House 1935—61.BARING, Walter S.
(D Nev.) Sept. 9, 1911; House 1949—53; 1957- .BARKLEY, Alben W.
(D Ky.) Nov. 24, 1877—April 30, 1956; House 1913—27; Senate 1927—49; 1955—56; Senate Majority Leader 1937—47; Senate Minority Leader 1947—48; Vice President 1949—53.BARR, Joseph W.
(D Ind.) Jan. 17, 1918; House 1959—61; Asst. to Secretary of Treasury 1961—64; Member, Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. 1964- .BARRETT, Frank A.
(R Wyo.) Nov. 10, 1892—May 30, 1962; Senate 1953—59; House 1943—50; Gov. 1951—53.BARRETT, William A.
(D Pa.) Aug. 14, 1896; House 1945—47; 1949- .BARRY, Robert R.
(R N.Y.) May 15, 1915; House 1959—65.BARRY, William B.
(D N.Y.) July 21, 1902—Oct. 20, 1946; House 1935—46.BARTLETT, E.L.
(D Alaska) April 20, 1904; Senate 1959- ; Delegate to Congress 1945—59.BASS, Perkins
(R N.H.) Oct. 6, 1912; House 1955—63.BASS, Ross
(D Tenn.) March 17, 1918; House 1955—1965; Senate 1964- .BATES, George J.
(R Mass.) Feb. 25, 1891—Nov. 1, 1949; House 1937—49.BATES, Joseph B.
(D Ky.) Oct. 29, 1893; House 1938—53.BATES, William H.
(R Mass.) April 26, 1917 (Son of George J. Bates); House 1950- .BATTIN, James F.
(R Mont.) Feb. 13, 1925; House 1961- .BATTLE, Laurie C.
(D Ala.) May 10, 1912; House 1947—55.BAUMHART, A. D. Jr.
(R Ohio) June 15, 1908; House 1941—42; 1955—61; Director, Republican National Committee 1953—54.BAYH, Birch E.
(D Ind.) Jan. 22, 1928; Senate 1963- .BEALL, J. Glenn
(R Md.) June 5, 1894; House 1943—53; Senate 1953—65.BEAMER, John V.
(R Ind.) Nov. 17, 1896—Sept. 9, 1964; House 1951—59.BECKER, Frank J.
(R N.Y.) Aug. 27, 1899; House 1953—65.BECKWORTH, Lindley
(D Texas) June 30, 1912; House 1939—53; 1957- .BEERMANN, Ralph F.
(R Neb.) Aug. 13, 1912; House 1961—65.BELCHER, Page
(R Okla.) April 21, 1899; House 1951- .BELL, Alphonzo
(R Calif.) Sept. 19, 1914; House 1961- .BELL, C. Jasper
(D Mo.) Jan. 16, 1885; House 1935—49.BELL, John J.
(D Texas) May 15, 1910 — Jan. 24, 1963; House 1955—57.BENDER, George H.
(R Ohio) Sept. 29, 1896—June 18, 1961; House 1939—49; 1951—54; Senate 1954—57; Special Asst. to Secretary of Interior 1957—58.BENNET, Augustus W.
(R N.Y.) Oct. 7, 1897; House 1945—47.BENNETT, Charles E.
(D Fla.) Dec. 2, 1910; House 1949- .BENNETT, John B.
(R Mich.) Jan. 10, 1904—Aug. 10, 1964; House 1943—45; 1947—64.BENNETT, Marion T.
(R Mo.) June 6, 1914; House 1943—49.BENNETT, Wallace F.
(R Utah) Nov. 13, 1898; Senate 1951- .BENTLEY, Alvin M.
(R Mich.) Aug. 30, 1918; House 1953—61.BENTON, William
(D Conn.) April 1, 1900; Senate 1949—53; Asst. Secretary of State 1945—47.BENTSEN, Lloyd M. Jr.
(D Texas) Feb. 11, 1921; House 1948—55.BERRY, E. Y.
(R S.D.) Nov. 6, 1902; House 1951- .BETTS, Jackson E.
(R Ohio) May 26, 1904; House 1951- .BIBLE, Alan
(D Nev.) Nov. 20, 1909; Senate 1955- .BIEMILLER, Andrew J.
(D Wis.) July 23, 1906; House 1945—47; 1949—51.BILBO, Theodore G.
(D Miss.) Oct. 13, 1877—Aug. 21, 1947; Senate 1935—47; Lt. Gov. 1912—16; Gov. 1916—1920; 1928—32.BINGHAM, Jonathan B.
(D N.Y.) April 24, 1914; House 1965- .BISHOP, C. W.
(Runt) (R Ill.) June 29, 1890; House 1941—55.BLACKNEY, William W.
(R Mich.) Aug. 28, 1876—March 14, 1963; House 1935—37; 1939—53.BLAKLEY, William A.
(D Texas) Nov. 17, 1898; Senate 1957; 1961.BLAND, Schuyler Otis
(D Va.) May 4, 1872—Feb. 16, 1950; House 1918—50.BLATNIK, John A.
(D Minn.) Aug. 17, 1911; House 1947- .BLITCH, Mrs. Iris F.
(D Ga.) April 25, 1912; House 1955—63.BLOOM, Sol
(D N.Y.) March 9, 1870—March 7, 1949; House 1923—49.BOGGS, J. Caleb
(R Del.) May 15, 1909; House 1947—53; Senate 1961- ; Gov. 1953—61.BOGGS, Hale
(D La.) Feb. 15, 1914; House 1941—43; 1947- ; Democratic Whip, 1962- .BOLAND, Edward P.
(D Mass.) Oct. 1, 1911; House 1953- .BOLLING, Richard
(D Mo.) May 17, 1916; House 1949- .BOLTON, Frances P.
(R Ohio) March 29, 1885; House 1940- .BOLTON, Oliver P.
(R Ohio) Feb. 22, 1917 (Son of Frances P. Bolton); House 1953—57; 1963—65.BOLTON, William P.
(D Md.) July 2, 1885—Nov. 22, 1964; House 1949—51.BONIN, Edward J.
(R Pa.) Dec. 23, 1904; House 1953—55.BONNER, Herbert C.
(D N.C.) May 16, 1891; House 1940- .BOREN, Lyle H.
(D Okla.) May 11, 1909; House 1937—47.BOSCH, Albert H.
(R N.Y.) Oct. 30, 1908; House 1953—60.BOSONE, Reva Beck
(D Utah) House 1949—53.BOTTUM, Joe H.
(R S.D.) Aug. 7, 1903; Senate 1962.BOW, Frank T.
(R Ohio) Feb. 20, 1901; House 1951- .BOWLER, James B.
(D Ill.) Feb. 5, 1875—July 18, 1957; House 1953—57.BOWLES, Chester
(D Conn.) April 5, 1901; House 1959—61; Gov. 1949—51; Ambassador to India and Nepal 1951—53; Under Secretary of State 1961—62; President's Special Representative and adviser on African, Asian and Latin American Affairs 1962—63; Ambassador to India 1963- .BOWRING, Mrs. Eva K.
(R Neb.) Jan. 9, 1892; Senate April 1954—Nov. 1954.BOYKIN, Frank W.
(D Ala.) Feb. 21, 1885; House 1935—63.BOYLE, Charles A.
(D Ill.) Aug. 13, 1907—Nov. 4, 1959; House 1955 — 59.BRADEMAS, John
(D Ind.) March 2, 1927; House 1959- .BRADLEY, Fred
(R Mich.) April 12, 1898—May 24, 1947; House 1939—47.BRADLEY, Michael J.
(D Pa.) April 24, 1897; House 1937—47.BRADLEY, Willis W.
(R Calif.) June 28, 1884—Aug. 27, 1954; House 1947—49.BRAMBLETT, Ernest K.
(R Calif.) April 25, 1901; House 1947—55.BRAY, William G.
(R Ind.) April 17, 1903; House 1951- .BREEDING, J. Floyd
(D Kan.) Sept. 28, 1901; House 1957—63.BREEN, Edward F.
(D Ohio) June 10, 1908; House 1949—51.BREHM, Walter E.
(R Ohio) May 25, 1892; House 1943—53.BREWSTER, Daniel B.
(D Md.) Nov. 23, 1923; House 1959—63; Senate 1963- .BREWSTER, Owen
(Ralph O.) (R Maine) Feb. 22, 1888—Dec. 25, 1961; House 1935—41; Senate 1941—52; Gov. 1925—29.BRICKER, John W.
(R Ohio) Sept. 6, 1893; Senate 1947—59; Gov. 1939—45; Vice Presidential Candidate 1944.BRIDGES, H. Styles
(R N.H.) Sept. 9, 1898—Nov. 26, 1961; Senate 1937—61; Gov. 1934—36.BRIGGS, Frank P.
(D Mo.) Feb. 25, 1894; Senate 1945—47.BROCK, Lawrence
(D Neb.) Aug. 16, 1906; House 1959—61.BROCK, William E. III
(R Tenn.) Nov. 23, 1930; House 1963- .BROMWELL, James E.
(R Iowa) March 26, 1920; House 1961—65.BROOKS, C. Wayland
(R Ill.) March 8, 1897—Jan. 14, 1957; Senate 1940—49.BROOKS, Jack
(D Texas) Dec. 18, 1922; House 1953- .BROOKS, Overton
(D La.) Dec. 21, 1897—Sept. 16, 1961; House 1937—61.BROOMFIELD, William S.
(R Mich.) April 28, 1922; House 1957- .BROPHY, John C.
(R Wis.) Oct. 8, 1901; House 1947—49.BROTZMAN, Donald G.
(R Colo.) June 28, 1922; House 1963—65.BROUGHTON, J. Melville
(D N.C.) Nov. 17, 1888—March 6, 1949; Senate 1948—49; Gov. 1941—45.BROWN, Charles H.
(D Mo.) Oct. 22, 1920; House 1957—61.BROWN, Clarence J.
(R Ohio) July 14, 1893; House 1939- .BROWN, Ernest S.
(R Nev.) Sept. 25, 1903; Senate Oct. 1, 1954—Dec. 1, 1954.BROWN, George E. Jr.
(D Calif.) March 6, 1920; House 1963- .BROWN, Paul
(D Ga.) March 31, 1880—Sept. 24, 1961; House 1933—61.BROWNSON, Charles B.
(R Ind.) Feb. 5, 1914; House 1951—59.BROYHILL, James T.
(R N.C.) Aug. 19, 1927; House 1963- .BROYHILL, Joel T.
(R Va.) Nov. 4, 1919; House 1953- .BRUCE, Donald C.
(R Ind.) April 27, 1921; House 1961—1965.BRUMBAUGH, D. Emmert
(R Pa.) Oct. 8, 1894; House 1943—47.BRUNSDALE, C. Norman
(R N.D.) July 9, 1891; Senate 1959—60; Gov. 1951—57.BRYSON, Joseph R.
(D S.C.) Jan. 18, 1893—March 10, 1953; House 1939—53.BUCHANAN, Frank
(D Pa.) Dec. 1, 1902—April 27, 1951; House 1946—51.BUCHANAN, John H.
(R Ala.) March 19, 1928; House 1965 - .BUCHANAN, Vera Daerr
(D Pa.) (Wife of Frank Buchanan) July 20, 1902—Nov. 26, 1955; House 1951—55.BUCK, C. Douglass
(R Del.) March 21, 1890—Jan. 27, 1965; Senate 1943—49; Gov. 1927—37.BUCK, Ellsworth B.
(R N.Y.) July 3, 1892; House 1944—49.BUCKLEY, Charles A.
(D N.Y.) June 23, 1890; House 1935—65.BUCKLEY, James V.
(D Ill.) May 15, 1894—July 30, 1954; House 1949—51.BUDGE, Hamer H.
(R Idaho) Nov. 21, 1910; House 1951—61.BUFFETT, Howard H.
(R Neb.) Aug. 13, 1903—April 29, 1964; House 1943—49; 1951—53.BULWINKLE, Alfred L.
(D N.C.) April 21, 1883—Aug. 31, 1950; House 1921—29; 1931—50.BUNKER, Berkeley L.
(D Nev.) Aug. 12, 1906; Senate 1940—42; House 1945—47.BURCH, Thomas G.
(D Va.) July 3, 1869—March 20, 1951; House 1931—46; Senate May 31, 1946—Nov. 5, 1946.BURDICK, Quentin N.
(D N.D.) June 19, 1908 (son of Usher L. Burdick); House 1959—60; Senate 1960- .BURDICK, Usher L.
(R N.D.) Feb. 21, 1879—Aug. 19, 1960; House 1935—45; 1949—59.BURGIN, W.O.
(D N.C.) July 28, 1877—April 11, 1946; House 1939—46.BURKE, Frank W.
(D Ky.) June 1, 1920; House 1959—63.BURKE, James A.
(D Mass.) March 30, 1910; House 1959- .BURKE, Raymond H.
(R Ohio) Nov. 4, 1881—Aug. 18, 1954; House 1947—49.BURKE, Thomas A.
(D Ohio) Oct. 30, 1898; Senate 1953—54.BURKE, Thomas H.
(D Ohio) May 6, 1904—Sept. 12, 1959; House 1949—51.BURKHALTER, Everett G.
(D Calif.) Jan. 19, 1897; House 1963- .BURLESON, Omar
(D Texas) March 19, 1906; House 1947- .BURNS, John Anthony
(D Hawaii) March 30, 1909; Delegate 1957—59; Gov. 1963- .BURNSIDE, M.G.
(D W.Va.) Aug. 23, 1902; House 1949—53; 1955—57.BURTON, Clarence G.
(D Va.) Dec. 14, 1886; House 1948—53.BURTON, Harold H.
(R Ohio) June 22, 1888—Oct. 28, 1964; Senate 1941—45; Assoc. Justice of the Supreme Court 1945—58 (retired).BURTON, Laurence J.
(R Utah) Oct. 30, 1926; House 1963- .BURTON, Philip
(D Calif.) June 1, 1926; House 1964 - .BUSBEY, Fred E.
(R Ill.) Feb. 8, 1895; House 1943—45; 1947—49; 1951—55.BUSH, Alvin R.
(R Pa.) June 4, 1893—Nov. 5, 1959; House 1951—59.BUSH, Prescott
(R Conn.) May 15, 1895; Senate 1952—63.BUSHFIELD, Harlan J.
(R S.D.) Aug. 6, 1882—Sept. 27, 1948; Senate 1943—48; Gov. 1939—42.BUSHFIELD, Mrs. Vera C.
(R S.D.) Aug. 9, 1889 (Wife of Harlan J. Bushfield); Senate Oct. 6, 1948—Dec. 26, 1948.BUTLER, Hugh A.
(R Neb.) Feb. 28, 1878—July 1, 1954; Senate 1941—54.BUTLER, John C.
(R N.Y.) July 2, 1887—Aug. 13, 1953; House 1941—49; 1951—53.BUTLER, John Marshall
(R Md.) July 21, 1897; Senate 1951—63.BYRD, Harry Flood
(D Va.) June 10, 1887; Senate 1933- ; Gov. 1926—30.BYRD, Robert C.
(D W.Va.) Jan. 15, 1918; House 1953—59; Senate 1959- .BYRNE, Emmet F.
(R Ill.) Dec. 6, 1896; House 1957—59.BYRNE, James A.
(D Pa.) June 22, 1906; House 1953- .BYRNE, William T.
(D N.Y.) March 6, 1876—Jan. 27, 1952; House 1937—52.BYRNES, John W.
(R Wis.) June 12, 1913; House 1945- .CCABELL, Earle
(D Texas) Oct. 27, 1906; House 1965- .CAHILL, William T.
(R N.J.) June 25, 1912; House 1959- .CAIN, Harry P.
(R Wash.) Jan. 10, 1906; Senate 1946—53.CALLAN, Clair
(D Neb.) March 20, 1920; House 1965 - .CALLAWAY, Howard H.
(R Ga.) May 2, 1927; House 1965 - .CAMERON, Ronald Brooks
(D Calif.) Aug. 16, 1927; House 1963- .CAMP, A. Sidney
(D Ga.) July 26, 1892—July 24, 1954; House 1939—54.CAMPBELL, Courtney W.
(D Fla.) April 29, 1895; House 1953—55.CAMPBELL, Howard E.
(R Pa.) Jan. 4, 1890; House 1945—47.CANFIELD, Gordon
(R N.J.) April 15, 1898; House 1941—61.CANNON, Arthur Patrick
(D Fla.) May 22, 1904; House 1939—47.CANNON, Clarence
(D Mo.) April 11, 1879—May 12, 1964: House 1923—64; House Parliamentarian 1915—21.CANNON, Howard W.
(D Nev.) Jan. 26, 1912; Senate 1959- .CAPEHART, Homer E.
(R Ind.) June 6, 1897; Senate 1945—63.CAPOZZOLI, Louis Joseph
(D N.Y.) March 6, 1901; House 1941—45.CAPPER, Arthur
(R Kan.) July 14, 1865—Dec. 19, 1951; Senate 1919—49; Gov. 1915—1919.CAREY, Hugh L.
(D N.Y.) April 11, 1919; House 1961- .CARLSON, Frank
(R Kan.) Jan. 23, 1893; House 1935—47; Senate 1950- ; Gov. 1947—50.CARLYLE, Frank Ertel
(D N.C.) April 7, 1897—Oct. 2, 1960; House 1949—57.CARNAHAN, A.S.J.
(D Mo.) Jan. 9, 1897; House 1945—47; 1949—61; Ambassador to Sierra Leone 1961- .CARRIER, Chester Otto
(R Ky.) May 5, 1897; House 1943—45.CARRIGG, Joseph L.
(R Pa.) Feb. 23, 1901; House 1951—59.CARROLL, John A.
(D Colo.) July 30, 1901; House 1947—51; Senate 1957—63; Special Asst. to President Truman 1951—52.CARSON, Henderson H.
(D Ohio) Oct. 25, 1893; House 1943—45; 1947—49.CARTER, Steven V.
(D Iowa) Oct. 8, 1815—Nov. 4, 1959; House Jan. 3, 1959—Nov. 4, 1959.CARTER, Tim Lee
(R Ky.) Sept. 2, 1910; House 1965 - .CARVILLE, E.P.
(D Nev.) May 14, 1885—June 27, 1956; Senate 1945—47; Gov. 1939—45.CASE, Clifford P.
(R N.J.) April 16, 1904; House 1945—53; Senate 1955- .CASE, Francis H.
(R S.D.) Dec. 9, 1896—June 22, 1962; House 1937—51; Senate 1951—62.CASEY, Bob
(D Texas) July 27, 1915; House 1959- .CAVALCANTE, Anthony
(D Pa.) Feb. 6, 1897; House 1949—51.CEDERBERG, Elford A.
(R Mich.) March 6, 1918; House 1953- .CELLER, Emanuel
(D N.Y.) May 6, 1888; House 1923- .CHADWICK, E. Wallace
(R Pa.) Jan. 17, 1884; House 1947—49.CHAMBERLAIN, Charles E.
(R Mich.) July 22, 1917; House 1957- .CHANDLER, Albert B.
(D Ky.) July 14, 1898; Senate 1939—45; Gov. 1936—39; 1955—59.CHAPMAN, Virgil M.
(D Ky.) March 15, 1895—March 8, 1951; House, 1925—29; 1931—49; Senate 1949—51.CHASE, Jackson B.
(R Neb.) Aug. 19, 1890; House 1955—57.CHATHAM, Richard Thurmond
(D N.C.) Aug. 16, 1896—Feb. 5, 1957; House 1949—57.CHAVEZ, Dennis
(D N.M.) April 8, 1888—Nov. 18, 1962; House 1931—35; Senate 1935—62.CHELF, Frank
(D Ky.) Sept. 22, 1907; House 1945- .CHENOWETH, J. Edgar
(R Colo.) Aug. 17, 1897; House 1941—49; 1951—65.CHESNEY, Chester A.
(D Ill.) March 9, 1916; House 1949—51.CHIPERFIELD, Robert B.
(R Ill.) Nov. 20, 1899; House 1939—63.CHRISTOPHER, George H.
(D Mo.) Dec. 9, 1888—Jan. 23, 1959; House 1949—51; 1955—59.CHUDOFF, Earl
(D Pa.) Nov. 16, 1907; House 1949—58.CHURCH, Frank
(D Idaho) July 25, 1924; Senate 1957- .CHURCH, Marguerite Stitt
(R Ill.) Sept. 13, 1892 (Widow of Ralph E. Church); House 1951—63.CHURCH, Ralph E.
(R Ill.) May 5, 1883—March 21, 1950; House 1935—41; 1943—50.CLANCY, Donald D.
(R Ohio) July 24, 1921; House 1961- .CLARDY, Kit Francis
(R Mich.) June 17, 1892—Sept. 5, 1961; House 1953—55.CLARK, Frank M.
(D Pa.) Dec. 24, 1915; House 1955- .CLARK, J. Bayard
(D N.C.) April 5, 1882—Aug. 26, 1959; House 1929—49.CLARK, Joseph S.
(D Pa.) Oct. 21, 1901; Senate 1957- ; Mayor of Philadelphia 1952—1956.CLASON, Charles R.
(R Mass.) Sept. 3, 1890; House 1937—49.CLAUSEN, Don H.
(R Calif.) April 27, 1923; House 1963- .CLAWSON, Del
(R Calif.) Jan. 11, 1914; House 1963- .CLEMENTE, L. Gary
(D N.Y.) June 10, 1908; House 1949—53.CLEMENTS, Earle C.
(D Ky.) Oct. 22, 1896; House 1945—48; Senate 1950—57; Gov. 1948—50.CLEVELAND, James C.
(R N.H.) June 13, 1920; House 1963- .CLEVENGER, Cliff
(R Ohio) Aug. 20, 1885—Dec. 13, 1960; House 1939—59.CLEVENGER, Raymond F.
(D Mich.) June 6, 1926; House 1965 - .CLIPPINGER, Roy
(R Ill.) Jan. 13, 1886; House 1945—49.COAD, Merwin
(D Iowa) Sept. 28, 1924; House 1957—63.COCHRAN, John J.
(D Mo.) Aug. 11, 1880—March 6, 1947; House 1926—47.COFFEE, John M.
(D Wash.) Jan. 23, 1897; House 1937—47.COFFEY, Robert L. Jr.
(D Pa.) Oct. 21, 1918—April 20, 1949; House 1949.COFFIN, Frank M.
(D Maine) July 11, 1919; House 1957—61; Managing director, Development Loan Fund Jan. 1961—Oct. 1961; Deputy Administrator, Agency for International Development Oct. 1961- .COFFIN, Howard A.
(R Mich.) June 11, 1877—Feb. 28, 1956; House 1947—49.COHELAN, Jeffery
(D Calif.) June 24, 1914; House 1959- .COLE, Albert M.
(R Kan.) Oct. 13, 1901; House 1945—53; Administrator, Housing and Home Finance Agency 1953—59.COLE, W. Sterling
(R N.Y.) April 18, 1904; House 1935—57; Director General, International Atomic Energy Agency 1957- .COLE, William C.
(R Mo.) Aug. 29, 1897; House 1943—49; 1953—55.COLLIER, Harold R.
(R Ill.) Dec. 12, 1915; House 1957- .COLMER, William M.
(D Miss.) Feb. 11, 1890; House 1933- .COMBS, J.M.
(D Texas) July 7, 1889—Aug. 21, 1953; House 1945—53.CONABLE, Barber B. Jr.
(R N.Y.) Nov. 2, 1922; House 1965 - .CONDON, Robert Likens
(D Calif.) Nov. 10, 1912; House 1953—55.CONNALLY, Tom T.
(D Texas) Aug. 19, 1877—Oct. 28, 1963; House 1917—1929; Senate 1929—53; Vice Chairman U.S. delegation to UN Conference, San Francisco, 1945; U.S. Representative to UN 1945—46.CONTE, Silvio O.
(R Mass.) Nov. 9, 1921; House 1959- .CONYERS, John Jr.
(D Mich.) May 16, 1929; House 1965- .COOK, Robert E.
(D Ohio), May 19, 1920; House 1959—63.COOLEY, Harold D.
(D N.C.) July 26, 1897; House 1934- .COON, Sam
(R Ore.) April 15, 1903; House 1953—57.COOPER, Jere
(D Tenn.) July 20, 1893—Dec. 18, 1957; House 1929—57.COOPER, John Sherman
(R Ky.) Aug. 23, 1901; Senate 1946—49; 1952—55; 1956- ; Ambassador to India 1955—56.CORBETT, Robert J.
(R Pa.) Aug. 25, 1905; House 1939—41; 1945- .CORDON, Guy
(R Ore.) April 24, 1890; Senate 1944—55.CORMAN, James C.
(D Calif.) Oct. 20, 1920; House 1961- .COTTON, Norris
(R N.H.) May 11, 1900; House 1947—54; Senate 1954- .COUDERT, Frederic R. Jr.
(R N.Y.) May 7, 1898; House 1947—59.COURTNEY, Wirt
(D Tenn.) Sept. 7, 1889—April 6, 1961; House 1939—49.COX, E.E.
(D Ga.) April 3, 1880—Dec. 24, 1952; House 1925—52.CRALEY, N. Neiman Jr.
(D Pa.) Nov. 17, 1927; House 1965 - .CRAMER, William C.
(R Fla.) Aug. 4, 1922; House 1955- .CRAVENS, William Fadjo
(D Ark.) Feb. 15, 1899; House 1939—49.CRAWFORD, Fred L.
(R Mich.) May 5, 1888—April 13, 1957; House 1935—53.CRETELLA, Albert W.
(R Conn.) April 22, 1897; House 1953—59.CRIPPA, Edward D.
(R Wyo.) April 8, 1899—Oct. 20, 1960; Senate June 24, 1954—Nov. 28, 1954.CROOK, Thurman C.
(D Ind.) July 18, 1891; House 1949—51.CROSSER, Robert
(D Ohio) June 7, 1874—June 3, 1957; House 1913—19; 1923—55.CROW, William J.
(R Pa.) Jan. 22, 1902; House 1947—49.CRUMPACKER, Shepard J. Jr.
(R Ind.) Feb. 13, 1917; House 1951—57.CULVER, John C.
(D Iowa) Aug. 8, 1932; House 1965 - .CUNNINGHAM, Glenn
(R Neb.) Sept. 10, 1912; House 1957- .CUNNINGHAM, Paul
(R Iowa) June 15, 1890—July 16, 1961; House 1941—59.CURLEY, James M.
(D Mass.) Nov. 20, 1874—Nov. 12, 1958; House 1911—14; 1943—47; Mayor of Boston 1914—18, 1922—26, 1930—34, 1947—50; Gov. of Mass. 1935—37.CURTIN, Willard S.
(R Pa.) Nov. 28, 1905; House 1957- .CURTIS, Carl T.
(R Neb.) March 15, 1905; House 1939—Dec. 31, 1954. Senate Jan. 1, 1955- .CURTIS, Laurence
(R Mass.) Sept. 3, 1893; House 1953—63.CURTIS, Thomas B.
(R Mo.) May 14, 1911; House 1951- .DDADDARIO, Emilio Q.
(D Conn.) Sept. 24, 1918; House 1959- .DAGUE, Paul B.
(R Pa.) May 19, 1898; House 1947- .D'ALESANDRO, Thomas Jr.
(D Md.) Aug. 1, 1903; House 1939—47; Mayor of Baltimore 1947—59.DANIEL, Charles E.
(D S.C.) Nov. 11, 1895—Sept. 13, 1964; Senate Sept. 6, 1954—Dec. 23, 1954.DANIEL, Price
(D Texas) Oct. 10, 1910; Senate 1953—57; Gov. 1957—63.DANIELS, Dominick V.
(D N.J.) Oct. 18, 1908; House 1959- .DARBY, Harry
(R Kan.) Jan. 23, 1895; Senate 1949—50.DAUGHTON, Ralph H.
(D Va.) Sept. 23, 1885—Dec. 22, 1958; House 1944—47.DAVENPORT, Harry J.
(D Pa.) Aug. 28, 1902; House 1949—51.DAVIDSON, Irwin D.
(D N.Y.) Jan. 2, 1906; House 1955—56.DAVIES, John C.
(D N.Y.) May 1, 1920; House 1949—51.DAVIS, Clifford
(D Tenn.) Nov. 18, 1897; House 1940—65.DAVIS, Glenn R.
(R Wis.) Oct. 28, 1914; House 1947—57; 1965- .DAVIS, James C.
(D Ga.) May 17, 1895; House 1947—63.DAVIS, John W.
(D Ga.) Sept. 12, 1916; House 1961- .DAWSON, William A.
(R Utah) Nov. 5, 1903; House 1947—49; 1953—59.DAWSON, William L.
(D Ill.) April 26, 1886; House 1943- .DEANE, Charles B.
(D N.C.) Nov. 1, 1898; House 1947—57.deGRAFFENRIED, Edward
(D Ala.) June 30, 1899; House 1949—53.De LACY, Hugh
(D Wash.) May 9, 1910; House 1945—47.de la GARZA, Eligio
(D Texas) Sept. 22, 1927; House 1965- .DELANEY, James J.
(DN.Y.) March 19, 1901; House 1945—47; 1949- .DELANEY, John Joseph
(D N.Y.) Aug. 21, 1878—Nov. 18, 1948; House 1918—19; 1931—48.DELLAY, Vincent J.
(R N.J.) June 23, 1907; House 1957—59.DEMPSEY, John J.
(D N.M.) June 22, 1879—March 11, 1958; House 1935—41; 1951—58; Under Secretary of the Interior 1941—42; Gov. 1943—47.DENNISON, David
(R Ohio) July 29, 1918; House 1957—59.DENNY, Harmar D. Jr.
(R Pa.) July 2, 1886; House 1951—53.DENT, John H.
(D Pa.) March 10, 1908; House 1958- .DENTON, Winfield K.
(D Ind.) Oct. 28, 1896; House 1949—53; 1955- .DEROUNIAN, Steven B.
(R N.Y.) April 6, 1918; House 1953—65.DERWINSKI, Edward J.
(R Ill.) Sept. 15, 1926; House 1959- .DEVEREUX, James P.S.
(R Md.) Feb. 20, 1903; House 1951—59.DEVINE, Samuel L.
(R Ohio) Dec. 21, 1915; House 1959- .DEVITT, Edward J.
(R Minn.) May 5, 1911; House 1947—49.D'EWART, Wesley A.
(R Mont.) Oct. 1, 1889; House 1945—55.DICKINSON, William L.
(R Ala.) June 5, 1925; House 1965 - .DICKSTEIN, Samuel
(D N.Y.) Feb. 5, 1885—April 22, 1954; House 1923—45.DIES, Martin Jr.
(D Texas) Nov. 5, 1900; House 1931—45; 1953—59.DIGGS, Charles C. Jr.
(D Mich.) Dec. 2, 1922; House 1955- .DINGELL, John D.
(D Mich.) Feb. 2, 1894—Sept. 19, 1955; House 1933—55.DINGELL, John D. Jr.
(D Mich.) July 8, 1926 (Son of John D. Dingell): House 1955- .DIRKSEN, Everett McKinley
(R Ill.) Jan. 4, 1896; House 1933—49; Senate 1951- ; Senate Minority Leader 1959- .DIXON, Henry Aldous
(R Utah) June 29, 1890; House 1955—61.DODD, Thomas J.
(D Conn.) May 15, 1907; House 1953—57; Senate 1959- .DOLE, Robert
(R Kan.) July 22, 1923; House 1961- .DOLLINGER, Isidore
(D N.Y.) Nov. 13, 1903; House 1949—59.DOLLIVER, James I.
(R Iowa) Aug. 31, 1894; House 1945—57.DOMENGEAUX, James
(D La.) Jan. 6, 1907; House 1941—44; 1944—49.DOMINICK, Peter H.
(R Colo.) July 7, 1915; House 1961—63; Senate 1963- .DONDERO, George A.
(R Mich.) Dec. 16, 1883; House 1933—57.DONNELL, Forrest C.
(R Mo.) Aug. 20, 1884; Senate 1945—51; Gov. 1941—45.DONOHUE, Harold D.
(D Mass.) June 18, 1901; House 1947- .DONOVAN, James G.
(D N.Y.) Dec. 15, 1898; House 1951—57.DOOLEY, Edwin B.
(R N.Y.) April 13, 1905; House 1957—63.DORN, Francis E.
(R N.Y.) April 18, 1911; House 1953—61.DORN, W.J. Bryan
(D S.C.) April 14, 1916; House 1947—49; 1951- .DOUGHTON, Robert L.
(DN.C.) Nov. 7, 1863—Oct. 1, 1954; House 1911—53.DOUGLAS, Emily Taft
(D Ill.) April 10, 1899 (Wife of Sen. Paul H. Douglas); House 1945—47.DOUGLAS, Helen Gahagan
(D Calif.) Nov. 25, 1900; House 1945—51.DOUGLAS, Paul H.
(D Ill.) March 26, 1892; Senate 1949- .DOW, John G.
(D N.Y.) May 6, 1905; House 1965 - .DOWDY, John
(D Texas) Feb. 11, 1912; House 1952- .DOWNEY, Sheridan
(D Calif.) March 11, 1884—Oct. 25, 1961; Senate 1939—50.DOWNING, Thomas N.
(D Va.) Feb. 1, 1919; House 1959- .DOYLE, Clyde
(D Calif.) July 11, 1887—March 14, 1963; House 1945—47; 1949—63.DREWRY, Patrick H.
(D Va.) May 24, 1875—Dec. 21, 1947; House 1920—47.DUFF, James H.
(R Pa.) Jan. 21, 1883; Senate 1951—57; Gov. 1947—51.DULLES, John Foster
(R N.Y.) Feb. 25, 1888—May 24, 1959; Senate July 7, 1949—Nov. 8, 1949; U.S. Representative to UN, 1946—1950; Secretary of State, 1953—59.DULSKI, Thaddeus J.
(D N.Y.) Sept. 27, 1915; House 1959- .DUNCAN, John J.
(R Tenn.) March 24, 1920; House 1965 - .DUNCAN, Robert B.
(D Ore.) Dec. 4, 1920; House 1963- .DURHAM, Carl T.
(D N.C.) Aug. 28, 1892; House 1939—61.DURNO, Edwin R.
(R Ore.) Jan. 26, 1899; House 1961—63.DWORSHAK, Henry C.
(R Idaho) Aug. 29, 1894—July 23, 1962; House 1939—46; Senate Nov. 5, 1946—Jan. 3, 1949; Oct. 14, 1949—62.DWYER, Florence P.
(R N.J.) July 4, 1902; House 1957- .DYAL, Ken W.
(D Calif.) July 9, 1910; House 1965- .EEARTHMAN, Harold H.
(D Tenn.) April 13, 1900; House 1945—47.EASTLAND, James O.
(D Miss.) Nov. 28, 1904; Senate June 30, 1941—Sept. 28, 1941; 1943- .EATON, Charles A.
(R N.J.) March 29, 1868—Jan. 23, 1953; House 1925—53.EBERHARTER, Herman P.
(D Pa.) April 29, 1892—Sept. 9, 1958; House 1937—58.ECTON, Zales N.
(R Mont.) April 1, 1898—March 3, 1961; Senate 1947—53.EDMONDSON, Ed
(D Okla.) April 7, 1919; House 1953- .EDMONDSON, J. Howard
(D Okla.) Sept. 27, 1925; Gov. 1959—63; Senate 1963—65.EDWARDS, Don
(D Calif.) Jan. 6, 1915; House 1963- .EDWARDS, Jack
(R Ala.) Sept. 20, 1929; House 1965- .ELLENDER, Allen J.
(D La.) Sept. 24, 1891; Senate 1937- .ELLIOTT, Alfred J.
(D Calif.) June 1, 1895; House 1937—49.ELLIOTT, Carl
(D Ala.) Dec. 20, 1913; House 1949—65.ELLIOTT, Douglas Hemphill
(R Pa.) June 3, 1921—June 19, 1960; House 1960.ELLIS, Hubert S.
(R W.Va.) July 6, 1887—Feb. 10, 1958; House 1943—49.ELLSWORTH, Harris
(R Ore.) Sept. 17, 1899; House 1943—57; Chairman Civil Service Commission, 1957—59.ELLSWORTH, Robert F.
(R Kan.) June 11, 1926; House 1961- .ELSAESSER, Edward J.
(R N.Y.) March 10, 1904; House 1945—49.ELSTON, Charles H.
(R Ohio) Aug. 1, 1891; House 1939—53.ENGEL, Albert J.
(R Mich.) Jan. 1, 1888—Dec. 2, 1959; House 1935—51.ENGLE, Clair
(D Calif.) Sept. 21, 1911—July 30, 1964; House 1943—59; Senate 1959—64.ERLENBORN, John N.
(R Ill.) Feb. 8, 1917; House 1965- .ERVIN, Joe W.
(D N.C.) March 3, 1901—Dec. 25, 1945 (Brother of Sen. Sam J. Ervin Jr.); House Jan. 3, 1945—Dec. 25, 1945.ERVIN, Sam J. Jr.
(D N.C.) Sept. 27, 1896; House Jan. 22, 1946—Jan. 3, 1947; Senate 1954- .EVANS, Frank E.
(D Colo.) Sept. 8, 1923; House 1965 - .EVERETT, Robert A.
(D Tenn.) Feb. 24, 1915; House 1958- .EVINS, Joe L.
(D Tenn.) Oct. 24, 1910; House 1947- .FFALLON, George H.
(D Md.) July 24, 1902; House 1945- .FANNIN, Paul J.
(R Ariz.) Jan. 29, 1907; Gov. 1958—1964; Senate 1965- .FARBSTEIN, Leonard
(D N.Y.) Oct. 12, 1902; House 1957 - .FARNSLEY, Charles P.
(D Ky.) March 28, 1907; House 1965 - .FARNUM, Billie S.
(D Mich.) April 11, 1916; House 1965 - .FARRINGTON, Joseph R.
(R Hawaii) Oct. 15, 1897—June 19, 1954; Delegate 1943—1954.FARRINGTON, Mary Elizabeth Pruett
(R Hawaii) May 30, 1898 (Wife of Joseph R. Farrington); Delegate 1954—57.FASCELL, Dante B.
(D Fla.) March 9, 1917; House 1955- .FEAZEL, William C.
(D La.) June 10, 1895; Senate May 18, 1948—Dec. 30, 1948.FEIGHAN, Michael A.
(D Ohio) Feb. 16, 1905; House 1943- .FELLOWS, Frank
(R Maine) Nov. 7, 1889—Aug. 27, 1951; House 1941—51.FENTON, Ivor D.
(R Pa.) Aug. 3, 1889; House 1939—63.FERGUSON, Homer
(R Mich.) Feb. 25, 1889; Senate 1943—55; Ambassador to the Philippines 1955—56; Judge of Military Court of Appeals 1956- .FERNANDEZ, Antonio M.
(D N.M.) Jan. 17, 1902—Nov. 7, 1956; House 1943—56.FERNáS-ISERN, Antonio
(D Puerto Rico) May 10, 1895; Resident Commissioner, House 1946—65; Acting Gov. 1943—46.FINDLEY, Paul
(R Ill.) June 23, 1921; House 1961- .FINE, Sidney A.
(D N.Y.) Sept. 14, 1903; House 1951—56.FINNEGAN, Edward R.
(D Ill.) June 5, 1905; House 1961—65.FINO, Paul A.
(R N.Y.) Dec. 15, 1913; House 1953- .FISHER, O.C.
(D Texas) Nov. 22, 1903; House 1943- .FJARE, Orvin B.
(R Mont.) April 16, 1918; House 1955—57.FLANDERS, Ralph E.
(R Vt.) Sept. 28, 1880; Senate 1946—59.FLANNAGAN, John W. Jr.
(D Va.) Feb. 20, 1885—April 27, 1955; House 1931—49.FLETCHER, Charles K.
(R Calif.) Dec. 15, 1902; House 1947—49.FLOOD, Daniel J.
(D Pa.) Nov. 26, 1903; House 1945—47; 1949—53; 1955- .FLYNN, Gerald T.
(D Wis.) Oct. 7, 1910; House 1959—61.FLYNT, John J. Jr.
(D Ga.) Nov. 8, 1914; House 1954- .FOGARTY, John E.
(D R.I.) March 23, 1913; House 1941- .FOLEY, John R.
(D Md.) Oct. 16, 1917; House 1959—61.FOLEY, Thomas S.
(D Wash.) March 6, 1929; House 1965 - .FOLGER, John H.
(D N.C.) Dec. 18, 1888—July 20, 1963; House 1945—49.FONG, Hiram L.
(R Hawaii) Oct. 1, 1907; Senate, 1959- .FOOTE, Ellsworth B.
(R Conn.) Jan. 12, 1898; House 1947—49.FORAND, Aime J.
(D R.I.) May 23, 1895; House 1937—39; 1941—61.FORD, Gerald R.
(R Mich.) July 14, 1913; House 1949- ; Minority Leader 1965- .FORD, William D.
(D Mich.) Aug. 6, 1927; House 1965 - .FOREMAN, Ed
(R Texas) Dec. 22, 1933; House 1963—65.FORRESTER, E.L.
(D Ga.) Aug. 16, 1896; House 1951—65.FOUNTAIN, L. H.
(D N.C.) April 23, 1913; House 1953- .FRASER, Donald M.
(D Minn.) Feb. 20, 1924; House 1963- .FRAZIER, James B. Jr.
(D Tenn.) June 23, 1890; House 1949—63.FREAR, J. Allen Jr.
(D Del.) March 7, 1903; Senate 1949—61; Member, Securities and Exchange Commission 1961- .FRELINGHUYSEN, Peter H.B.
(R N.J.) Jan. 17, 1916; House 1953-FRIEDEL, Samuel N.
(D Md.) April 18, 1898; House 1953- .FUGATE, Tom B.
(D Va.) April 10, 1899; House 1949—53.FULBRIGHT, J. William
(D Ark.) April 9, 1905; House, 1943—45; Senate 1945- .FULLER, Hadwen C.
(R N.Y.) Aug. 28, 1895; House 1943—49.FULTON, James G.
(R Pa.) March 1, 1903; House 1945- .FULTON, Richard
(D Tenn.) Jan. 27, 1927; House 1963- .FUQUA, Don
(D Fla.) Aug. 20, 1933; House 1963- .FURCOLO, Foster
(D Mass.) July 29, 1911; House 1949—52; Governor 1957—61.GGALLAGHER, Cornelius E.
(DN.J.) March 2, 1921; House 1959- .GALLAGHER, James A.
(R Pa.) Jan. 16, 1896—Dec. 8, 1957; House 1947—49.GALLAGHER, William J.
(D Minn.) May 13, 1875—Aug. 13, 1946; House 1945—46.GAMBLE, Ralph A.
(R N.Y.) May 6, 1885—March 4, 1959; House 1937—57.GARDNER, Edward J.
(D Ohio) Aug. 7, 1898—Dec. 7, 1950; House 1945—47.GARLAND, Peter A.
(R Main ) June 16, 1923; House 1961—63.GARMATZ, Edward A.
(D Md.) Feb. 7, 1903; House 1947- .GARY, J. Vaughan
(D Va.) Feb. 25, 1892; House 1945—65.GATHINGS, E. C.
(D Ark.) Nov. 10, 1903; House 1939- .GAVIN, Leon H.
(R Pa.) Feb. 25, 1893—Sept. 14, 1963; House 1943—63.GEARHART, Bertrand W.
(R Calif.) May 31, 1890—Oct. 11, 1955; House 1935—49.GEELAN, James P.
(D Conn.) Aug. 11, 1901; House 1945—47.GENTRY, Brady
(D Texas) March 25, 1896; House 1953—57.GEORGE, Myron V.
(R Kar.) Jan. 6, 1900; House 1950—59.GEORGE, Newell A.
(D Kan.) Sept. 24, 1904; House 1959—61.GEORGE, Walter F.
(D Ga.) Jan. 29, 1878—Aug. 4, 1957; Senate 1922—57; Special Ambassador to North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1957.GERLACH, Charles L.
(R Pa.) Sept. 14, 1895—May 5, 1947; House 1939—47.GERRY, Peter G.
(D R.L.) Sept. 18, 1879—Oct. 31, 1957; House, 1913—15; Senate 1917—29; 1935—47.GETTYS, Tom S.
(D S.C.) June 19, 1912; House 1965- .GIAIMO, Robert N.
(D Conn.) Sept. 15, 1919; House 1959- .GIBBONS, Sam M.
(D Fla.) Jan. 20, 1920; House 1963- .GIBSON, John S.
(D Ga.) Jan. 3, 1893—Oct. 19, 1960; House 1941—47.GIFFORD, Charles L.
(R Mass.) March 15, 1871—Aug. 23, 1947; House 1922—47.GILBERT, Jacob H.
(D N.Y.) June 7, 1920; House 1960- .GILL, Thomas P.
(D Hawaii) April 21, 1922; House 1963—65.GILLESPIE, Dean M.
(R Colo.) May 2, 1884—Feb. 2, 1949; House 1944—47.GILLETTE, Guy M.
(D Iowa) Feb. 3, 1879; House, 1933—36; Senate 1936—45; 1949—55.GILLETTE, Wilson D.
(R Pa.) June 1, 1880—Aug. 7, 1951; House 1941—51.GILLIE, George W.
(R Ind.) Aug. 15, 1880—July 4, 1963; House 1939—49.GILLIGAN, John J.
(D Ohio) March 22, 1921; House 1965 - .GILMER, Dixie
(D Okla.) June 7, 1901; House 1949—51.GLASS, Carter
(D Va.) Jan. 4, 1858—May 28, 1946; House 1902—18; Senate 1920—46; Secretary of the Treasury 1918—20.GLENN, Milton W.
(R N.J.) June 18, 1903; House 1957—65.GOFF, Abe McGregor
(R Idaho) Dec. 21, 1899; House 1949—49.GOLDEN, James S.
(R Ky.) Sept. 20, 1891; House 1949—55.GOLDWATER, Barry
(R Ariz.) Jan. 1, 1909; Senate 1953—65; Republican Presidential candidate 1964.GONZALEZ, Henry B.
(D Texas) May 3, 1916; House 1961- .GOODELL, Charles E.
(R N. Y.) March 16, 1926; House 1959 .GOODLING, George A.
(R Pa.) Sept. 26, 1896; House 1961—65.GOODWIN, Angier L.
(R Mass.) Jan. 30, 1881; House 1943—55.GORDON, Thomas S.
(D Ill.) Dec. 17, 1893—Jan. 22, 1959; House 1943—59.GORE, Albert
(D Tenn.) Dec. 26, 1907; House 1939—44; 1945—53; Senate 1953- .GORSKI, Chester C.
(D N.Y.) June 22, 1906; House 1949—51.GORSKI, Martin
(D Ill.) Aug. 30, 1886—Dec. 4, 1949; House 1943—49.GOSSETT, Charles C.
(D Idaho) Sept. 2, 1888; Senate 1945—47; Gov. 1945.GOSSETT, Ed
(D Texas) Jan. 27, 1902; House 1939—51.GRABOWSKI, Bernard F.
(D Conn.) June 11, 1923; House 1963 - .GRAHAM, Frank P.
(D N.C.) Oct. 14, 1886; Senate, 1949—50.GRAHAM, Louis E.
(R Pa.) Aug. 4, 1880; House 1939—55.GRANAHAN, Kathryn E.
(D Pa.) Dec. 7, 1906; (Widow of William Thomas Granahan) House 1956—63; Treasurer of the U.S. 1963- .GRANAHAN, William T.
(D Pa.) July 26, 1895—May 25, 1956; House 1945—47; 1949—56.GRANGER, Walter K.
(D Utah) Oct. 11, 1888; House 1941—53.GRANT, George M.
(D Ala.) July 11, 1895; House 1938—65.GRANT, Robert A.
(R Ind.) July 31, 1905; House 1939—49.GRAY, Kenneth J.
(D Ill.) Nov. 14, 1924; House 1955- .GREEN, Edith
(D Ore.) Jan. 17, 1910; House 1955- .GREEN, Theodore Francis
(D R.I.) Oct. 2, 1867; Senate 1937—61; Gov. 1933—36.GREEN, William J. Jr.
(D Pa.) March 5, 1910—Dec. 21, 1963; House 1945—47; 1949—63.GREEN, William J. III
(D Pa.) June 24, 1938; House 1964- .GREENWOOD, Ernest
(D N.Y.) Nov. 25, 1884—June 15, 1955; House 1951—53.GREGORY, Noble J.
(D Ky.) Aug. 30, 1897; House 1937—59.GREIGG, Stanley L.
(D Iowa) May 7, 1931; House 1965 - .GRIDER, George W.
(D Tenn.) Oct. 1, 1912; House 1965 - .GRIFFIN, Robert P.
(R Mich.) Nov. 6, 1923; House 1957- .GRIFFITHS, Martha W.
(R Mich.) Jan. 29, 1912; House 1955- .GRIFFITHS, P. W.
(R Ohio) March 30, 1893; House 1943—49.GRISWOLD, Dwight P.
(R Neb.) Nov. 27, 1893—April 12, 1954; Senate 1952—54; Gov. 1941—46.GROSS, Chester H.
(R Pa.) Oct. 13, 1888; House 1943—49.GROSS, H. R.
(R Iowa) June 30, 1899; House 1949- .GROVER, James R. Jr.
(R N.Y.) March 15, 1919; House 1963- .GRUENING, Ernest
(D Alaska) Feb. 6, 1887; Senate 1959- ; Gov. 1939—53.GUBSER, Charles S.
(R Calif.) Feb. 1, 1916; House 1953- .GUFFEY, Joseph F.
(D Pa.) Dec. 29, 1870—March 6, 1959; Senate 1935—47.GUILL, Ben Hugh
(R Texas) Sept. 8, 1909; House 1950—51.GURNEY, Chan
(R S.D.) May 21, 1896; Senate 1939—1951; Member, Civil Aeronautics Board, 1951- .GURNEY, Edward J.
(R Fla.) Jan. 12, 1914; House 1963- .GWINN, Ralph W.
(R N.Y.) March 28, 1884; House 1945—59.GWYNNE, John W.
(R Iowa) Oct. 20, 1889; House 1935—49.HHAGAN, G. Elliott
(D Ga.) May 24, 1916; House 1961- .HAGEN, Harlan
(D Calif.) Oct. 8, 1914; House 1953- .HAGEN, Harold C.
(R Minn.) Nov. 10, 1901—March 19, 1957; House 1943—55.HALE, Robert
(R Maine) Nov. 29, 1889; House 1943—59.HALEY, James A.
(D Fla.) Jan. 4, 1899; House 1953- .HALL, David M.
(D N.C.) May 16, 1918—Jan. 29, 1960; House 1959—60.HALL, Durward G.
(R Mo.) Sept. 14, 1910; House 1961- .HALL, Edwin Arthur
(R N.Y.) Feb. 11, 1909; House 1939—53.HALL, Leonard W.
(R N.Y.) Oct. 2, 1900; House 1939—52; Chairman, Republican National Committee 1952—57.HALLECK, Charles A.
(R Ind.) Aug. 22, 1900; House 1935- ; Majority Leader, 1947—48, 1951—52; Minority Leader, 1960—65.HALPERN, Seymour
(R N.Y.) Nov. 19. 1912; House 1959- .HAMILTON, Lee H.
(D Ind.) April 20, 1931; House 1965 - .HANCOCK, Clarence E.
(R N.Y.) Feb. 13, 1885—Jan. 3, 1948; House 1927—47.HAND, T. Millet
(R N.J.) July 7, 1902—Dec. 26, 1956; House 1945—56.HANLEY, James M.
(D N.Y.) July 19, 1920; House 1965 - .HANNA, Richard T.
(D Calif.) June 19, 1914; House 1963- .HANSEN, George V.
(R Idaho) Sept. 14, 1930; House 1965 - .HANSEN, John R.
(D Iowa) Aug. 24, 1901; House 1965 - .HANSEN, Julia Butler
(D Wash.) June 14, 1907; House 1960- .HARDEN, Cecil M.
(R Ind.) Nov. 21, 1894; House 1949—59.HARDING, Ralph R.
(D Idaho) Sept. 9, 1929; House 1961—65.HARDY, Porter Jr.
(D Va.) June 1, 1903; House 1947- .HARE, Bulter B.
(D S.C.) Nov. 25, 1875; House 1925—33; 1939—47.HARE, James B.
(D S.C.) Sept. 4, 1918 (Son of Butler B. Hare); House 1949—51.HARGIS, Denver D.
(D Kan.) July 22, 1921; House 1959—61.HARLESS, Richard F.
(D Ariz.) Aug. 6, 1905; House 1943—49.HARMON, Randall S.
(D Ind.) July 19, 1903; House 1959—61.HARNESS, Forest A.
(R Ind.) June 24, 1895; House 1939—49; Sergeant at Arms. U. S. Senate 1953—55.HARRIS, Fred R.
(D Okla.) Nov. 13, 1930; Senate 1965 - .HARRIS, Oren
(D Ark.) Dec. 20, 1903; House 1941- .HARRISON, Burr P.
(D Va.) July 2, 1904; House 1946—63.HARRISON, Robert D.
(R Neb.) Jan. 26, 1897; House 1951—59.HARRISON, William H.
(R Wyo.) Aug. 10, 1896; House 1951—55; 1961—65.HARSHA, William H.
(R Ohio) Jan. 1, 1921; House 1961- .HART, Edward J.
(D N.J.) March 25, 1893—April 20, 1961; House 1935—55.HART, Philip A.
(D Mich.) Dec. 10, 1912; Senate 1959- .HART, Thomas C.
(R Conn.) June 12, 1877; Senate 1945—46.HARTKE, Vance
(D Ind.) May 31, 1919; Senate 1959- .HARTLEY, Fred A. Jr.
(R N.J.) March 22, 1902; House 1929—49.HARVEY, James
(R Mich.) July 4, 1922; House 1961- .HARVEY, Ralph
(R Ind.) Aug. 9 1901; House - 1947—59; 1961- .HASKELL, Harry Jr.
(R Del.) May 27, 1921; House 1957—59.HATCH, Carl A.
(D N.M.) Nov. 27, 1889—Sept. 15, 1963; Senate 1933—49.HATHAWAY, William D.
(D Maine) Feb. 21, 1924; House 1965 - .HAVENNER, Franck R.
(D Calif.) June 20, 1882; House 1945—53.HAWKES, Albert W.
(R N.J.) Nov. 20, 1878; Senate 1943—49.HAWKINS, Augustus F.
(D Calif.) Aug. 31, 1907; House 1963- .HAYDEN, Carl
(D Ariz.) Oct. 2 1877; House 1912—27; Senate 1927- ; President Pro Tempore 1957- .HAYS, Brooks
(D Ark.) Aug. 9, 1898; House 1943—59.HAYS, Wayne L.
(D Ohio) May 13, 1911; House 1949- .HAYWORTH, Don
(D Mich.) Jan. 13, 1898; House 1955—57.HEALEY, James C.
(D N.Y.) Dec. 24, 1909; House 1956—65.HEALY, Ned R.
(D Calif.) Aug. 9, 1905; House 1945—47.HéBERT, F. Edward
(D La.) Oct. 12, 1901; House 1941- .HECHLER, Ken
(D W. Va.) Sept. 20, 1914; House 1959- .HEDRICK, E. H.
(D W. Va.) Aug. 9, 1894 — Sept. 20, 1954; House 1945—53.HEFFERNAN, James Joseph
(D N. Y.) Nov. 8, 1888; House 1941—53.HEIDINGER, James V.
(R Ill.) July 17, 1882—March 22, 1945; House 1941—45.HELLER, Louis B.
(D N.Y.) March 10, 1905; House 1949—51; 1953—54.HELSTOSKI, Henry
(D N.J.) March 21, 1924; House 1965 - .HEMPHILL, Robert W.
(DS.C.) May 10, 1915; House 1957—64.HENDERSON, David N.
(D N.C.) April 16, 1921; House 1961- .HENDERSON, John E.
(R Ohio) Jan. 4, 1917; House 1955—61.HENDRICKS, Joe
(D Fla.) Sept. 24, 1903; House 1937—49.HENDRICKSON, Robert C.
(R N.J.) Aug. 12, 1898; Senate 1949—55.HENNINGS, Thomas C. Jr.
(D Mo.) June 25, 1903—Sept. 13, 1960; House 1935—40; Senate 1951—60.HENRY, Robert K.
(R Wis.) Feb. 9, 1890—Nov. 20, 1946; House 1945—46.HERLONG, A. Sydney Jr.
(D Fla.) Feb. 14, 1909; House 1949- .HERTER, Christian A.
(R Mass.) March 28, 1895; House 1943—53; Gov. Mass. 1953—57; Under Secretary of State 1957—59; Secretary of State 1959—61; Special Representative for Trade Negotiations of the U. S. 1962- .HESELTON, John W.
(R Mass.) March 7, 1900—Aug. 19, 1962; House 1945—59.HESS, William E.
(R Ohio) March 13 1898; House 1929—37; 1939—49; 1951—61.HICKENLOOPER, Bourke B.
(R Iowa) July 21, 1896; Senate 1945- ; Gov. 1943—44.HICKEY, J. J.
(D Wyo.) Aug. 22, 1911; Senate Jan. 2, 1961—62; Gov. 1959—61.HICKS, Floyd V.
(D Wash.) May 29, 1915; House 1965- .HIESTAND, Edgar W.
(R Calif.) Dec. 3, 1888; House 1953—63.HILL, Lister
(D Ala.) Dec. 29, 1894; House 1923—38; Senate 1938- .HILL, William S.
(R Colo.) Jan. 20, 1886; House 1941—59.HILLELSON, Jeffrey P.
(R Mo.) March 9, 1919; House 1953—55.HILLINGS, Patrick J.
(R Calif.) Feb. 19, 1923; House 1951—59.HINSHAW, Carl
(R Calif.) July 28, 1894—Aug. 5, 1956; House 1939—56.HOBBS, Samuel Francis
(D Ala.) Oct. 5, 1887—May 31, 1952; House 1935—51.HOBLITZELL, John D. Jr.
(R W. Va.) Dec. 30, 1912; Senate Jan. 25, 1958—Nov. 4, 1958.HOCH, Daniel K.
(D Pa.) Jan. 31, 1866—Oct. 11, 1960; House 1943—47.HOEVEN, Charles B.
(R Iowa) March 30, 1895; House 1943—65.HOEY, Clyde R.
(D N.C.) Dec. 11, 1877—May 12, 1954; House 1919—21; Senate 1945—54; Gov. 1937—41.HOFFMAN, Carl Henry
(R Pa.) Aug. 12, 1896; House 1946—47.HOFFMAN, Clare E.
(R Mich.) Sept. 10, 1875; House 1935—63.HOFFMAN, Elmer J.
(R Ill.) July 7, 1899; House 1959—65.HOFFMAN, Richard W.
(R Ill.) Dec. 23, 1893; House 1949—57.HOGAN, Earl
(D Ind.) March 13, 1920; House 1959—61.HOLIFIELD, Chet
(D Calif.) Dec. 3, 1903; House 1943- .HOLLAND, Elmer J.
(D Pa.) Jan. 8, 1894; House 1942—43; 1956- .HOLLAND, Spessard L.
(D Fla.) July 10, 1892; Senate 1946- ; Gov. 1941—45.HOLMES, Hal
(R Wash.) Feb. 22, 1902; House 1943—59.HOLMES, Pehr G.
(R Mass.) April 9, 1881—Dec. 19, 1952; House 1931—47.HOLT, Joseph F. III
(R Calif.) July 6, 1924; House 1953—61.HOLTZMAN, Lester
(D N.Y.) June 1, 1913; House 1953—61.HOOK, Frank E.
(D Mich.) May 26, 1893; House 1935—47.HOPE, Clifford R.
(R Kan.) June 9, 1893; House 1927—57.HORAN, Walt
(R Wash.) Oct. 15, 1898; House 1943—65.HORTON, Frank J.
(R N.Y.) Dec. 12, 1919; House 1963 - .HOSMER, Craig
(R Calif.) May 6, 1915; House 1953- .HOWARD, James J.
(D N.J.) July 24, 1927; House 1965 - .HOWELL, Charles R.
(D N.J.) May 23, 1904; House 1949—55.HOWELL, Evan
(R Ill.) Sept. 21, 1905; House 1941—47.HRUSKA, Roman L.
(R Neb.) Aug. 16, 1904; House 1953; — 54; Senate 1954- .HUBER, Walter B.
(D Ohio) June 29, 1903; House 1945—51.HUDDLESTON, George Jr.
(D Ala.) March 19, 1920; House 1955—65.HUFFMAN, James W.
(D Ohio) Sept. 13, 1894; Senate 1945—46.HULL, Merlin
(R, Prog. Wis.) Dec. 18, 1870—May 17, 1953; House; Republican 1929—31; Progressive 1935—47; Republican 1947—53.HULL, W.R. Jr.
(D Mo.) April 17, 1906; House 1955- .HUMPHREY, Hubert H.
(D Minn.) May 27, 1911; Senate 1949—65. Vice President 1965- .HUMPHREYS, Robert
(D Ky.) Aug. 20, 1893; Senate June 21, 1956—Nov. 6, 1956.HUNGATE, William L.
(D Mo.) Dec. 14, 1922; House 1965 - .HUNT, Lester C.
(D Wyo.) July 8, 1892—June 19, 1954; Senate 1949—54; Gov. 1943—49.HUNTER, Allan Oakley
(R Calif.) June 15, 1916; House 1951—55.HUOT, J. Oliva
(D N.H.) Aug. 11, 1917; House 1965 - .HUTCHINSON, Edward
(R Mich.) Oct. 13, 1914; House 1963- .HYDE, DeWitt S.
(R Md.) March 21, 1909; House 1953—59.IICHORD, Richard H.
(D Mo.) June 27, 1926; House 1961- .IKARD, Frank
(D Texas) Jan. 30, 1914; House 1951—61.INOUYE, Daniel K.
(D Hawaii) Sept. 7, 1924; House 1959—63; Senate 1963- .IRVING, Leonard
(D Mo.) March 24, 1898; House 1949—53.IRWIN, Donald J.
(D Conn.) Sept. 7, 1926; House 1959—61; 1965- .ISACSON, Leo
(American Labor New York) April 20, 1910; House Feb. 17, 1948—49.IVES, Irving M.
(R N.Y.) Jan. 24, 1896—Feb. 24, 1962; Senate 1947—59.IZAC, Edouard V. M.
(D Calif.) Dec. 18, 1891; House 1937—47.JJACKSON, Donald L.
(R Calif.) Jan. 23, 1910; House 1947—61.JACKSON, Henry M.
(D Wash.) May 31, 1912; House 1941—53; Senate 1953- ; Chairman, Democratic National Committee 1960—61.JACOBS, Andrew Sr.
(D Ind.) Feb. 22, 1906; House 1949—51.JACOBS, Andrew Jr.
(D Ind.) (Son of Andrew Jacobs Sr.) Feb. 24, 1932; House 1965- .JAMES, Benjamin F.
(R Pa.) Aug. 1, 1885—Jan. 26, 1961; House 1949—59.JARMAN, John
(D Okla.) July 17, 1915; House 1951- .JARMAN, Pete
(D Ala.) Oct. 31, 1892—Feb. 17, 1955; House 1937—49.JAVITS, Jacob K.
(R N.Y.) May 18, 1904; House 1947—54; Senate 1957- .JENISON, Edward H.
(R Ill.) July 27, 1907; House 1947—49.JENKINS, Mitchell
(R Pa.) Jan. 24, 1896; House 1947—49.JENKINS, Thomas A.
(R Ohio) Oct. 28, 1880—Dec. 21, 1959; House 1925—59.JENNER, William E.
(R Ind.) July 21, 1908; Senate 1944—45; 1947—59.JENNINGS, John Jr.
(R Tenn.) June 6, 1880—Feb. 27, 1956; House 1939—51.JENNINGS, W. Pat
(D Va.) Aug. 20, 1919; House 1955- .JENSEN, Ben F.
(R Iowa) Dec. 16, 1892; House 1939—65.JOELSON, Charles S.
(D N.J.) Jan. 27, 1916; House 1961- .JOHANSEN, August E.
(R Mich.) July 21, 1905; House 1955—65.JOHNSON, Albert W.
(R Pa.) April 17, 1906; House 1963- .JOHNSON, Anton Joseph
(R Ill.) Oct. 20, 1878—April 16, 1958; House 1939—49.JOHNSON, Byron L.
(D Colo.) Oct. 12, 1917; House 1959—60.JOHNSON, Edwin C.
(D Colo.) Jan. 1, 1884; Senate 1937—55; Gov. 1933—37; 1955—57.JOHNSON, Glen D.
(D Okla.) Sept. 11, 1911; House 1947—49.JOHNSON, Harold T.
(D Calif.) Dec. 2, 1907; House 1959- .JOHNSON, Hiram W.
(R Calif.) Sept. 21, 1866—Aug. 6, 1945; Senate 1917—45; Gov. 1911—17; Vice Presidential Nominee 1912.JOHNSON, Jed Joseph
(D Okla.) July 31, 1888; House 1929—47.JOHNSON, Jed Jr.
(D Okla.) (Son of Jed Joseph Johnson) Dec. 27, 1939; House 1965- .JOHNSON, J. Leroy
(R Calif.) April 8, 1888—March 26, 1961; House 1943—57.JOHNSON, Lester R.
(D Wis.) June 16, 1901; House 1953—65.JOHNSON, Luther A.
(D Texas) Oct. 29, 1875; House 1923—46.JOHNSON, Lyndon B.
(D Texas) Aug. 27, 1908; House 1937—49; Senate 1949—61; Senate Minority Leader 1953—54; Senate Majority Leader 1955—61; Vice President 1961—63; President 1963- .JOHNSON, Noble J.
(R Ind.) Aug. 23, 1887; House 1939—48.JOHNSON, Thomas F.
(D Md.) June 26, 1909; House 1959—63.JOHNSTON, Olin D.
(D S.C.) Nov. 18, 1896—April 18, 1965; Senate 1945—65; Gov. 1935—39; 1943—45.JONAS, Charles Raper
(R N.C.) Dec. 9, 1904; House 1953- .JONAS, Edgar A.
(R Ill.) Aug. 14, 1885; House 1949—55.JONES, Hamilton C.
(D N.C.) Sept. 26, 1884; House 1947—53.JONES, Homer R.
(R Wash.) Sept. 3, 1893; House 1947—49.JONES, Paul C.
(D Mo.) March 12, 1901; House 1949- .JONES, Robert E.
(D Ala.) June 12, 1912; House 1947- .JONES, Robert F.
(R Ohio) June 25, 1907; House 1939—47.JONES, Woodrow W.
(D N.C.) Jan. 26, 1914; House 1950—57.JONKMAN, Bartel J.
(R Mich.) Sept. 8, 1896; House 1940—49.JORDAN, B. Everett
(D N.C.) Sept. 8, 1896; Senate 1958- .JORDAN, Len B.
(R Idaho) May 15, 1899; Senate 1962- . Gov. 1951—55.JUDD, Walter H.
(R Minn.) Sept. 25, 1898; House 1943—63.KKARST, Raymond W.
(D Mo.) Dec. 31, 1902; House 1949—51.KARSTEN, Frank M.
(D Mo.) Jan. 7, 1913; House 1947- .KARTH, Joseph E.
(D Minn.) Aug. 26, 1922; House 1959- .KASEM, George A.
(D Calif.) April 6, 1919; House 1959—61.KASTENMEIER, Robert W.
(D Wis.) Jan. 24, 1924; House 1959- .KEAN, Robert W.
(R N.J.) Sept. 28, 1893; House 1939—59.KEARNEY, Bernard W.
(Pat) (R N.Y.) May 23, 1889; House 1943—59.KEARNS, Carroll D.
(R Pa.) May 7, 1900; House 1947—63.KEATING, Kenneth B.
(R N.Y.) May 18, 1900; House 1947—59; Senate 1959—65.KEE, Elizabeth
(D W.Va.) (Widow of John Kee); House 1951—65.KEE, James
(D W.Va.) (Son of John and Elizabeth Kee) April 15, 1917; House 1965- .KEE, John
(D W.Va.) Aug. 22, 1874—May 8, 1951; House 1933—51.KEEFE, Frank B.
(R Wis.) Sept. 23, 1887—Feb. 5, 1952; House 1938—51.KEENEY, Russell W.
(R Ill.) Dec. 29, 1895—Jan. 11, 1958; House 1956—58.KEFAUVER, Estes
(D Tenn.) July 26, 1903—Aug. 10, 1963; House 1939—49; Senate 1949—63.KEITH, Hastings
(R Mass.) Nov. 22, 1915; House 1959- .KELLEY, Augustine B.
(D Pa.) July 9, 1883—Nov. 20, 1957; House 1941—57.KELLY, Edna F.
(D N.Y.) Oct. 20 1906; House 1949- .KELLY, Edward Austin
(D Ill.) April 3, 1892; House 1931—43; 1945—47.KEM, James P.
(R Mo.) April 2, 1890—Feb. 24, 1965; Senate 1947—53.KENNEDY, Edward M.
(D Mass.) Feb. 22, 1932; Senate 1962- .KENNEDY, John F.
(D Mass.) May 29, 1917—Nov. 22, 1963; House 1947—53; Senate 1953—60; President 1961—63.KENNEDY, Robert F.
(D N.Y.) Nov. 20, 1925; U.S. Attorney General 1961—64; Senate 1965- .KEOGH, Eugene J.
(D N.Y.) Aug. 30 1907; House 1937- .KERR, John H.
(D N.C.) Dec. 31, 1873—June 21, 1958; House 1923—53.KERR, Robert S.
(D Okla.) Sept. 11, 1896—Jan. 1, 1963; Senate 1949—62; Gov. 1943—47.KERSTEN, Charles J.
(R Wis.) May 26, 1902; House 1947—49; 1951—55.KILBURN, Clarence E.
(R N.Y.) April 13, 1893; House 1940—65.KILDAY, Paul J.
(D Texas) March 29, 1900; House 1939—61.KILGORE, Harley M.
(D W.Va.) Jan. 11, 1893—Feb. 28, 1956; Senate 1941—56.KILGORE, Joe M.
(D Texas) Dec. 10, 1918; House 1955—65.KING, Carleton J.
(R N.Y.) June 15, 1904; House 1961- .KING, Cecil R.
(D Calif.) Jan. 13, 1898; House 1942- .KING, David S.
(D Utah) June 20, 1917; House 1959—63; 1965- .KING, Karl C.
(R Pa.) Jan. 26, 1897; House 1952—57.KINZER, J. Roland
(R Pa.) March 28, 1874—June 25, 1955; House 1930—47.KIRWAN, Michael J.
(D Ohio) Dec. 2, 1886; House 1937- .KITCHIN, A. Paul
(D N.C.) Sept. 13, 1908; House 1957—63.KLEIN, Arthur G.
(D N.Y.) Aug. 8, 1904; House July 29, 1941—45; Feb. 10, 1946—Dec. 31, 1956.KLUCZYNSKI, John C.
(D Ill.) Feb. 15, 1896; House 1951- .KNOWLAND, William F.
(R Calif.) June 26, 1908; Senate 1945—59; Majority Leader 1953—55; Minority Leader 1955—59.KNOX, Victor A.
(R Mich.) Jan. 13, 1899; House 1953—65.KNUTSON, Coya
(D Minn.) Aug. 22, 1912; House 1955—59.KNUTSON, Harold
(R Minn.) Oct. 20, 1880—Aug. 21, 1953; House 1917—49.KOPPLEMANN, Herman P.
(D Conn.) May 1, 1880—Aug. 11, 1957; House 1941—43; 1945—47.KORNEGAY, Horace R.
(D N.C.) March 12, 1924; House 1961- .KOWALSKI, Frank
(D Conn.) Oct. 18 1907; House 1959—63.KREBS, Paul J.
(D N.J.) May 26, 26, 1912; House 1965 - .KRUEGER, Otto
(R N.D.) Sept. 7, 1890—June 10, 1963; House 1953—59.KRUSE, Edward H. Jr.
(D Ind.) Oct. 22, 1918; House 1949—51.KUCHEL, Thomas H.
(R Calif.) Aug. 15, 1910; Senate 1953- .KUNKEL, John C.
(R Pa.) July 21, 1898; House 1939—51; 1961- .KYL, John H.
(R Iowa) May 9, 1919; House 1959—65.LLaFOLLETTE, Charles M.
(R Ind.) Feb. 27, 1898; House 1943—47.LaFOLLETTE, Robert M. Jr.
(Pro gressive Wis.) Feb. 6, 1895—Feb. 24, 1953; Senate 1925—47 (Republican-Progressive 1925—35).LAFORE, John A. Jr.
(R Pa.) May 25, 1905; House 1958—61.LAIRD, Melvin R.
(R Wis.) Sept. 1, 1922; House 1953- .LAIRD, William R. III
(D W.Va.) June 2, 1916; Senate March 13, 1956—Nov. 6, 1956.LANDIS, Gerald W.
(R Ind.) Feb. 23, 1895; House 1939—49.LANDRUM, Phil M.
(D Ga.) Sept. 10, 1909; House 1953- .LANE, Thomas J.
(D Mass.) July 16, 1898; House 1941—63.LANGEN, Odin
(R Minn.) Jan. 5, 1913; House 1959- .LANGER, William
(R N.D.) Sept. 30, 1886—Nov. 8, 1959; Senate 1941—59; Gov. 1933—34; 1937—39.LANHAM, Fritz G.
(D Texas) Jan. 3, 1880; House 1919—47.LANHAM, Henderson
(D Ga.) Sept. 14, 1888—Nov. 10, 1957; House 1947—57.LANKFORD, Richard E.
(D Md.) July 22, 1914; House 1955—65.LANTAFF, William C.
(D Fla.) July 31, 1913; House 1951—55.LARCADE, Henry D. Jr.
(D La.) July 12, 1890; House 1943—53.LATHAM, Henry J.
(R N.Y.) Dec. 10, 1908; House 1945—59.LATTA, Delbert L.
(R Ohio) March 5, 1920; House 1959- .LAUSCHE, Frank J.
(D Ohio) Nov. 14, 1895; Senate 1957- ; Gov. 1945—47; 1949—57.LEA, Clarence F.
(D Calif.) July 11, 1874—June 21, 1964; House 1917—49.LEAHY, Edward Laurence
(D R.I.) Feb. 9, 1886—July 22, 1953; Senate 1949—50.LeCOMPTE, Karl M.
(R Iowa) May 25, 1887; House 1939—59.LeFEVRE, Jay
(R N.Y.) Sept. 6, 1893; House 1943—51.LEGGETT, Robert L.
(D Calif.) July 26, 1926; House 1963- .LEHMAN, Herbert H.
(D N.Y.) Feb. 28, 1878—Dec. 5, 1963; Senate 1949—57; Gov. 1933—42; Director General of the UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 1943—46.LEMKE, William
(R N.D.) Aug. 13, 1878—May 30, 1950; House 1933—50.LENNON, Alton
(D N.C.) Aug. 17 1906; Senate July 10, 1953—Nov. 28, 1954; House 1957- .LESINSKI, John
(D Mich.) Jan. 3, 1885—May 27, 1950; House 1933—50.LESINSKI, John Jr.
(D Mich.) Dec. 28, 1914 (Son of John Lesinski); House 1951—65.LEVERING, Robert W.
(D Ohio) Oct. 3, 1914; House 1959—61.LEWIS, William
(R Ky.) Sept. 22, 1868—Aug. 8, 1959; House April 24, 1948—Jan. 3, 1949.LIBONATI, Roland V.
(D Ill.) Dec. 29, 1900; House 1957—65.LICHTENWALTER, Franklin H.
(R Pa.) March 28, 1910; House 1947—51.LIND, James F.
(D Pa.) Oct. 17, 1900; House 1949—53.LINDSAY, John V.
(R N.Y.) Nov. 24, 1921; House 1959- .LINEHAN, Neil J.
(D Ill.) Sept. 23, 1895; House 1949—51.LINK, William W.
(D Ill.) Feb. 12, 1894—Sept. 23, 1950; House 1945—47.LIPSCOMB, Glenard P.
(R Calif.) Aug. 19, 1915; House 1953- .LLOYD, Sherman P.
(R Utah) Jan. 11, 1914; House 1963—65.LODGE, Henry Cabot Jr.
(R Mass.) July 5, 1902; Senate 1937—44; 1947—53; Representative to UN 1953—60; Vice Presidential nominee 1960; Ambassador to South Viet Nam 1963—64.LODGE, John Davis
(R Conn.) Oct. 20, 1903 (Brother of Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.); House 1947—51; 1951—55; U.S. Ambassador to Spain 1955—61.LONG, Clarence D.
(D Md.) Dec. 11, 1908; House 1963- .LONG, Edward V.
(D Mo.) July 18, 1908; Senate Sept. 23; 1960- .LONG, George S.
(D La.) Sept. 11, 1893—March 22, 1958; House 1953—58.LONG, Gillis W.
(D La.) May 4, 1923; House 1963—65.LONG, Oren E.
(D Hawaii) March 4, 1889; Senate 1959—63; Gov. 1951—53.LONG, Russell B.
(D La.) Nov. 3, 1918; Senate 1948- .LONG, Speedy O.
(D La.) June 16, 1928; House 1965- .LOSER, J. Carlton
(D Tenn.) Oct. 1, 1892; House 1957—63.LOVE, Francis J.
(R W.Va.) Jan. 23, 1901; House 1947—49.LOVE, Rodney M.
(D Ohio) July 18, 1908; House 1965- .LOVRE, Harold O.
(R S.D.) Jan. 30, 1904; House 1949—57.LUCAS, Scott W.
(D Ill.) Feb. 19, 1892; House 1935—39; Senate 1939—51.LUCAS, Wingate H.
(D Texas) May 1, 1908; House 1947—55.LUCE, Mrs. Clare Boothe
(R Conn.) April 10, 1903; House 1943—47; U. S. Ambassador to Italy 1953—57.LUDLOW, Louis L.
(D Ind.) June 24, 1873—Nov. 28, 1950; House 1929—49.LUSK, Georgia L.
(D N.M.) May 12, 1893; House 1947—49.LUSK, Hall S.
(D Ore.) Sept. 21, 1883; Senate March 16, 1960—Nov. 8, 1960.LYLE, John E. Jr.
(D Texas) Sept. 4, 1910; House 1945—55.LYNCH, Walter A.
(D N.Y.) July 7, 1894—Sept. 10, 1957; House 1940—51.MMACDONALD, Torbert H.
(D Mass.) June 6, 1917; House 1955- .MacGREGOR, Clark
(R Minn.) July 12, 1922; House 1961- .MACHEN, Hervey G.
(D Md.) Oct. 14, 1916; House 1965- .MACHROWICZ, Thaddeus M.
(D Mich.) Aug. 21, 1899; House 1951—61.MACK, Peter F. Jr.
(D Ill.) Nov. 1 1916; House 1949—63.MACK, Russell V.
(R Wash.) June 13, 1891—March 28, 1960; House 1947—60.MACKAY, James A.
(D Ga.) June 25, 1919; House 1965- .MACKIE, John C.
(D Mich.) June 1, 1920; House 1965- .MacKINNON, George
(R Minn.) April 22, 1906; House 1947—49.MACY, W. Kingsland
(R N.Y.) Nov. 21, 1889—July 15, 1951; House 1947—51.MADDEN, Ray J.
(D Ind.) Feb. 25, 1892; House 1943- .MAGEE, Clare
(D Mo.) March 31, 1899; House 1949—53.MAGNUSON, Don
(D Wash.) March 7, 1911; House 1953—63.MAGNUSON, Warren G.
(D Wash.) April 12, 1905; House 1937—44; Senate 1944- .MAHON, George H.
(D Texas) Sept. 22, 1900; House 1935- .MAILLIARD, William S.
(R Calif.) June 10, 1917; House 1953- .MALONE, George W.
(R Nev.) Aug. 7, 1890—May 19, 1961; Senate 1947—59.MALONEY, Francis T.
(D Conn.) March 31, 1894—Jan. 16, 1945; House 1933—35; Senate 1935—45.MALONEY, Franklin J.
(R Pa.) March 29, 1899—Sept. 15, 1958; House 1947—49.MALONEY, Paul H.
(D La.) Feb. 14, 1876; House 1931—40; 1943—47.MANASCO, Carter
(D Ala.) Jan. 3, 1902; House 1941—49.MANKIN, Helen Douglas
(D Ga.) Sept. 11, 1896—July 25, 1956; House 1946—47.MANSFIELD, Joseph J.
(D Texas) Feb. 9, 1861—July 12, 1947; House 1917—47.MANSFIELD, Mike
(D Mont.) March 16, 1903; House 1943—53; Senate 1953- ; Senate Majority Whip 1957—61; Senate Majority Leader 1961- .MARCANTONIO, Vito
(American Labor N.Y.) Dec. 10, 1902—Aug. 9, 1945; House 1935—37 (as a Republican); 1939—51.MARSALIS, John H.
(D Colo.) April 9, 1904; House 1949—51.MARSH, John O. Jr.
(D Va.) Aug. 7, 1926; House 1963- .MARSHALL, Fred
(D Minn.) March 13, 1906; House 1949—63.MARTIN, Dave
(R Neb.) July 9, 1907; House 1961- .MARTIN, Edward
(R Pa.) Sept. 18, 1879; Senate 1947—59; Gov. 1943—46.MARTIN, James D.
(R Ala.) Sept. 1, 1918; House 1965- .MARTIN, Joseph W. Jr.
(R Mass.) Nov. 3, 1884; House 1925- ; Minority Leader 1940—47; 1949—53; 1955—59; Speaker 1947—49; 1953—55.MARTIN, Pat Minor
(R Calif.) Nov. 25, 1924; House 1963—65.MARTIN, Thomas E.
(R Iowa) Jan. 18, 1893; House 1939—55; Senate 1955—61.MASON, Noah M.
(R Ill.) July 19, 1882—March 28, 1965; House 1937—63.MATHEWS, Frank A. Jr.
(R N.J.) Aug. 3, 1890; House 1945—49.MATHIAS, Charles McC. Jr.
(R Md.) July 24, 1922; House 1961- .MATSUNAGA, Spark M.
(D Hawaii) Oct. 8, 1916; House 1963- .MATTHEWS, D.R.
(Billy) (D Fla.) Oct. 3, 1907; House 1953- .MAY, Andrew J.
(D Ky.) June 24, 1875—Sept. 6, 1959; House 1931—47.MAY, Catherine
(R Wash.) May 18, 1914; House 1959- .MAY, Edwin H. Jr.
(R Conn.) May 28, 1924; House 1957—59.MAYBANK, Burnet R.
(D S.C.) March 7, 1899—Sept. 1, 1954; Senate 1941—54; Gov. 1939—41.McCARRAN, Pat
(D Nev.) Aug. 8, 1876—Sept. 28, 1954; Senate 1933—54.McCARTHY, Eugene J.
(D Minn.) March 29, 1916; House 1949—59; Senate 1959- .McCARTHY, Joseph R.
(R Wis.) Nov. 14, 1908—May 2, 1957; Senate 1947—57.McCARTHY, Richard D.
(D N.Y.) Sept. 24, 1927; House 1965- .McCLELLAN, John L.
(D Ark.) Feb. 25, 1896; House 1935—39; Senate 1943- .McCLORY, Robert
(R Ill.) Jan. 31, 1908; House 1963- .McCONNELL, Samuel K. Jr.
(R Pa.) April 6, 1901; House 1944—57.McCORMACK, John W.
(D Mass.) Dec. 21, 1891; House 1928- ; Majority Leader 1940—47; 1949—53; 1955—62; Minority Whip 1947—49; 1953—55; Speaker 1962- .McCOWEN, Edward O.
(R Ohio) June 29, 1877—Nov. 4, 1953; House 1943—49.McCULLOCH, William M.
(R Ohio) Nov. 24, 1901; House 1947- .McDADE, Joseph M.
(R Pa.) Sept. 29, 1931; House 1963- .McDONOUGH, Gordon L.
(R Calif.) Jan. 2, 1895; House 1945—63.McDOWELL, Harris B. Jr.
(D Del.) Feb. 10, 1906; House 1955—57; 1959- .McDOWELL, John Ralph
(R Pa.) Nov. 6, 1902—Dec. 11, 1957; House 1939—41; 1947—49.McEWEN, Robert C.
(R N.Y.) Jan. 5, 1920; House 1965- .McFALL, John J.
(D Calif.) Feb. 20, 1918; House 1957- .McFARLAND, Ernest W.
(D Ariz.) Oct. 9, 1894; Senate 1941—53; Majority Leader 1951—53; Gov. 1955—59.McGARVEY, Robert N.
(R Pa.) Aug. 14, 1888—June 28, 1952; House 1947—49.McGEE, Gale W.
(D Wyo.) March 17, 1915; Senate 1959- .McGEHEE, Dan R.
(D Miss.) Sept. 10, 1883; House 1935—47.McGINLEY, Donald F.
(D Neb.) June 30, 1920; House 1959—61.McGLINCHEY, Herbert J.
(D Pa.) Nov. 7, 1904; House 1945—47.McGOVERN, George S.
(D S.D.) July 19, 1922; House 1957—61; Director, Food-for-Peace Program 1961—62; Senate 1963- .McGRATH, Christopher C.
(D N.Y.) May 15, 1902; House 1949—53.McGRATH, J. Howard
(D R.I.) Nov. 28, 1903; Senate 1947—49; Gov. 1941—45; Solicitor General 1945—46; Chairman Democratic National Committee 1947—49; Attorney General 1949—52.McGRATH, Thomas C.
(D N.J.) April 22, 1927; House 1965- .McGREGOR, J. Harry
(R Ohio) Sept. 30, 1896—Oct. 7, 1958; House 1940—58.McGUIRE, John A.
(D Conn.) Feb. 28, 1906; House 1949—53.McINTIRE, Clifford G.
(R Maine) May 4, 1908; House 1952—65.McINTOSH, Robert J.
(R Mich.) Sept. 16, 1922; House 1957—59.McINTYRE, Thomas J.
(D N.H.) Feb. 20, 1915; Senate 1962- .McKELLAR, Kenneth D.
(D Tenn.) Jan. 29, 1869—Oct. 25, 1957; House 1911—1917; Senate 1917—53; President pro tempore 1945—47; 1949—53.McKENZIE, Charles E.
(D La.) Oct. 3, 1896—June 7, 1956; House 1943—47.McKINNON, Clinton D.
(D Calif.) Feb. 5, 1906; House 1949—53.McLOSKEY, Robert T.
(R Ill.) June 26, 1907; House 1963—65.McMAHON, Brien
(D Conn.) Oct. 6, 1903—July 28, 1952; Senate 1945—52.McMAHON, Gregory
(R N.Y.) March 19, 1915; House 1947—49.McMILLAN, John L.
(D S.C.) April 12, 1898; House 1939- .McMILLEN, Rolla C.
(R Ill.) Oct. 5, 1880—May 6, 1961; House 1943—51.McMULLEN, Chester B.
(D Fla.) Dec. 6, 1902—Nov. 3, 1953; House 1951—53.McNAMARA, Pat
(D Mich.) Oct. 4, 1894; Senate 1955- .McSWEEN, Harold B.
(D La.) July 19, 1926; House 1959—63.McSWEENEY, John
(D Ohio) Dec. 19, 1890; House 1949—51.McVEY, Walter L.
(R Kan.) Feb. 19, 1922; House 1961—63.McVEY, William E.
(R Ill.) Dec. 13, 1885; House 1951—58.McVICKER, Roy H.
(D Colo.) Feb. 20, 1924; House 1965- .MEAD, James M.
(D N.Y.) Dec. 27, 1885—March 15, 1964; House 1919—1938; Senate 1938—47.MEADE, Hugh A.
(D Md.) April 4, 1907; House 1947—49.MEADE, W. Howes
(R Ky.) Jan. 18, 1912; House 1947—49.MEADER, George
(R Mich.) Sept. 13, 1907; House 1951—65.MECHEM, Edwin L.
(R N.M.) July 2, 1912; Gov. 1951—55; 57—59; 61—62; Senate 1962—65.MEEDS, Lloyd
(D Wash.) Dec. 11, 1927; House 1965- .MERRILL, D. Bailey
(R Ind.) Nov. 22, 1912; House 1953—55.MERROW, Chester E.
(R N.H.) Nov. 15, 1906; House 1943—63.METCALF, Lee
(D Mont.) Jan. 28, 1911; House 1953—61; Senate 1961- .MEYER, Herbert A.
(R Kan.) Aug. 30, 1886—Oct. 2, 1950; House 1947—50.MEYER, William H.
(D Vt.) Dec. 29, 1914; House 1959—61.MICHEL, Robert H.
(R Ill.) March 2, 1923; House 1957- .MICHENER, Earl C.
(R Mich.) Nov. 30, 1876—July 4, 1957; House 1919—33; 1935—51.MILES, John E.
(D N.M.) July 28, 1884; House 1949—51.MILLER, A.L.
(R Neb.) June 24, 1892; House 1943—59.MILLER, Bert H.
(D Idaho) Dec. 15, 1879—Oct. 8, 1949; Senate 1949.MILLER, Clem
(D Calif.) Oct. 28, 1961 — Oct. 6, 1962; House 1959—62.MILLER, Edward T.
(R Md.) Feb. 1, 1895; House 1947—59.MILLER, George P.
(D Calif.) Jan. 15, 1891; House 1945- .MILLER, Howard S.
(D Kan.) Feb. 27, 1879; House 1953—55.MILLER, Jack
(R Iowa) June 6, 1916; Senate 1961- .MILLER, Ward MacLaughlin
(R Ohio) Nov. 29, 1902; House 1960—61.MILLER, William E.
(R N.Y.) March 22, 1914; House 1951—65; Chairman, Republican National Committee 1961—64; Republican Vice-Presidential candidate 1964.MILLER, William J.
(R Conn.) March 12, 1899—Nov, 22, 1950; House 1939—41; 1943—45; 1947—49.MILLIKIN, Eugene D.
(R Colo.) Feb. 12, 1891—July 26, 1958; Senate 1941—57.MILLIKEN, William H. Jr.
(R Pa.) Oct. 19, 1897; House 1959—65.MILLS, Wilbur D.
(D Ark.) May 24, 1909; House 1939- .MINISH, Joseph G.
(D N.J.) Sept. 1, 1916; House 1963- .MINK, Patsy T.
(D Hawaii) Dec. 6, 1927; House 1965- .MINSHALL, William E.
(R Ohio) Oct. 24, 1911; House 1955- .MITCHELL, E.A.
(R Ind.) Dec. 2, 1910; House 1947—49.MITCHELL, Erwin
(D Ga.) Oct. 17, 1924; House 1958—61.MITCHELL, Hugh B.
(D Wash.) March 22, 1907; Senate 1945—46; House 1949—53.MIZE, Chester L.
(R Kan.) Dec. 25, 1917; House 1965- .MOELLER, Walter H.
(D Ohio) March 15, 1910; House 1959—63; 1965- .MOLLOHAN, Robert H.
(D W.Va.) Sept. 18, 1909; House 1953—57.MONAGAN, John S.
(D Conn.) March 26, 1906; House 1959- .MONDALE, Walter F.
(D Minn.) Jan. 5, 1928; Senate 1965- .MONRONEY, A.S. Mike
(D Okla.) March 2, 1902; House 1939—51; Senate 1951- .MONTOYA, Joseph M.
(D N.M.) Sept. 24, 1915; House 1957—65; Senate 1965- .MOODY, Blair
(D Mich.) Feb. 13, 1902—July 20, 1954; Senate April 23, 1951—Nov. 4, 1952.MOORE, Arch A. Jr.
(R W. Va.) April 16, 1923; House 1957- .MOORE, E.H.
(R Okla.) Nov. 19, 1871—Sept. 2, 1950; Senate 1943—49.MOOREHEAD, Tom V.
(R Ohio) April 12, 1898; House 1961—63.MOORHEAD, William S.
(D Pa.) April 8, 1923; House 1959- .MORANO, Albert P.
(R Conn.) Jan. 18, 1908; House 1951—59.MORGAN, Thomas E.
(D Pa.) Oct. 13, 1906; House 1945- .MORRIS, Thomas G.
(D N.M.) Aug. 20, 1919; House 1959- .MORRIS, Toby
(D Okla.) Feb. 28, 1899; House 1957—61.MORRISON, James H.
(D La.) Dec. 8, 1908; House 1943- .MORSE, F. Bradford
(R Mass.) Aug. 7, 1921; House 1961- .MORSE, Wayne
(D Ore.) Oct. 20, 1900; Senate 1945- . Republican 1945—Oct. 24, 1952; Independent Oct. 24, 1952—Feb. 17, 1955; Democrat Feb. 17, 1955- .MORTON, Rogers C.B.
(R Md.) Sept. 19, 1914; House 1963- .MORTON, Thruston B.
(R Ky.) Aug. 19, 1907; House 1947—53; Senate 1957- ; Chairman, Republican National Committee 1959—61.MOSES, John
(D N.D.) June 12, 1885—March 3, 1945; Senate Jan. 3, 1945—March 3, 1945; Gov. 1939—44.MOSHER, Charles A.
(R Ohio) May 7, 1906; House 1961- .MOSS, Frank E.
(D Utah) Sept. 23, 1911; Senate 1959- .MOSS, John E.
(D Calif.) April 13, 1913; House 1953- .MOTT, James W.
(R Ore.) Nov. 12, 1883—Nov. 12, 1945; House 1933—45.MOULDER, Morgan M.
(D Mo.) Aug. 31, 1904; House 1949—63.MUHLENBERG, Frederick A.
(R Pa.) Sept. 25, 1887; House 1947—49.MULTER, Abraham J.
(D N.Y.) Dec. 24, 1900; House 1947- .MUMMA, Walter M.
(R Pa.) Nov. 20, 1890—Nov. 25, 1961; House 1951—61.MUNDT, Karl E.
(R S.D.) June 3, 1900; House 1939—48; Senate 1948- .MURDOCK, Abe
(D Utah) July 8, 1893; House 1933—41; Senate 1941—47; Member, National Labor Relations Board 1947—57.MURDOCK, John R.
(D Ariz.) April 20, 1885; House 1937—53.MURPHY, George
(R Calif.) July 4, 1902; Senate 1965 - .MURPHY, James J.
(D N.Y.) Nov. 3, 1898; House 1949—53.MURPHY, John M.
(D N.Y.) Aug. 3, 1926; House 1963- .MURPHY, John William
(D Pa.) April 26, 1902; House 1943—46.MURPHY, Maurice J. Jr.
(R N.H.) Oct. 3, 1927; Senate Dec. 7, 1961—62.MURPHY, William T.
(D Ill.) Aug. 7, 1899; House 1959- .MURRAY, James C.
(D Ill.) April 16, 1917; House 1955—57.MURRAY, James E.
(D Mont.) May 3, 1876—March 23, 1961; Senate 1934—61.MURRAY, Reid F.
(R Wis.) Oct. 16, 1887—April 29, 1952; House 1939—52.MURRAY, Tom
(D Tenn.) Oct. 1, 1894; House 1943- .MUSKIE, Edmund S.
(D Maine) March 28, 1914; Senate 1959- ; Gov. 1955—59.MYERS, Francis J.
(D Pa.) Dec. 18, 1901—July 5, 1956; House 1939—45; Senate 1945—51.NNATCHER, William H.
(D Ky.) Sept. 11, 1909; House 1953- .NEAL, Will E.
(R W.Va.) Oct. 14, 1875—Nov. 12, 1959; House 1953—55; 1957—59.NEDZI, Lucien N.
(D Mich.) April 28, 1925; House Nov. 7, 1961- .NEELY, Matthew M.
(D W.Va.) Nov. 9, 1874—Jan. 18, 1958; House 1913—21; 1945—47; Senate 1923—29; 1931—41; 1949—58; Gov. 1941—45.NELSEN, Ancher
(R Minn.) Oct. 11, 1904; House 1959- .NELSON, Charles P.
(R Maine) July 2, 1907—June 8, 1962; House 1949—57.NELSON, Gaylord A.
(D Wis.) June 4, 1916; Gov. 1959—63; Senate 1963- .NEUBERGER, Maurine B.
(D Ore.) Jan. 9, 1907 (Widow of Richard L. Neuberger); Senate Nov. 9, 1960- .NEUBERGER, Richard L.
(D Ore.) Dec. 26, 1912—March 9, 1960; Senate 1955—60.NICHOLSON, Donald W.
(R Mass.) July 11, 1888; House 1947—59.NIMTZ, F. Jay
(R Ind.) Dec. 1, 1915; House 1957—59.NIX, Robert N.C.
(D Pa.) July 9, 1905; House 1958- .NIXON, Richard M.
(R Calif.) Jan. 9, 1913; House 1947—50; Senate 1950—53; Vice President 1953—61; Republican nominee for President 1960.NODAR, Robert Jr.
(R N.Y.) March 23, 1916; House 1947—49.NOLAND, James E.
(D Ind.) April 22, 1920; House 1949—51.NORBLAD, Walter
(R Ore.) Sept. 12, 1908—Sept. 20, 1964; House 1946—64.NORMAN, Fred
(R Wash.) March 21, 1882—April 18, 1947; House 1943—45; 1947.NORRELL, Mrs. Catherine D.
(D Ark.) March 30, 1901 (Widow of W.F. Norrell); House April 25, 1961—63.NORRELL, W.F.
(D Ark.) Aug. 29, 1896—Feb. 15, 1961; House 1939—61.NORTON, Mary T.
(D N.J.) March 7, 1875—Aug. 2, 1959; House 1925—51.NYGAARD, Hjalmar C.
(R N.D.) March 24, 1906—July 18, 1963. House 1961—63.OOAKMAN, Charles G.
(R Mich.) Sept. 4, 1903; House 1953—55.O'BRIEN, George D.
(D Mich.) Jan. 1, 1900—July 11, 1955; House 1937—39; 1941—47; 1949—55.O'BRIEN, Leo W.
(D N.Y.) Sept. 21, 1900; House 1952- .O'BRIEN, Thomas J.
(D Ill.) April 30, 1878—April 14, 1964; House 1933—37; 1943—64.O'CONOR, Herbert R.
(D Md.) Nov. 17, 1896—March 4, 1960; Senate 1947—53; Gov. 1939—46.O'CONNOR, James F.
(D Mont.) May 7, 1878—Jan. 15, 1945; House 1937—45.O'DANIEL, W. Lee
(D Texas) March 11, 1890; Senate 1941—1949; Gov. 1939—41.O'HARA, Barratt
(D Ill.) April 28, 1882; House 1949—51; 1953- .O'HARA, James G.
(D Mich.) Nov. 8, 1925; House 1959- .O'HARA, Joseph P.
(R Minn.) Jan. 23, 1895; House 1941—59.O'KONSKI, Alvin E.
(R Wis.) May 26, 1904; House 1943- .OLIVER, James C.
(D Maine) Aug. 6, 1895; House 1937—43; 1959—61.OLSEN, Arnold
(D Mont.) Dec. 17, 1961; House 1961- .OLSON, Alec G.
(D Minn.) Sept. 11, 1930; House 1963- .O'MAHONEY, Joseph C.
(D Wyo.) Nov. 5, 1885 — Dec. 1, 1962; Senate 1934—53; 1954—61.O'NEAL, Emmet
(D Ky.) April 14, 1887; House 1935—47.O'NEAL, Maston
(D Ga.) July 19, 1907; House 1965- .O'NEILL, Harry P.
(D Pa.) Feb. 10, 1889—June 24, 1953; House 1949—53.O'NEILL, Thomas P. Jr.
(D Mass.) Dec. 9, 1912; House 1953- .OSMERS, Frank C. Jr.
(R N.J.) Dec. 30, 1907; House 1939—43; 1951—65.OSTERTAG, Harold C.
(R N.Y.) June 22, 1896; House 1951—65.O'SULLIVAN, Eugene D.
(D Neb.) May 31, 1883; House 1949—51.O'TOOLE, Donald L.
(D N.Y.) Aug. 1, 1902—Sept. 13, 1964; House 1937—53.OTTINGER, Richard L.
(D N.Y.) Jan. 27, 1929; House 1965- .OUTLAND, George E.
(D Calif.) Oct. 8, 1906; House 1943—47.OVERTON, John H.
(D La.) Sept. 17, 1875—May 14, 1948; House 1931—33; Senate 1933—48.OWENS, Thomas L.
(R Ill.) Dec. 21, 1897—June 7, 1948; House 1947—48.PPACE, Stephen
(D Ga.) March 9, 1891; House 1937—51.PASSMAN, Otto E.
(D La.) June 27, 1900; House 1947- .PASTORE, John O.
(D R.I.) March 17, 1907; Senate 1950- ; Gov. 1945—50.PATMAN, Wright
(D Texas) Aug. 6, 1893; House 1929- .PATRICK, Luther
(D Ala.) Jan. 23, 1894—May 26, 1957; House 1937—43; 1945—47.PATTEN, Edward J.
(D N.J.) Aug. 22, 1905; House 1963- .PATTEN, Harold A.
(D Ariz.) Oct. 6, 1907; House 1949—55.PATTERSON, Ellis E.
(D Calif.) Nov. 28, 1897; House 1945—47.PATTERSON, James T.
(R Conn.) Oct. 20, 1908; House 1947—59.PAYNE, Frederick G.
(R Maine) July 7, 1900; Senate 1953—59; Gov. 1949—53.PEARSON, James B.
(R Kan.) May 7, 1920; Senate 1962- .PEDEN, Preston E.
(D Okla.) June 28, 1914; House 1947—49.PELL, Claiborne
(D R.I.) Nov. 22, 1918; Senate 1961- .PELLY, Thomas M.
(R Wash.) Aug. 22, 1902; House 1953- .PEPPER, Claude
(D Fla.) Sept. 8, 1900; Senate 1936—51; House 1963- .PERKINS, Carl D.
(D Ky.) Oct. 15, 1912; House 1949- .PETERSON, Hugh
(D Ga.) Aug. 21, 1898—Oct. 3, 1961; House 1935—47.PETERSON, J. Hardin
(D Fla.) Feb. 11, 1894; House 1933—51.PETERSON, M. Blaine
(D Utah) March 26, 1906; House 1961—63.PFEIFER, Joseph Lawrence
(D N.Y.) Feb. 6, 1892; House 1935—51.PFEIFFER, William L.
(R N.Y.) May 29, 1907; House 1949—51.PFOST, Gracie
(D Idaho) March 12, 1960; House 1953—63.PHILBIN, Philip J.
(D Mass.) May 29, 1898; House 1943- .PHILLIPS, Dayton E.
(R Tenn.) March 29, 1910; House 1947—51.PHILLIPS, John
(R Calif.) Sept. 11, 1887; House 1943—57.PICKETT, Tom
(D Texas) Aug. 14, 1906; House 1945—52.PICKLE, J. J.
(D Texas) Oct. 11, 1913; House 1963- .PIKE, Otis G.
(D N.Y.) Aug. 31, 1921; House 1961- .PILCHER, J.L.
(D Ga.) Aug. 27, 1898; House 1953—65.PILLION, John R.
(R N.Y.) Aug. 10, 1904; House 1953—65.PINERO, Jesus T.
(Puerto Rico) April 16, 1897—Dec. 19, 1952; Resident Commissioner 1945—46; Gov. of Puerto Rico 1946—48.PIRNIE, Alexander
(R N.Y.) April 16, 1903; House 1959- .PITTENGER, William A.
(R Minn.) Dec. 29, 1885—Nov. 26, 1951; House 1929—33; 1935—37; 1939—47.PLOESER, Walter C.
(R Mo.) Jan. 7, 1907; House 1941—49.PLUMLEY, Charles A.
(R Vt.) April 14, 1875—Oct. 31, 1964; House 1934—51.POAGE, W.R.
(D Texas) Dec. 28, 1899; House 1937- .POFF, Richard H.
(R Va.) Oct. 19, 1923; House 1953- .POLANCO-ABREU, Santiago
(Pop. Dem P.R.) Oct. 30, 1920; Resident Commissioner 1965- .POLK, James G.
(D Ohio) Oct. 6, 1896—April 28, 1959; House 1931—41; 1949—59.POOL, Joe R.
(D Texas) Feb. 18, 1911; House 1963- .PORTER, Charles O.
(D Ore.) April 4, 1919; House 1957—61.POTTER, Charles E.
(R Mich.) Oct. 30, 1916; House 1947—52; Senate 1952—59.POTTS, David M.
(R N.Y.) March 12, 1906; House 1947—49.POULSON, Norris
(R Calif.) July 23, 1895; House 1943—45; 1947—53; Mayor of Los Angeles 1953—61.POWELL, Adam C.
(D N.Y.) Nov. 29, 1908; House 1945- .POWERS, D. Lane
(R N.J.) July 29, 1896; House 1943—45.PRATT, Eliza Jane
(D N.C.) March 5, 1902; House 1946—47.PRESTON, Prince H. Jr.
(D Ga.) July 5, 1908—Feb. 8, 1961; House 1947—61.PRICE, Melvin
(D Ill.) Jan. 1, 1905; House 1945- .PRICE, Emory H.
(D Fla.) Dec. 3, 1899; House 1943—49.PRIEST, J. Percy
(D Tenn.) April 1, 1900—Oct. 12, 1956; House 1941—56.PROKOP, Stanley A.
(D Pa.); House 1959—61.PROUTY, Winston L.
(R Vt.) Sept. 1, 1906; House 1951—59; Senate 1959- .PROXMIRE, William
(D Wis.) Nov. 11, 1915; Senate 1957- .PUCINSKI, Roman C.
(D Ill.) May 13, 1919; House 1959- .PURCELL, Graham
(D Texas) May 15, 1919; House Jan. 29, 1962- .PURTELL, William A.
(R Conn.) May 6, 1897; Senate 1952—59.QQUIE, Albert H.
(R Minn.) Sept. 18, 1923; House 1958- .QUIGLEY, James M.
(D Pa.) March 30, 1918; House 1955—57; 1959—61; Assistant Secretary of Health Education and Welfare for Federal and State matters 1961- .QUILLEN, James H.
(R Tenn.) Jan. 11, 1916; House 1963- .QUINN, Peter A.
(D N.Y.) May 10, 1904; House 1945—47.QUINN, T. Vincent
(D N.Y.) March 16, 1903; House 1949—51.RRABAUT, Louis C.
(D Mich.) Dec. 5, 1886—Nov. 12, 1961; House 1935—47; 1949—61.RABIN, Benjamin J.
(D N.Y.) June 3, 1896; House 1945—47.RACE, John A.
(D Wis.) May 12, 1914; House 1965- .RADCLIFFE, George L.
(D Md.) Aug. 22, 1877; Senate 1935—47.RADWAN, Edmund P.
(R N.Y.) Sept. 22, 1911—Sept. 7, 1959; House 1951—59.RAINS, Albert
(D Ala.) March 11, 1902; House 1945—65.RAMEY, Homer A.
(R Ohio) March 2, 1891; House 1943—49.RAMSAY, Robert L.
(D W. Va.) March 24, 1877—Nov. 14, 1956; House 1933—39; 1941—43; 1949—53.RAMSPECK, Robert
(D Ga.) Sept. 5, 1890; House 1929—45; Majority Whip 1943—45.RANDALL, William J.
(D Mo.) July 16, 1909; House 1959- .RANDOLPH, Jennings
(D W. Va.) March 8, 1902; House 1933—47; Senate 1958- .RANKIN, John E.
(D Miss.) March 29, 1882—Nov. 29, 1960; House 1921—53.RAY, John H.
(R N.Y.) Sept. 27, 1886; House 1953—63.RAYBURN, Sam
(D Texas) Jan. 6, 1882—Nov. 16, 1961; House 1913—61; Majority Leader 1937—40; Minority Leader 1947—49, 1953—55; Speaker 1940—47, 1949—53, 1955—61.RAYFIEL, Leo F.
(D N.Y.) March 22, 1888; House 1945—47.REAMS, Frazier
(Ind. Ohio) Jan. 15, 1897; House 1951—55.REDDEN, Monroe M.
(D N.C.) Sept. 24, 1901; House 1947—53.REDLIN, Rolland
(D N.D.) Feb. 29, 1920; House 1965- .REECE, B. Carroll
(R Tenn.) Dec. 22, 1889—March 19, 1961; House 1921—31; 1935—47; 1951—61; Chairman, Republican National Committee 1946—48.REECE, Louise Goff
(R Tenn.) Nov. 6, 1898 (Widow of B. Carroll Reece); House 1961—63.REED, Chauncey W.
(R Ill.) June 2, 1890—Feb. 9, 1956; House 1935—56.REED, Clyde M.
(R Kan.) Oct. 19, 1871—Nov. 8, 1949; Senate 1939—49.REED, Daniel A.
(R N.Y.) Sept. 15, 1875—Feb. 19, 1959; House 1919—59.REES, Edward H.
(R Kan.) June 3, 1886; House 1937—61.REEVES, Albert L. Jr.
(R Mo.) May 31, 1906; House 1947—49.REGAN, Kenneth
(D Texas) March 6, 1893—Aug. 15, 1959; House 1947—55.REID, Charlotte T.
(R Ill.) Sept. 27, 1913; House 1963- .REID, Ogden R.
(R N.Y.) June 24, 1925; U.S. Ambassador to Israel 1959—61; House 1963- .REIFEL, Ben
(R S.D.) Sept. 19, 1906; House 1961- .REINECKE, Edwin
(R Calif.) Jan. 7, 1924; House 1965- .RESA, Alexander J.
(D Ill.) Aug. 4, 1887; House 1945—47.RESNICK, Joseph Y.
(D N.Y.) July 13, 1924; House 1965- .REUSS, Henry S.
(D Wis.) Feb. 22, 1912; House 1955- .REVERCOMB, Chapman
(R W. Va.) July 20, 1895; Senate 1943—49; 1956—59.REYNOLDS, Sam W.
(R Neb.) Aug. 11, 1890; Senate July 3, 1954—Nov. 7, 1954.RHODES, George M.
(D Pa.) Feb. 24, 1898; House 1949- .RHODES, John J.
(R Ariz.) Sept. 18, 1916; House 1953- .RIBICOFF, Abraham A.
(D Conn.) April 9, 1910; House 1949—53; Gov. 1955—61; Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare 1961—62; Senate 1963- .RICH, Carl W.
(R Ohio) Sept. 12, 1898; House 1963—65.RICH, Robert F.
(R Pa.) June 23, 1883; House 1930—43; 1945—51.RICHARDS, James P.
(D S.C.) Aug. 31, 1894; House 1933—57; Special Assistant to President Eisenhower 1957—58.RIEHLMAN, R. Walter
(R N.Y.) Aug. 26, 1899; House 1947—65.RILEY, Corinne Boyd
(D S.C.) July 4, 1894 (Widow of John J. Riley); House 1962—63.RILEY, John J.
(D S.C.) Feb. 1, 1895—Jan. 2, 1962; House 1945—49; 1951—62.RIVERS, L. Mendel
(D S.C.) Sept. 28, 1905; House 1941- .RIVERS, Ralph J.
(D Alaska) May 23, 1903; House 1959- ; Territorial Delegate 1957—59.RIZLEY, Ross
(R Okla.) July 5, 1892; House 1941—49.ROBERTS, Kenneth A.
(D Ala.) Nov. 1, 1912; House 1951—65.ROBERTS, Ray
(D Texas) March 28, 1913; House 1962- .ROBERTSON, A. Willis
(D Va.) May 27, 1887; House 1933—46; Senate 1946- .ROBERTSON, Charles R.
(R N.D.) Sept. 5, 1889—Feb. 18, 1951; House 1941—43; 1945—49.ROBERTSON, Edward V.
(R Wyo.) May 27, 1881—April 16, 1963; Senate 1943—49.ROBESON, Edward J. Jr.
(D Va.) July 9, 1890; House 1950—59.ROBINSON, J.W.
(D Utah) Jan. 19, 1878; House 1933—47.ROBISON, Howard W.
(R N.Y.) Oct. 30, 1915; House 1958- .ROBSION, John M.
(R Ky.) Jan. 2, 1873—Feb. 17, 1948; House 1919—30; 1935—48; Senate Jan. 11, 1930—Nov. 30, 1930.ROBSION, John M. Jr.
(R Ky.) Aug. 28, 1904 (Son of John M. Robsion); House 1953—59.ROCKWELL, Robert F.
(R Colo.) Feb. 11, 1886—Sept. 29, 1950; House 1941—49.RODGERS, Robert Lewis
(R Pa.) June 2, 1875; House 1939—47.RODINO, Peter W. Jr.
(D N.J.) June 7, 1909; House 1949- .ROE, Dudley G.
(D Md.) March 23, 1881; House 1945—47.ROE, James A.
(D N.Y.) July 9, 1896; House 1945—47.ROGERS, Byron G.
(D Colo.) Aug. 1, 1900; House 1951- .ROGERS, Dwight L.
(D Fla.) Aug. 17, 1886—Dec. 1, 1954; House 1945—54.ROGERS, Edith Nourse
(R Mass.) 1881—Sept. 10, 1960; House 1925—60.ROGERS, George F.
(D N.Y.) March 19, 1887—Nov. 20, 1948; House 1945—47.ROGERS, Paul G.
(D Fla.) June 4, 1921 (Son of Dwight L. Rogers); House 1955- .ROGERS, Walter
(D Texas) July 19, 1908; House 1951- .ROHRBOUGH, Edward G.
(R W.Va.) 1874—Dec. 12, 1956; House 1943—45; 1947—49.ROMULO, Carlos P.
(Philippines) Jan. 14, 1901; Resident Commissioner to the U.S. 1944—46; Philippine delegate to UN 1946; Philippine Ambassador to U.S. 1952—53; 1955—62.RONAN, Daniel J.
(D Ill.) July 13, 1914; House 1965- .RONCALIO, Teno
(D Wyo.) March 23, 1916; House 1965- .ROONEY, Fred B.
(D Pa.) Nov. 6, 1925; House 1963- .ROONEY, John J.
(D N.Y.) Nov. 29, 1903; House 1944- .ROOSEVELT, Franklin D. Jr.
(D N.Y.) Aug. 17, 1914; House 1949—55. Undersecretary of Commerce 1963- .ROOSEVELT, James
(D Calif.) Dec. 23, 1907; House 1955- .ROSENTHAL, Benjamin S.
(D N.Y.) June 8, 1923; House 1962- .ROSS, Robert Tripp
(R N.Y.) June 4, 1903; House 1947—49; 1952—53.ROSTENKOWSKI, Dan
(D Ill.) Jan. 2, 1928; House 1959- .ROUDEBUSH, Richard L.
(R Ind.) Jan. 18, 1918; House 1961- .ROUSH, J. Edward
(D Ind.) Sept. 12, 1920; House 1959- .ROUSSELOT, John H.
(R Calif.) Nov. 1, 1927; House 1961—63.ROWAN, William A.
(D Ill.) Nov. 24, 1882—June 31, 1961, House 1943—47.ROYBAL, Edward R.
(D Calif.) Feb. 10, 1916; House 1963- .RUMSFELD, Donald
(R Ill.) July 9, 1932; House 1963- .RUSSELL, Charles H.
(R Nev.) Dec. 27, 1903; House 1947—49; Gov. 1951—59.RUSSELL, Richard B.
(D Ga.) Nov. 2, 1897; Senate 1933- ; Gov. 1931—33.RUSSELL, Sam M.
(D Texas) Aug. 9, 1889; House 1941—47.RUTHERFORD, J.T.
(D Texas) May 30, 1920; House 1955—63.RYAN, Harold M.
(D Mich.) Feb. 6, 1911; House 1962—65.RYAN, William F.
(D N.Y.) June 28, 1922; House 1961- .RYTER, Joseph F.
(D Comn.) Feb. 4, 1914; House 1945—47.SSABATH, Adolph J.
(D Ill.) April 4, 1866—Nov. 6, 1952; House 1907—52.SADLAK, Antoni N.
(R Conn.) June 13, 1908; House 1947—59.SADOWSKI, George G.
(D Mich.) March 12, 1903—Oct. 9, 1961; House 1933—39; 1943—51.ST. GEORGE, Katharine
(R N.Y.) July 12, 1896; House 1947—65.ST. GERMAIN, Fernand J.
(D R.I.) Jan. 9, 1928; House 1961- .ST. ONGE, William L.
(D Conn.) Oct. 9, 1914; House 1963- .SALINGER, PIERRE E. G.
(D Calif.) June 14, 1925; Presidential Press Secretary 1961—64; Senate August 5, 1964—Dec. 31, 1964.SALTONSTALL, Leverett
(R Mass.) Sept. 1, 1892; Senate 1945- ; Gov. 1939—44.SANBORN, John
(R Idaho) Sept. 28, 1885; House 1947—51.SANTANGELO, Alfred F.
(D N.Y.) June 4, 1912; House 1957—63.SARBACHER, George W. Jr.
(R Pa.) Sept. 30, 1919; House 1947—49.SASSCER, Lansdale G.
(D Md.) Sept. 30, 1893—Nov. 6, 1964; House 1939—53.SATTERFIELD, David E. Jr.
(D Va.) Sept. 11, 1894—Dec. 27, 1946; House 1937—45.SATTERFIELD, David E. III
(D Va.) (Son of David E. Satterfield Jr.) Dec. 2, 1920; House 1965- .SAUND, D.S.
(D Calif.) Sept. 20, 1899; House 1957—63.SAVAGE, Charles R.
(D Wash.) April 12, 1906; House 1945—47.SAYLOR, John P.
(R Pa.) July 23, 1908; House 1949- .SCHADEBERG, Henry C.
(R Wis.) Oct. 12, 1913; House 1961—65.SCHENCK, Paul F.
(R Ohio) April 19, 1899; House 1951—65.SCHERER, Gordon H.
(R Ohio) Dec. 26, 1906; House 1953—63.SCHEUER, James H.
(D N.Y.) Feb. 6, 1920; House 1965 - .SCHISLER, Gale
(D Ill.) March 2, 1933; House 1965 - .SCHMIDHAUSER, John R.
(D Iowa) Jan. 3, 1922; House 1965 - .SCHNEEBELI, Herman T.
(R Pa.) July 7, 1907; House 1960- .SCHOEPPEL, Andrew F.
(R Kan.) Nov. 23, 1894—Jan. 21, 1962; Senate 1949—62; Gov. 1943—47.SCHWARE, George B.
(R Okla.) July 26, 1886—April 2, 1953; House 1945—49; 1951—52.SCHWABE, Max
(R Mo.) Dec. 6, 1905; House 1943—49.SCHWEIKER, Richard S.
(R Pa.) June 1, 1926; House 1961- .SCHWENGEL, Fred
(R Iowa) May 28, 1907; House 1955—65.SCOBLICK, James Paul
(R Pa.) May 10, 1909; House 1946—1949.SCOTT, Hardie
(R Pa.) June 7, 1907; House 1947—53.SCOTT, Hugh D. Jr.
(R Pa.) Nov. 11, 1900; House 1941—45; 1947—49; Senate 1959- ; Chairman of Republican National Committee 1948—49.SCOTT, Ralph J.
(D N.C.) Oct. 15, 1905; House 1957- .SCOTT, W. Kerr
(D N.C.) April 17, 1896—April 16, 1958; Senate 1954—58.SCRANTON, William W.
(R Pa.) July 19, 1917; House 1961—63. Gov. 1963- .SCRIVNER, Errett P.
(R Kan.) March 20, 1898; House 1943—59.SCRUGHAM, James G.
(D Nev.) Jan. 19, 1880—June 23, 1945; House 1933—42; Senate 1942—45; Gov. 1923—27.SCUDDER, Hubert B.
(R Calif.) Nov. 5, 1888; House 1949—59.SEATON, Frederick A.
(R Neb.) Dec. 11, 1909; Senate Dec. 10, 1951—Nov. 4, 1952; Asst. Secretary of Defense 1953—55; Administrative Asst. to President Eisenhower 1955; Secretary of Interior 1956—61.SECREST, Robert T.
(D Ohio) Jan. 22, 1904; House 1949—54; 1963- .SEELY-BROWN, Horace Jr.
(R Conn.) May 12, 1908; House 1947—49; 1951—59; 1961—63.SELDEN, Armistead I. Jr.
(D Ala.) Feb. 20, 1921; House 1953- .SENNER, George F. Jr.
(D Ariz.) Nov. 24, 1921; House 1953- .SHAFER, Paul W.
(R Mich.) April 27, 1893—Aug. 17, 1954; House 1937—54.SHARP, Edgar A.
(R N.Y.) June 3, 1876—Nov. 27, 1948; House 1945—47.SHEEHAN, Timothy P.
(R Ill.) Feb. 21, 1909; House 1951—59.SHELLEY, John F.
(D Calif.) Sept. 3, 1905; House 1949—64; Mayor of San Francisco 1964- .SHEPPARD, Harry R.
(D Calif.) Jan. 10, 1885; House 1937—65.SHERIDAN, John Edward
(D Pa.) Sept. 15, 1902; House 1939—47.SHIPLEY, George E.
(D Ill.) April 21, 1927; House 1959- .SHIPSTEAD, Henrik
(R Minn.) Jan. 8, 1881—Jun 26, 1960; Senate 1923—47.SHORT, Dewey
(R Mo.) April 7, 1898; House 1929—31; 1935—57; Asst. Secretary of the Army 1957—61.SHORT, Don L.
(R N.D.) June 22, 1903; House 1959—65.SHRIVER, Garner E.
(R Kan.) July 6, 1912; House 1961- .SHUFORD, George A.
(D N.C.) Sept. 5, 1895; House 1953—59.SIBAL, Abner W.
(R Conn.) April 11, 1921; House 1961—65.SICKLES, Carlton R.
(D Md.) June 15, 1921; House 1963- .SIEMINSKI, Alfred D.
(D N.J.) Aug. 23, 1911; House 1951—59.SIKES, Robert L. F.
(D Fla.) June 3, 1906; House 1914—44; 1945 - .SILER, Eugene
(R Ky.) June 26, 1900; House 1955—65.SIMPSON, Edna Oakes
(R Ill.) Oct. 26, 1891 (Widow of Sid Simpson); House 1959—61.SIMPSON, Milward L.
(R Wyo.) Nov. 12, 1897; Gov. 1955—59; Senate 1962- .SIMPSON, Richard M.
(R Pa.) Aug. 30, 1900—Jan. 7, 1960; House 1937—60.SIMPSON, Sid
(R Ill.) Sept. 20, 1894—Oct. 26, 1958; House 1943—58.SIMS, Hugo S. Jr.
(D S.C.) Oct. 14, 1921; House 1949—51.SISK, B.F.
(D Calif.) Dec. 14, 1910; House 1955- .SITTLER, Edward L. Jr.
(R Pa.) April 21, 1908; House 1951—53.SKUBITZ, Joe
(R Kan.) May 6, 1906; House 1963- .SLACK, John M. Jr.
(D W.Va.) March 18, 1915; House 1959- .SLAUGHTER, Roger C.
(D Mo.) July 17, 1905; House 1943—47.SMALL, Frank Jr.
(R Md.) July 15, 1896; House 1953—55.SMATHERS, George A.
(D Fla.) Nov. 14, 1913; House 1947—51; Senate 1951- .SMITH, Benjamin A. II
(D Mass.) March 26, 1916; Senate Dec. 27, 1960—62.SMITH, Frank E.
(D Miss.) Feb. 21, 1918; House 1951—63.SMITH, Frederick C.
(R Ohio) July 29, 1884; House 1939—51.SMITH, H. Alexander
(R N.J.) Jan. 30, 1880; Senate Dec. 7, 1944—59; Spec. Consultant to the Secretary of State 1959—60.SMITH, H. Allen
(R Calif.) Oct. 8, 1909; House 1957- .SMITH, Henry P. III
(R N.Y.) Sept. 29, 1911; House 1965 - .SMITH, Howard W.
(D Va.) Feb. 2, 1883; House 1931- .SMITH, Lawrence H.
(R Wis.) Sept. 15, 1892—Jan. 22, 1958; House 1941—58.SMITH, Margaret Chase
(R Maine) Dec. 14, 1897; House June 3, 1940—49; Senate 1949- .SMITH, Neal E.
(D Iowa) March 23, 1920; House 1959- .SMITH, Willis
(D N.C.) Dec. 19, 1887—June 26, 1953; Senate Nov. 27, 1950—53.SMITH, Wint
(R Kan.) Oct. 7, 1893; House 1947—61.SNYDER, John Buell
(D Pa.) July 30, 1877—Feb. 24, 1946; House 1933—46.SNYDER, Mervin C.
(R W.Va.) Oct. 29, 1898; House 1947—49.SNYDER, M.G.
(R Ky.) Jan. 26, 1928; House 1963—65.SOMERS, Andrew L.
(D N.Y.) March 21, 1895—April 6, 1949; House 1925—49.SPARKMAN, John J.
(D Ala.) Dec. 20, 1899; House 1937—46; Senate 1946- ; Vice Presidential candidate 1952.SPENCE, Brent
(D Ky.) Dec. 24, 1874; House 1931—63.SPRINGER, Raymond S.
(R Ind.) April 26, 1882—Aug. 28, 1947; House 1939—47.SPRINGER, William L.
(R Ill.) April 12, 1909; House 1951- .STAEBLER, Neil
(D Mich.) July 11, 1905; House 1963—65.STAFFORD, Robert T.
(R Vt.) Aug. 8, 1913; House 1961- ; Gov. 1959—61.STAGGERS, Harley O.
(D W.Va) Aug. 3, 1907; House 1949- .STALBAUM, Lynn E.
(D Wis.) May 15, 1920; House 1965- .STANFILL, William A.
(R Ky.) Jan. 16, 1892; Senate 1945—46.STANLEY, Thomas B.
(D Va.) July 16, 1890; House Nov. 5, 1946—Feb. 3, 1953; Gov. 1954—58.STANTON, J. William
(R Ohio) Feb. 20, 1924; House 1965 - .STARKEY, Frank T.
(D Minn.) Feb. 18, 1892; House 1945—47.STAUFFER, S. Walter
(R Pa.) Aug. 13, 1888; House 1953—55; 1957—59.STEED, Tom
(D Okla.) March 2, 1904; House 1949- .STEFAN, Karl
(R Neb.) March 1, 1884—Oct. 2, 1951; House 1935—51.STENNIS, John C.
(D Miss.) Aug. 3, 1901; Senate 1947- .STEPHENS, Robert G. Jr.
(D Ga.) Aug. 14, 1913; House 1961- .STEVENSON, William Henry
(R Wis.) Sept. 23, 1891; House 1941—49.STEWART, A. Tom
(D Tenn.) Jan. 11, 1892; Senate 1939—49.STEWART, Paul
(D Okla.) Feb. 27, 1892—Nov. 13, 1950; House 1943—47.STIGLER, William G.
(D Okla.) July 7, 1891—Aug. 21, 1952; House 1944—52.STINSON, K. William
(R Wash.) April 20, 1930; House 1963—65.STOCKMAN, Lowell
(R Ore.) April 12, 1901; House 1943—53.STRATTON, Samuel S.
(D N.Y.) Sept. 27, 1916; House 1959- .STRATTON, William G.
(R Ill.) Feb. 26, 1914; House 1941—43; 1947—49; Gov. 1953—61.STRINGFELLOW, Douglas R.
(R Utah) Sept. 24, 1922; House 1953—55.STUBBLEFIELD, Frank A.
(D Ky.) April 5, 1907; House 1959- .SULLIVAN, John B.
(D Mo.) Oct. 10, 1897—Jan. 29, 1951; House 1941—43; 1945—47; 1949—51.SULLIVAN, Mrs. Leonor K.
(D Mo.) Aug. 21, 1903 (Widow of John B. Sullivan); House 1953- .SUMNER, Miss Jessie
(R Ill.) Aug. 17, 1898; House 1939—47.SUMNERS, Hatton W.
(D Texas) April 30, 1875; House 1913—47.SUNDSTROM, Frank L.
(R N.J.) Jan. 5, 1901; House 1943—49.SUTTON, Pat
(D Tenn.) Oct. 31, 1915; House 1949—55.SWEENEY, Robert E.
( D Ohio) Nov. 4, 1924; House 1965- .SWIFT, George R.
(D Ala.) Dec. 19, 1887; Senate June 15, 1946—Nov. 5, 1946.SYMINGTON, Stuart
(D Mo.) June 26, 1901; Senate 1953- ; Secretary of the Air Force 1947—50.TTABER, John
(R N.Y.) May 5, 1880; House 1923—63.TACKETT, Boyd
(D Ark.) May 9, 1911; House 1949—53.TAFT, Kingsley A.
(R Ohio) July 19, 1903; Senate 1946—47.TAFT, Robert A.
(R Ohio) Sept. 8, 1889—July 31, 1953; Senate 1939—53; Majority Leader 1953.TAFT, Robert Jr.
(R Ohio) Feb. 26, 1917; (Son of Robert A. Taft); House 1963—65.TALBOT, Joseph E.
(R Conn.) March 18, 1901; House 1942—47.TALCOTT, Burt L.
(R Calif.) Feb. 22, 1902; House 1963- .TALLE, Henry O.
(R Iowa) Jan. 12, 1892; House 1939—59.TALMADGE, Herman E.
(D Ga.) Aug. 9, 1913; Senate 1957- ; Gov. 1948—55.TARVER, Malcolm C.
(D Ga.) Sept. 25, 1885—March 5, 1960; House 1927—47.TAURIELLO, Anthony F.
(D N.Y.) Aug. 14, 1899; House 1949—51.TAYLOR, Dean P.
(R N.Y.) Jan. 1, 1902; House 1943—61.TAYLOR, Glen H.
(D Idaho) April 12, 1904; Senate 1945—51; Vice Presidential candidate on Progressive party ticket 1948.TAYLOR, Roy A.
(D N.C.) Jan. 31, 1910; House 1960- .TEAGUE, Charles M.
(R Calif.) Sept. 18, 1909; House 1955- .TEAGUE, Olin E.
(D Texas) April 6, 1910; House 1946- .TELLER, Ludwig
(D N.Y.) June 22, 1911; House 1957—61.TENZER, Herbert
(D N.Y.) Nov. 1, 1905; House 1965 - .TEWES, Donald E.
(R Wis.) July 4, 1916; House 1957—59.THOM, William R.
(D Ohio) July 7, 1885—July 28, 1960; House 1933—39; 1941—43; 1945—47.THOMAS, Albert
(D Texas) April 12, 1898; House 1937- .THOMAS, Elbert D.
(D Utah) June 17, 1883—Oct. 24, 1904; Senate 1933—51.THOMAS, Elmer
(D Okla.) Sept. 8, 1876; House 1923—27; Senate 1927—51.THOMAS, J. Parnell
(R N.J.) Jan. 16, 1895; House 1937—50.THOMAS, John
(R Idaho) Jan. 4, 1874—Nov. 10, 1945; Senate 1928—33; 1940—45.THOMASON, R. Ewing
(D Texas) May 30, 1879; House 1933—47.THOMPSON, Clark W.
(D Texas) Aug. 6, 1896; House 1933—35; 1947- .THOMPSON, Frank Jr.
(D N.J.) July 26, 1918; House 1955- .THOMPSON, Ruth
(R Mich.) Sept. 15, 1887; House 1951—57.THOMPSON, T. Ashton
(D La.) March 31, 1916; House 1953- .THOMSON, E. Keith
(R Wyo.) Feb. 8, 1919—Dec. 9, 1960; House 1955—60.THOMSON, Vernon W.
(R Wis.) Nov. 5, 1905; House 1961- ; Gov. 1957—58.THORNBERRY, Homer
(D Texas) Jan. 9, 1909; House 1949—63.THURMOND, Strom
(R S.C.) Dec. 5, 1902; Senate 1954—56; 1956- ; Gov. 1947—51; Presidential Candidate on States Rights ticket, 1948; Democrat 1954—64; Republican Sept. 13, 1964- .THYE, Edward J.
(R Minn.) April 26, 1896; Senate 1947—59; Gov. 1943—47.TIBBOTT, Harve
(R Pa.) April 27, 1885; House 1939—49.TOBEY, Charles W.
(R N.H.) July 22, 1880—July 24, 1953; House 1933—39; Senate 1939—53.TODD, Paul H. Jr.
(D Mich.) Sept. 22, 1921; House 1965 - .TOLAN, John H.
(D Calif.) Jan. 15, 1877; House 1935—47.TOLL, Herman
(D Pa.) March 15, 1907; House 1959- .TOLLEFSON, Thor C.
(R Wash.) May 2, 1901; House 1947—65.TORRENS, James H.
(D N.Y.) Sept. 12, 1874; House 1944—47.TOWE, Harry L.
(R N.J.) Nov. 3, 1898; House 1943—51.TOWER, John G.
(R Texas) Sept. 29, 1925; Senate 1961- .TRAYNOR, Philip A.
(D Del.) May 31, 1874; House 1941—43; 1945—47.TRIMBLE, James W.
(D Ark.) Feb. 3, 1894; House 1945- .TRUMAN, Harry S.
(D Mo.) May 8, 1884; Senate 1935—45; Vice President Jan. 20, 1945—April 12, 1945; President 1945—53.TUCK, William M.
(D Va.) Sept. 28, 1896; House 1953- ; Gov. 1946—50.TUMULTY, T. James
(D N.J.) March 2, 1913; House 1955—57.TUNNELL, James M.
(D Del.) Aug. 2, 1879—Nov. 14, 1957; Senate 1941—47.TUNNEY, John V.
(D Calif.) June 26, 1934; House 1965 - .TUPPER, Stanley R.
(R Maine) Jan. 25, 1921; House 1961- .TUTEN, J. Russell
(D Ga.) July 23, 1911; House 1963- .TWYMAN, Robert J.
(R Ill.) June 18, 1897; House 1947—49.TYDINGS, Joseph D.
(D Md.) (Son of Millard E. Tydings) May 4, 1928; Senate 1965- .TYDINGS, Millard E.
(D Md.) April 6, 1890—Feb. 9, 1961; House 1923—27; Senate 1927—51.UUDALL, Morris K.
(D Ariz.) June 15, 1922 (Brother of Stewart L. Udall); House 1961- .UDALL, Stewart L.
(D Ariz.) Jan. 31, 1920; House 1955—61; Secretary of Interior 1961- .ULLMAN, Al
(D Ore.) March 9, 1914; House 1957- .UMSTEAD, William B.
(D N.C.) May 13, 1895—Nov. 7, 1954; House 1933—39; Senate 1946—48; Gov. 1953—54.UNDERWOOD, Thomas R.
(D Ky.) March 3, 1898—June 29, 1956; House 1949—51; Senate 1951—52.UPTON, Robert W.
(R N.H.) Feb. 3, 1884; Senate Aug. 14, 1953—Nov. 7, 1954.UTT, James B.
(R Calif.) March 11, 1899; House 1953- .VVAIL, Richard B.
(R Ill.) Aug. 31, 1895—July 29, 1955; House 1947—49; 1951—53.VAN DEERLIN, Lionel
(D Calif.) July 25, 1914; House 1963- .VANDENBERG, Arthur H.
(R Mich.) March 22, 1889—April 18, 1951; Senate 1928—51; President pro tempore 1947—49.VANIK, Charles A.
(D Ohio) April 7, 1913; House 1955- .VAN PELT, William K.
(R Wis.) March 10, 1905; House 1951—65.VAN ZANDT, James E.
(R Pa.) Dec. 18, 1898; House 1939—43; 1947—63.VAUGHN, Albert C.
(R Pa.) Oct. 9, 1894—Sept. 1, 1951; House 1951.VELDE, Harold H.
(R Ill.) April 1, 1910; House 1949—57.VIGORITO, Joseph P.
(D Pa.) Nov. 10, 1918; House 1965- .VINSON, Carl
(D Ga.) Nov. 18, 1883; House Nov. 3, 1914—65.VIVIAN, Weston E.
(D Mich.) Oct. 25, 1924; House 1965 - .VOORHIS, Jerry
(D Calif.) April 6, 1901; House 1937—47.VORYS, John M.
(R Ohio) June 16, 1896; House 1939—59.VURSELL, Charles W.
(R Ill.) Feb. 8, 1881; House 1943—59.WWADSWORTH, James W. Jr.
(R N.Y.) Aug. 12, 1877—June 21, 1952; Senate 1915—27; House 1933—51.WAGGONNER, Joe D. Jr.
(D La.) Sept. 7, 1918; House 1961- .WAGNER, Earl T.
(D Ohio) April 27, 1908; House 1949—51.WAGNER, Robert F.
(D N.Y.) June 8, 1877—May 4, 1953; Senate 1927—49.WAINWRIGHT, Stuyvesant
(R N.Y.) May 16, 1921; House 1953—61.WALKER, E.S. Johnny
(D N.M.) June 18, 1911; House 1965 - .WALKER, Prentiss
(R Miss.) Aug. 23, 1917; House 1965 - .WALLGREN, Mon C.
(D Wash.) April 17, 1891—Sept. 18, 1951; House 1933—40; Senate 1940—45; Gov. 1945—49.WALLHAUSER, George M.
(R N.J.) Feb. 10, 1900; House 1959—65.WALSH, David I.
(D Mass.) Nov. 11, 1872—June 11, 1947; Senate 1919—25; 1926—47; Gov. 1914—15.WALSH, John R.
(D Ind.) May 22, 1913; House 1949—51.WALTER, Francis E.
(D Pa.) May 25, 1894—May 31, 1963; House 1933—63.WALTERS, Herbert S.
(D Tenn.) Nov. 17, 1891; Senate 1963—64.WAMPLER, Fred
(R Ind.) Oct. 15, 1909; House 1959—61.WAMPLER, William Creed
(R Va.) April 21, 1926; House 1953—55.WARBURTON, Herbert B.
(R Del.) Sept. 21, 1916; House 1953—55.WASIELEWSKI, Thad F.
(D Wis.) Dec. 2, 1904; House 1941—47.WATKINS, Arthur V.
(R Utah) Dec. 18, 1886; Senate 1947—59.WATKINS, G. Robert
(R Pa.) May 21, 1903; House 1965 - .WATSON, Albert W.
(R S.C.) Aug. 30, 1922; House 1963—65; Democrat 1963—65; Republican Jan. 12, 1965—Jan. 31, 1965; Resigned Jan. 31, 1965 in order to run as a Republican in special election.WATTS, John C.
(D Ky.) July 9, 1902; House 1951- .WEAVER, James D.
(R Pa.) Sept. 27, 1920; House 1963—65.WEAVER, Phil
(R Neb.) April 9, 1919; House 1955—63.WEAVER, Zebulon
(D N.C.) May 12, 1872—Oct. 29, 1948; House 1919—29; 1931—47.WEICHEL, Alvin F.
(R Ohio) Sept. 11, 1891—Nov. 27, 1956; House 1943—55.WEIS, Jessica McC.
(R N.Y.) July 8, 1901—May 1, 1963; House 1959—63.WEISS, Samuel A.
(D Pa.) April 15, 1902; House 1941—46.WELCH, Phil J.
(D Mo.) April 4, 1895—April 28, 1963; House 1949—53.WELCH, Richard J.
(R Calif.) Feb. 13, 1869—Sept. 10, 1949; House 1926—49.WELKER, Herman
(R Idaho) Dec. 11, 1906—Oct. 30, 1957; Senate 1951—57.WELTNER, Charles L.
(D Ga.) Dec. 17, 1927; House 1963- .WERDEL, Thomas H.
(R Calif.) Sept. 13, 1905; House 1949—53; Vice Presidential Candidate on States Rights ticket 1956.WEST, Milton H.
(D Texas) June 30, 1888—Oct. 28, 1948; House 1933—48.WESTLAND, Jack
(R Wash.) Dec. 14, 1904; House 1953—65.WHALLEY, J. Irving
(R Pa.) Sept. 14, 1902; House 1961- .WHARTON, J. Ernest
(R N.Y.) Oct. 4, 1899; House 1951—65.WHEELER, Burton K.
(D Mont.) Feb. 27, 1882; Senate 1923—47; Vice Presidential candidate on Progressive-Socialist ticket 1924.WHEELER, W.M.
(D Ga.) July 11, 1915; House 1947—55.WHERRY, Kenneth S.
(R Neb.) Feb. 28, 1892—Nov. 29, 1951; Senate 1943—51; Minority Whip 1944—47; Majority Whip 1947—49; Minority Leader 1949—51.WHITAKER, John A.
(D Ky.) Oct. 31, 1901—Dec. 15, 1951; House 1948—51.WHITE, Cecil F.
(D Calif.) Dec. 12, 1900; House 1949—51.WHITE, Compton I.
(D Idaho) July 31, 1877—March 31, 1956; House 1933—47; 1949—51.WHITE, Compton I. Jr.
(D Idaho) (Son of Compton I. White) Dec. 19, 1920; House 1963- .WHITE, Richard C.
(D Texas) April 29, 1923; House 1965- .WHITE, Wallace Humphrey, Jr.
(R Maine) Aug. 6, 1877—March 31, 1952; House 1917—31; Senate 1931—49; Minority Leader 1945—47; Majority Leader 1947—49.WHITENER, Basil L.
(D N.C.) May 14, 1915; House 1957- .WHITTEN, Jamie L.
(D Miss.) April 18, 1910; House 1941- .WHITTINGTON, William M.
(D Miss.) May 4, 1878—Aug. 21, 1962; House 1925—51.WICKERSHAM, Victor
(D Okla.) Feb. 9, 1906; House 1941—47; 1949—57; 1961—65.WIDNALL, William B.
(R N.J.) March 17, 1906; House 1950- .WIER, Roy W.
(D Minn.) Feb. 25, 1888—June 27, 1963; House 1949—61.WIGGLESWORTH, Richard B.
(R Mass.) April 25, 1891—Oct. 22, 1960; House 1928—59; Ambassador to Canada 1959—60.WILEY, Alexander
(R Wis.) May 26, 1884; Senate 1939—63.WILLIAMS, Harrison A. Jr.
(D N.J.) Dec. 10, 1919; House 1953—57; Senate 1959- .WILLIAMS, John Bell
(D Miss.) Dec. 4, 1918; House 1947- .WILLIAMS, John J.
(R Del.) May 17, 1904; Senate 1947- .WILLIAMS, William R.
(R N.Y.) Aug. 11, 1884; House 1951—59.WILLIS, Edwin E.
(D La.) Oct. 2, 1904; House 1949- .WILLIS, Raymond E.
(R Ind.) Aug. 11, 1875—March 21, 1956; Senate 1941—47.WILSON, Bob
(R Calif.) May 5, 1916; House 1953- .WILSON, Charles H.
(D Calif.) Feb. 17, 1917; House 1963- .WILSON, Earl
(R Ind.) April 18, 1906; House 1941—59; 1961—65.WILSON, George A.
(R Iowa) April 1, 1884—Sept. 8, 1953; Senate 1943—49; Gov. 1939—43.WILSON, George H.
(D Okla.) Aug. 21, 1905; House 1949—51.WILSON, J. Franklin
(D Texas) March 18, 1901; House 1947—55.WINSTEAD, Arthur
(D Miss.) Jan. 6, 1904; House 1943—65.WINTER, Thomas Daniel
(R Kan.) July 7, 1896—Nov. 7, 1951; House 1939—47.WITHERS, Garrett L.
(D Ky.) June 21, 1884—April 30, 1953; Senate 1949—50; House 1952—53.WITHROW, Gardner R.
(R Wis.) Oct. 5, 1892—Sept. 23, 1964; House 1931—39; 1949—61.WOFFORD, Thomas A.
(D S.C.) Sept. 27, 1908; Senate April 5, 1956—Nov. 6, 1956.WOLCOTT, Jesse P.
(R Mich.) March 3, 1893; House 1931—57.WOLF, Leonard G.
(D Iowa) Oct. 29, 1925; House 1959—61.WOLFENDEN, James
(R Pa.) July 25, 1889—April 8, 1949; House 1928—47.WOLFF, Lester L.
(D N.Y.) Jan. 4, 1919; House 1965- .WOLVERTON, Charles A.
(R N.J.) Oct. 24, 1880; House 1927—59.WOOD, John S.
(D Ga.) Feb. 8, 1885; House 1931—35; 1945—53.WOOD, John T.
(R Idaho) Nov. 25, 1878—Nov. 2, 1954; Houe 1951—53.WOODHOUSE, Mrs. Chase Going
(D Conn.); House 1945—47; 1949—51.WOODRUFF, Roy O.
(R Mich.) March 14, 1876—Feb. 12, 1953; House 1913—15; 1921—53.WOODRUM, Clifton A.
(R Va.) April 27, 1887—Oct. 6, 1950; House 1923—45.WORLEY, Eugene
(D Texas) Oct. 10, 1908; House 1941—50.WRIGHT, James, C. Jr.
(Jim) (D Texas) Dec. 22, 1922; House 1955- .WYATT, Wendell
(R Ore.) June 15, 1917; House 1965 - .WYDLER, John W.
(R N.Y.) June 9, 1924; House 1963- .WYMAN, Louis C.
(R N.H.) March 16, 1917; House 1963—65.X,Y,ZYARBOROUGH, Ralph W.
(D Texas) June 8, 1903; Senate 1957- .YATES, Sidney R.
(D Ill.) Aug. 27, 1909; House 1949—63; 1965- .YORTY, Samuel W.
(D Calif.) Oct. 1, 1909; House 1951—55; Mayor of Los Angeles 1961- .YOUNG, Clifton
(R Nev.) Nov. 7, 1922; House 1953—57.YOUNG, John
(D Texas) Nov. 10, 1916; House 1957- .YOUNG, Milton R.
(R N.D.) Dec. 6, 1897; Senate 1945- .YOUNG, Stephen M.
(D Ohio) May 4, 1889; House 1933—37; 1941—43; 1949—51; Senate 1959- .YOUNGBLOOD, Harold F.
(R Mich.) Aug. 7, 1907; House 1947—49.YOUNGER, J. Arthur
(R Calif.) April 11, 1893; House 1953- .ZABLOCKI, Clement J.
(D Wis.) Nov. 18, 1912; House 1949- .ZELENKO, Herbert
(D N.Y.) March 16, 1906; House 1955—63.ZIMMERMAN, Orville
(D Mo.) Dec. 31, 1880—April 7, 1948; House 1935—48.
Congresses and Leaders - 79th to 89th79th Congress 1945—1946
Speaker: Sam Rayburn (D Texas)
Majority Leader: John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Minority Leader: Joseph W. Martin Jr. (R Mass.)
Vice President: Harry S. Truman (D Mo.) (Became President April 12, 1945)
President Pro Tempore: Kenneth McKellar (D Tenn.) (Became presiding officer on succession of Harry S. Truman of Presidency.)
Majority Leader: Alben W. Barkley (D Ky.)
Minority Leader: Wallace H. White (R Maine)80th Congress 1947—1948
Speaker: Joseph W. Martin Jr. (R Mass.)
Majority Leader: Charles A. Halleck (R Ind.)
Minority Leader: Sam Rayburn (D Texas)
Vice President: Vacant
President Pro Tempore: Arthur Vandenberg (R Mich.)
Majority Leader: Wallace H. White (R Maine)
Minority Leader: Alben W. Barkley (D Ky.)81st Congress 1949—1950
Speaker: Sam Rayburn (D Texas)
Majority Leader: John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Minority Leader: Joseph W. Martin Jr. (R Mass.)
Vice President: Alben W. Barkley (D Ky.)
President Pro Tempore: Kenneth McKellar (D Tenn.)
Majority Leader: Scott W. Lucas (D Ill.)
Minority Leader: Kenneth S. Wherry (R Neb.)82nd Congress 1951—1952
Speaker: Sam Rayburn (D Texas)
Majority Leader: John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Minority Leader: Joseph W. Martin Jr. (R Mass.)
Vice President: Alben W. Barkley (D Ky.)
President Pro Tempore: Kenneth McKellar (D Tenn.)
Majority Leader: Ernest W. McFarland (D Ariz.)
Minority Leader: Kenneth S. Wherry (R Neb.) (1st session - died Nov. 29, 1951)
Styles Bridges (R N.H.) (2nd session)83rd Congress 1953—1954
Speaker: Joseph W. Martin Jr. (R Mass.)
Majority Leader: Charles A. Halleck (R Ind.)
Minority Leader: Sam Rayburn (D Texas)
Vice President: Richard M. Nixon (R Calif.)
President Pro Tempore: Styles Bridges (R N.H.)
Majority Leader: Robert A. Taft (R Ohio) (died July 31, 1953)
William F. Knowland (R Calif.)
Minority Leader: Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas)84th Congress 1955—1956
Speaker: Sam Rayburn (D Texas)
Majority Leader: John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Minority Leader: Joseph W. Martin Jr. (R Mass.)
Vice President: Richard M. Nixon (R Calif.)
President Pro Tempore: Walter F. George (D Ga.)
Majority Leader: Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas)
Minority Leader: William F. Knowland (R Calif.)85th Congress 1957—1958
Speaker: Sam Rayburn (D Texas)
Majority Leader: John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Minority Leader: Joseph W. Martin Jr. (R Mass.)
Vice President: Richard M. Nixon (R Calif.)
President Pro Tempore: Carl Hayden (D Ariz.)
Majority Leader: Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas)
Minority Leader: William F. Knowland (R Calif.)86th Congress 1959—1960
Speaker: Sam Rayburn (D Texas)
Majority Leader: John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Minority Leader: Charles A. Halleck (R Ind.)
Vice President: Richard M. Nixon (R Calif.)
President Pro Tempore: Carl Hayden (D Ariz.)
Majority Leader: Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas)
Minority Leader: Everett McKinley Dirksen (R Ill.)87th Congress 1961—1962
Speaker: Sam Rayburn (D Texas) (until his death Nov. 16, 1961)
John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Majority Leader: John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Carl Albert (D Okla.)
Minority Leader: Charles A. Halleck (R Ind.)
Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas)
President Pro Tempore: Carl Hayden (D Ariz.)
Majority Leader: Mike Mansfield (D Mont.)
Minority Leader: Everett McKinley Dirksen (R Ill.)88th Congress 1963—1964
Speaker: John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Majority Leader: Carl Albert (D Okla.)
Minority Leader: Charles A. Halleck (R Ind.)
Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas) (Until Nov. 22, 1963)
President Pro Tempore: Carl Hayden (D Ariz.)
Majority Leader: Mike Mansfield (D Mont.)
Rep. Clem Miller was killed Oct. 7, 1962, but elected posthumously. His seat was filled Jan. 22, 1963, by Don H. Clausen (R Calif.)89th Congress 1965—1966
Speaker: John W. McCormack (D Mass.)
Majority Leader: Carl Albert (D Okla.)
Minority Leader: Gerald R. Ford (R Mich.)
Vice President: Hubert H. Humphrey (D Minn.)
President Pro Tempore: Carl Hayden (D Ariz.)
Majority Leader: Mike Mansfield (D Mont.)
Minority Leader: Everett McKinley Dirksen (R Ill.)
Chairmen of Senate, House, Joint Committees, 1947—65
Following are the names and dates of terms of chairmen of standing committees of Congress from 1947 to 1965. Certain subcommittees and special committees are included because of their past importance or interest. The evolution of some committees also is indicated, such as the first one listed, the Senate Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee, which originally was the Special Committee on Space and Astronautics.SENATE
Special Committee on Space and Astronautics
- Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas - 1957—1958)
Aeronautical and Space Sciences
- Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas - 1958—1961)
- Robert S. Kerr (D Okla. - 1961—1963)
- Clinton P. Anderson (D N.M. - 1963- )
Agriculture and Forestry
- Arthur Capper (R Kan. - 1947—1949)
- Elmer Thomas (D Okla. - 1949—1951)
- Allen J. Ellender (D La. - 1951—1953)
- George D. Aiken (R Vt. - 1953—1955)
- Allen J. Ellender (D La. - 1955- )
- Styles Bridges (R N.H. - 1947—1949)
- Kenneth McKellar (D Tenn. - 1949—1953)
- Styles Bridges (R N.H. - 1953—1955)
- Carl Hayden (D Ariz. - 1955- )
- Chan Gurney (R S.D. - 1947—1949)
- Millard E. Tydings (D Md. - 1949—1951)
- Richard B. Russell (D Ga. - 1951—1953)
- Leverett Saltonstall (R Mass. - 1953—1955)
- Richard B. Russell (D Ga. - 1955- )
Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee
- Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas - 1950—1953)
- (Seven special subcommittees were appointed by committee chairman Leverett Saltonstall (R Mass.) to investigate specific problems, 1953—1955)
- Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas - 1955—1961)
- John Stennis (D Miss. - 1961- )
Banking and Currency
- Charles W. Tobey (R N.H. - 1947—1949)
- Burnet R. Maybank (D S.C. - 1949—1953)
- Homer E. Capehart (R Ind. - 1953—1955)
- J.W. Fulbright (D Ark. - 1955—1959)
- A. Willis Robertson (D Va. - 1959- )
Interstate and Foreign Commerce
- Wallace H. White (R Maine - 1947—1949)
- Edwin C. Johnson (D Colo. - 1949—1953)
- Charles W. Tobey (R N.H. - 1953)
- John W. Bricker (R Ohio - 1953—1955)
- Warren G. Magnuson (D Wash. - 1955—1961)
- Warren G. Magnuson (D Wash. - 1961- )
District of Columbia
- C. Douglass Buck (R Del. - 1947—1949)
- J. Howard McGrath (D R.I. - 1949—1951)
- Matthew M. Neely (D W.Va. - 1951—1953)
- Francis Case (R S.D. - 1953—1955)
- Matthew M. Neely (D W. Va. - 1955—1959)
- Alan Bible (D Nev. - 1959- )
- Eugene D. Millikin (R Colo. - 1947—1949)
- Walter F. George (D Ga. - 1949—1953)
- Eugene D. Millikin (R Colo. - 1953—1955)
- Harry Flood Byrd (D Va. - 1955- )
- Arthur H. Vandenberg (R Mich. - 1947—1949)
- Tom Connally (D Texas - 1949—1953)
- Alexander Wiley (R Wis. - 1953—1955)
- Walter F. George (D Ga. - 1955—1957)
- Theodore Francis Green (D R.I. - 1957—1959)
- J.W. Fulbright (D Ark. - 1959- )
Expenditures in the Executive Departments
- George D. Aiken (R Vt. - 1947—1949)
- John L. McClellan (D Ark. - 1949—1952)
Government Operations (renamed)
- John L. McClellan (D Ark. - 1952—1953)
- Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis. - 1953—1955)
- John L. McClellan (D Ark. - 1955- )
Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program 1947—1948
- Owen Brewster (R Maine - 1947—1948)
Permanent Investigations Subcommittee
- Homer Ferguson (R Mich. - 1948—1949)
- Clyde R. Hoey (D N.C. - 1949—1953)
- Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis. - 1953—1955)
- John L. McClellan (D Ark. - 1955- )
Interior and Insular Affairs
- Hugh Butler (R Neb. - 1947—1949)
- Joseph C. O'Mahoney (D Wyo. - 1949—1953)
- Hugh Butler (R Neb. - 1953—1954)
Interior and Insular Affairs (Cont.)
- Guy Cordon (R Ore. - 1954—1955)
- James E. Murray (D Mont. - 1955—1961)
- Clinton P. Anderson (D N.M. - 1961—1963)
- Henry M. Jackson (D Wash. - 1963- )
- Alexander Wiley (R Wis. - 1947—1949)
- Pat McCarran (D Nev. - 1949—1953)
- William Langer (R N.D. - 1953—1955)
- Harley M. Kilgore (D W.Va. - 1955—1956)
- James O. Eastland (D Miss. - 1956- )
Antitrust and Monopoly Subcommittee
- Herbert R. O'Conor (D Md. - 1951—1953)
- William Langer (R N.D. - 1953—1955)
- Joseph C. O'Mahoney (D Wyo. - 1955—1957)
- Estes Kefauver (D Tenn. - 1957—1963)
- Philip A. Hart (D Mich. - 1963- )
Internal Security Subcommittee
- Pat McCarran (D Nev. - 1950—1953)
- William E. Jenner (R Ind. - 1953—1955)
- James O. Eastland (D Miss. - 1955- )
Labor and Public Welfare
- Robert A. Taft (R Ohio - 1947—1949)
- Elbert D. Thomas (D Utah - 1949—1951)
- James E. Murray (D Mont. - 1951—1953)
- H. Alexander Smith (R N.J. - 1953—1955)
- Lister Hill (D Ala. - 1955- )
Post Office and Civil Service
- William Langer (R N.D. - 1947—1949)
- Olin D. Johnston (D S.C. - 1949—1953)
- Frank Carlson (R Kan. - 1953—1955)
- Olin D. Johnston (D S.C. - 1955—1965)
- A.S. Mike Monroney (D Okla. - 1965- )
- Chapman Revercomb (R W.Va. - 1947—1949)
- Dennis Chavez (D N.M. - 1949—1953)
- Edward Martin (R Pa. - 1953—1955)
- Dennis Chavez (D N.M. - 1955—1962)
- Pat McNamara (D Mich. - 1963- )
Rules and Administration
- C. Wayland Brooks (R Ill. - 1947—1949)
- Carl Hayden (D Ariz. - 1949—1953)
- William E. Jenner (R Ind. - 1953—1955)
- Theodore Francis Green (D R.I. - 1955—1957)
- Thomas C. Hennings (D Mo. - 1957—1960)
- Mike Mansfield (D Mont. - 1961—1963)
- B. Everett Jordan (D N.C. - 1963- )
Special Committee to Study Problems of American Small Business
- Kenneth S. Wherry (R Neb. - 1947—1949. The special committee expired Jan. 30, 1949)
Select Committee on Small Business
- John J. Sparkman (D Ala. - 1950—1953)
- Edward J. Thye (R Minn. - 1953—1955)
- John J. Sparkman (D Ala. - 1955- )
Subcommittee on the Aged and Aging of Senate Labor and Public Welfare
- Lister Hill (D Ala. - 1959—1960)
Special Committee on Aging
- Pat McNamara (D Mich. - 1960—1963)
- George A. Smathers (D Fla. - 1963- )
Democratic Policy and Steering Committees
- Alben W. Barkley (D Ky. - 1947—1949)
- Scott W. Lucas (D Ill. - 1949—1951)
- Ernest W. McFarland (D Ariz. - 1951—1953)
- Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas - 1953—1961)
- Mike Mansfield (D Mont. - 1961- )
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee
- Scott W. Lucas (D Ill. - 1947—1949)
- Clinton P. Anderson (D N.M. - 1949—1951)
- Earle C. Clements (D Ky. - 1951—1957)
- George A. Smathers (D Fla. - 1957—1961)
- Vance Hartke (D Ind. - 1961—1963)
- Warren G. Magnuson (D Wash. - 1963- )
Democratic Senatorial Patronage Committee
- Carl Hayden (D Ariz. - 1947- )
Republican Policy Committee
- Robert A. Taft (R Ohio - 1947—1953)
- William F. Knowland (R Calif. - 1953)
- Homer Ferguson (R Mich. - 1953—1955)
- Styles Bridges (R N.H. - 1955—61)
- Bourke B. Hickenlooper (R Iowa - 1962- )
Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee
- John G. Townsend (Former Republican Sen. from Delaware, 1929—1941, Campaign Committee chairman, 1947—1949)
- Owen Brewster (R Maine - 1949—1951)
- Everett McKinley Dirksen (R Ill. - 1951—1955)
- Barry Goldwater (R Ariz. - 1955—1956)
- Andrew F. Schoeppel (R Kan. - 1956—1959)
- Barry Goldwater (R Ariz. - 1959—1963)
- Thruston B. Morton (R Ky. - 1963- )
Republican Committee on Committees
- Edward B. Robertson (R Wyo. - 1947—1949)
- Hugh A. Butler (R Neb. - 1949—1954)
- John W. Bricker (R Ohio - 1954—1959)
- Andrew F. Schoeppel (R Kan. - 1959—1962)
- Frank Carlson (R Kan. - 1962- )
Republican Personnel Committee
- Harlan J. Bushfield (R S.D. - 1947—1949)
- Styles Bridges (R N.H. - 1949—1953)
- Edward Martin (R Pa. - 1953—1959)
- Margaret Chase Smith (R Maine - 1959—1963)
- Norris Cotton (R N.H. - 1963- )
- Clifford R. Hope (R Kan. - 1947—1949)
- Harold D. Cooley (D N.C. - 1949—1953)
- Clifford R. Hope (R Kan. - 1953—1955)
- Harold D. Cooley (D N.C. - 1955- )
- John Taber (R N.Y. - 1947—1949)
- Clarence Cannon (D Mo. - 1949—1953)
- John Taber (R N.Y. - 1953—1955)
- Clarence Cannon (D Mo. - 1955—1964)
- George H. Mahon (D Texas - 1964- )
- Walter G. Andrews (R N.Y. - 1947—1949)
- Carl Vinson (D Ga. - 1949—1953)
- Dewey Short (R Mo. - 1953—1955)
- Carl Vinson (D Ga. - 1955—1965)
- L. Mendel Rivers (D S.C. - 1965- )
Special Investigations Subcommittee
- F. Edward Hébert (D La. - 1951—1953)
- William E. Hess (R Ohio - 1953—1955)
- F. Edward Hébert (D La. - 1955—1963)
- Porter Hardy (D Va. - 1963- )
Banking and Currency
- Jesse P. Wolcott (R Mich. - 1947—1949)
- Brent Spence (D Ky. - 1949—1953)
- Jesse P. Wolcott (R Mich. - 1953—1955)
- Brent Spence (D Ky. - 1955—1963)
- Wright Patman (D Texas - 1963- )
District of Columbia
- Everett M. Dirksen (R Ill. - 1947—1949)
- John L. McMillan (D S.C. - 1949—1953)
- Sid Simpson (R Ill. - 1953—1955)
- John L. McMillan (D S.C. - 1955- )
Education and Labor
- Fred A. Hartley (R N.J. - 1947—1949)
- John Lesinski (D Mich. - 1949—1950)
- Graham A. Barden (D N.C. - 1950—1953)
- Samuel K. McConnell (R Pa. - 1953—1955)
- Graham A. Barden (D N.C. - 1955—1961)
- Adam C. Powell (D N.Y. - 1961- )
- Charles A. Eaton (R N.J. - 1947—1949)
- John Kee (D W.Va.) - 1949—1951)
- James P. Richards (D S.C. - 1951—1953)
- Robert B. Chiperfield (R Ill. - 1953—1955)
- James P. Richards (D S.C. - 1955—1957)
- Thomas S. Gordon (D Ill. - 1957—1959)
- Thomas E. Morgan (D Pa. - 1959- )
Expenditures in the Executive Departments
- Clare E. Hoffman (R Mich. - 1947—1949)
- William L. Dawson (D Ill. - 1949—1952)
Government Operations (renamed)
- William L. Dawson (D Ill. - 1952—1953)
- Clare E. Hoffman (R Mich. - 1953—1955)
- William L. Dawson (D Ill. - 1955- )
- Karl M. LeCompte (R Iowa - 1947—1949)
- Mary T. Norton (D N.J. - 1949—1951)
- Thomas B. Stanley (D Va. - 1951—1953)
- Karl M. LeCompte (R Iowa - 1953—1955)
- Omar Burleson (D Texas - 1955- )
- Richard J. Welch (R Calif. - 1947—1949)
- Andrew L. Somers (D N.Y. - 1949)
- J. Hardin Peterson (D Fla. - 1949—1951)
Interior and Insular Affairs (renamed)
- John R. Murdock (D Ariz. - 1951—1953)
- A. L. Miller (R Neb. - 1953—1955)
- Clair Engle (D Calif. - 1955—1959)
- Wayne N. Aspinall (D Colo. - 1959- )
Interstate and Foreign Commerce
- Charles A. Wolverton (R N.J. - 1947—1949)
- Robert Crosser (D Ohio - 1949—1953)
- Charles A. Wolverton (R N.J. - 1953—1955)
- J. Percy Priest (D Tenn. - 1955—1957)
- Oren Harris (D Ark. - 1957- )
Special Subcommittee on Legislative Oversight 1957—1961
- Morgan M. Moulder (D Mo. - 1957—1958)
- Oren Harris (D Ark. - 1958—1961)
Special Subcommittee on Regulatory Agencies
- Oren Harris (D Ark. - 1961—1963)
Special Subcommittee on Investigations
- Oren Harris (D Ark. - 1963- )
- Earl C. Michener (R Mich. - 1947—1949)
- Emanuel Celler (D N.Y. - 1949—1953)
- Chauncey W. Reed (R Ill. - 1953—1955)
- Emanuel Celler (D N.Y. - 1955- )
Merchant Marine and Fisheries
- Fred Bradley (R Mich. - 1947)
- Alvin F. Weichel (R Ohio - 1947—1949)
- Schuyler Otis Bland (D Va. - 1949—1950)
- Edward J. Hart (D N.J. - 1950—1953)
- Alvin F. Weichel (R Ohio - 1953—1955)
- Herbert C. Bonner (D N.C. - 1955- )
Post Office and Civil Service
- Edward H. Rees (R Kan. - 1947—1949)
- Tom Murray (D Tenn. - 1949—1953)
- Edward H. Rees (R Kan. - 1953—1955)
- Tom Murray (D Tenn. - 1955- )
- George A. Dondero (R Mich. - 1947—1949)
- William M. Whittington (D Miss. - 1949—1951)
- Charles A. Buckley (D N.Y. - 1951—1953)
- George A. Dondero (R Mich. - 1953—1955)
- Charles A. Buckley (D N.Y. - 1955—1965)
- George H. Fallon (D Md. - 1965- )
- Leo E. Allen (R Ill. - 1947—1949)
- Adolph J. Sabath (D Ill. - 1949—1953)
- Leo E. Allen (R Ill. - 1953—1955)
- Howard W. Smith (D Va. - 1955- )
Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration 1958
- John W. McCormack (D Mass. - 1958)
Science and Astronautics
- Overton Brooks (D La. - 1959—1961)
- George P. Miller (D Calif. - 1961- )
- J. Parnell Thomas (R N.J. - 1947—1949)
- John S. Wood (D Ga. - 1949—1953)
- Harold H. Velde (R Ill. - 1953—1955)
- Francis E. Walter (D Pa. - 1955—1963)
- Edwin E. Willis (D La. - 1963- )
- Edith Nourse Rogers (R Mass, - 1947—1949)
- John E. Rankin (D Miss. - 1949—1953)
- Edith Nourse Rogers (R Mass. - 1953—1955)
- Olin E. Teague (D Texas - 1955- )
Ways and Means
- (Democratic members serve as the Democratic Committee on Committees in the House)
- Harold Knutson (R Minn. - 1947—1949)
- Robert L. Doughton (D N.C. - 1949—1953)
- Daniel A. Reed (R N.Y. - 1953—1955)
- Jere Cooper (D Tenn. - 1955—1957)
- Wilbur D. Mills (D Ark. - 1958- )
Select Small Business
- Walter C. Ploeser (R Mo. - 1947—1949)
- Wright Patman (D Texas - 1949—1953)
- William S. Hill (R Colo. - 1953—1955)
- Wright Patman (D Texas - 1955—1963)
- Joe L. Evins (D Tenn. - 1963- )
Democratic National Congressional Committee
- Michael J. Kirwan (D Ohio - 1947- )
Democratic Patronage Committee
- Francis E. Walter (D Pa. - 1949—1953, 1955—1963)
- Harry R. Sheppard (D Calif. - 1963—1965)
Republican Policy Committee
- Joseph w. Martin (R Mass. - 1947—1959)
- John W. Byrnes (R Wis. - 1959—1965)
Republican Committee on Committees
- Joseph W. Martin (R Mass. - 1947—1953)
- Charles A. Halleck (R Ind. - 1953—1955)
- Joseph W. Martin (R Mass. - 1955—1959)
- Charles A. Halleck (R Ind. - 1959—1965)
- Gerald R. Ford (R Mich. - 1965- )
National Republican Congressional Committee
- Leonard W. Hall (R N.Y. - 1947—1953)
- Richard M. Simpson (R Pa. - 1953—1960)
- William E. Miller (R N.Y. - 1960—1961)
- Bob Wilson (R Calif. - 1961- )
Republican Patronage Committee
- Leo E. Allen (R Ill. - 1947—1949, 1953—1955)
- Sen. Bourke B. Hickenlooper (R Iowa - 1947—1949)
- Sen. Brien McMahon (D Conn. - 1949—1953)
- Rep. W. Sterling Cole (R N.Y. - 1953—1955)
- Sen. Clinton P. Anderson (D N.M. - 1955—1957)
- Rep. Carl T. Durham (D N.C. - 1957—1959)
- Sen. Clinton P. Anderson (D N.M. - 1959—1961)
- Rep. Chet Holifield (D Calif. - 1961—1963)
- Sen. John O. Pastore (D R.I. - 1963—1965)
- Rep. Chet Holifield (D Calif. - 1965- )
- Sen. Burnet R. Maybank (D S.C. - 1950—1953)
- Sen. Homer E. Capehart (R Ind. - 1953—1955)
- Rep. Paul Brown (D Ga. - 1955—1957)
- Sen. A. Willis Robertson (D Va. - 1957—1959)
- Rep. Paul Brown (D Ga. - 1959—1961)
- Sen. A. Willis Robertson (D Va. - 1961—1963)
- Rep. Wright Patman (D Texas - 1963—1965)
- Sen. A. Willis Robertson (D Va. - 1965- )
- Sen. Robert A. Taft (R Ohio - 1947—1949)
- Sen. Joseph C. O'Mahoney (D Wyo. - 1949—1953)
- Rep. Jesse P. Wolcott (R Mich. - 1953—1955)
- Sen. Paul H. Douglas (D Ill. - 1955—1957)
- Rep. Wright Patman (D Texas - 1957—1959)
- Sen. Paul H. Douglas (D Ill. - 1959—1961)
- Rep. Wright Patman (D Texas - 1961—1963)
- Sen. Paul H. Douglas (D Ill. - 1963—1965)
- Rep. Wright Patman (D Texas - 1965- )
Internal Revenue Taxation
- Rep. Harold Knutson (R Minn. - 1947—1948)
- Sen. Eugene D. Millikin (R Colo. - 1948—1949)
- Rep. Robert L. Doughton (D N.C. - 1949—1950)
- Sen. Walter F. George (D Ga. - 1950—1951)
- Rep. Robert L. Doughton (D N.C. - 1951—1952)
- Sen. Walter F. George (D Ga. - 1952—1953)
- Rep. Daniel A. Reed (R N.Y. - 1953—1954)
- Sen. Eugene D. Millikin (R Colo. - 1954—1955)
- Rep. Jere Cooper (D Tenn. - 1955—1956)
- Sen. Harry Flood Byrd (D Va. - 1956—1957)
- Rep. Jere Cooper (D Tenn. - 1957—1958)
- Sen. Harry Flood Byrd (D Va. - 1958—1959)
- Rep. Wilbur D. Mills (D Ark. - 1959—1960)
- Sen. Harry Flood Byrd (D Va. - 1960—1961)
- Rep. Wilbur D. Mills (D Ark. - 1961—1962)
- Sen. Harry Flood Byrd (D Va. - 1962—1963)
- Rep. Wilbur D. Mills (D Ark. - 1963—1965)
- Sen. Harry Flood Byrd (D Va. - 1965- )
Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures
- Sen. Harry Flood Byrd (D Va. - 1947- )
Presidents and Their Cabinets — 1933—1965Franklin Delano Roosevelt — March 4, 1933—April 12, 1945
Secretary of StateCordell Hull
(D Tenn.) — March 4, 1933—Dec. 1, 1944Edward R. Stettinius
(D Va.) — Dec. 1, 1944—July 3, 1945
Secretary of TreasuryWilliam H. Woodin
(D N.Y.) — March 4, 1933—Jan. 1, 1934Henry Morganthau Jr.
(D N.Y.) — Jan. 1, 1934—July 23, 1945
Secretary of WarGeorge H. Dern
(D Utah) — March 4, 1933—Aug. 27, 1936Harry H. Woodring
(D Kan.) — Sept. 25, 1936—July 10, 1940Henry L. Stimson
(R N.Y.) — July 10, 1940—Sept. 26, 1945
Attorney GeneralHomer S. Cummings
(D Conn.) — March 4, 1933—Jan. 2, 1939Frank Murphy
(D Mich.) — Jan. 2, 1939—Jan. 18, 1940Robert H. Jackson
(D N.Y.) — Jan. 18, 1940—Sept. 5, 1941Francis Biddle
(D Pa.) — Sept. 5, 1941—July 1, 1945
Postmaster GeneralJames A. Farley
(D N.Y.) — March 4, 1933—Sept. 10, 1940Frank C. Walker
(D Pa.) — Sept. 10, 1940—July 1, 1945
Secretary of the NavyClaude A. Swanson
(D Va.) — March 4, 1933—July 7, 1939Charles Edison
(D N.J.) — Aug. 5, 1939—July 10, 1940Frank Knox
(R Ill.) — July 10, 1940—April 28, 1944James V. Forrestal
(D N.Y.) — May 18, 1944—Sept. 17, 1947
Secretary of InteriorHarold L. Ickes
(D Ill.) — March 14, 1933—March 18, 1946
Secretary of AgricultureHenry A. Wallace
(D Iowa) — March 4, 1933—Sept. 5, 1940Claude R. Wickard
(D Ind.) — Sept. 5, 1940—June 30, 1945
Secretary of CommerceDaniel C. Roper
(D S.C.) — March 4, 1933—Dec. 16, 1938Harry L. Hopkins
(D N.Y.) — Dec. 24, 1938—Sept. 19, 1940Jesse H. Jones
(D Texas) — Sept. 19, 1940—March 2, 1945Henry A. Wallace
(D Iowa) — March 2, 1945—Sept. 28, 1946
Secretary of LaborFrances Perkins
(D N.Y.) — March 4, 1933—July 1, 1945Harry S. Truman — April 12, 1945—Jan. 20, 1953
Secretary of StateJames F. Byrnes
(D S.C.) — July 3, 1945—Jan. 21, 1947George C. Marshall
(Pa.) — Jan. 21, 1947—Jan. 20, 1949Dean G. Acheson
(D Conn.) — Jan. 20, 1949—Jan. 20, 1953
Secretary of TreasuryFred M. Vinson
(D Ky.) — July 23, 1945—June 25, 1946John W. Snyder
(D Mo.) — June 25, 1946—Jan. 20, 1953
Secretary of DefenseJames V. Forrestal
(D N.Y.) — Sept. 17, 1947—March 1949Louis A. Johnson
(D W.Va.) — March 28, 1949—Sept. 21, 1950George C. Marshall
(Pa.) — Sept. 21, 1950—Sept. 17, 1951Robert A. Lovett
(R N.Y.) — Sept. 17, 1951—Jan. 20, 1953
Secretary of WarRobert Porter Patterson
(R N.Y.) — Sept. 27, 1945—Jan. 25, 1947Kenneth C. Royall
(D N.C.) — Jan. 25, 1947—Sept. 17, 1947
Attorney GeneralTom C. Clark
(D Texas) — July 1, 1945—Aug. 24, 1949J. Howard McGrath
(D R.I.) — Aug. 24, 1949—May 27, 1952James P. McGranery
(D Pa.) — May 27, 1952—Jan. 20, 1953
Postmaster GeneralRobert E. Hannegan
(D Mo.) — July 1, 1945—Dec. 16, 1947Jesse M. Donaldson
(D Mo.) — Dec. 16, 1947—Jan. 20, 1953
Secretary of InteriorJulius A. Krug
(D Wis.) — March 18, 1945—Dec. 1, 1949Oscar L. Chapman
(D Colo.) — Dec. 1, 1949—Jan. 20, 1953
Secretary of AgricultureClinton P. Anderson
(D N.M.) — June 30, 1945—June 2, 1948Charles F. Brannan
(D Colo.) — June 2, 1948—Jan. 20, 1953
Secretary of CommerceW. Averell Harriman
(D N.Y.) — Sept. 28, 1946—May 6, 1948Charles Sawyer
(D Ohio) — May 6, 1948—Jan. 20, 1953
Secretary of LaborLewis B. Schwellenbach
(D Wash.) — July 1, 1945—June 10, 1948Maurice J. Tobin
(D Mass.) — Aug. 13, 1948—Jan. 20, 1953Dwight D. Eisenhower — Jan. 20, 1953—Jan. 20, 1961
Secretary of StateJohn Foster Dulles
(R N.Y.) — Jan. 21, 1953—April 15, 1959Christian A. Herter
(R Mass.) — April 22, 1959—Jan. 20, 1961
Secretary of TreasuryGeorge M. Humphrey
(R Ohio) — Jan. 21, 1953—July 29, 1957Robert B. Anderson
(D Texas) — July 29, 1957—Jan. 20, 1961
Secretary of DefenseCharles E. Wilson
(R Mich.) — Jan. 28, 1953—Oct. 9, 1957Neil H. McElroy
(R Ohio) — Oct. 9, 1957—Dec. 1, 1959Thomas S. Gates
(R Pa.) — Dec. 1, 1959—Jan. 20, 1961
Attorney GeneralHerbert Brownell Jr.
(R N.Y.) — Jan. 21, 1953—Nov. 8, 1957William P. Rogers
(R Md.) — Nov. 8, 1957—Jan. 20, 1961
Postmaster GeneralArthur E. Summerfield
(R Mich.) — Jan. 21, 1953—Jan. 20, 1961
Secretary of InteriorDouglas McKay
(R Ore.) — Jan. 21, 1953—June 8, 1956Fred A. Seaton
(R Neb.) — June 8, 1956—Jan. 20, 1961
Secretary of AgricultureEzra Taft Benson
(R Utah) — Jan. 21, 1953—Jan. 20, 1961
Secretary of CommerceSinclair Weeks
(R Mass.) — Jan. 21, 1953—Nov. 13, 1958Lewis L. Strauss
(R N.Y.) — Nov. 13, 1958—June 27, 19591Frederick H. Mueller
Strauss served interim appointment as Secretary of Commerce. On June 27, 1959, the Senate refused to confirm his nomination.
Secretary of LaborMartin P. Durkin
(D Md.) — Jan. 21, 1953—Oct. 9, 1953James P. Mitchell
(R N.J.) — Oct. 9, 1953—Jan. 20, 1961
Secretary of Health, Education and WelfareOveta Culp Hobby
(R Texas) — April 11, 1953—Aug. 1, 1955Marion B. Folsom
(R N.Y.) — Aug. 1, 1955—Aug. 1, 1958Arthur S. Flemming
(R Ohio) — Aug. 1, 1958—Jan. 20, 1961John F. Kennedy — Jan. 20, 1961—Nov. 22, 1963
Secretary of StateDean Rusk
(D N.Y.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Secretary of TreasuryDouglas Dillon
(R Wash., D.C.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Secretary of DefenseRobert S. McNamara
(R Mich.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Attorney GeneralRobert F. Kennedy
(D Mass.) — Jan. 20, 1961—Sept. 3, 1964.
Postmaster GeneralJ. Edward Day
(D Calif.) — Jan. 20, 1961—Aug. 9, 1963.John A. Gronouski
(D Wis.) — Sept. 24, 1963—
Secretary of InteriorStewart L. Udall
(D Ariz.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Secretary of AgricultureOrville L. Freeman
(D Minn.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Secretary of CommerceLuther H. Hodges
(D N.C.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Secretary of LaborArthur J. Goldberg
(D Wash., D.C.) — Jan. 20, 1961—Sept. 25, 1962.W. Willard Wirtz
(D Ill.) — Sept. 25, 1962—
Secretary of Health, Education and WelfareAbraham A. Ribicoff
(D Conn.) — Jan. 20, 1961—July 13, 1962Anthony J. Celebrezze
(D Ohio) — July 31, 1962—Lyndon B. Johnson — Nov. 22, 1963
Secretary of StateDean Rusk
(D N.Y.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Secretary of TreasuryDouglas Dillon
(R Wash., D.C.) — Jan. 20, 1961—March 31, 1965Henry H. Fowler
(D Va.) — April 1, 1965—
Secretary of DefenseRobert S. McNamara
(R Mich.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Attorney GeneralRobert F. Kennedy
(D Mass.) — Jan. 20, 1961—Sept. 3, 1964Nicholas deB. Katzenbach
(D Wash., D.C.) — Sept. 3, 1964—
Postmaster GeneralJohn A. Gronouski
(D Wis.) — Sept. 24, 1963—
Secretary of InteriorStewart L. Udall
(D Ariz.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Secretary of AgricultureOrville L. Freeman
(D Minn.) — Jan. 20, 1961—
Secretary of CommerceLuther H. Hodges
(D N.C.) — Jan. 20, 1961—Jan. 15, 1965John T. Connor
(D N.J.) — Jan. 15, 1965—
Secretary of LaborW. Willard Wirtz
(D Ill.) — Sept. 25, 1962—
Secretary of Health, Education and WelfareAnthony J. Celebrezze
(D Ohio) — July 31, 1962—
Controversial Nominations Sent to the Senate, 1945—63
Nominations are appointments to federal office by the Executive Branch which are subject to confirmation by the Senate. Thousands of nominations are made and confirmed every year, with greater numbers of them required at the beginning of each new Presidential Administration. Officials appointed in this manner include members of the Executive Branch at the Cabinet and assistant secretary level, federal judges, foreign service appointees, members of federal regulatory commissions, military officer promotions, postmasters and other non-career federal employees. Nominations of special Presidential assistants are not subject to confirmation.
While most nominations win quick Senate approval, some are controversial and become the topic of Senate hearings and debate. Even the controversial nominations, however, are almost always confirmed. During the entire post-World War II period, only one Cabinet appointee — Lewis L. Strauss, nominated by President Eisenhower in 1959 to be Secretary of Commerce — was rejected. The President can avoid Senate rejection of a nominee by withdrawing a nomination which appears to face strong opposition or by sounding out Congressional sentiment before making an appointment.
Sometimes Senators object to appointees for patronage reasons — for example, when a nomination to a local federal job is made without consulting the Senators of the state concerned. Then a Senator may use the stock objection that the nominee is “personally obnoxious” to him. Usually other Senators join in blocking such an appointment out of courtesy to their colleague.
Another common Senate objection to an executive nominee is alleged “conflict of interest.” This charge is usually made if the person holds stock, draws a pension or is otherwise connected with a company which deals with the federal agency to which he has been appointed. In this case, the nominee often divests himself of the stock or severs the connection with the company in some way.
Many of the controversies over nominations arise from partisan politics, or from disagreements between “liberals” and “conservatives” on various issues. In 1949, for example, a Truman nominee to the Federal Power Commission was opposed by Republicans and finally rejected for his allegedly “socialistic” writings. Similarly, in 1957 during the Eisenhower Administration, an appointee to the same post was opposed by Democrats who claimed the nominee was subservient to private power interests.
Other partisan debate shows that sometimes Senate disapproval of a nominee is based, not on the individual concerned, but on objection by the opposition party to the Administration's policies. In 1957, for instance, Democrats opposed Eisenhower appointee Don Paarlberg as Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, largely because they disagreed with the farm policies of Agriculture Secretary Ezra Taft Benson.
Nomination battles also tend to reflect the Senate's concern with other major issues of the time. During the last years of the Truman Administration when Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) was active in his search for “subversives” in the Government, several nominees were opposed by some GOP Members as being “soft” on Communism. McCarthy himself led the fight against several Truman and Eisenhower appointees up to the time of his death in 1957.
Civil rights also began to emerge as a nomination issue, in the years following the 1954 Supreme Court decision on school segregation. Nominations to federal judgeships, to certain Justice Department positions, to the Civil Rights Commission and to the Supreme Court itself were opposed by Southern Democrats.
In most of these cases, however, when only a minority or specific group opposed a nomination, the person was confirmed.
The number of nominations confirmed by the Senate each year varies according to certain factors. In 1948 several important appointments sent to the Senate and referred to Committee were never reported. With the Republicans in control of Congress, this delaying action was related, reportedly, to the Republican expectation of winning the Presidential election in the fall and filling the vacancies with nominees of the new Republican Administration.
As a result the Senate in 1949 confirmed 54,869 nominations submitted by President Truman, the largest [Page 103a] number in history up to that time. (The number was particularly large, not only because of the backlog from the 80th Congress, but also because of numerous military promotions due to defense reorganization and assignment of permanent ranks in the place of temporary wartime appointments.) In 1960, Democrats who were in control of Congress also refused to confirm a large number of President Eisenhower's nominations, expecting a Democratic Presidential victory at the polls. Consequently the new President Kennedy had a large number of vacancies to fill, as well as the usual Cabinet and sub-Cabinet posts.
Below is a brief discussion of each of the major controversial nominations from 1945 to 1963.1945Elliott Roosevelt.
Feb. 12 promotion by his father from rank of Colonel to Brigadier General confirmed by a 53-11 roll-call vote (D 43-0; R 9-11; Ind. 1-0). Controversy developed over the speed with which Roosevelt, the son of the President, had risen from the rank of Captain and over military air travel priority granted to his dog, Blaze. A recommittal motion by Sen. Harlan J. Bushfield (R S.D.) was defeated by Democrats on a roll-call vote of 14-49 (D 0-41; R 14-7; Ind. 0-1).Henry A. Wallace.
March 1 confirmed as Secretary of Commerce on a roll call of 56-32 (D 45-5; R 10-27; Ind. 1-0). Opposed for having “radical” economic views. Prior to Wallace's approval, the House and Senate voted to separate the Federal Loan Agency from the Department of Commerce. A motion to consider the Wallace nomination before taking the FLA action, thus endangering confirmation of Wallace, was rejected 41-43 (D 15-32; R 26-10; Ind. 0-1).Aubrey Williams.
March 23 rejected as Administrator of the Rural Electrification Administration by a roll-call vote of 36-52 (D 31-19; R 4-33; Ind. 1-0). Former head of the National Youth Administration. Accused of being an atheist and having been a member of several Communist-front organizations. Opposed by the American Farm Bureau Federation, the National Grange, and the National Cooperative Milk Producers Federation because of his “unfamiliarity with the problems of agriculture.” (See Agriculture)Claude Wickard.
June 21 confirmed as head of the Rural Electrification Administration by a 56-6 roll call (D 41-0; R 14-6; Ind. 1-0). Former Secretary of Agriculture. Opposition led by Sen. Henrik Shipstead (R Minn.) who said that the reason for separating REA from the Agriculture Department had been to remove REA from Wickard's control. (See Agriculture)Robert E. Hannegan.
May 7 confirmed as Postmaster General by a 60-2 roll-call vote (D 34-0; R 25-2; Ind. 1-0). A recommittal motion by Sen. Forrest C. Donnell (R Mo.) was rejected on a party line 28-35 roll-call vote (D 0-35; R 27-0; Ind. 1-0). Hannegan, Democratic National Committee Chairman, was attacked by Donnell for his role in Missouri politics. Donnell also said the nomination was improperly reported by the Post Offices and Post Roads Committee since no hearings had been held.Dean G. Acheson.
Sept. 24 confirmed as Under Secretary of State on a 69-1 roll-call vote. Sen. Kenneth S. Wherry (R Neb.) was the lone dissenter. Wherry opposed the nomination because Acheson had disagreed with a statement by General MacArthur that in six months the U.S. would not need more than 200,000 troops to occupy Japan. Wherry's recommittal motion was rejected by a record vote of 12-66 (D 0-42; R 12-23; Ind. 0-1). (See Foreign Policy)Raymond S. McKeogh.
Oct. 11 confirmed as a member of the Maritime Commission by a roll-call vote of 42-34 (D 39-9; R 2-25; Ind. 1-0). Maritime workers were split between the AFL and CIO — McKeogh had been regional director of the CIO Political Action Committee and was consequently opposed by the AFL. Opponents also objected to his lack of experience in maritime matters.1946George E. Allen.
Feb. 18 confirmed as director of the Reconstruction Finance Corp. by voice vote. Motion by Sen. William Langer (R N.D.) to recommit the nomination was rejected on a 27-43 roll-call vote (D 1-40; R 25-3; Ind. 1-0). Sen. Robert A. Taft (R Ohio) questioned Allen's ability to serve as RFC director and continue to draw salaries and own stock in other corporations which might do business with RFC. He said Allen's position as vice-president of the Home Insurance Co. of New York constituted a “conflict of interest.”Edwin W. Pauley.
President Truman March 13 withdrew the nomination of Pauley to be Under Secretary of the Navy after a two-month fight. Pauley was a California oil man and former Treasurer of the Democratic National Committee. In hearings before the Senate Naval Affairs Committee, the opposition, led by Sen. Charles W. Tobey (R N.H.), presented witnesses accusing Pauley of having used political influence to protect his oil interests. Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes said Pauley had told him, during the 1944 Presidential campaign, that $300,000 in campaign contributions from California oil men could be raised if the Government would drop its suit to establish federal title to the tide-water oil lands. When President Truman said at a press conference that Ickes might be mistaken, Ickes resigned his post, accusing the President of wanting him to commit perjury for the sake of the Democratic party. Pauley denied categorically all the charges made against him and then requested the President to withdraw his name. The Committee was reported to be divided ten to eight against him.James K. Vardaman Jr.
April 3 confirmed as member of the Federal Reserve Board for a 14-year term by a roll-call vote of 66-9 (D 43-0; R 22-9; Ind. 1-0). Opposed by Sen. Forrest C. Donnell (R Mo.), who said Vardaman lacked the necessary experience, ability and judgment, and questioned his integrity while a businessman in St. Louis.1947David E. Lilienthal.
After a two-month long battle, confirmed April 9 as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission by a roll-call vote of 50-31 (D 30-5; R 20-26). A motion by Sen. John W. Bricker (R Ohio) to recommit the nomination was defeated on a 38-52 roll-call (D 7-34; R 31-18). Former Chairman of Tennessee Valley Authority. Charged with being “soft” on Communism. (See National Security)Gordon R. Clapp.
April 24 confirmed as Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority by a roll-call vote of 36-31 (D 23-7; R 13-24). Sen. Kenneth D. McKellar (D Tenn.) led the fight against Clapp as he had against Lilienthal. Accused of willingly tolerating a “Communist cell” while Director of Personnel for TVA. Clapp denied he was a Communist or had ever had Communist sympathies. (See Public Power)Joe B. Dooley.
July 8 confirmed as judge of the U.S. District Court in the Northern District of Texas by a roll-call vote of 48-36 (D 35-3; R 13-33). Former president of the Texas State Bar Assn. Backed by the senior Senator from Texas, Tom Connally (D), but opposed by the junior Senator, W. Lee O'Daniel (D), who declared Dooley was “personally obnoxious” to him. O'Daniel charged that Dooley had been linked with a wartime scandal over a Texas ordinance plant.Philip B. Perlman.
July 27 confirmed as Solicitor General by a roll-call vote of 58-21 (D 38-1; R 20-20). Opposed by Sen. Homer Ferguson (R Mich.) for his alleged “behind the scenes” activities as a Baltimore attorney. Ferguson said the nominee's “lack of candor” in the Judiciary Committee hearings and his influence in Maryland politics cast a “serious cloud of reasonable doubt over the qualifications and fitness of Mr. Perlman.”1948David E. Lilienthal, Sumner T. Pike, Lewis L. Strauss, William W. Waymack, Robert F. Bacher.
Reappointments as Atomic Energy Commissioners referred to Atomic Energy Committee where they died. Congress passed legislation extending the term of each Commissioner until June 30, 1950.1949Dean G. Acheson.
Jan. 18 confirmed as Secretary of State by a roll-call vote of 83-6 (D 49-0; R 34-6). There was controversy over his association with the Hiss brothers and his policy toward Communist countries. (See Foreign Policy)James Boyd.
March 22 confirmed as director of the Bureau of Mines by a 50-11 roll-call vote (D 34-3; R 16-8). Action on his nomination had been delayed for more than a year. Opposed by United Mine Workers President John L. Lewis and by Sen. Eugene D. Millikin (R Colo.) on the Senate floor, both of whom said Boyd had not espoused sufficient mine safety measures. Boyd had been dean of the Colorado School of Mines prior to his appointment as Bureau of Mines director.Tom C. Clark.
Aug. 18 confirmed as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court by a roll-call vote of 73-8 (D 47-0; R 26-8). Clark was a Texan and former Attorney General of the U.S. (1945—1949). Opposed by Sen. Homer Ferguson (R Mich.) who called his appointment “transparently political.”Carl A. Ilgenfritz.
Sept. 16 rejected as chairman of the Munitions Board in the Department of Defense by a 28-40 roll-call vote (D 16-22; R 12-18). Ilgenfritz, a vice-president of U.S. Steel Corp., refused to take the position (paying $14,000 annually) unless he could retain his $70,000 yearly salary as a steel executive. Opposed by Sen. Harry F. Byrd (D Va.), who said the nomination would set a bad precedent. He said it would be improper for a person in the nominee's position to control Government buying. Sen. Millard Tydings (D Md.) and other supporters argued that he was exceptionally well qualified and would not be concerned with placing orders for purchases. Just prior to the vote, Ilgenfritz offered to give up the Government salary if he won approval.John Carson.
Sept. 19 confirmed as a Federal Trade Commissioner for a three-year term by a roll-call vote of 45-25 (D 41-2; R 4-23). Former officer of the National Cooperative League and an independent. His nomination to fill a Republican seat on the Federal Trade Commission was opposed by Republican Senators who said that a regular Republican should have been named. Opposed by the National Small Businessmen's Assn., the American Retail Federation and National Associated Businessmen. Accused of not believing in capitalism.W. Walton Butterworth.
Sept. 27 confirmed as Assistant Secretary of State by a roll-call vote of 49-27 (D 44-0; R 5-27). Former head of Office of Far Eastern Affairs. Opposition led by Sen. William F. Knowland (R Calif.) who held Butterworth responsible for U.S. policy toward China which he said had aided the Communists. Supporters of the nominee said he had not been a “policy-making man.”Sherman Minton.
Oct. 4 confirmed as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by a 48-16 roll-call vote (D 36-2; R 12-14). Former Democratic Senator from Indiana (1935—41), administrative assistant for President Roosevelt (1941) and judge of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (1941—49). Controversy over his stands as a Senator when he supported the 1937 plan for enlarging and reorganizing the Supreme Court and also the requirement of a vote of seven of the nine members of the Court before an act of Congress could be declared unconstitutional. Endorsed by American Bar Assn. and National Bar Assn., which said he had abandoned views of which his opponents were critical. Minton declared his reluctance to appear before the Judiciary Committee for hearings. He was not required to do so and did not. Opposition on the floor led by Sen. Wayne Morse (R Ore.) who expressed concern about setting a precedent. A Morse motion to recommit [Page 105a] the nomination with instructions to call the judge before the Committee was defeated on a roll-call vote of 21-45 (D 2-36; R 19-9).Leland Olds.
Oct. 12 rejected to serve a third term as a Federal Power Commissioner by a 15-33 roll-call vote (D 13-21; R 2-32). Member of FPC since 1939. Opposition led by Sens. E.C. Johnson (D Colo.) and Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas), who stressed his allegedly socialistic writings. In hearings before the Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee, opponents (the strongest of which came from Southwestern states) blamed Olds for the Commission's “discriminatory” attitude toward private power and fuel companies and claimed he wanted to remove states' rights to control them. (See Public Power)Monrad C. Wallgren.
Oct. 19 confirmed as a Federal Trade Commissioner for a five-year term by a roll-call vote of 47-12 (D 29-1; R 18-11) after the Senate refused to confirm Leland Olds' reappointment to the FPC. Former Democratic Senator from Washington (1941—45) and governor of Washington (1945—48).
Earlier in the year, Wallgren's nomination to the chairmanship of the National Resources Board had been withdrawn by President Truman on May 17. Opposed by Sen. Harry P. Cain (R Wash.), who said loss of the 1948 gubernatorial election showed the nominee to be unfit for the job. He accused Wallgren of having converted the Democratic party into a left-wing machine. Wallgren ascribed “the malice exhibited by Cain” entirely to politics. He requested the President to withdraw his name because, he said, after confirmation he would be plagued with “political opposition” which might interfere with national security.1950Admiral Forrest P. Sherman.
Jan. 24 confirmed as Chief of Naval Operations by unanimous consent. Although not controversial himself, he succeeded Admiral Louis Denfeld who was dismissed in 1949 at the recommendation of Secretary of the Navy Francis P. Matthews. (See National Security p. 261) Action on Sherman's nomination was at first blocked by Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) who questioned Matthews' testimony before the Armed Services Committee. Committee Chairman Millard E. Tydings (D Md.) defended Matthews and declared the entire case was a “sham battle” raised by Republicans to make political capital.Sumner Pike.
July 10 confirmed for another four-year term as an Atomic Energy Commissioner by a roll-call vote of 55-24 (D 38-5; R 17-19). Opposition led by Sen. Bourke B. Hickenlooper (R Iowa) who asserted that Pike opposed development of the hydrogen bomb. (See National Security, p. 261)Martin A. Hutchinson.
Aug. 9 rejected as Federal Trade Commissioner by a roll-call vote of 14-59 (D 13-25; R 1-34). Political opponent of Sen. Harry Flood Byrd (D Va.). Opposed by Byrd and Sen. A. Willis Robertson (D Va.) who said President Truman had not consulted them on the nomination, as was customary.Frank E. Hook.
Aug. 9 rejected by voice vote as Motor Carrier Claims Commissioner. Former Democratic Michigan Congressman (1935—47) and political opponent of Sen. Homer Ferguson (R Mich.). Ferguson declared the appointment of Hook “personally obnoxious” to him, and the Senate responded to his objections.William O'Dwyer.
Sept. 18 confirmed as Ambassador to Mexico on a roll-call vote of 42-22 (D 38-0; R 4-22). Before final confirmation there were two other partisan roll-call votes: a motion to defer further consideration until Sept. 20, rejected 25-36, and a motion to recommit the bill to the Foreign Relations Committee for further study, rejected 24-40. President Truman nominated O'Dwyer, Democratic mayor of New York City and under fire in a local police-firemen-racketeer situation, on Aug. 15. Some Republicans contended that the appointment was made to force a mayoralty election, so that Democrats could benefit from the heavier vote in November. During hearings, only one witness, Henry V. Poor, a Republican seeking to unseat Rep. Franklin D. Roosevelt (D N.Y.), opposed the confirmation. He charged O'Dwyer with “negligence, incompetence and flagrant irresponsibility” and with underworld connections in New York. The Foreign Relations Committee endorsed his nomination by a unanimous 8-0 vote.Gen. George C. Marshall.
Sept. 20 confirmed as Secretary of Defense by a roll-call vote of 57-11 (D 42-0; R 15-11). Some Members had reservations about a military man as Secretary of Defense. (See National Security, p. 261)Anna M. Rosenberg.
Dec. 21 confirmed as Assistant Secretary of Defense by voice vote. In testimony before the Armed Services Committee, Ralph De Sola, who identified himself as a Communist party member in 1934—37, accused Mrs. Rosenberg of having attended Communist meetings in 1935. Mrs. Rosenberg denied the charges. The Committee endorsed the nomination 13-0 after reporting that the charges were “wholly unfounded.”1951Frank A. Waring.
Oct. 1 nomination to the Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority was withdrawn by President Truman. Former chairman of the Philippine War Damage Commission. Opposed by Sen. Kenneth McKellar (D Tenn.) who declared him “personally obnoxious.”Chester Bowles.
Oct. 9 confirmed as Ambassador to India on a partisan roll-call vote of 43-33 (D 38-1; R 5-32). Former Democratic governor of Connecticut and wartime Administrator of the Office of Price Administration. Opposed by the Senate Republican Policy Committee which, according to Chairman Robert A. Taft (R Ohio), felt Bowles lacked experience and was “not a natural-born diplomat.” Taft said that as Price Control Administrator, Bowles had antagonized members of both parties. The one Democrat who opposed the nomination was Pat McCarran (D Nev.).Joseph Jerome Drucker and Cornelius J. Harrington.
Oct. 9 rejected as Judges for the Northern Illinois Federal District Court by voice votes. Declared “personally obnoxious” by Sen. Paul H. Douglas (D Ill.) who had recommended two other candidates for the positions.Telford Taylor.
Oct. 15 confirmed as Small Defense Plants Administrator by a 41-20 roll-call vote (D 36-1; R 5-19). Taylor, a Democrat, was a former Army General and chief prosecutor at the Nuremburg war crimes trials. Sen. Dirksen (R Ill.) said Taylor had no business experience.
The Senate took no final action on several controversial nominations in 1951. By this method, confirmation of the following nominees was withheld:Philip C. Jessup.
Nominated Sept. 12 as one of five U.S. delegates to the Paris United Nations meeting, held late in 1951. Opposed by Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) and, in testimony, by Harold Stassen, former Republican Governor of Minnesota. McCarthy said Jessup was “unfit to serve” because he had “an unusual affinity for Communist causes.” President Truman said the objections to Jessup “bordered on fraud” and added that “the Senate has confirmed Ambassador Jessup five times for positions of great trust.” He gave Jessup a recess appointment Oct. 22 as U.S. delegate to the U.N. The session was scheduled to close before Jessup could be renominated in January 1952.Gen. Mark W. Clark.
Nominated Oct. 20 to be U.S. Ambassador to the Vatican. Scores of Protestant church groups opposed on principle the nomination of an ambassador to the Vatican. The General Board of the National Council of the Churches of Christ called it “an alarming threat to basic American principles.” The White House announced Jan. 13, 1952 that Clark had requested withdrawal of his nomination.Frieda Hennock.
Nominated June 11 to be a Federal Judge for the Southern District of New York. Member of the Federal Communications Commission. Opposed by the American Bar Assn. and the New York State and City Bar Assns. She continued in her FCC post.1952Harry A. McDonald.
Feb. 25 confirmed as Administrator of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation by a roll-call vote of 46-23 (D 30-7; R 16-16). Former chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Opposition led by Sen. Paul H. Douglas (D Ill.) who said that McDonald was not “a strong or a particularly able man.” Douglas charged that, while chairman of the SEC, McDonald had not taken sufficient action against the practice of former Commissioners representing clients before the Commission and exercising undue influence. Some Republican Members opposed the nomination because President Truman, in turning down suggestions of the Banking and Currency Committee that he nominate Deputy Administrator Peter I. Bukowski, had said he would run the RFC himself.Earl Wayne Beck.
March 14 rejected by the District of Columbia Committee as Recorder of Deeds in the District of Columbia. Committee Chairman Matthew M. Neely (D W.Va.) said Beck, a Democrat from Kansas City, Mo., was a political friend of President Truman but was not qualified for the job. Mr. Truman refused to withdraw the nomination. The impasse was ended when Congress enacted a bill (S 2871 — PL 82-379) providing for appointment of the Deeds Recorder by the District of Columbia Commissioners. John B. Duncan was appointed.James P. McGranery.
May 20 confirmed as Attorney General by a roll-call vote of 52-18 (D 38-0; R 14-18). Former Federal District Judge. Opposed by Sen. Homer Ferguson (R Mich.) who said that McGranery lacked “qualifications and capacity” and charged that he “refused to allow a clean-up in the Department of Justice” in 1945 when he was in the Attorney General's Office. The nomination issue was tied to alleged corruption in the Justice Department, the resignation of Attorney General James Howard McGrath (1949—52) and the firing of Special Assistant to the Attorney General, Newbold Morris, known as the Government “anti-corruption chief.” (For full details, see Investigations)1953Charles E. Wilson.
Jan. 26 confirmed as Secretary of Defense on a 77-6 roll-call vote (D 30-5; R 47-0; Ind. 0-1). Former President of General Motors Corp., which held large contracts with the Defense Department. Was forced to divest himself of all GM stock before the Armed Services Committee consented to recommend his confirmation. Testimony before the Committee Jan. 15 showed that Wilson had not planned to give up his stock. Sen. Harry Flood Byrd (D Va.) said failure to do so would constitute a conflict of interest. (See National Security)Harold E. Talbott.
Feb. 4 confirmed as Secretary of the Air Force by a roll-call vote of 76-6 (D 36-5; R 40-0; Ind. 0-1). Financier and large stockholder in the Chrysler Corp. told the Armed Services Committee Jan. 29 that he would sell all his Chrysler stock except for a small amount held in “a family holding corporation.” After an additional hearing, at the request of Sen. Estes Kefauver (D Tenn.), to investigate a 1951 House subcommittee report criticizing the procurement practices of companies selling automotive parts to the Government, the Committee approved the nomination. (See National Security)Albert M. Cole.
March 9 confirmed as Housing and Home Finance Agency Administrator by a 64-18 roll-call vote (D 24-15; R 40-2; Ind. 0-1). Former Republican Representative from Kansas (1945—53). Opposition based on his votes and speeches as a Congressman against low-rent public housing.Charles E. Bohlen.
March 27 confirmed as Ambassador to the Soviet Union by a Senate roll-call vote of 74-13 (D 39-2; R 34-11; Ind. 1-0). Controversy centered on Secretary of State Dulles' assurance that an FBI report on Bohlen did not question his loyalty. [Page 107a] Foreign Relations Committee approved the nomination by a 15-0 vote. During floor debate March 20, Sen. McCarran (D Nev.) charged that Scott McLeod, State Department security officer, refused to clear Bohlen “on the basis of information received from the FBI,” but was “summarily overriden” by Dulles. Dulles denied that he and Mcleod were at odds over the evaluation of Bohlen. Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) March 21 said McLeod's refusal to clear Bohlen had been “definitely established.” Sens. Taft (R Ohio) and Sparkman (D Ala.), selected by the Committee to examine the FBI file, reported after a three-hour study that there was nothing in the file that the Committee did not know about.Tom Lyon.
Nomination as Director of the Bureau of Mines withdrawn June 25, after criticism by members of the Interior and Insular Affairs Committee. Sen. Henry M. Jackson (D Wash.) said that Lyon would not be suitable for the job since he received an irrevocable pension from a mine company.1954Robert E. Lee,
Jan. 25 confirmed as a member of the Federal Communications Commission for a seven-year term by a roll-call vote of 58-25 (D 18-22; R 40-2; Ind. 0-1). Controversy centered on Lee's associations with Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) and on his lack of technical radio or television experience. In Jan. 18 testimony before the Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee, Lee said he liked McCarthy and thought he was a “great guy” but added that he was not “beholden” to him for the appointment and would “resent” it if McCarthy tried to exert undue influence on his judgment as a Commissioner.Albert M. Beeson.
Feb. 18 confirmed as a member of the National Labor Relations Board, for the remainder of a term expiring Dec. 16, 1954, by a 45-42 roll-call vote (D 3-40; R 42-1; Ind. 0-1). Former labor relations director for the Food Machinery and Chemical Corp. in San Jose, Calif. Democrats charged Beeson with conflict of interest in trying to keep his old job. Before the Labor and Public Welfare Committee, Beeson said he had made an “honest mistake” during past hearings in saying he had no plans to return to his former job. The Corporation President Paul L. Davies testified that Beeson had been given a one-year leave of absence from the firm, and Beeson added he would give up his pension rights with the firm if that would “make the Democrats happier.” Several union representatives also testified in opposition to the appointment. The Committee approved the nomination on a strict party-line vote (R 7-0; D 0-6). (See Labor)Earl Warren.
March 1, confirmed unanimously as Chief Justice of the United States. Former Republican Governor of California. A Judiciary Subcommittee headed by Sen. William Langer (R N.D.) approved the nomination after placing in the public record a 10-point summary of “charges” made against Warren during hearings. These included allegations that Warren had been connected with a liquor lobbyist and that he lacked judicial experience. The full Committee voted 12-3 to approve the nomination. Opposed were Democrats Johnston (S.C.), Kilgore (W. Va.), and Eastland (Miss.).Trevor Gardner.
Aug. 18 nomination as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force was recommitted to the Armed Services Committee on motion of Majority Leader Knowland (R Calif.). The Committee had approved his nomination Aug. 17. Republican opposition was linked to Gardner's reported interest in the defense of atomic scientist, J. Robert Oppenheimer. Gardner was subsequently confirmed Feb. 28, 1955 by voice vote.
While the Senate was in post-election session to consider the Watkins Committee censure recommendations against Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.), the President sent several appointments to the Senate for its advice and consent. Action on three of these was delayed when Democratic leaders decided to block consideration of controversial nominations during the extended session. The three nominees were: John Marshall Harlan, nominated to the Supreme Court (see 1955 action below); George C. McConnaughey, nominated to be chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, and John von Neumann, nominated for membership on the Atomic Energy Commission. Both McConnaughey and von Neumann were confirmed as Commissioners March 14, 1955 by voice vote.1955John Marshall Harlan.
March 16 confirmed as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by a roll-call vote of 71-11 (D 32-9; R 39-2). Opponents said Harlan lacked “judicial experience” and, because he belonged to the advisory board of Atlantic Union, was “not in favor of America first.” Sen. James O. Eastland (D Miss.) opposed the nomination but denied allegations that opposition by Southern Senators stemmed from concern over the Supreme Court's position on segregation.John A. Hall.
July 29 confirmed as Director of Locomotive Inspection for the Interstate Commerce Commission by a 43-41 roll-call vote (D 8-35; R 35-6). The Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee July 20 adversely reported the nomination. Hall was supported by the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (Ind.), of which he was a member, but opposed by the Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen (Ind.) and the International Assn. of Machinists (AFL). In debate, Sen. Warren G. Magnuson (D Wash.) pointed out that in the 1952 Presidential election, although most of the railway unions supported the Democratic ticket, Hall's union supported President Eisenhower. He charged that the nomination was a political payoff.Harold C. Patterson.
Aug. 2 confirmed as a member of the Securities and Exchange Commission by a roll-call vote of 49-29 (D 12-28; R 37-1). Under existing law, three members of the SEC were required to be from the majority political party and two from the [Page 108a] minority. Patterson, a Virginian who voted for Mr. Eisenhower in 1952, was nominated to fill a Democratic vacancy on the SEC for a term ending in June 1960. Democrats objected to the nomination on the grounds that an Eisenhower Democrat was not a “true Democrat.” Sen. Wayne Morse (D Ore.) said Congress was witnessing “under the Eisenhower Administrationa breakdown of the two-party system with respect to independent agencies.”1956William E. Dowling and James Weldon Jones.
March 13 confirmed as Democratic members of the Tariff Commission by a 92-0 roll-call vote (D 46-0; R 46-0). Dowling and Jones were already Tariff Commission members. Jones' nomination to fill a vacancy for a term ending June 16, 1957, had been confirmed by the Senate June 14, 1955. On July 28, Mr. Eisenhower nominated Jones for a term that would end in 1961 and picked Dowling for the term ending in 1957. The Senate did not act on the nominations before the 1955 session adjourned and on Aug. 22 Dowling was given a recess appointment for the longer term. The President Jan. 9, 1956 resubmitted the nominations, again proposing that the two switch terms. Despite misgivings expressed by some Democrats about the “unprecedented” switching, the nominations were approved unanimously.Simon E. Sobeloff.
July 16 confirmed as U.S. circuit judge of the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals by a roll-call vote of 64-19 (D 29-15; R 36-4). A recommittal motion by Sen. Johnson (D S.C.) was rejected on a 20-63 roll call. Nominated July 14, 1955, Sobeloff was not confirmed until after several months of hearings in 1956. Opposition came from Southerners who questioned Sobeloff's fitness because of his 1955 role in Supreme Court hearings on implementing the school integration decision. Sen. A. Willis Robertson (D Va.) said he was “a man known to be prejudiced” against the South.Paul G. Hoffman.
July 20 confirmed as U.S. representative to the 11th session of the United Nations General Assembly by a roll-call vote of 64-22 (D 37-6; R 27-16). Former board chairman of Studebaker-Packard Corp. and Administrator of the Economic Cooperation Administration from 1948—50. Controversy over his ECA policies which, Sen. Russell (D Ga.) said, “set a pattern of waste and extravagance.” Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) said he “allowed himself to be used as a 'transmission belt' for the spreading of the most blatant variety of Communist propaganda” and Sen. Jenner (R Ind.) accused him of aiding the “corruption of public opinion in the U.S. and the undermining of its power to meet the Communist danger.”1957Ralph W. Zwicker.
April 1 promotion to permanent rank of brigadier general and temporary rank of major general in the Army confirmed by a roll-call vote of 70-2 (D 35-0; R 35-2). Opposed by Sens. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) and George W. Malone (R Nev.). During the Army-McCarthy hearings in 1954, McCarthy had called Zwicker “a Fifth-Amendment Communist” who was “not fit to wear” a general's uniform. (See Investigations)Scott McLeod.
May 9 confirmed as Ambassador to Ireland on a 60-20 roll call (D 18-20; R 42-0). A recommittal motion by Sen. Joseph S. Clark (D Pa.) was rejected May 8 by a 22-54 roll-call vote. Former Administrator of the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs in the State Department. Reportedly campaigned for Republicans in the 1954 election. Clark said that McLeod's security methods were objectionable, that he was not sympathetic with the refugee program he administered and that he had engaged in partisan politics while in office. (See McLeod's role in the 1953 nomination of Charles E. Bohlen as Ambassador to the Soviet Union, above.)Jerome K. Kuykendall.
Aug. 15 confirmed reappointment to the Federal Power Commission for a five-year term ending June 22, 1962, by a roll call of 5-25 (D 14-23; R 36-2). Chairman of the FPC. Opposed by public power groups and some Democrats who claimed Kuykendall was subservient to private power companies. (See Public Power)Don Paarlberg.
Aug. 15 confirmed as Assistant Secretary of Agriculture by a 42-32 roll call (D 7-30; R 35-2). Assistant to Agriculture Secretary Ezra Taft Benson beginning in January 1953, serving as economic adviser and speech writer. Opposed by Democrats who disagreed with Administration farm policies. Sens. Humphrey (D Minn.) and Symington (D Mo.) claimed Paarlberg was against family-sized farms and the price-support program. Humphrey called him “the economic apologist for the Administration's gross mismanagement of the farm program.” (See Agriculture)1958Gordon M. Tiffany.
May 14 confirmed as staff director of the newly created Civil Rights Commission by a 67-13 roll-call vote (D 30-13; R 37-0). Former New Hampshire Attorney General (R). Opposed by Southern Democrats. During debate, Sen. Eastland (D Miss.) said Tiffany had “no experience in racial matters and bybackground lacks the skill to handle them.”William Wilson White.
Aug. 18 confirmed as Assistant Attorney General in charge of the civil rights division of the Justice Department by a roll call of 56-20 (D 20-18; R 36-2). The division was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1957. While working in the Justice Department in 1957, White had written a memorandum which served as the basis of the President's decision to send federal troops to Little Rock, Ark., during the school desegregation dispute. One of the opposing Southern Democrats, Sen. Strom Thurmond (D S.C.) said, “Either Mr. White is lacking in the understanding of the constitutional lawor else his bias in favor of racial integration is so strong that he is able to overlook the law.”1959Christian A. Herter.
April 21 confirmed as Secretary of State by a 93-0 roll-call vote (D 60-0; R 33-0). Herter succeeded John Foster Dulles who resigned April 15 because of illness.Mrs. Clare Booth Luce.
April 28 confirmed as Ambassador to Brazil by a roll-call vote of 79-11 (D 46-11; R 33-0). Former Republican Congresswoman from Connecticut (1943—47) and Ambassador to Italy (1953—56). Criticized for a 1944 campaign speech in which she said President Roosevelt “lied us into war.” Opposition led by Sen. Wayne Morse (D Ore.) who said the nomination was an example of the Eisenhower Administration's “practice of paying off political hacks” with diplomatic appointments. After the confirmation vote, Mrs. Luce said, “My difficulties, of course, go back some years when Sen. Wayne Morse was kicked in the head by a horse.” Several Senators, reacting strongly against her remarks, said they regretted their votes in favor of confirmation. Mrs. Luce May 1 offered her resignation. In it she said that she could expect “continuing harassment” if she accepted the Brazil post.Potter Stewart.
May 5 confirmed as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by a 70-17 roll call (D 42-17; R 28-0). All opponents were Southern Democrats. Opposition did not center on Stewart directly, but concentrated on the Supreme Court's 1954 segregation decision and states' rights.Ogden R. Reid.
June 4 confirmed as Ambassador to Israel by voice vote. Reid, 33 years old, was former publisher of the New York Herald Tribune. Opposed by Foreign Relations Committee Chairman J.W. Fulbright (D Ark.) and several other Democrats on the Committee because of his youth and inexperience. Reid denied charges that he was using the post as a stepping-stone in his political career.Lewis L. Strauss.
June 19 rejected as Secretary of Commerce by a roll-call vote of 46-49 (D 15-47; R 31-2). First time since 1925 that a cabinet appointee was rejected by the Senate. Former financier, World War II admiral, member of the Atomic Energy Commission (1946—50) and chairman of the AEC (1953—58). Acting Secretary of Commerce since his Nov. 13 recess appointment to succeed Sinclair Weeks. Opposed by Democrats for his role in (1) the Dixon-Yates power contract, viewed by public power advocates as an attempt to undermine the Tennessee Valley Authority; (2) the J. Robert Oppenheimer security problem; (3) the shipping of radioactive isotopes to Europe for medical purposes; and (4) alleged withholding of information, while chairman of the AEC, from Congressional committees and the public. Another more general point was the difference between Strauss' “conservative” approach to government and the more liberal approach of his opponents.
The Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee held intermittent hearings on the nomination from March 17—May 14. Dr. David R. Inglis, chairman of the Federation of American Scientists, said that Strauss, in the 1954 Oppenheimer case, had acted with “personal vindictiveness” and had “deliberately dragged in the dirt” the concept of intellectual freedom. He also charged that Strauss had “substantial defects of character” and as AEC chairman had shown a “narrow dedicationto the single-track approach of modern weaponry with no toleration for negotiations as a parallel track toward future security.” Sen. Clinton P. Anderson, chairman of the Joint Atomic Energy Committee and leader of the fight against Strauss, accused him of withholding important information from the Committee, of timing a press release on the “clean bomb” atomic tests to maximize publicity, and of seeking to “create myths about his accomplishments.” Anderson also said Strauss had told an “unqualified falsehood” in testifying May 1 that, in effect, he had not in 1949 opposed shipment of radioactive isotopes to Europe. He said the 1949 date was “phony” because the decision to make the shipment had actually been taken in 1947 by a 4-1 AEC vote, with Strauss opposed. During the hearings, Strauss denied the accusations. He was supported and defended by Dr. Edward Teller, “father of the H-bomb”, Dr. Detlev W. Bronk, president of the National Academy of Sciences and of the Rockefeller Institute, and by Republican Senators.
The Committee May 19 voted 9-8 to recommend confirmation. The majority report said that Strauss fully met the major requirements for a cabinet officer and that testimony adverse to the nomination stemmed mainly from differences with his “judgment and philosophy, or from inferred affronts to personal or official dignity.” Minority views, signed by Democrats, said that Strauss, “partly on evidence as to his past record, but mostly on the basis of his conduct” before the Committee, was “lacking in the degree of integrity and competence essential to proper performance” as Secretary of Commerce. They charged him with numerous “untruths.”
Senate Majority Leader Johnson (D Texas) May 20 announced the Democratic leadership would take no formal position on the nomination. Minority Leader Dirksen (R Ill.) May 26 predicted that Strauss would be confirmed and President Eisenhower June 17 told his news conference he was going to “use every single influence” he had to win confirmation. On June 19 the Senate rejected the nomination with two Republicans, William Langer (N.D.) and Margaret Chase Smith (Maine), joining 47 Democrats in opposition to the nominee. Strauss June 30 formally resigned as Secretary of Commerce and Frederick H. Mueller Aug. 6 was confirmed by voice vote to take his place.1960James R. Durfee.
April 20 confirmed as a judge of the U.S. Court of Claims by a roll call of 69-15 (D 38-15; R 31-0). Former Civil Aeronautics Board chairman (1956—1960). Opposition led by Sen. Proxmire (D Wis.) who charged that Durfee lacked the necessary experience and had “flagrantly violated” the CAB code of ethics by accepting invitations from airlines to be their guest at Pinehurst, N.C., in 1956 and on inaugural flights to Mexico City and Rome [Page 110a] in 1957. In approving the nomination March 7 (Exec Rept 3), the Judiciary Committee said the practices criticized by Proxmire were “an integral part” of a CAB member's functions.Maj. Gen. John S. Bragdon (ret.).
June 23 confirmed as a member of the Civil Aeronautics Board by a roll-call vote of 73-18 (D 40-18; R 33-0). Opposed by Sens. Engle (D Calif.), Carroll (D Colo.) and McGee (D Wyo.) who argued that federal regulatory agencies' top administrative positions were becoming overstaffed with retired officers. McGee said retired military men lacked “the mental orientation to take on these civilian regulatory agency jobs and run those agencies as they should be run.”Vice Admiral Ralph E. Wilson.
(Scheduled to retire June 30). June 23 confirmed as member of the Federal Maritime Board by a 68-19 roll-call vote (D 36-19; R 32-0). Opposed by the same Senators who opposed Bragdon, and for the same reasons. Carroll said, “The real issue here is supremacy of the civilians over the military.”Robert E. Lee.
June 23 confirmed as Federal Communications Commissioner for a second term by a roll-call vote of 64-19 (D 32-19; R 32-0). FCC Commissioner since 1954 (see 1954 nomination above). Renomination opposed by Sen. Proxmire (D Wis.) who said that Lee's record was reflected in the FCC's lack of action in regulating television and radio industries in the public interest. Minority Leader Dirksen (R Ill.) said Lee was a “good, able, aggressive, competent public servant.”Timothy J. Murphy.
Nomination as member of the Interstate Commerce Commission never reached the floor of the Senate, although the Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee voted 11-5 to recommend confirmation. Dispute arose because, under existing law, no more than six of the 11 ICC positions could be filled by members of one party, and the GOP already had six commissioners. Although Murphy was nominated as a Democrat and he said he was a Democrat, he had seconded the nomination of Vice President Richard M. Nixon at the 1956 GOP convention. Committee Democrats said the question of affiliation alone should disqualify Murphy.1961Robert C. Weaver.
Feb. 9 confirmed as Administrator of the Housing and Home Finance Agency by voice vote. Weaver, a Negro, had held high positions in federal and New York state and city housing programs and prior to his nomination was national chairman of the National Assn. for the Advancement of Colored People. During hearings before the Banking and Currency Committee, Southerners criticized Weaver's “extreme views” in favor of racially integrated housing, and added that he regarded federal programs as an instrument to further integration. Sen. Eastland (D Miss.) described him as a “man who has a pro-Communist background.” The Committee Feb. 8 voted 11-4 to recommend confirmation, with three Southern Democrats and one Republican — Wallace F. Bennett (Utah) — opposed.Charles M. Meriwether.
March 8 confirmed as a director of the Export-Import Bank by a roll-call vote of 67-18 (D 48-8; R 19-10). A recommittal motion by Sen. Javits (R N.Y.) was rejected March 7 on an 18-66 roll call. Javits and Sen. Morse (D Ore.) said Meriwether, who was from Alabama, was unqualified because of his segregationist views, past political dealings with the Ku Klux Klan and lack of banking experience. Supporters said he was being unjustly accused of “guilt by association.”Wilbur J. Cohen.
April 6 confirmed as Assistant Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare by a standing vote of 4-3. Sen. Carl T. Curtis (R Neb.) opposed Cohen's advocacy of Social Security medical benefits that would require tax increases. Majority Leader Mansfield (D Mont.) said no roll call had been requested because so many Members were absent during Easter week, and added he had learned that only three Senators opposed the nomination.Julius C. Holmes.
May 8 confirmed as Ambassador to Iran by a 63-17 roll-call vote (D 48-2; R 15-15). Opposition to Holmes, a career diplomat, was based on his profitable involvement in the acquisition and sale of U.S. war-surplus tankers from 1947—51. Holmes, during a Congressional investigation in 1952, said he did not intentionally violate a U.S. law prohibiting resale of tankers for use by foreign nations. President Eisenhower had named Holmes to the same post in 1955, but similar opposition had been expressed and Holmes had requested that his name be withdrawn.Howard Morgan.
June 13 confirmed as member of the Federal Power Commission by a 57-27 roll-call vote (D 55-1; R 2-26). Controversy centered on Morgan's failure to list two minor arrests in 1936 and 1937 on federal employment applications and personnel forms. Sen. Scott (R Pa.) termed Morgan a “liar and perjurer” for failing to mention the arrests.Joseph C. Swidler.
June 14 confirmed as member of the FPC by voice vote. Opposed by private power supporters because of Swidler's previous experience as a Tennessee Valley Authority official. Debate centered on President Kennedy's Jan. 28 announcement of his intention to appoint Swidler chairman of the FPC. Minority Leader Dirksen (R Ill.) said he would oppose any attempt to unseat FPC chairman Jerome K. Kuykendall before the expiration of his term June 22, 1962. Swidler replaced Kuykendall as chairman Sept. 1, 1961.Lawrence J. O'Connor Jr.
Aug. 9 confirmed as member of the FPC by a roll-call vote of 83-12 (D 49-12; R 34-0). Former oil company executive and Administrator of the Oil Import Administration. Criticized by Sen. Proxmire (D Wis.) who said that his close association with oil and gas industries presented a conflict of interest.Frank D. Reeves.
Nomination to be a District of Columbia Commissioner withdrawn June 28 by President Kennedy. Former White House special assistant and D.C. Democratic Committeeman. Testimony [Page 111a] before the District of Columbia Committee showed that eight tax liens had been filed against Reeves, that he had filed his 1952 income tax return four years late and had mailed his 1960 return in June 1961. Reeves requested that his name be withdrawn. On July 20 John B. Duncan was confirmed by voice vote for a three-year term as one of the three District Commissioners. Duncan, like Reeves, was a Negro — the first to serve as a D.C. Commissioner.Spottswood Robinson III.
July 27 confirmed as a member of the Civil Rights Commission. Robinson, a Negro, was dean of Howard University Law School and a counsel for the National Assn. for the Advancement of Colored People. Opposed by Southerners who said Robinson would serve as a judge in a cause for which he had been an advocate.Maj. General Hal Williams..
Promotion to rank of brigadier general in the U.S. Army Reserve confirmed Aug. 24 by a roll call of 45-37 (D 45-8; R 0-29). A recommittal motion by Sen. Margaret Chase Smith (R Maine) was rejected on a 37-46 roll-call vote. Williams in January had been named state adjutant general of the West Virginia Army National Guard by Gov. W.W. Barron (D W.Va.) and therefore, under state law, gained the state rank of brigadier general. The adjutant general of a state may, upon being given federal recognition, be appointed as a Reserve officer of the Army. Mrs. Smith opposed the jump in rank, because she said, Williams lacked the needed military experience and qualifications.1962John A. McCone.
Jan. 31 confirmed as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency by a roll-call vote of 71-12 (D 43-10; R 28-2). McCone, a Republican, was formerly Under Secretary of the Air Force (1950—51) and Atomic Energy Commission chairman (1958—Jan. 20-1961). Opposition centered on (1) contentions that his foreign policy views were too little known to justify confirmation for such a sensitive post, (2) a possible conflict of interest in McCone's failure to divest himself of $1 million in oil and shipping stock, and (3) allegations (which he denied) that he had tried to get 10 California Institute of Technology professors fired in 1956 because they favored a moratorium on nuclear testing.Harold C. Woodward.
March 28 confirmed by voice vote as a member of the Federal Power Commission for the remaining three months (ending June 22, 1962) of the term of Jerome K. Kuykendall, who had resigned. Subsequently, on June 20, he was confirmed to a full five-year term on the FPC, also by voice vote. Several Northern Democrats criticized his performance as a member of the Illinois Commerce Commission, particularly his failure to give up stock in a utility subject to regulation.Matthew H. McCloskey.
July 12 confirmed as Ambassador to Ireland by voice vote after a recommittal motion by Sen. John J. Williams (R Del.) was rejected on a roll call of 30-62 (D 0-61; R 30-1). McCloskey was treasurer of the Democratic National Committee from 1955 to 1962. Williams said the Foreign Relations Committee had not given thorough consideration to McCloskey's alleged connections with a 1946 Florida surplus shipyard disposal deal. Williams said an associate of McCloskey apparently received favored treatment in the Florida deal after a $25,000 payoff was made to a Maritime Commission employee. Sen. Sparkman (D Ala.) said McCloskey had no connection with the matter.Thurgood Marshall.
Sept. 11 confirmed as a judge of the U.S. Second Circuit Court of Appeals (New York) by a 54-16 roll-call vote (D 30-16; R 24-0). All “nays” were from Southern Democrats. Marshall, a Negro, was former chief counsel for the National Assn. for the Advancement of Colored People's Legal Defense and Educational Fund.1963Bill D. Moyers.
Feb. 19 confirmed by voice vote as Deputy Director of the Peace Corps. Sen. Lausche (D Ohio) contended that Moyers was “completely lacking in experience” and that the appointment was “a political plum and nothing else.”Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr.
March 25 confirmed as Under Secretary of Commerce by voice vote. Sen. Prouty (R Vt.) objected that he lacked “the experience, the administrative ability and the sense of public and personal responsibility” for the position.Satellite Incorporators.
The Senate April 25 confirmed by voice vote President Kennedy's nomination of 14 incorporators of the private Communications Satellite Corp. There was no opposition to the incorporators themselves, but before approving the nominations the Senate, by a roll-call vote of 75-15 (D 42-15; R 33-0), rejected a point of order raised by Sens. Morse (D Ore.) and Nelson (D Wis.) that the Senate lacked constitutional authority to confirm incorporators or directors of a private business enterprise.
There were no controversial nominations made by President Johnson in 1964.
Review of Major Supreme Court Cases, 1945—1964
CASES that are decided by the Supreme Court are, by definition, important. To distill out the “especially important” decisions entails a good measure of subjective judgment.
The editors used a dual standard in selecting the decisions which they considered to be of particular significance: First, they considered the impact of the case on the existing state of the law; that is, its influence on the “legal system” as such. Secondly, they took into account the public attention with which the decision was received. (This, for example, led to the inclusion of cases involving the Rosenbergs and Dave Beck.) Sometimes, but not always, both of these tests pointed to inclusion of cases in this review.
Those cases which dealt with a particularly esoteric branch of the law (e.g., Admiralty, federal tort claims, and Interstate Commerce Commission rate cases) were, for the most part, omitted.
A tabulation, by year and by subject matter, of the cases found below shows:
Thus it is seen that there is a preponderance of civil rights and liberties decisions (especially those involving criminal due process and racial discrimination), and a large number of labor and antitrust decisions.
The Supreme Court begins each term in October and ends it in the following June. Thus, in the headings below, “1945—46 Term” means the term which begins in October 1945 and ends in June of 1946.
Citations after the case names refer to the United States Supreme Court Reports. 345 U.S. 234 means Volume 345 of the Reports, page 234. The numbers in parentheses indicate the Court's vote on the case. When the vote is different on separate parts of a case, it is noted in the text.1945—46 Term
(Editor's Note: Justice Jackson did not participate in these cases due to his presence at the Nuremberg war crime trials.)
International Shoe v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310 (7-1), Dec. 3, 1945
In this case, a Delaware corporation selling through salesmen in the state of Washington was brought into a Washington court by service upon the local salesmen and the sending of a registered mail notice to the home office. This procedure, said the Court, was consistent with due process in subjecting the Delaware corporation to the jurisdiction of Washington courts. Thus an out-of-state corporation employing only salesmen in a certain state has enough “presence” in that state to be subject to jurisdiction.
Marsh v. Alabama, 326 U.S. 501 (5-3), Jan. 7, 1946
A state cannot impose criminal penalties for distributing religious literature in a privately owned company town where the distribution is done in violation of the town's regulations. This case represents an application of the 14th Amendment to the most minimal sort of state action, involving private property; and could be viewed as an omen of things to come.
New York v. United States, 326 U.S. 572 (6-2), Jan. 14, 1946
The fact that a mineral water business was operated by the state of New York did not serve to confer immunity from federal taxation on it. This case restricted the doctrine of state immunity from federal taxation to those sources of revenue “uniquely capable of being earned” by a state.
In Re Yamashita, 327 U.S. 1 (6-2), Feb. 4, 1946
The Court here sustained the trial and conviction by a military tribunal of a Japanese general for violation of the law of war. The Court indicated that its scope of review was narrowly limited to a question of jurisdiction and accordingly questions of evidence and procedure could not be raised.
Private Property Rights
United States v. Causby, 328 U.S. 256 (6-2), May 27, 1946
This case held that where military airplanes flew at low altitudes over a farm and interfered with the normal enjoyment of the property, there was a “taking” of the property by the government and therefore the owner could receive compensation. The case was novel in that it represented the first decision on this question; moreover, the result was of great significance in light of the substantial increase in air traffic and the eventual appearance of jet aircraft.
Colegrove v. Green, 328 U.S. 549, June 10, 1946
Citizens of Illinois brought suit against the state to invalidate the current system of apportionment, as it involved the election of Representatives to Congress. The citizens complained that there was inequality in the apportionment. The majority of the voting court (seven members) held that the particular act of Congress made no requirement of equality and that in any event the case involved a political question which was not a proper subject for judicial determination. As the Court was reluctant to enter the “political thicket,” this case put an end to apportionment litigation for the time being — until 1962 when it was practically overruled.
Morgan v. Commonwealth, 328 U.S. 373 (7-1), June 3, 1946
A Negro was convicted by a state court for refusing to move to the back of a bus where segregated seating was in effect. Since the bus was traveling in interstate commerce, the Court held that the state's conviction could not stand. The theory of the case was that at least where interstate commerce is involved, bus seating is a matter requiring uniform rules; otherwise the constant shifting of seats and rearrangement will burden interstate commerce.
American Tobacco Company v. United States, 328 U.S. 781 (6-0), June 10, 1946
In a monopoly prosecution under the Sherman Act, the Government need not prove that the defendant actually excluded competitors from the market; it is enough if the defendant had the power to exclude. This was the first time the Court had ruled on the question and the result of the case was to somewhat ease the Government's burden of proof in antitrust cases.
Commissioner v. Wilcox, 327 U.S. 404 (7-1), Feb. 25, 1946
The Court held that embezzled funds were not taxable. (This case, later strictly construed and finally overruled, threatened for a time to put a serious crimp in the curtailment of organized illegal activities via tax-evasion prosecutions.)1946—47 Term
United States v. California, 332 U.S. 19 (6-2), June 23, 1947
This case established that the Federal Government, and not the state, owned the rights in soil lying beneath the sea adjoining the state. It was thought at the time that as a result of the decision the United States would come into ownership of all the valuable off-shore oil lands. (See Alabama v. Texas, 1954, and United States v. Louisiana, 1950.)
Criminal Due Process
Adamson v. California, 332 U.S. 46 (5-4), June 23, 1947
This case involved the privilege against self-incrimination, and a California rule which permitted the court to comment on the defendant's failure to take the stand in his own behalf. The Supreme Court permitted the rule to stand, and thus settled, for the time being, the question whether under the 14th Amendment states were required to effect all the guarantees of the Bill of Rights insofar as criminal cases are concerned. As a result the Court was left to decide on a case-by-case basis just what guarantees the state did have to observe.
Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1 (5-4), Feb. 10, 1947
This was the first case in which the Court gave thorough consideration to the 1st Amendment religious clause. Here the Court held that a state might properly spend public funds for the transportation of school children — including those who go to parochial schools. In the process the Court held that states were bound by the religion clause of the Amendment.
United States v. United Mine Workers, 330 U.S. 258, March 6, 1947
This famous case arose as a result of the Government's having seized coal mines under the War Labor Disputes Act. After the seizure, the Government obtained an injunction which, in effect, prohibited a strike by the UMW. By a vote of 5-4, the Supreme Court upheld the injunction on the theory that under applicable statutes, the normal rules against enjoining strikes do not apply where the Government is the employer.
In another significant aspect to this case, the Court reasoned, by a vote of 7-2, that even if there were no authority for the issuance of the injunction, still the question was not so clearly frivolous that the union could disobey the injunction freely. In other words, disobedience of an injunction is contempt of court, even if it later appears that there was no jurisdiction to issue the order. This result had obvious importance not only in labor matters but also in any case involving the disobedience of court orders.
Freeman v. Hewitt, 329 U.S. 249 (6-3), Dec. 16, 1946
The Court held that the state of Indiana could not impose a tax on a citizen's income where that income was derived from the sale of stock on the New York exchange. The theory was that such a tax would have amounted to a direct tax on interstate commerce.1947—48 Term
United States v. United States Gypsum Company, 333 U.S. 364 (8-0), March 8, 1948
United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., 334 U.S. 131 (8-0 on issues here discussed), May 3, 1948
These two cases established that holders of patents or copyright cannot regiment an entire industry by granting licenses on the patented or copyrighted items where the licenses contain price-fixing agreements. The Paramount case was also of significance to the business world and the general public because it struck down many practices on the part of several large motion picture companies — such as restrictions on the time when later-run theaters could show films; licensing films on the condition that other films be shown; discrimination between large and small exhibitors; and control of admission prices to be charged.
McCollum v. Board of Education, 333 U.S. 203 (8-1), March 8, 1948
The religious instruction of public school pupils in public school buildings during school time was held to be unconstitutional.
F.T.C. v. Morton Salt Co., 334 U.S. 37 (7-2) May 3, 1948
A company gave quantity discounts and the F.T.C. charged that the practice, where not justified by certain defenses, amounted to discriminatory pricing under the Robinson-Patman Act. The company tried to defend on the ground that the discounts were available to all buyers. The Court rejected this contention, holding that as a practical matter, no small buyer could purchase enough of the product to be entitled to the discount. The result of the case was that quantity discounts are illegal — unless, of course, justified under other provisions.
Sipeul v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma, 332 U.S. 631 (unan.), Jan. 12, 1948
A state may not deny a Negro admission to its state law school on the basis of color.
Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1 (6-0), May 3, 1948
This landmark case held that a state court could not, consistent with the 14th Amendment, enforce racially restrictive covenants. The agreements were among private parties, but it was the use of the state court which constituted state action under the Amendment and it was that action which was forbidden. This case was significant not only because of the subject matter — restrictive covenants — but also because of its obvious implications as to state courts dealing in other forms of private racial discrimination.
United States v. C.I.O., 335 U.S. 106 (5-4), June 21, 1948
Here the Court avoided deciding the constitutionality of a provision of the Taft-Hartley Act prohibiting political contributions or expenditures of union funds. (The case had obvious political significance.)
Mandeville Island Farms v. American Crystal Sugar Co., 334 U.S. 219 (7-2), May 10, 1948
In this case the Court applied the Sherman Act to a price-fixing agreement on the part of local sugar refiners purchasing from local growers. Thus, local activities which affect interstate commerce were brought under the coverage of the Act.1948—49 Term
Criminal Due Process
Wolf v. Colorado, 338 U.S. 25 (6-3), June 27, 1949
Held that evidence seized pursuant to an illegal search and seizure could nonetheless be introduced in a state prosecution; that is, that while the 4th Amendment of the Constitution forbade the seizure, the Constitution did not forbid the use of illegally obtained evidence at trial. This case was significant in that it diluted the constitutional protection afforded against illegal search and seizures, leaving it up to the states to adopt effective sanctions. (It was later reversed by Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 1961.)
MacDougall v. Green, 335 U.S. 281 (5-4), Oct. 21, 1948
The Progressive party had attacked an Illinois statute requiring that an elective candidate, in order to obtain ballot space, submit a petition with 25,000 signatories so that 50 counties were represented with at least 200 signatures each. The Court rejected the charge that this requirement was so discriminatory as to violate the due process, equal protection, and privileges and immunities clauses of the 14th Amendment. This case was significant because the Court entertained the controversy on the merits, refusing to dismiss it summarily as a “political question” (see Colegrove v. Green, 1946). Thus, the door was open to further challenges against state election practices and rules.
Giboney v. Empire Storage & Ice, 336 U.S. 490, (unan.) April 4, 1949
Held that a state could enjoin picketing which violated a state antitrust law without abridging the 1st Amendment's guarantee of the right to free speech. Marked the [Page 117a] first time the Black-Douglas-Reed bloc voted to uphold an injunction against picketing, since Thornhill v. Alabama, 310 U.S. 88 (1940).
International Union, U.A.W.A., AFL, Local 232 v. Wisconsin Employment Relations Board (also known as the “Briggs & Stratton Corp. case”), 336 U.S. 245 (5-4), Feb. 28, 1949
Held that a state could impose restraints on employee practices (in this case, work stoppages) where the Taft-Hartley Act neither specifically sanctioned nor proscribed them.
Standard Oil v. United States, 337 U.S. 293 (6-3), June 13, 1949
Court used what became known as “quantitative substantiality” test in outlawing under the Clayton Act (Section 3) an exclusive-dealing contract between an oil company and independent retailers, requiring the latter to handle only Standard's products as a condition to doing business. The Court, finding that the arrangement covered a substantial area of commerce, thereby concluded that it necessarily tended to substantially lessen competition, within the meaning of the Act. This case made it easier for the Government to act against exclusive dealerships.1949—50 Term
Criminal Due Process
United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56 (5-3), Feb. 20, 1950
This case expanded the right of police officers to make seizures of property without a search warrant, by holding that a “reasonable” search and seizure of property incident to a valid arrest (here there was an arrest, though not a search warrant) was permissible.
Sweatt v. Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (unan.), June 5, 1950
Held that a state cannot bar admission to a state law school to a Negro on the premise that there was a Negro law school available to the complainant. The court found that the facilities of the Negro school were unequal, and therefore the 14th Amendment was abridged in denying entrance to the white school. This case marked a prominent inroad into the heretofore accepted “separate but equal” doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 339 U.S. 637 (unan.) June 5, 1950
Going beyond Sweatt v. Painter, the Court held that having admitted a Negro to its graduate law school it could not deny him the right to freely use all the facilities therein, including the library and the lunchroom.
Private Property Rights
Mullane v. Central Hanover Bank & Trust, 339 U.S. 307 (7-1), April 24, 1950
Held that notice of a lawsuit given to the defendants by publication in a case involving property (as opposed to personal rights) may be adequate where these parties are unknown, but where names and addresses are known, there must be personal service.
United States v. Cumberland Public Service, 338 U.S. 451 (unan.), Jan. 9, 1950
This decision, in effect overturning a previous important case (Commissioner v. Court Holding Co., 1945), held that the sale by corporate shareholders of property which they had received pursuant to a corporate liquidation was not necessarily also a sale by the corporation, so as to entail the imposition of income taxes at both the corporate and individual levels. The decision in this case resulted in a provision in the 1954 Internal Revenue Code, which afforded corporations the privilege of making tax-free sales of property if done pursuant to a plan of liquidation. (Thus the need to worry about the Cumberland - Court Holding conflict was done away with.)
Private Property Rights
United States v. Live Stock, 339 U.S. 725 (unan.), June 5, 1950
Held that the taking of Western water rights by the Federal Government, under the Reclamation Act, had to be paid for since the confiscation was not necessarily for navigation (which is a non-compensable appropriation) but for other purposes (irrigation, flood control, water power, etc.).1950—51 Term
Standard Oil Co. v. F.T.C., 340 U.S. 231 (6-3), Jan. 8, 1951
Robinson-Patman Act liberally interpreted so as to permit a supplier to lower its prices to certain customers (that is, to effect price differentials) in order to meet competition, even though “competitive injury” might result.
Schwegmann Brothers v. Calvert Distillers, 341 U.S. 384, May 21, 1951
Most states had enacted fair-trade laws, whereby minimum-price resale agreements were legalized. The Miller-Tydings Act had given federal approval to such acts, even when applied to interstate commerce businesses. The state laws generally provided that non-contracting parties who had notice of the resale price agreements between distributors and their customers were also bound by the minimum-price proviso. This case held that to bind those non-contracting parties went beyond the Miller-Tydings Act, and would be violative of the antitrust laws. (Many felt that by outlawing these non-signor provisions the Supreme Court was heralding an end to fair-trade practices.)
Timken Roller Bearing v. United States, 341 U.S. 593 (5-2), June 4, 1951
Held that agreements between a parent corporation and its foreign subsidiaries to divide market territories and fix prices were combinations in restraint of trade in violation of the Sherman Act. (This decision was said to represent a possible deterrent to further investment abroad.)
Bus Employees v. Wisconsin Employment Relations Board, 340 U.S. 383 (6-3), Feb. 26, 1951
Held that state laws proscribing union activities (here, a strike against a public utility corporation) which had been accorded protection by the National Labor Relations Act (Section 7) were invalid. This case buttressed the doctrine of federal “preemption” in the labor law area.
Freedom of Association
Dennis v. United States, 341 U.S. 494 (6-2), June 4, 1951
In a widely publicized decision, the constitutionality of the Smith Act provision making it illegal to advocate overthrow of the government was upheld. The “clear and present danger” test was applied and broadened — immediacy of threat no longer critical.
Freedom of Association
Garner v. Los Angeles, 341 U.S. 716 (6-3), June 4, 1951
Held that a state or municipality may validly require a non-Communist affidavit from applicants for public employment, both as to present and past affiliation with the party, without crossing the constitutional prohibitions against bills of attainder and free-speech interference.
Feiner v. United States, 340 U.S. 315 (6-3), Jan. 15, 1951
Held it permissible to arrest a hostile, inflammatory public speaker (here, a champion of Negro rights inveighing against President Truman, the American Legion, etc.) where there was presented a “clear and present danger” of an incitement to riot.
Freedom of Association
Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee v. McGrath, 341 U.S. 123 (5-3), April 30, 1951
This case restricted the Attorney General's right to arbitrarily (without a hearing) designate a group as subversive, and subject it to the “Attorney General's list.”
Dean Milk Co. v. City of Madison, 340 U.S. 349 (6-3), Jan. 15, 1951
The decision invalidated a city ordinance preventing the sale of milk which had not been pasteurized within a 5-mile radius of the city, as posing an unequal burden (and therefore unconstitutional restraint) on interstate commerce.
Spector Motor Service, Inc., v. O'Connor, 340 U.S. 602 (6-3), March 26, 1951
A state tax imposed on enterprises for the “privilege of carrying on or doing business within the state” was struck down as violative of the commerce clause. (This decision emphasized the need to carefully designate the nomenclature of a state tax when applied to an interstate business; those taxes were usually valid where apportioned according to amount of business done in state, provided they were not called “privilege” taxes.)
Alabama Public Service Commission v. Southern Railway, 341 U.S. 341 (unan.), May 21, 1951
The Court affirmed a district court's refusal to review an order to state rate commission, which order was said to be confiscatory and in violation of due process clause, because the state Supreme Court should first have been given a chance to review. Here was a classic example of the exercise of judicial restraint, whereby federal power was willing to defer to a state the right of self-regulation.1951—52 Term
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (6-3), June 2, 1952
In one of the more dramatic decisions of recent times, the Court held that President Truman was not acting pursuant to statutory or constitutional power in putting the steel mills under federal control so as to avoid a nationwide strike of steelworkers. The Court held that this seizure of property during a period of semi-mobilization was not within the “executive” purview under Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution, nor within the reach of the “implementing” powers under Article II, Section 3. (Left open, however, was the possibility that under other circumstances the President's “emergency” powers might permit such an action.)
Freedom of Association
Harisiades v. Shaughnessy, 342 U.S. 580 (6-2), March 10, 1952
Held that it was constitutionally proper for Congress to legislate that past membership in the Communist party could be grounds for deportation of resident aliens. (“Due process” arguments were given less weight when urged on behalf of non-citizens.)
Freedom of Association
Adler v. Board of Education, 342 U.S. 485 (6-3), April 3, 1952
In another case signifying the Court's timely concern with the Communist menace, it was held that it was permissible for a state to attach a presumption of unfitness to a member of a “subversive” organization, so as to exclude him from public employment.
Beauharnais v. Illinois, 343 U.S. 250 (5-4), April 28, 1952
The liberal bloc of the Court had difficulty in deciding this case, in which the freedom from discrimination prevailed over freedom of speech as the Court found to be constitutional an Illinois statute which made the publication of inflammatory, discriminatory literature a criminal libel. (In this case, the usual “clear and present” danger was not invoked to justify the intrusion of free speech.)
Burstyn, Inc., v. Wilson, 343 U.S. 495 (unan.), May 26, 1952
Movies were given 1st Amendment protection, as the Court struck down a New York licensing statute under which permission to exhibit “The Miracle” had been rescinded, on the grounds that the movie was “sacrilegious.”
Freedom of Religion
Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306 (6-3), April 28, 1952
The Court, barely able to distinguish McCollum v. Board of Education, 333 U.S. 203 (1948), declared constitutional a “released time” religious program, wherein children were excused from school to attend religious instruction. (The Court found less coercion and school participation here than in McCollum.)
Freedom of Religion
Doremus v. Board of Education, 342 U.S. 429 (6-3), March 3, 1952
Parents of graduated students who were protesting against a New Jersey statute requiring Bible reading and the recitation of the Lord's Prayer were held to have no standing to protest, since they could show no measurable interest (pecuniary or otherwise) in the result of the controversy.
Criminal Due Process
Rochin v. California, 342 U.S. 165 (unan.), Jan. 2, 1952
Where evidence of narcotics was obtained through the forcible use of a stomach pump and used to convict the defendant, the Court found this police “conduct shocking to the conscience” and reversed the conviction. (Whether the search and seizure clause or the self-incrimination privilege was the basis for the Court's ruling was not entirely clear. It seemed that the Court looked to the general “feel” of the due process provisions of the 14th Amendment.)
Standard Oil v. Peck, 342 U.S. 382 (7-2), Feb. 4, 1952
The right to impose a property tax on river barges which were continually moving and which may have had a taxable situs in other states was denied the state of registration. This decision seemed to retreat from a prior holding in which the state of incorporation was allowed to impose such a tax on airplanes, there having been no showing that other states had yet taxed them; see Northwest Airlines, Inc., v. Minnesota, 322 U.S. 292 (1944).
Lorain Journal Co. v. U.S., 342 U.S. 143 (unan.) Dec. 11, 1951
The Court upheld the use of the Sherman Act to enjoin a town's dominant newspaper from boycotting prospective advertisers who also advertised at the radio station in a neighboring town. Thus, the anti-monopoly laws were used to inhibit the unrestrained power of the press.
Rutkin v. United States, 343 U.S. 130 (5-4), March 24, 1952
Somehow distinguishing Commissioner v. Wilcox, 327 U.S. 404 (1946) the Court held that income obtained from extortion practices is reportable (whereas embezzlement income in Wilcox was found to the contrary), and thus the conviction for tax evasion was upheld. (This decision opened the gates to a drive against organized crime through the tax-evasion route.)1952—53 Term
Shaughnessy v. United States ex rel Mizei, 345 U.S. 206 (5-4), March 16, 1953
An alien who had left this country temporarily was arbitrarily denied re-entry. He sought through a writ of habeas corpus to contest the Government's exclusionary order but was unsuccessful. Since Congress could regulate immigration under any terms, the Court said, it could exclude aliens who were no longer on U.S. soil without there being a denial of “due process.”
Terry v. Adams, 345 U.S. 461 (8-1) May 4, 1953
In this decision, the Court held that a segregated primary election held by a private association, by which candidates for state office were selected, nonetheless constituted state action so as to be violative of the 14th Amendment. (This case suggested that states cannot escape the effect of anti-discrimination mandates by turning over its normal functions, e.g., education, to private parties.)
Barrows v. Jackson, 346 U.S. 249 (6-1), June 15, 1953
This case extended the doctrine of Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1 (1948) in holding that the award of damages by a state court for the breach of a racially restrictive realty covenant constituted state action violative of the “equal protection” clause of the 14th Amendment.
District of Columbia v. Thompson, 346 U.S. 100 (unan.), June 8, 1953
In holding that restaurant anti-discrimination laws in Washington were valid municipal regulations, the Court helped end segregation in the District and also indicated that “home rule” within the District was constitutionally authorized.
Kedroff v. St. Nicholas Cathedral, 344 U.S. 94 (unan.), Nov. 24, 1952
When the New York state legislature attempted to legislate the property ownership and control of the Russian Orthodox Church, as between dissident factions, the Court held that this constituted an abridgment of the constitutional wall between church and state and, by depriving the church hierarchy of its autonomy, interfered with the free exercise of religion. Thus, once again the Court indicated its eagerness to preserve the safeguards of the 1st Amendment.
Times-Picayune Publishing Co. v. United States, 345 U.S. 594, (5-4), May 25, 1953
In this controversy a newspaper had “tied up” its advertisers by compelling them to advertise in both its morning and evening editions, one of which had a competitor. The Court permitted this tying arrangement, and in so doing seemed to loosen the criteria for establishing Sherman Act anti-monopolistic violations via this device.
American Newspaper Publishers' Association v. N.L.R.B., 345 U.S. 100 (6-3), March 9, 1953
Here the anti-featherbedding provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act were construed narrowly so as to prohibit only those “agreements” to pay where no work at all was being performed. The Court rejected the onus of weighing by judicial scrutiny the value of work done against the amounts being paid for it.
Steele v. Bulova Watch Co., 344 U.S. 280 (6-2), Dec. 22, 1952
Held that the Lanham (Federal Trademark) Act protects U.S. companies from infringement by American citizens in foreign countries. This extra-territorial extension of the Act significantly added to the protection of American enterprise.
United States v. Kahriger, 345 U.S. 22 (6-3), March 9, 1953
It was held here that an occupational tax imposed against gamblers was not an unconstitutional exercise of the federal taxing power, even though it had a built-in regulatory device (that of regulating gambling) which would ordinarily be beyond Congressional reach. The Court, in allowing a “selective-industry” tax, opened the way to greater federal control through the taxing power.
Rosenberg v. United States, 346 U.S. 273 (6-3), June 19, 1953
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg had been convicted and sentenced to death for conspiracy to violate the Espionage Act of 1917, in that they delivered secret information to a foreign government (USSR). On June 17, 1953, after repeated unsuccessful attacks on the sentences given in the lower court, Justice Douglas granted a last-minute stay of execution in order to allow the Supreme Court to pass on the contention that the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 had rendered the District Court powerless to impose a death penalty under the 1917 Act. The Attorney General then petitioned the Court to vacate the stay, and, following complicated, protracted reports of the proceedings, the stay was vacated (Justices Black, Douglas, Frankfurter dissenting) and the Rosenbergs promptly executed, on June 19, 1953.1953—54 Term
United States v. Harriss, 347 U.S. 612 (5-3), June 7, 1954
The Supreme Court, reversing a lower court decision, held that the Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946, which required registration by lobbyists, was constitutional, being neither too vague (in violation of due process) nor violative of the 1st Amendment's right to petition. The Court specified that the law was limited to “direct communication with Members of Congress,” a statement which resulted in fewer registrations.
Adams v. Maryland, 347 U.S. 179 (unan.), March 8, 1954
A federal immunity statute, providing that testimony given before a Congressional committee could not be used in court proceedings, was held to prevent state as well as federal courts from using that evidence. Thus, Congressional power to affect state court processes was upheld.
Galvan v. Press, 347 U.S. 522 (7-2), May 24, 1954
The Internal Security Act of 1950 provided for the deportation of resident aliens who had been a member of the Communist party after entering the country. The appellant here, claiming that he had been unaware of the party's advocacy of violence when he was a member, protested against his deportation as being in violation of due process. The Court dismissed his appeal, on the grounds that Congress has an unrestricted right to provide in its wisdom for alien deportation, and thus the Security Act was valid legislation.
Alabama v. Texas, 347 U.S. 272 (6-2), March 15, 1954
The unrestricted power of Congress to dispose of government property (here, under the Submerged Lands Act of 1953) was affirmed. Thus, Congressional “over-ruling” of the prior Supreme Court decision giving the Federal Government paramount rights to these marginal lands was successful.
Kern-Limerick, Inc., v. Scurlock, 347 U.S. 110 (6-3), Feb. 8, 1954
If the Federal Government can show that it bears the ultimate burden of a state sales tax (e.g., through a [Page 121a] subcontractor), the state cannot impose the tax on the sale. (See United States v. City of Detroit, 1958.)
Miller Brothers v. Maryland, 347 U.S. 340 (5-4), April 5, 1954
The delivery to a Maryland purchaser of goods purchased in another state did not provide the state of Maryland with enough basis for imposing a use tax on the transaction and compelling the out-of-state vender to collect it at the source of the sale.
Toolson v. New York Yankees, Inc., 346 U.S. 356 (7-2), Nov. 9, 1953
Baseball's “reserve clause” was challenged as being monopolistic, but the Court held that since baseball had once been judicially held not to constitute interstate commerce and thus not subject to antitrust regulation, it was up to Congress, and not the courts, to effect a change in its status.
Theatre Enterprises, Inc. v. Paramount Film Distributing Corp., 364 U.S. 537 (7-1), Jan. 4, 1954
“Conscious parallelism” — i.e., competitors acting consistently with one another through tacit “agreement” rather than through express accord — was found not to be a conspiracy in restraint of trade, within the meaning of the Sherman Act. In this case, the allegation was that motion picture producers and distributors had restricted first-run pictures to downtown Baltimore theatres, but there was no direct evidence of an agreement. This holding probably made necessary presentation of evidence of communication between alleged conspirators in order to find a Sherman Act violation.
Garner v. Teamsters Union, 346 U.S. 485 (unan.), Dec. 14, 1953
Union activities (here, “strangle picketing”) outlawed under Taft-Hartley could be enjoined only in federal court and not in a state court proceeding. Thus, the “federal preemption” doctrine was reiterated. (The opinion also suggested, in passing, that some activities which had been neither proscribed nor affirmatively sanctioned by Taft-Hartley were beyond the reach of state regulation; see Briggs-Stratton decision, 1949.)
United Construction Workers v. Laburnum, 347 U.S. 656 (6-2), June 7, 1954
States can award private damages to victims of outlawed employee practices (here, picketing accompanied by violence), even though state court might be powerless to award injunction. Since the N.L.R.B. couldn't give money damages, although it could issue injunctions, the Court reasoned that the federal preemption doctrine did not apply to deprive the state court of jurisdiction over damage suits.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (unan.), May 17, 1954
In this historic school segregation decision, the Court held that “separate” school facilities for Negro children were inherently unequal, and that therefore state-sanctioned segregation in public schools was constitutionally prohibited.
Phillips Petroleum v. Wisconsin, 347 U.S. 672 (5-3), June 7, 1954
The Court held that independent producers of natural gas are subject to federal power rate regulation. Up until this decision only pipeline companies engaged in transmitting gas across state-lines were clearly within the F.P.C. regulatory purview. This case, affecting the stationary well-head sources of supply and depriving the states of the power to regulate them (that regulation would have been producer- rather than consumer-oriented), precipitated a great deal of legislative agitation aimed at overturning the result, but by 1964 Congress had yet to pass amendatory legislation.1954—55 Term
Castle v. Hayes Freight Lines, 348 U.S. 61 (unan.), Dec. 6, 1954
A state cannot suspend the right of an interstate carrier to use the highways as punishment for repeated violations of a state law relating to freight loads. The Court held that since this carrier operated under an I.C.C. certificate, issued pursuant to federal law, the state was actually interfering with a federal activity.
United States v. Shubert, 348 U.S. 222 (unan.), Jan. 31, 1955
United States v. International Boxing Club, 348 U.S. 236 (7-2), Jan. 31, 1955
The business of producing, booking and presenting legitimate theater attractions, and of promoting professional boxing (including selling of television, radio and film rights) are both subject to the antitrust laws. In both cases the Court was confronted with its older decision exempting organized baseball from the antitrust laws and in both cases the Court narrowly limited the baseball exemption to that particular sport.
Quinn v. United States, 349 U.S. 155 (8-1), May 23, 1955
Emspak v. United States, 349 U.S. 190 (6-3), May 23, 1955
Bart v. United States, 349 U.S. 219 (6-3), May 23, 1955
These cases all held that a witness before a Congressional committee may invoke the privilege against self-incrimination. If the committee is not clear as to the reason for the witness's refusal to answer, then it has the burden of clarifying his position.
Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (unan.), May 31, 1955
This was the decision which implemented the first Brown opinion as to the unconstitutionality of segregated public schools. The Court placed primary responsibility [Page 122a] on local school officials, recognizing that local factors might make for differences. The District Courts were to retain jurisdiction over the cases and the school boards were to make a “prompt and reasonable start” toward desegregation. The Court recognized that, once the start was made, the District Courts might grant additional time, and it listed the factors which might justify more time. In all cases, the school authorities would have the burden of justifying delay. The opinion concluded with a remand to the District Courts to admit to integrated schools “with all deliberate speed the parties to these cases.”
Weber v. Anheuser-Busch, Inc., 348 U.S. 468 (8-0), March 28, 1955
Amalgamated Clothing Workers v. Richman Bros., 348 U.S. 511 (5-3), April 4, 1955
States cannot regulate conduct which is an unfair labor practice under federal law, regardless of what policy lies behind the state law. But a federal court under existing federal statutes cannot enjoin state court proceedings which relate to such unfair labor practices. The party involved must find a remedy other than federal injunction. (Thus, a union victimized by a temporary injunction granted by a state court without jurisdiction to do so is put in a difficult position.)
Holland v. United States, 348 U.S. 121 (9-0), Dec. 6, 1954
This was the first case upholding the constitutionality of the “net worth” method of proving tax evasion. The Court made it clear, however, that this familiar technique must be attended by certain appropriate safeguards.1955—56 Term
Commissioner v. LoBue, 351 U.S. 243 (7-2), May 28, 1956
Here the Court considered the situation where a corporate employee exercises a stock option previously granted to him by the corporation and it held that any gain realized by the employee is taxable as ordinary income, to be measured at the time of the exercise (rather than at the time of grant) of the option. The Court rejected any distinction between options which were compensatory and those which were intended to give the employee a “proprietary” interest in the corporation; thus the decision removed the theory on which some courts had treated the option as taxable at capital gains rates.
Pennsylvania v. Nelson, 350 U.S. 497 (6-3), April 2, 1956
The Smith Act preempted state legislation dealing with subversive activity. In subsequent decisions the Court limited the effect of this case to state activity directed at the same thing as the Smith Act — advocacy of overthrow of the United States Government. Thus states were still free to investigate and legislate against more localized subversive activity.
Freedom of Association
Slochower v. Board of Education, 350 U.S. 551 (5-4), April 9, 1956
A state could not discharge an employee (a state college professor) for pleading the privilege against self-incrimination before a Congressional committee where state statute effecting the discharge was arbitrary and discriminatory. This case marked a departure from the Court's customary practice of affirming state efforts to insure the loyalty of its employees.
Ullmann v. United States, 350 U.S. 422 (7-2), March 26, 1956
The Court upheld an act of Congress known as the Immunity Act, whereby in grand jury investigations relating to national security, witnesses cannot claim their privilege against self-incrimination if the government grants them immunity from prosecution.
United States ex rel., Toth v. Quarles, 350 U.S. 11 (6-3), Nov. 7, 1955
A provision in the Uniform Code of Military Justice which in certain cases extended court-martial jurisdiction to civilian ex-servicemen was held unconstitutional. The result of the case is that once a man is discharged from the service and has no military affiliation, he cannot be tried by court-martial for offenses committed while in service.
United States v. E. I. duPont de Nemours and Co., 351 U.S. 377 (4-3), June 11, 1956
In determining the “market” for purposes of monopoly cases, the Court will look to “products that have reasonable interchangeability,” considering factors of price, use, and qualities. Thus, in this case, although duPont controlled some 75 percent of the cellophane market, it controlled under 20 percent of the entire market for flexible packaging materials and its cellophane monopoly therefore did not violate the law.
Criminal Due Process
Griffin v. Illinois, 351 U.S. 12 (5-4), April 23, 1956
The states must furnish indigent prisoners with a copy of the transcript of their trial proceedings, for purposes of appeal, so as to satisfy the requirements of “due process.” (The Bar was concerned that this decision portended an increase in frivolous state court appeals from criminal convictions.)
United Automobile Workers, CIO, v. Wisconsin Employment Relations Board, 351 U.S. 266 (6-3), June 4, 1956
Held that state courts could enjoin violent mass picketing despite the unfair labor practice provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act covering this activity. This decision seemed to create, in the instance of violent union activity, the single exception to the federal preemption doctrine whereby state courts are normally denied the powers to enjoin labor activities affected by Taft-Hartley.1956—57 Term
Criminal Due Process
Jencks v. United States, 353 U.S. 657 (5-3), June 3, 1957
In a criminal trial, the Government must produce for examination by a defendant any written statements made by persons who later testify as Government witnesses, when those statements relate to the same subject matter as the testimony. This decision caused a marked public reaction, largely based upon the fear of criminals looking through F.B.I. files; and as a result, Congress enacted the “Jencks Act” (PL 85-269) controlling the procedures under which statements must be produced.
Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (6-3), June 24, 1957
In this case the Court held for the first time that obscene material was not protected by constitutional guarantees of free speech and free press. The Court adopted as the test for obscenity whether or not the dominant theme material appeals to “prurient” interest, as viewed from the aspect of the average person in the community.
Freedom of Association
Yates v. United States, 354 U.S. 298 (6-1), June 17, 1957
This case attempted to draw a distinction in Smith Act prosecutions between “abstract” advocacy of overthrow of the government and advocacy which was directed to, and urged, such action. The implication of the decision was that it would be unconstitutional to punish the “abstract” advocacy.
Two of the majority took the view that the Smith Act itself was unconstitutional.
Watkins v. United States, 354 U.S. 178 (6-1), June 17, 1957
Sweezy v. New Hampshire, 354 U.S. 234 (6-2), June 17, 1957
In order to convict a witness of contempt, a legislative committee must clearly indicate the purpose of the investigation and must show that the particular questions involved were “pertinent” to the inquiry.
Furthermore, the Court held that before a committee (federal or state) could compel testimony as to the personal beliefs, expressions or associations of the witness, there must be a clear showing that the investigation was warranted by a legislative need or a social interest.
Wilson v. Girard, 354 U.S. 524 (unan.), July 11, 1957
This case attracted nation-wide attention because it was the first Supreme Court test of the status-of-forces agreement whereby under certain circumstances American military personnel could be turned over to foreign authorities for prosecution of offenses committed in the country. The Court upheld a turnover to Japanese authorities.
Reid v. Covert, 354 U.S. 1 (6-2), June 10, 1957
The Court held that civilian dependents of military personnel stationed and living overseas cannot be tried by court-martial. (Some of the justices wanted to restrict the result to capital cases only — a view which was later rejected.)
Textile Workers Union v. Lincoln Mills, 353 U.S. 448, June 3, 1957
This case involved a suit by a union to compel an employer to abide by an arbitration agreement which had been included in a collective bargaining agreement between the union and employer. The Court held that under a provision of the Taft-Hartley Act, federal courts could hear such a case and grant the relief. The case settled the question whether agreements to arbitrate were enforceable in court. In deciding this issue the Court also held that the law to govern such suits would be federal law, as developed from national labor policy.
This case was decided by an eight-man Court — seven of whom agreed that such suits might be brought. Five of the seven voted for the second proposition regarding the applicability of federal law.
United States v. E. I. duPont de Nemours and Co., 353 U.S. 586 (4-2), June 3, 1957
Here the Court held that the acquisition by duPont of some 23 percent of General Motors stock violated the merger provisions of the Clayton Act. Apart from its inherent importance, the case also was the first one holding the merger law applicable to acquisitions of companies other than direct competitors.
Furthermore, the Court held that the time for measuring the alleged illegal monopolistic merger is not necessarily the date of the merger, but rather the date of the lawsuit. Thus, while mergers may be lawful when made they may become unlawful at some later time.
Pennsylvania v. Board of Directors of City Trusts, 353 U.S. 230 (unan.), April 29, 1957
(Also known as the “Girard College case.”)
Trustees, as appointees by the state, could not discriminatorily administer a private college so as to exclude Negroes, as this comprised unconstitutional “state action.”
Guss v. Utah Labor Relations Board, 353 U.S. 1 (6-2), March 25, 1957
State courts could not exercise jurisdiction over labor controversies where the N.L.R.B. could, although did not, take jurisdiction unless the Board specifically conceded the power to the state.1957—58 Term
McGee v. International Life Insurance Co., 355 U.S. 220 (8-0), Dec. 16, 1957
The activity of an out-of-state insurance company in mailing a policy to a California resident and regularly accepting premiums paid from California was enough to subject the company to the jurisdiction of California courts. (This is probably the most minimal connection upon which jurisdiction over out-of-state corporations had yet been sustained.)
Freedom of Association
N.A.A.C.P. v. Alabama. 357 U.S. 449 (unan.), June 30, 1958
During certain litigation, an Alabama court had ordered the N.A.A.C.P. to produce its records, including membership lists. The organization refused and was held in contempt. The Court reversed the conviction, holding that the Alabama court order was an unconstitutional restraint upon the N.A.A.C.P. members' exercise of the right to freedom of association. On the facts of this case, the Court said that Alabama did not have a sufficient interest in the disclosure to justify the limitation on the right of free association.
Local 1976, United Brotherhood of Carpenters v. N.L.R.B., 357 U.S. 93 (6-3), June 16, 1958
The presence of a “hot cargo” clause in a collective bargaining agreement does not allow the union to conduct an otherwise illegal form of secondary boycott.
Trop v. Dulles, 356 U.S. 86 (5-4), March 31, 1958
Perez v. Brownell, 356 U.S. 44 (5-4), March 31, 1958
In one case (Trop) the Court held unconstitutional a statute providing for expatriation of a wartime deserter, on the ground that the statute was beyond the war power of Congress. On the other hand, the Court held that citizenship could be lost through voting in a foreign election; it reached this result on the theory that the statute involved was a valid exercise of the power of Congress to legislate on foreign affairs.
Criminal Due Process
Green v. United States, 356 U.S. 165 (5-4), March 31, 1958
Defendants were given additional jail sentences for contempt because they jumped bail pending execution of their sentences for Smith Act violations. They were given these additional terms to serve by a judge, without indictment and without a jury trial. The Court held that the requirements of indictment by grand jury and trial by petit jury do not apply to cases of criminal contempt. The result was of significance due to the increasing use of the contempt citation; it suggested the need for, and possibility of, Congressional enactment of procedural safeguards in connection with this power.
United States v. City of Detroit, 355 U.S. 466 (7-2), March 3, 1958
United States v. Township of Muskegon, 355 U.S. 484 (7-2), March 3, 1958
City of Detroit v. Murray Corporation, 355 U.S. 489 (5-4), March 3, 1958
These cases together represented substantial inroads on the doctrine of federal immunity from state taxation. Thus the state could now tax private parties for their use of federal property and the state may tax the possession of federal goods by a Government subcontractor.
Moog Industries v. F.T.C., 355 U.S. 411 (8-0), Jan. 27, 1958
In a case of significance to the business community, the Court held that it was no ground for delay in an F.T.C. order that other competitors were doing the same thing and were not being checked. The Court said that the Commission might exercise its discretion in determining whether to deal with illegal practices on an industry-wide or individual basis.
International Assn. of Machinists v. Gonzalez, 356 U.S. 617 (6-2), May 26, 1958
International Union, UAW v. Russell, 356 U.S. 635 (6-2), May 26, 1958
In suits brought by employees against their union, the state courts have authority to award damages flowing out of the union's wrongful conduct. These decisions represented another retreat from the Court's preemption holdings, wherein state courts had been denied jurisdiction over controversies relating to union activities affected by Taft-Hartley; see Garner v. Teamsters' Union, 346 U.S. 485 (1953).
Kent v. Dulles, 357 U.S. 116 (5-4), June 16, 1958
The Court invalidated (without reaching the constitutional question) State Department regulations denying Communists the right to travel outside the country. (The Court did indicate that this right has some constitutional protection, but left open the question of whether that right was absolute.)1958—59 Term
Cooper v. Aaron, 358 U.S. 1 (unan.), Sept. 28, 1958
The school board of Little Rock, Arkansas, had asked for additional time within which to implement its integration plan; specifically, they wanted a two-and-one-half year stay. The Supreme Court refused to grant the additional time, making it clear that local political hostility was not a basis upon which to delay the mandate that integration proceed “with all deliberate speed.”
Kingsley International Pictures v. Regents, 360 U.S. 684 (unan.), June 29, 1959
The refusal of a state to license a motion picture film was unconstitutional, where the refusal was based on the view that the theme of the picture (adultery) was immoral. This, said the majority, amounted to a refusal to license because the film advocated an idea; and the freedom to advocate ideas was rooted in the 1st Amendment. All nine justices concurred in the judgment. Two members took the position that all prior licensing of films was unconstitutional and three members reasoned that the particular film did not itself violate the state statute.
Barenblatt v. United States, 360 U.S. 109 (5-4), June 8, 1959
Even if a Congressional resolution authorizing an investigation was itself too vague to support a contempt conviction, still that vagueness could be cured by action of the committee which clarifies the precise scope and pertinency of the investigation. This case made it clear that vagueness of the resolution alone was not fatal insofar as contempt is concerned.
Uphaus v. Wyman, 360 U.S. 72 (5-4), June 8, 1959
A state legislature had authorized the state attorney general to investigate subversive activity, and that official had required a witness to produce a list of those in attendance at a certain summer camp. The Court held that this action by the state officer was not unconstitutional.
This case involved the same type of state investigation previously held unconstitutional in Sweezy (1957). In this case, however, academic freedom was not involved.
In another significant aspect, the Court explained that in its previous Nelson (1956) decision, it had meant that Congress had preempted only the field of national subversion. States were still free to legislate against, and investigate, more localized forms of subversion.
Greene v. McElroy, 360 U.S. 474 (8-1), June 29, 1959
The Court held that, without specific statutory authority, the Secretary of Defense cannot remove the security clearance of an outside contractor where, in so doing, the rights of confrontation were denied. In finding no specific authority, the Court avoided reaching the question whether the system itself would be unconstitutional.
Northwestern States Portland Cement Co. v. Minnesota, 358 U.S. 450 (6-3), Feb. 24, 1959
Where an out-of-state corporation did business in a certain state, it could be taxed on the income from its interstate operations in an amount attributable to its activities in the taxing state.
San Diego Building Trade Council v. Garmon, 359 U.S. 236 (5-4), April 20, 1959
Where a labor activity was regulated by the N.L.R.B., states had neither jurisdiction to enjoin that activity nor to award damages to offended parties. Thus, the Court reaffirmed the “preemption” doctrine from which it had seemingly retreated in the UAW case (1956), and in Gonzalez (1958).1959—60 Term
United States v. Louisiana, 363 U.S. 1, May 31, 1960
United States v. Florida, 363 U.S. 121, May 31, 1960
Cases under these titles involved the off-shore oil rights claimed by Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. Following the Court's decision upholding the claim of the Federal Government, United States v. California, 332 U.S. 19, (1946), Congress had passed a statute which the Court now interpreted as meaning that, in order to prevail against the Federal Government, the state had to prove that historically its boundaries encompassed the lands in question.
The result of the cases was to uphold the claims of Texas and Florida, and reject the claims of the other states. The cases were decided by a seven-man Court and each of the prevailing states received six of the seven votes.
Criminal Due Process
Elkins v. United States, 364 U.S. 206 (5-4), June 27, 1960
This case reversed the so-called “silver platter” rule whereby evidence obtained by state officers during an illegal search was admissible in federal courts. Now it made no difference who conducts the unlawful search — the evidence was still inadmissible.
United Steelworkers v. United States, 361 U.S. 39 (8-1), Nov. 7, 1959
The Court held that a steel strike did — in the language of the Taft-Hartley Act — “imperil the national safety,” and therefore that strike might be enjoined for the 80-day cooling-off period. The Court reasoned that the strike related to national safety because steel production was so vital to the general defense effort. Moreover, the Court approved the enjoining of the entire strike and not just that part of it which involved the national safety.
F.T.C. v. Anheuser-Busch, Inc., 363 U.S. 536 (unan.), June 20, 1960
A company violated the laws against price discrimination when it cut prices in one geographic area, while keeping higher prices in other areas. In the decision the Court noted that it made no difference whether the lower price was below cost or whether the price cutting was being done with the intent of obtaining a monopoly. This case represented the first absolute ruling by the [Page 126a] Court that the statutory phrase “discrimination in price” meant simply “price difference.”
Hannah v. Larche, 363 U.S. 420 (7-2), June 20, 1960
This case upheld the statutory procedure governing investigations by the Civil Rights Commission, particularly that aspect which preserved the anonymity of informants.
Kinsella v. United States ex rel. Singleton, 361 U.S. 234 (7-2), Jan. 18, 1960
Grisham v. Hagen, 361 U.S. 278 (7-2), Jan. 18, 1960
McElroy v. United States ex rel. Guagliardo, 361 U.S. 281 (5-4), Jan. 18, 1960
Courts-martial could not try any civilians for any crimes. Thus, the trial or punishment of civilians (dependents or employees) accompanying the armed forces abroad was a matter for the foreign country involved.
United States v. Parke, Davis & Co., 362 U.S. 29 (6-3), Feb. 29, 1960
Where a seller announced a policy pursuant to which he refused to sell to those who resold below his “suggested price,” and then took steps to implement that policy, that seller crossed the bounds of the “Colgate” doctrine (United States v. Colgate & Co., 250 U.S. 300, 1919) and violated Section 1 of the Sherman Act. Thus, the Court, in effect, prohibited resale price maintenance policies, state Fair Trade legislation being absent.
Criminal Due Process
Thompson v. City of Louisville, 362 U.S. 199 (unan.), March 21, 1960
For the first time, the Supreme Court upset a criminal conviction (in this case, a $20 fine for disorderly conduct) on the grounds of insufficiency of evidence. (This decision would seem to open up a broader vista for federal review of state court decisions in criminal cases.)1960—61 Term
Freedom of Association
Communist Party v. Subversive Activities Control Board, 367 U.S. 1, (5-4), June 5, 1961
The Court found that Congress had a legitimate interest in exposing Communist-action organizations, and thus upheld the constitutionality of the Subversive Activities Control Act requiring Communist-action organizations to register their membership with the Government.
Freedom of Association
Scales v. United States, 367 U.S. 203 (5-4), June 5, 1961
The membership provisions of the Smith Act, making criminal the “knowing” membership in an organization engaged in advocacy of the overthrow of the government, were upheld. These two decisions taken in conjunction seemed to represent a serious inroad on the privilege against self-incrimination, since the registration of membership of Communist party subjected the exposed members to prosecution under the Smith Act.
Freedom of Association
Braden v. United States, 365 U.S. 431 (5-4), Feb. 27, 1961
Wilkinson v. United States, 365 U.S. 399 (5-4), Feb. 27, 1961
Congress was investigating Communist penetration into industry in the South. The appellants here had refused to answer committee inquiries and had been convicted of contempt. The Court upheld the convictions, thus sanctioning the legitimacy of the investigation and in so doing again circumscribed the holdings in the Sweezy and Watkins cases (1957); see also Barenblatt v. United States, 360 U.S. 109, (1959).
Freedom of Association
Shelton v. Tucker, 364 U.S. 479 (5-4), Dec. 12, 1960
An Arkansas state law requiring public school teachers to disclose their membership in all organizations was found to be an abridgment of the right of association, protected by the 1st Amendment as made applicable to the states by the 14th. The Court seemed disposed to afford greater constitutional privacy of association and activity when Communism was not pointedly involved.
Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 U.S. 339 (unan.), Nov. 14, 1960
Here a redistricting act passed by the Alabama state legislature and aimed at gerrymandering the Negro vote in Tuskeegee was invalidated as an abridgment of the 15th Amendment's guarantee of the right to vote. The Court, stepping into the “political thicket,” distinguished this case from Colegrove v. Green, (1946), by finding affirmative action rather than non-action on the part of the state. (This case seemed to presage the forthcoming decision in Baker v. Carr, 1962).
Burton v. Wilmington Parking Authority, 365 U.S. 715 (6-3), April 17, 1961
By finding unconstitutional “state action” where the private operator of property (a restaurant) leased from the state of Delaware excluded a Negro from the premises, the Court expanded the coverage of the 14th Amendment.
Ely Lilly v. Sav-on-Drugs, Inc., 366 U.S. 276 (5-4), May 22, 1961
The Court found that since appellant had engaged in some purely intrastate business, a New Jersey state law forbidding it the use of that state's court system unless and until it had registered with the state was not an unconstitutional burden on interstate commerce. This decision added another dimension to the states' regulatory (and perhaps taxing) powers over business.
Criminal Due Process
Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (6-3), June 19, 1961
Finally overruling Wolf v. Colorado, (1949), the Court said that the 14th Amendment precluded the use of unconstitutionally seized evidence (here “obscene” matter taken from defendant without a warrant) in state prosecutions. This decision now made it a federal question as to whether evidence used in state proceedings was, in fact, illegally seized and thus provided another basis for federal review.
Criminal Due Process
Silverman v. United States, 365 U.S. 505 (unan.), March 6, 1961
Electronic eavesdropping (here, by a “spike mike” drilled into defendant's home) made possible a gambling conviction in the District of Columbia. This evidence, the Court said, was obtained through an illegal search and seizure (even though there might not have been an actual physical trespass, as such) and it therefore nullified the conviction. (See Lopez v. United States, 1963.)
McGowan v. Maryland, 366 U.S. 276 (5-4), May 29, 1961
Two Guys from Harrison-Allentown, Inc., v. McGinley, 366 U.S. 582 (6-1), May 29, 1961
Braunfield v. Brown, 366 U.S. 599 (4-3), May 29, 1961
Gallagher v. Crown Kosher Supermarket, Inc., 366 U.S. 617 (4-3), May 29, 1961
Sunday “blue-laws” — that is, state laws forbidding the operation of certain businesses on Sunday — were validated, against the challenge that they represented unconstitutional attempts to “establish” religion or were violative of the right of free exercise of religion. The Court said these laws did not represent state attempts to interfere with the exercise of religion, but were intended to further the general welfare of its citizens.
James v. U.S., 366 U.S. 213 (6-3), May 15, 1961
Overruling Commissioner v. Wilcox, (1946), the Court held that embezzlement income was taxable. Thus, the last vestige of doubt regarding the reportability of money received from illegal activities was removed.
United States v. duPont de Nemours, 366 U.S. 316 (4-3), May 22, 1961
In a widely heralded opinion, the Court found that duPont's holding of a significant percentage of General Motors stock constituted a violation of the anti-merger provisions of the Clayton Act, and ordered duPont to divest itself of those shares. The significance of the decision lay in the nature of the remedy decreed — the “divestiture” of stock which had been acquired a long time previously.
Tampa Electric v. Nashville, 365 U.S. 320 (7-2), Feb. 27, 1961
The tests for determining the illegality of “exclusive dealing” contracts, which had been rather strict under the “Standard Stations” case (Standard Oil v. United States, 1949), were somewhat relaxed as the Court held there must be something more than the possible foreclosure of a substantial share of commerce.1961—62 Term
Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186 (6-2), March 26, 1962
This highly important decision opened state legislature apportionment to federal judicial review by concluding that the failure of Tennessee since 1901 to reapportion seats in its general assembly despite shifts in population, and though required by state law, constituted a denial of equal protection under the 14th Amendment. This decision precipitated activity within the states to bring their legislative apportionment standards into line with populace distribution.
Criminal Due Process
Beck v. Washington, 369 U.S. 541 (4-3), May 14, 1962
The Court upheld the conviction of Dave Beck, head of the Teamsters' Union, of grand larceny from his union. (Beck had challenged the grand jury proceedings pursuant to which he had been indicted, mainly on the grounds that the widespread and adverse newspaper publicity which had attended those proceedings created so much bias that he was denied due process.)
Criminal Due Process
Robinson v. California, 370 U.S. 660 (6-2), June 25, 1962
The Court held that for a state to make it a criminal offense “to use or be addicted to the use of narcotics” constituted a cruel and unusual punishment violative of the 8th and 14th Amendments. Thus, the addiction to narcotics as such, without proof of particular instances of use or possession of those drugs, cannot be penalized; the Court recognized that addiction itself was an illness, and not a crime.
Manual Enterprises, Inc., v. Day, 370 U.S. 478 (6-1), June 25, 1962
Extending Roth v. United States, 1957, the Court suggested that under existing legislation the Post Office could not refuse to send allegedly obscene mail until a court proceeding had determined the printed matter obscene. The decision apparently took from the Government the right to administrative “prior censorship.”
Freedom of Religion
Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (6-1), June 25, 1962
In this “school prayer” decision, it was held that state officials may not compose an official state prayer and require that it be recited in the New York public school system at the beginning of each school day, even though the prayer is denominationally neutral and pupils who so desire may be excused from reciting it. The Court indicated that official state sanctions of religious prayers or utterances may constitute an unconstitutional attempt to “establish religion.”
Brown Shoe Co. v. United States, 370 U.S. 294 (unan.) June 26, 1962
Indulging in an extensive economic analysis, the Court prohibited the proposed merger of a shoe manufacturer and a large retail shoe chain, and in so doing attempted to provide guide-lines for the application of the Clayton Act's anti-merger provisions under Section 7.
Dowd Box v. Courtney, 368 U.S. 502 (unan.), Feb. 19, 1962
Held that state courts have jurisdiction over suits concerning alleged violations of labor contracts (which are violative of the Taft-Hartley Act), but the courts must apply federal law. (See Lincoln Mills v. Textile Workers Union, 1957.)
Local 174, Teamsters Union v. Lucas Flour, 369 U.S. 95 (8-1), March 5, 1962
Held that, where a labor contract provides for compulsory arbitration, the union cannot strike to press its demands; that is, a compulsory arbitration clause impliedly prohibits strikes — an important decision affecting a union's arsenal of weapons in its disputes with management.
Sinclair Refining Co. v. Atkinson, 370 U.S. 195 (5-3), June 18, 1962
Held that, even though a union strike is violative of a labor-management contract, the Norris-LaGuardia Act precludes the bringing of an injunction suit in the federal courts to prohibit the strike; the plaintiff can collect damages only. (This decision dilutes the importance of the Lucas Flour case, above.)1962—63 Term
Smith v. Evening News Association, 371 U.S. 195 (8-1), Dec. 10, 1962
Held that an employee may bring an action for damages against an employer in a state court for violation of his rights as set out in a collective bargaining agreement. This broadened Section 301 of the Taft-Hartley Act to permit individual as well as union suits and departed from the “preemption” doctrine. (See San Diego v. Garmon, 1959.)
McColloch v. Sociedad Nacional, 372 U.S. 10 (unan.), Feb. 18, 1963
Incres Steamship Co. v. Int. Maritime Workers, 372 U.S. 24 (unan.), Feb. 18, 1963
Held that N.L.R.B. jurisdiction did not extend to disputes involving ships of foreign registry, employing alien seamen, even though the beneficial owners of the ship are Americans.
FTC v. Sun Oil, 371 U.S. 505 (unan.), Jan. 14, 1963
An alleged violator of the Robinson-Patman Act attempted to justify his price-discrimination on the grounds that the favored purchaser was given a lower price to enable him to meet his competitors. The Court said that the “meeting competition” justification would apply only when the supplier himself, not his purchasers, was challenged with lower prices.
Kennedy v. Mendoza-Martinez, 372 U.S. 147 (5-4), Feb. 18, 1963
In a very significant step, the Court said that Congress could not by statute constitutionally expatriate draft dodgers without a trial, since this would constitute “punishment” without due process. Thus, draft dodgers who remain out of the country were enabled to keep their citizenship.
Criminal Due Process
Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (unan.), March 18, 1963
Overruling Betts v. Brady (1942), the Court held that a state must supply defense counsel to indigent defenders even in non-capital cases.
Criminal Due Process
Fay v. Noia, 372 U.S. 391 (6-3), March 18, 1963
In a decision expanding the rights of prisoners to get federal review of questionable state court procedures used in their trial, the Court said that a prisoner who has failed to timely exercise his rights of appeal through the state court system may still seek later federal review. (Prior hereto, federal review was available only if state remedies had been timely sought and exhausted.)
Criminal Due Process
Ker v. California, 374 U.S. 23 (8-1), June 10, 1963
Evidence obtained by an illegal search or seizure could not be used to convict defendant, under Mapp v. Ohio (1961), and the test of the legality of the search would be under federal standards (of “reasonableness”).
Criminal Due Process
Lopez v. United States, 373 U.S. 427 (6-3), May 27, 1963
Evidence of a bribe which was obtained by an electronic recording device secreted on an FBI agent was held admissible. Thus, while wiretapping evidence is excludable under statute, a permit to use other electronic eavesdropping devices was extended by the Court, cf., Silverman v. United States, (1961).
Gray v. Sanders, 372 U.S. 368 (8-1), March 18, 1963
In a case argued by the Attorney General — the first time Robert F. Kennedy had ever presented a case in Court — the Georgia county-unit system as used in primary elections affecting state offices as well as U.S. Senate seats was held violative of the 14th Amendment's [Page 129a] “equal protection” clause, since rural votes were heavily weighted and thus the “one voter, one vote” concept was offended. By insisting that states respect the “popular” vote system, the Court was forcing serious legislative overhauls upon them. (See Baker v. Carr (1962), the precedent-making and corollary decision in which the Court for the first time entered the “political thicket” by ordering reapportionment.)
Colorado Anti-Discrimination Commission v. Continental Airlines, 371 U.S. 714 (unan.), April 22, 1963
A state law barring discrimination could be applied to an interstate airline, without offending the interstate commerce clause. (Thus, a commercial airline was ordered to accept a Negro pilot, pursuant to ruling by state agency.)
Peterson v. Greenville, 373 U.S. 244, May 20, 1963
Lombard v. Louisiana, 373 U.S. 267, May 20, 1963
Gober V. Birmingham, 373 U.S. 374, May 20, 1963
Avent v. North Carolina, 373 U.S. 375, May 20, 1963
Shuttleworth v. Birmingham, 373 U.S. 262, May 20, 1963
Where a city ordinance or a city executive required segregation, then private segregation practices were clothed with enough “state” sanction to comprise unconstitutional state action. (Justice Harlan dissented in 4 of these 5 cases; Peterson was unanimous.)
Watson v. City of Memphis, 373 U.S. 526 (unan.), May 27, 1963
The city of Memphis was not justified in delaying desegregation of its public parks and recreational facilities on grounds of fear of violence, since the “all-deliberate-speed” mandate of the school segregation case (Brown, 1955) was not applicable to this situation. Thus, the South was prodded to get on with desegregation.
Arizona v. California, 373 U.S. 546 (5-2), June 3, 1963
In a very important and long-litigated matter, the Court gave Arizona the lion's share of water rights in the Colorado River lower basin, deciding that the Secretary of Interior did have the authority to determine water distribution rights and that state law did not control. (A bitter dissent by Justice Douglas suggested a breach of rapport between himself and Justice Black, the author of the 52-page majority opinion.)
United States v. Philadelphia National Bank, 373 U.S. 321 (5-3), June 17, 1963
Of great significance to the financial community was this decision holding that the anti-merger provisions of the Clayton Act apply to banks, and prohibiting the merger of the third and fourth largest banks in Philadelphia.
Abington Township School District v. Schempp, 373 U.S. 203 (8-1), June 17, 1963
Murray v. Curlett, 373 U.S. 203 (8-1), June 17, 1963
In one of the more publicized decisions of the term, the Court on its last opinion day held that the state-ordered recitation of the Lord's Prayer and the reading of the Bible in the public school system violated the “establishment of religion” clause of the 1st Amendment, made applicable to the states by the 14th Amendment.1963—64 Term
Retail Clerks Local 1625 v. Schermerhorn, 375 U.S. 96, (8-0), Dec. 3, 1963
It is held that the Taft-Hartley Act did not outlaw state “right to work” laws and that the state courts have jurisdiction to invalidate an agency shop agreement that is prohibited under such a state law. (The Court also noted, in dictum, that a state court may not enjoin picketing designed to force the employer to accept an agency shop clause in a collective bargaining agreement, since state court jurisdiction could attach only after execution of an illegal agreement.)
Carey v. Westinghouse Corp., 375 U.S. 261 (6-2), Jan. 6, 1964
In further expanding state court jurisdiction over labor controversies, the Court held that a state court can entertain an action brought to compel compliance with an arbitration clause of a collective bargaining agreement.
Packing House Workers Local 721 v. Needham Packing Co., 376 U.S. 247 (unan.), March 9, 1964
A union's violation of a no-strike clause in a collective bargaining agreement did not release the employer from his obligations under that agreement, including his duty to submit disputes to arbitration.
N.L.R.B. v. Packers and Warehousemen, Local 760, #88, 377 U.S. 46 (8-0), April 20, 1964
N.L.R.B. v. Servette, 377 U.S. 58 (unan.), April 20, 1964
The Court notably circumscribed the reach of the secondary-boycott ban provided under Taft-Hartley in these two cases decided the same day. In the Packers & Warehousemen case, the Court affirmatively sanctioned picketing designed to disuade a retail store's customers from purchasing the products supplied the store by the struck (primary) employer. (If the picketing was to persuade customers not to purchase any goods from the retail store, this clearly would have been a violation of the secondary-boycott proviso.)
In the Servette case it was held permissible for a union to request supermarket managers not to deal with their struck (primary) employer, and for the union to distribute (or threaten to distribute) handbills to the [Page 130a] supermarket's customers apprising them that the struck employer's products were therein being distributed.
Antitrust & Unfair Competition
Sears Roebuck & Co. v. Stiffel, 376 U.S. 225 (unan.), March 9, 1964
The Court refused to impose further restrictions on “imitative competition” in holding that an item (here, a pole lamp) not protected by federal copyright or patent could not be given state protection merely because an imitation product was likely to confuse consumers as to its source.
United States v. First National Bank & Trust Company of Lexington 376 U.S. 665 (7-2).
United States v. El Paso Natural Gas Company, 376 U.S. 651, (7-1), April 6, 1964
In these two decisions the Court further evinced a disposition to rigidly apply the antitrust laws so as to control bigness and to preclude monopolistic combinations. In the Lexington Bank case, the merger of the first and fourth largest banks in the County was said to constitute, per se, a combination in restraint of trade and thus to contravene Section 1 of the Sherman Act. In the same tenor, in El Paso, the Court said that Section 7 of the Clayton Act, which bars acquisitions whose effect is to substantially lessen competition, precluded the purchase by a large pipeline company of the only other pipeline company operating west of the Rocky Mountains. (See Antitrust Chapter.)
F.P.C. v. Southern California Edison Co., (Colton Case) 376 U.S. 205 (unan.), March 2, 1964
This decision made it clear that the Federal Power Act gave the Federal Power Commission the right to regulate wholesale electrical rates in instances where the energy has been transmitted across interstate lines, in the absence of specific Congressional exception. Thus, even though the states might constitutionally be authorized to regulate those rates, the federal regulatory right preempted the exercise of that power.
Anderson v. Martin, 375 U.S. 399 (unan.), Jan. 13, 1964
A Louisiana requirement that a candidate's race be designated on a local election ballot violates the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment. Thus the Court, in again repudiating the “separate but equal” doctrine, lends further force to the proposition that putting any badge of distinction on a Negro in itself offends the Constitution.
Schneider v. Rusk, 377 U.S. 163 (5-3) May 18, 1964
The Court declared unconstitutional, as violative of the “due process” clause of the 5th Amendment, that portion of the Immigration and Nationality Act which caused the loss of nationality of naturalized citizens who adopted residence in their country of origin for three or more years. Justice Douglas, writing for the majority, argued against this mark of “second class citizenship” and noted that it denied naturalized citizens of equal protection.
Bell v. Maryland, 378 U.S. 226 (6-3); Barr v. Columbia, 378 U.S. 146 (6-3); Bouie v. Columbia, 378 U.S. 347 (6-3); Robinson v. Florida, 378 U.S. 153 (unan.); Griffin v. Maryland, 378 U.S. 130 (6-3), June 22, 1964
In this series of “sit-in” cases the Court reversed convictions for trespass, or disturbing the peace, without deciding the constitutional issue as to whether an individual could practice discrimination in his place of public accommodation enlisting the force of the state (police and judiciary) in enforcing that practice.
Criminal Due Process
United States v. Ross Barnett, 376 U.S. 681 (5-4), April 6, 1964
In a widely anticipated decision, the Court said that the 6th Amendment did not necessarily guarantee the right to a jury trial in cases of criminal contempt (here, the violation of a court restraining order), although the opinion suggested that if the penalty imposed on the violator was greater than that given to a petty offender (presumably, a misdemeanant who could be subject to no more than a year in jail) the right to jury trial might be assured.
Wesberry v. Sanders, 376 U.S. 1 (6-3), Feb. 17, 1964
In an important sequel to Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186 (March 26, 1962), the Court said that a “one person, one vote” mandate was inherent in Article I of the Constitution, in regard to U.S. House seats. The Court left no doubt that the judiciary now has the power to enter the “political thicket” with regard to Congressional districting problems, and it instructed the states to re-align their Congressional districts so that Members of Congress represent districts of roughly equal population.
Reynolds v. Simms, 377 U.S. 533 (8-1); WMCA Inc. v. Lomenzo, 377 U.S. 633 (6-3); Lucas v. 44th General Assembly of Colorado, 377 U.S. 713 (6-3); Maryland Committee for Fair Representation v. Tawes, 377 U.S. 656 (8-1); Davis v. Mann, 377 U.S. 678 (7-2); Roman v. Sincock, 377 U.S. 695 (7-2), June 15, 1964
Applying the 14th amendment's “equal protection” clause the Court in a decision having momentous political significance declared that both houses of state legislatures must be comprised of representatives elected from districts having roughly equal populations. Thus, the Court carried forward the thrust of Baker v. Carr, 369 US 186, Gray v. Sanders, 372 U.S. 368, and Wesberry v. Sanders, 376 U.S. 1, and made it clear that the “one person, one vote” mandate has sweeping application. The decision would import a shift of power from the over-represented rural regions to the heavily populated urban centers.
Justice Harlan registered a dissent in which he rejected the Court's intervention into this politically troublesome area, claiming that the decisions “cut deeply into the fabric of our federalism” and that they gave currency to the mistaken notion that “every major social ill in this country can find its cure” in the Supreme Court.
Griffin v. Prince Edward County School Board, 377 U.S. 218 (7-2), May 25, 1964
After 10 years in which, the Court noted, there had been “entirely too much deliberation and not enough speed in enforcing the constitutional rights” guaranteed under Brown v. Board of Education, the Court declared unconstitutional as violative of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment the closing of all the schools in Prince Edward County, Va., to avoid the impact of the discrimination which was imposed on the students in this particular county by being deprived of the advantages held by others in the state. The Court also said the discrimination against the Negroes in the county whose alternatives were fewer than those available to the white students violated the equal protection clause. The Court also prohibited the granting of tuition grants and tax credits to those using and assisting the private schools, inasmuch as their purpose was to defy and nullify the desegregation order.
Freedom of Association
Baggett v. Bullitt, 377 U.S. 360 (7-2), June 1, 1964
Washington state loyalty oaths which required state employees to swear that they were not subversives and state teachers to promise to promote respect for the flag and the institutions of the United States were struck down under the “due process” clause of the 14th Amendment for being unconstitutionally vague. This decision left open to serious question the loyalty oaths required by many other states, and seemed to invite inquiry into the Court's prior decisions in which similar oaths had been upheld — including the Smith Act case, Dennis v. United States, 341 U.S. 494 (1951).
Freedom of Speech
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (unan.), March 9, 1964
In this case, the Alabama Courts had granted a handsome recovery to plaintiffs in a libel action brought against the New York Times and certain individual advertisers who had disparaged local Southern political leaders in a paid advertisement. In reversing the verdict, the Supreme Court made a major pronouncement concerning the sweep of the First Amendment's guarantee of “free speech,” and said that there is a right to criticize the official acts of public officials, even where the criticism is untruthful, so long as actual malice is not established.
A minority opinion said even malicious criticism of official conduct is not punishable, even though false.
Criminal Due Process
Aguilar v. Texas, 378 U.S. 108 (9-0), June 15, 1964.
In applying the 4th Amendment to the states, the Court held that a search and seizure conducted by state officials must meet the same constitutional standards required of federal officers. Thus, in this case there had to be a valid search warrant issued upon a showing of probable cause.
Criminal Due Process
Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1 (5-4), June 15, 1964
Reversing a previous line of decisions, the Court held that the 5th Amendment is applicable to the states and that the privilege against self-incrimination as guaranteed by that amendment is incorporated by the 14th Amendment's due process clause. The defendant in this case could not, therefore, be cited for contempt for failure to answer possibly incriminating questions in a state proceeding.
Criminal Due Process
Murphy v. The Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor, 378 U.S. 52 (9-0), June 15, 1964
Extending Malloy, above, the Court held that the privilege against self-incrimination protects a person against having to testify in a state proceeding where such testimony jeopardizes him in a federal prosecution, and vice versa. That is, a grant of immunity from prosecution in the forum in which he's being interrogated is not sufficient — the immunity must be as broad as the privilege itself.
Criminal Due Process
Escobedo v. Illinois, 378 U.S. 478 (5-4), June 22, 1964
Continuing to expand the coverage of the 14th Amendment so as to protect the individual against the harsh imposition of the criminal law, the Court held that an accusatorial investigation conducted by police after having either refused to allow the defendant counsel or failed to apprise him of his right to remain silent vitiates the prosecution and conviction that follow.
Aptheker v. Secretary of State, 378 U.S. 500 (6-3), June 22, 1964
The Court held unconstitutional that section of the Subversive Activities Control Act which disqualified from passport privileges all Communist party organization members, as violating the due process clause of the 5th amendment.
MEMBERS OF REGULATORY AND OTHER INDEPENDENT AGENCIES
Names of persons who served on the major federal regulatory boards and commissions and other independent agencies at any time between 1945 and 1965 are listed below, in alphabetical order and with their years of service, under the name of the agency concerned. Where no terminal date is shown, the person was occupying the same position as of Nov. 15, 1964.Regulatory Agencies
CIVIL AERONAUTICS BOARD
- Joseph P. Adams, 1951—1956
- Russell B. Adams, 1948—1950
- Alan S. Boyd, 1959- ; Chairman, 1961—
- Harllee Branch, 1945—1948
- Harmar D. Denny, 1953—1959
- James R. Durfee, Chairman, 1956—1960
- Whitney Gillilland, 1959—
- Chan Gurney, 1951- ; Chairman, 1954.
- Louis J. Hector, 1957—1959
- Harold A. Jones, 1948—1951
- James M. Landis, Chairman, 1946—1947
- Josh Lee, 1945—1955
- G. Joseph Minetti, 1956—
- Robert T. Murphy, 1961—
- Donald W. Nyrop, Chairman, 1951—1952
- Joseph J. O'Connell Jr., Chairman, 1948—1950
- L. Welch Pogue, Chairman, 1945—1946
- Delos W. Rentzel, Chairman, 1950—1951
- Ross Rizley, Chairman, 1955—1956
- Oswald Ryan, 1945—1954; Chairman, 1953.
- Edward Warner, 1945.
- Clarence M. Young, 1946—1947
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
- Robert T. Bartley, 1952—
- Norman S. Case, 1945
- Kenneth A. Cox, 1963—
- Wayne Coy, Chairman, 1947—1952
- T.A.M. Craven, 1956—1963
- John S. Cross, 1958—1962
- Charles R. Denny Jr., 1945—1947; Chairman, 1946—1947
- John C. Doerfer, 1953—1960; Chairman, 1957—1960
- Clifford J. Durr, 1945—1948
- Frederick W. Ford, 1957- ; Chairman, 1960—1961
- Frieda B. Hennock, 1948—1955
- E. William Henry, 1962- ; Chairman, 1963—
- Rosel H. Hyde, 1946- ; Chairman, 1953—1954
- E. K. Jett, 1945—1947
- Robert F. Jones, 1947—1952
- Robert E. Lee, 1953—
- Lee Loevinger, 1963—
- Richard A. Mack, 1955—1958
- George C. McConnaughey, Chairman, 1954—1957
- Eugene H. Merrill, 1952—1953
- Newton N. Minow, Chairman, 1961—1963
- Paul A. Porter, Chairman, 1945—1946
- George E. Sterling, 1948—1954
- Ray C. Wakefield, 1945—1947
- Paul A. Walker, 1945—1953; Chairman, 1952—1953
- Edward M. Webster, 1947—1956
- William Henry Wills, 1945—1946
FEDERAL POWER COMMISSION
- David S. Black, 1963—
- Thomas C. Buchanan, 1948—1953; Chairman, 1952—1953
- William R. Connole, 1955—1960
- Seaborn L. Digby, 1953—1958
- Dale E. Doty, 1952—1954
- Claude L. Draper, 1945—1956
- John B. Hussey, 1958—1960
- Arthur Kline, 1956—1961
- Jerome K. Kuykendall, Chairman, 1953—1961
- Basil Manly, Chairman, 1945.
- Howard Morgan, 1961—1963
- Lawrence J. O'Connor Jr., 1962—
- Leland Olds, 1945—1949; Chairman, 1945—1947
- Charles R. Ross, 1961—
- Richard Sachse, 1945—1947
- John W. Scott, 1945
- Nelson Lee Smith, 1945—1955; Chairman, 1947—1950
- Frederick Stueck, 1954—1961
- Paul A. Sweeny, 1960—1961
- Joseph C. Swidler, Chairman, 1961—
- Mon C. Wallgren, 1949—1951; Chairman, 1950—1951
- Harrington Wimberly, 1945—1953
- Harold C. Woodward, 1962—1964
- (Current vacancy in late 1964)
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION
- Sigurd Anderson, 1955—1964
- William A. Ayres, 1945—1952; Chairman, 1946
- Albert A. Carretta, 1952—1954
- John Carson, 1949—1953
- Ewin L. Davis, 1945—1949; Chairman, 1945.
- Paul Rand Dixon, Chairman, 1961—
- Philip Elman, 1961—
- Garland S. Ferguson, 1945—1949; Chairman, 1947.
- Robert E. Freer, 1945—1948; Chairman, 1948.
- John W. Gwynne, 1953—1959; Chairman, 1955—1959
- A. Leon Higginbotham, 1962—1964
- Edward F. Howrey, Chairman, 1953—1955
- William C. Kern, 1955—1962
- Earl W. Kintner, Chairman, 1959—1961
- A. Everette MacIntyre, 1961—
- Charles H. March, 1945
- Lowell B. Mason, 1945—1956; Chairman, 1949—1950
- James M. Mead, 1949—1955; Chairman, 1950—1953
- Edward K. Mills Jr., 1960—1961
- John R. Reilly, 1964—
- Robert T. Secrest, 1954—1961
- Stephen J. Spingarn, 1950—1953
- Edward T. Tait, 1956—1960
INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION
- Clyde B. Aitchison, 1945—1952; Chairman, 1947
- J. Haden Alldredge, 1945—1955; Chairman, 1952—1953
- Anthony F. Arpaia, 1952—1960; Chairman, 1956
- George M. Barnard, 1945—1949; Chairman, 1946
- Virginia Mae Brown, 1964—
- John W. Bush, 1961—
- Owen Clarke, 1953—1958; Chairman, 1957
- Hugh W. Cross, 1949—1955; Chairman, 1955
- Martin Kelso Elliott, 1952—1956
- Howard G. Freas, 1953- ; Chairman, 1958
- Abe McGregor Goff, 1958- ; Chairman, 1964—
- Clyde E. Herring, 1959—1964
- Everett Hutchinson, 1955- ; Chairman, 1961
- J. Monroe Johnson, 1945—1956; Chairman, 1950 and 1953—1954
- James K. Knudson, 1950—1954
- William E. Lee, 1945—1953; Chairman, 1948
- Charles D. Mahaffie, 1945—1954; Chairman, 1949
- Donald P. McPherson Jr., 1956—1963
- Carroll Miller, 1945—1949
- Robert W. Minor, 1956—1958
- Richard F. Mitchell, 1947—1959; Chairman, 1954—1955
- Rupert L. Murphy, 1955- ; Chairman, 1962
- William J. Patterson, 1945—1953
- Claude R. Porter, 1945—1946
- John L. Rogers, 1945—1952; Chairman, 1945 and 1952
- Walter M. W. Splawn, 1945—1953; Chairman, 1951
- Paul J. Tierney, 1963—
- William H. Tucker, 1961—
- Kenneth H. Tuggle, 1953- ; Chairman, 1959
- Laurence K. Walrath, 1956- ; Chairman, 1963
- Charles A. Webb, 1958—
- John H. Winchell, 1954—1961; Chairman, 1960
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
- Clarence H. Adams, 1952—1956
- J. Sinclair Armstrong, 1953—1957; Chairman, 1955—1957
- Hamer H. Budge, 1964—
- James J. Caffrey, 1945—1947; Chairman, 1946—1947
- William L. Cary, Chairman, 1961—1964
- Manuel F. Cohen, 1961- ; Chairman, 1964—
- Donald C. Cook, 1949—1953; Chairman, 1952—1953
- Ralph H. Demmler, Chairman, 1953—1955
- J. Allen Frear, 1961—1963
- Edward N. Gadsby, 1957—1961; Chairman, 1957—1961
- A. Jackson Goodwin Jr., 1953—1955
- Edmond M. Hanrahan, 1946—1949; Chairman, 1948—1949
- Earl Freeman Hastings, 1956—1961
- Robert E. Healy, 1945—1946
- Robert K. McConnaughey, 1945—1949
- Edward T. McCormick, 1949—1951
- Harry A. McDonald, 1947—1952; Chairman, 1949—1952
- Richard B. McEntire, 1946—1953
- Robert I. Millonzi, 1951—1952
- Andrew Downey Orrick, 1955—1960
- Hugh F. Owens, 1964—
- Harold C. Patterson, 1955—1960
- Sumner T. Pike, 1945—1946
- Ganson Purcell, Chairman, 1945—1946
- Paul R. Rowen, 1948—1955
- James C. Sargent, 1956—1960
- Francis M. Wheat, 1964—
- Jack M. Whitney, 1961—1964
- Byron D. Woodside, 1960—
U.S. MARITIME COMMISSION
(Established 1936 - Abolished 1950)
- John M. Carmody, 1945—1946
- Joseph K. Carson, 1947—1950
- David J. Coddaire, 1948—1950
- Maj. Gen. Philip B. Fleming, Chairman, 1949—1950
- Vice Adm. Emory S. Land, Chairman, 1945—1946
- Capt. Edward Macauley, 1945—1946
- Raymond S. McKeough, 1945—1950
- Grenville Mellen, 1946—1950
- Richard Parkhurst, 1946—1948
- Vice Adm. William W. Smith, Chairman, 1946—1949
- Vice Adm. Howard L. Vichery, 1945
- Thomas M. Woodward, 1945
- Donald W. Alexander, 1961—1963
- Vice Adm. E. L. Cochrane, 1950—1952
- A.W. Gatov, 1950—1953
- Robert Giles, 1963—1964
- Nicholas Johnson, 1964—
- Clarence G. Morse, 1955—1960
- Louis S. Rothschild, 1953—1955
- Thomas E. Stakem, 1961
- Ralph E. Wilson, 1960—1961
FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION
Other Independent Agencies
- Ashton C. Barrett, 1962—
- James V. Day, 1962—
- Rear Adm. John Harllee, 1962- ; Chairman, 1964—
- George Hern, 1964—
- John S. Patterson, 1962—
- Thomas E. Stakem, 1962—1964; Chairman, 1962—1963
ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
- Robert F. Bacher, 1946—1949
- Mary I. Bunting, 1964—
- Joseph Campbell, 1953—1954
- Gordon E. Dean, 1949—1953; Chairman, 1950—1953
- John F. Floberg, 1957—1960
- T. Keith Glennan, 1950—1952
- John S. Graham, 1957—1962
- Dr. Leland J. Haworth, 1961—1963
- Dr. W. F. Libby, 1954—1959
- David E. Lilienthal, Chairman, 1946—1950
- John A. McCone, Chairman, 1958—1961
- Thomas E. Murray, 1950—1957
- Loren K. Olson, 1960—1962
- John G. Palfrey, 1962—
- Sumner T. Pike, 1946—1951
- James T. Ramey, 1962—
- Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman, 1961—
- Henry D. Smyth, 1949—1954
- Lewis L. Strauss, 1946—1950; Chairman, 1953—1958
- Dr. Gerald F. Tape, 1963—
- Harold S. Vance, 1955—1959
- Dr. John Von Neumann, 1955—1957
- W. W. Waymack, 1946—1948
- John H. Williams, 1959—1960
- Dr. Robert E. Wilson, 1960—1964
- Eugene M. Zuckert, 1952—1954
CIVIL AERONAUTICS ADMINISTRATION
(Established 1940 — Became the Federal Aviation Agency in 1958)
- C. F. Horne, 1951—1953
- F. B. Lee, 1953—1955
- Charles J. Lowen, 1955—1956
- D. W. Nyrop, 1950—1951
- J. T. Pyle, 1956—1958
- Delos Wilson Rentzel, 1948—1950
- Theodore P. Wright, 1945—1948
FEDERAL AVIATION AGENCY
(Established 1958 — See CAA Above)
- Najeeb E. Halaby, 1961—
- E. R. Quesada, 1958—1961
FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD
Members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System:
- C. Canby Balderston, 1954—
- Lawrence Clayton, 1947—1949
- J. Dewey Daane, 1963—
- Ernest G. Draper, 1945—1950
- Marriner S. Eccles, 1945—1951; Chairman, 1945—1948
- Rudolph M. Evans, 1945—1954
- G. H. King Jr., 1959—1963
- William McC. Martin Jr., Chairman, 1951—
- Thomas B. McCabe, Chairman, 1948—1951
- John K. McKee, 1945—1946
- Paul E. Miller, 1954.
- A. L. Mills Jr., 1952—
- George W. Mitchell, 1961—
- Edward L. Norton, 1950—1952
- Oliver S. Powell, 1950—1952
- Ronald Ransom, 1945—1947
- J. L. Robertson, 1952—
- Charles N. Shepardson, 1955—
- M. S. Szymczak, 1945—1961
- James K. Vardaman Jr., 1946—1958
GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE
Comptrollers General of the United States:
- Joseph Campbell, 1954—
- Lindsay C. Warren, 1945—1954
- Frank H. Weitzel, 1954
GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION
- Bernard L. Boutin, 1961—
- Franklin Floete, 1956—1961
- Jess Larson, 1949—1953
- Edmund F. Mansure, 1953—1956
- John L. Moore, 1961
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
- Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, 1961
- Dr. T. Keith Glennan, 1958—1961
- James E. Webb, 1961—
NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD
- Stephen S. Bean, 1955—1960
- Gerald A. Brown, 1961—
- John H. Fanning, 1957—
- Guy Farmer, Chairman, 1953—1955
- J. Copeland Gray, 1947—1949
- Paul M. Herzog, Chairman, 1945—1953
- John M. Houston, 1945—1953
- Howard Jenkins Jr., 1963—
- Joseph A. Jenkins, 1957—1961
- Boyd S. Leedom, 1955- ; Chairman, 1955—1961
- Frank W. McCulloch, Chairman, 1961—
- H. A. Millis, Chairman, 1945
- Abe Murdock, 1947—1957
- Ivar H. Peterson, 1952—1956
- Gerard D. Reilly, 1945—1946
- James J. Reynolds Jr., 1946—1951
- Philip Ray Rodgers, 1953—1963; Chairman, 1955
- Paul L. Styles, 1950—1953
SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
- Wendell B. Barnes 1954—1959
- Eugene P. Foley, 1963—
- John E. Horne, 1961—1963
- Philip McCallum, 1959—1961
- William D. Mitchell, 1953—1954
TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY
Members of the Board of Directors:
- Gordon R. Clapp, Chairman, 1945—1954
- Harry A. Curtis, 1948—1957
- Brooks Hays, 1951—1961
- A. R. Jones, 1957—
- David E. Lilienthal, Chairman, 1945—1946
- H. A. Morgan, 1945—1948
- Raymond R. Paty, 1951—1957
- James P. Pope, 1945—1951
- Frank E. Smith, 1954—
- Herbert D. Vogel, Chairman, 1954—1962
- Aubrey J. Wagner, 1960- ; Chairman, 1962—
- Frank J. Welch, 1951—1959
U.S. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
- L. J. Andolsek, 1963—
- Harris Ellsworth, Chairman, 1957—1959
- Bernard L. Flanagan, 1958
- Arthur S. Flemming, 1945—1948
- Barbara Bates Gunderson, 1958—1961
- Robert E. Hampton, 1961—
- Roger W. Jones, Chairman, 1959—1961
- Frederick J. Lawton, 1953—1963
- John W. Macy Jr., Chairman, 1961—
- Lucille Foster McMillin, 1945—1946
- Harry B. Mitchell, Chairman, 1945—1951
- James M. Mitchell, 1948—1953
- George M. Moore, 1953—1957
- Frances Perkins, 1946—1953
- Christopher H. Phillips, 1957
- Robert Ramspeck, Chairman, 1951—1952
- Philip Young, Chairman, 1953—1957
Chronology of Major Events, 1945—1964
Following are listed major U.S. and world events during the postwar period. No attempt has been made to be all-inclusive. Many events which are treated in detail elsewhere in this book are not listed here. The purpose of this listing is to provide further opportunity for orientation in relating events to each other. The year certain Congressional actions were taken has some interesting and perhaps important bearing on other events which took place the same year.1945Jan. 3
— The 79th Congress — seventh in a row to be controlled by Democrats — convened.Jan. 9
— President Roosevelt submitted fiscal 1945 budget, calling for $87 billion in appropriations.Jan. 10
— American forces landed on Luzon in Philippines.Jan. 11
— Soviet forces entered Warsaw.Jan. 20
— President Roosevelt sworn in for fourth time.Jan. 29
— American forces penetrated Germany for first time.Feb. 7
— Gen. MacArthur re-entered Manila.Feb. 12
— White House announced results of Yalta Conference between Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.Feb. 19
— Eight hundred ships, 60,000 Marines struck Iwo Jima.Feb. 24
— Hitler called for last ditch fight as Nazi party marked 25th anniversary.March 7
— Americans crossed Rhine at Remagen.March 11
— CIO called for 65-cent minimum wage.March 26
— President Roosevelt requested authority to cut tariffs up to 50 percent.March 28
— Charter of principles for postwar labor-management relations signed by Chamber of Commerce, AFL and CIO.April 12
— President Roosevelt died at 63 in Warm Springs, Ga. Harry S. Truman took oath as 33rd President.April 17
— Truman endorsed Bretton Woods plan, reciprocal trade and UN at first news conference.April 25
— United Nations Charter Conference opened in San Francisco. American and Soviet forces met at Elbe River.April 28
— Mussolini executed by Italian partisans.May 1
— Hamburg radio announced death of Hitler. Grand Admiral Doenitz assumed control of German government.May 2
— Truman announced budget cuts, end of many wartime agencies by June 30.May 7
— Germany surrendered unconditionally.May 8
— VE-Day.June 19
— President Truman urged revision of Presidential Succession law in special message to Congress.June 21
— Japanese surrendered Okinawa.July 1
— First state anti-discrimination commission established in New York.July 5
— Gen. MacArthur declared Philippines liberated.July 11
— First formal meeting of Berlin Kommandatura.July 16
— $2 billion Manhattan Project successful when first atomic bomb exploded over Alamagordo, N.M., desert.July 17
— Truman, Churchill and Stalin met at Potsdam.July 26
— Clement R. Attlee led Labor party sweep which ousted wartime Conservative government of Winston Churchill. Anglo-American ultimatum of unconditional surrender or complete destruction issued to Japan from Potsdam.July 28
— Senate ratified United Nations charter, 89-2, “nay” votes coming from Henrik Shipstead (R Minn.) and William Langer (R N.D.).Aug. 6
— Hiroshima A-bombed. Soviet Union declared war on Japan.Aug. 9
— Nagasaki A-bombed.Aug. 14
— VJ-Day.Sept. 2
— Japan surrendered to Allied Powers on U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay.Sept. 6
— President Truman outlined 21-point war recovery program in one of longest Presidential messages ever sent to Congress.Sept. 11
— Council of Foreign Ministers, created at Yalta, held first meeting.Oct. 3
— President Truman asked Congress to create Atomic Energy Commission. Sen. Brien McMahon (D Conn.) named chairman of Senate Special Committee on Atomic Matters Oct. 22 after House failed to approve Sen. Arthur H. Vandenberg's (R Mich.) proposal for joint committee.Oct. 23
— Vidkun Quisling was executed by a Norwegian firing squad in Oslo.Nov. 15
— U.S., Britain and Canada proposed international control of atomic energy. Soviets tentatively agreed at Big Three Foreign Ministers Conference in Moscow on Dec. 27.Nov. 20
— Senate confirmed Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower as Army Chief of Staff. Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal began.Nov. 23
— William McChesney Martin became chairman of Export-Import Bank.Nov. 27
— President Truman named Gen. George C. Marshall to succeed Patrick J. Hurley as his special envoy to China.1946Jan. 10
— The first U.N. General Assembly convened in London with 51 nations represented. Security Council met for first time on Jan. 17.Jan. 14
— Second session of the 79th Congress convened.Jan. 16
— First systematic U.S. missile program began, using 60 captured German V-2 rockets.Jan. 20
— Gen. Charles de Gaulle resigned for the third — this time final — time as President of the Third Republic.Jan. 21
— In a combined State of the Union and Budget Message, President Truman submitted his fiscal 1947 budget estimating expenditures at $35.1 billion. At the same moment Truman was calling for Government fact-finding boards to reduce strikes, the United Steel-workers went out.Jan. 22
— President Truman announced the organization of the National Intelligence Authority, predecessor of the CIA.Jan. 25
— United Mine Workers readmitted to AFL, with John L. Lewis as 13th vice president.Jan. 29
— Russian-backed Trygve Lie of Norway won unanimous nomination as UN Secretary General over U.S.-backed Lester Pearson of Canada.Feb. 16
— Syria-Lebanon dispute over French control in Middle East led to first Soviet veto in Security Council.Feb. 28
— Beginning of new “firm” policy toward Soviet Union hinted in speech by Secretary of State Byrnes.March 5
— Sir Winston Churchill made famed “iron curtain” speech at Fulton, Mo.March 7
— Viet Nam became independent state as French colonial empire in Indo China continued to disintegrate.March 13
— UAW-General Motors agreement ended 113-day strike.March 15
— Britain offered independence to India within Commonwealth but Hindu-Moslem dissension blocked full freedom even after all-Indian Government was established Sept. 2.March 17
— Sen. Robert M. LaFollette Jr. led Wisconsin Progressive party back into state Republican fold but was dumped in favor of Joseph R. McCarthy less than two months later at state convention.March 27
— Walkout and 13-day boycott by Andrei Gromyko and Soviet delegation over Iranian border dispute gave U.N. Security Council its first procedural crisis.March 28
— Ex-army colonel Juan D. Peron elected President of Argentina.May 21
— The Government seized the soft coal mines. Vice Admiral Ben Moreell was named operating chief.May 23
— A national railroad strike crippled transportation and the U.S. Mail. Settled two days later after President Truman's threat to have Army seize and operate the rail system. Sen. Robert A. Taft (R Ohio) blocked Senate approval of House-passed strike control bill.June 2
— Italians rejected monarchy in favor of republic in national plebiscite which ended 87 years of rule by House of Savoy.June 14
— The Baruch Plan—formation of international atomic energy authority with absolute power and no veto provision was proposed by Bernard Baruch. The Soviet Union rejected the plan June 24.July 1
— Atomic weapons tested at Bikini atoll. Second test came July 25. Mr. Truman cancelled the third shot scheduled for Sept. 7.July 4
— President Truman proclaimed the independence of the Philippines, redeeming a U.S. promise made in 1898.July 25
— President Truman signed a new stop-gap price control bill.Aug. 1
— The President signed a bill creating the Atomic Energy Commission, with David E. Lilienthal as chairman.Aug. 2
— The Senate ratified U.S. adherence to International Court of Justice. The Connally Reservation — stipulating that domestic matters, as determined by the United States, were outside the World Court's jurisdiction — made final passage possible.Aug. 2
— The 79th Congress adjourned sine die.Aug. 12
— Britain cut off Jewish immigration to Palestine from Europe.Sept. 5
— Maritime strike closed all U.S. ports. Strike ended Sept. 20.Sept. 12
— Secretary of Commerce Wallace criticized U.S. policy toward Russia in speech cleared by Mr. Truman. Reaction was so strong that the President was forced to demand Wallace's resignation.Oct. 1
— Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced 12 Nazi war criminals to gallows, seven others to prison terms.Oct. 14
— President Truman ordered end of all price controls except those on rent.Oct. 23
— The U.N. General Assembly convened at pre-war Worlds Fair grounds in Flushing Meadows, N.Y.Oct. 27
— Bulgaria fell behind Iron Curtain with election of Communist-backed Fatherland Front government.Nov. 5
— The Republicans gained control of 80th Congress, their first big victory in 16 years. Wisconsin gave Joseph R. McCarthy a 62 percent plurality in winning Senate seat of Robert M. LaFollette Jr.Nov. 12
— Rebellion ended when Dutch gave Indonesia independence.Nov. 20
— John L. Lewis' soft coal miners struck again in defiance of the Government. Miners returned on Dec. 7., but not before Lewis was fined $10,000, UMW $3,500,000 for contempt of court.Dec. 14
— The UN Assembly adopted a world disarmament resolution, the first of many, and accepted a gift of $8.5 million from John D. Rockefeller Jr., for purchase of a site on New York's East River for permanent headquarters.Dec. 31
— The state of hostilities was ended by proclamation. President Truman reminded the country that a state of war still existed and wartime national emergency proclaimed by President Roosevelt was not rescinded.Dec. 31
— The total idled by strikes during the year was 4,750,000, the most crippling strike record in history.1947Jan. 3
— The 80th Congress - first to be controlled by Republicans in 14 years - convened.Jan. 8
— The U.S. Civil Service Commission reported that 317 of the 580 employees rated ineligible on loyalty grounds between 1944 and 1946 were Communists.Jan. 15
— Vito Marcantonio, New York's American Labor party representative, was bypassed in House committee assignments.Jan. 21
— Gen. George C. Marshall succeeded James F. Byrnes as Secretary of State.Jan. 23
— A federal grand jury indicted former Rep. Andrew J. May (D Ky.) on charges of fraud and influence peddling on contracts.Jan. 27
— U.S. delegate Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt elected chairman of the UN Economic and Social Commission on Human Rights.Jan. 29
— 12,000 U.S. Marines called home when State Department abandoned efforts to mediate Chinese civil war.Feb. 5
— President Truman ordered nuclear weapon production continued.Feb. 10
— In the Everson case, the Supreme Court held by a 5-4 decision that New Jersey should pay for transporting parochial school children.Feb. 28
— John J. McCloy was elected president of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Eugene R. Black executive director of the World Bank.March 6
— The Supreme Court upheld a $710,000 fine against John L. Lewis for striking illegally against Government and court orders. It reduced the Mineworkers fine from $3.5 million to $700,000. House voted overwhelmingly to change name of Boulder Dam to Hoover Dam.March 10
— Big Four Foreign Ministers convened in Moscow to draft a peace treaty for Germany.March 12
— Truman Doctrine of Soviet containment was outlined by the President in a speech before a joint session of Congress.March 18
— Congressional Record introduced its new Daily Digest, a capsule version of the Record itself.March 19
— Atlanta Daily World correspondent Louis R. Lautier became the first Negro newsman accredited to the House and Senate Press Galleries.March 30
— The Netherlands announced creation of United States of Indonesia.April 7
— The National Federation of Telephone Workers struck the AT&T and Bell System. Settled May 10 with little disruption of service.April 24
— Moscow Conference ended in failure after 46 days.May 22
— President Truman signed the Greek-Turkish aid bill authorizing $400 million in U.S. assistance to the two countries. Congress also approved a separate $350 million foreign relief bill, announcing at the same time that no further aid requests would be considered.May 30
— Premier Ferenc Nagy resigned and Communists seized control of Hungarian government.June 5
— The Marshall Plan was publicly proposed in a Harvard commencement address by Secretary of State Marshall.June 30
— The President signed the new rent bill, permitting 15-percent voluntary increases.July 12
— Nations of Eastern Europe boycotted the organization meeting of the Committee for European Economic Cooperation.July 18
— The Presidential Succession Act - designating the Speaker of the House and President Pro Tempore of the Senate next in succession after the Vice President - was signed into law by President Truman.July 25
— Congress enacted the Armed Forces Unification Act. The President signed it the next day.Aug. 14
— The Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced 22 Buchenwald aides to death.Aug. 15
— Britain ended 150 years of imperial rule in India, which was partitioned into Hindu state and Moslem state (Pakistan) and joined British Commonwealth as two dominions.Aug. 22
— The Taft-Hartley Law went into full effect 60 days after passage.Sept. 2
— The Inter-American Defense Pact - providing for united defense against aggression - was signed by nineteen hemispheric governments in Rio de Janeiro.Sept. 10
— Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower turned aside reporters' questions concerning Presidential aspirations by saying that he would cross no bridges until he got to them. A Government report said that earth satellites were technically feasible.Sept. 17
— James V. Forrestal became the first Secretary of Defense.Oct. 5
— Pravda announced creation of the Cominform.Oct. 14
— Capt. Charles E. Yeager piloted the X-1 through the sound barrier for the first time over Muroc, Calif. — March 1—760 miles per hour.Oct. 23
— President Truman called Congress into emergency session by proclamation to deal with inflation and the crisis in Western Europe.Oct. 24
— Sen. Robert A. Taft (R Ohio) formally announced his candidacy for the 1948 Republican Presidential nomination.Nov. 4
— Democrats scored small but surprising gains in off-year elections.Nov. 6
— Britain granted independence to Burma.Nov. 17
— Mr. Truman sent Congress a 10-point program including tentative foreign aid proposals.Nov. 20
— Britain celebrated marriage of Princess Elizabeth to the Duke of Edinburgh.Nov. 28
— Mayor James M. Curley resumed duties in Boston after President Truman commuted sentence for mail fraud.Nov. 29
— State of Israel established by U.S.-Soviet-backed decision in UN. Immigration from Europe was not resumed until May 14, 1948.Dec. 16
— Soviet union devalued ruble.Dec. 19
— President Truman requested $17 billion for European foreign aid. Congress adjourned.Dec. 29
— Henry A. Wallace announced his candidacy for the Presidency on a third-party ticket of peace and abundance.1948Jan. 1
— Britain nationalized its railways.Jan. 4
— Burma became a republic, independent of Britain.Jan. 7
— President Truman called for cost-of-living tax credit, anti-inflation program, minimum wage, statehood for Alaska and Hawaii and support for the European Recovery Program in State of the Union Message. Communist elements took control of the American Labor party in New York and endorsed Henry Wallace for president.Jan. 12
— President Truman presented to Congress his fiscal 1949 budget, second highest peacetime budget in history with expenditures of $39,669,000,000.Jan. 15
— Arab League announced that its armies would occupy all of Palestine as soon as British troops withdrew.Jan. 23
— The AFL and CIO endorsed the European Recovery Program. Gen. Eisenhower announced that he would not accept the Presidential nomination, even in the event that it was tendered to him.Jan. 27
— The Economic Commission for Europe, with U.S. and British consent, transferred control of the Saar Basin coal production to France.Jan. 30
— Mahatma K. Gandhi shot and killed by a Hindu fanatic on the way to a prayer meeting in New Delhi. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, in a report to Congress, said that development of atomic weapons must take priority over peaceful application of atomic energy.Feb. 7
— General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower ended his military career and turned over his command to Gen. Omar Bradley.Feb. 11
— Philip Murray and the CIO indicted in Washington on charges of violation of the Taft-Hartley labor law forbidding unions to make contributions in a federal election. Indictment dismissed March 15 by Federal Judge Ben Moore in Washington. Justice Dept. took it to Supreme Court which also dismissed indictment on June 21.Feb. 16
— The Soviet Union set up a Peoples Republic in its occupation zone in North Korea.Feb. 18
— The Dail Eireann (Parliament) in Dublin elected John A. Costello Prime Minister, succeeding Eamon de Valera who had held the post for 16 years.Feb. 25
— Czechoslovakia joined the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe when President Eduard Benes yielded to Premier Klement Gottwald's ultimatum and installed a pro-Communist cabinet.Feb. 29
— Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg agreed to a Western European Union and a 50-year security pact was signed March 17.March 1
— Un-American Activities Committee charged Dr. Edward U. Condon, Bureau of Standards head, with being one of the weakest links in the atomic security system. Condon had previously been cleared by a Commerce Department loyalty board.March 5
— Australian-born Harry Bridges was removed as Regional Director for Northern California by C I O president Philip Murray for backing Henry Wallace's third-party movement.March 8
— Supreme Court ruled, 8-1, that religious instruction in public school buildings was unconstitutional. Justice Stanley F. Reed dissented.March 19
— Government invoked for the first time the national emergency provision of the Taft-Hartley law when it obtained an injunction against a strike at the Oak Ridge atomic energy plant.March 29
— 1100 employees of the New York Stock Exchange went out on strike.April 1
— Soviet authorities refused to permit passage of U.S. and British military trains through their occupation zone in Germany.April 3
— President Truman signed the $6,098,000,000 Foreign Aid bill saying the measure was America's answer to the challenge facing the free world.April 6
— Finland and the Soviet Union signed a 10-year military alliance with Stalin present.April 7
— The World Health Organization became a full-fledged United Nations agency.April 15
— President Manuel A. Roxas died and was succeeded by Elpidio Quirino as head of the Philippine Republic.April 18
— The Supreme Court upheld the right of Negroes to vote in the South Carolina Democratic primaries, rejecting the Democratic state organizations plea that it was a private club.April 19
— Premier Alcide de Gasperi's Christian Democratic party won in Italian elections.April 20
— UAW president Walter P. Reuther was seriously wounded by a shotgun blast in Detroit. Federal Judge T. Alan Goldsborough fined John L. Lewis $20,000 and the UMW $1,400,000 for criminal contempt of court.April 21
— Security Council voted plebiscite in Kashmir to decide claims of India and Pakistan.April 26
— The Inter-American Conference in Bogota adopted a charter setting up an Organization of American States as a permanent legal entity. Formally endorsed by 21 Latin American nations in the Pact of Bogota, May 1.May 2
— Dwight Eisenhower became president of Columbia University.May 7
— The first Congress of Europe opened in The Hague with 22 countries represented.May 10
— President Truman seized the nation's railroads and ordered the Army to operate them.May 14
— The birth of the Jewish State of Israel was proclaimed in Tel Aviv by a Declaration of Independence issued by the National Council. President Truman recognized the provisional government as the de facto authority. Arab League declared state of war and the following day Egyptian troops invaded.May 20
— The United Nations Security Council elected Count Folke Bernadotte as mediator between the Arabs and Jews in Palestine.May 25
— General Motors gave United Auto Workers wage increase and introduced the escalator clause which allowed wages to move up or down according to cost-of-living indicators.May 27
— Arch-nationalist Dr. Daniel F. Malan became president of South Africa, defeating veteran Jan Christian Smuts in general election.May 31
— United Nations supervised Korea's first election in which Dr. Syngman Rhee became leader of the Assembly.June 14
— Communist Premier Klement Gottwald was elected President of the Czechoslovakia Republic.June 19
— The Senate followed the House in approving a peacetime Selective Service bill. The measure was signed into law by President Truman on June 24.June 21
— The Berlin airlift began. Ended May 12, 1949. The Republican National Convention opened in Philadelphia.June 24
— Gov. Thomas E. Dewey of New York received the Republican nomination for President.June 25
— President Truman signed into law a bill admitting 205,000 displaced persons and refugees during a two-year period.June 28
— Stalin-Tito break became known when Tito and other leaders of the Yugoslav Communist party were denounced by the Cominform.June 30
— The last British troops left Palestine, lowering the Union Jack for the first time since 1917.July 2
— The largest federal budget surplus in history, $8,419,469,843, was reported for fiscal 1948—1949.July 12
— The Democratic National Convention opened in Philadelphia. President Truman nominated July 15. The Atomic Energy Commission cleared Dr. Edward Condon of security risk charges brought by the Un-American Activities Committee.July 17
— A rump convention of Southern Democrats chose Gov. J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina and Gov. Fielding L. Wright of Mississippi to head the States Rights party.July 26
— President Truman issued two executive orders which directed the end of discrimination in the armed forces and the civil branch of the Government. Special session of the 80th Congress convened. President Truman called for passage of an 8-point anti-inflation program the following day.July 30
— Former Communist espionage agent Elizabeth Bentley began testimony on wartime security leaks before the Senate Investigations Subcommittee.Aug. 2
— Louis F. Budenz, former editor of the Daily Worker, asserted that many spy rings existed in the country and that thousands of Government jobs were held by fifth columnists.Aug. 3
— Pro-Communist editor Arpad Szakasits became President of Hungary succeeding Zoltan Tildy, who was forced out. Whittaker Chambers, former communist and later a New York magazine editor named eight high Government officials as Communist underground leaders.Aug. 5
— President Truman denounced Congressional investigation into Communist activities and alleged spy rings as a “red herring.”Aug. 7
— The special session of the 80th Congress adjourned after 11 working days and little action on the President's program. Mr. Truman called the session a “do nothing” session at a press conference Aug. 12.Aug. 15
— The Republic of Korea, comprising two thirds of the country, was proclaimed autonomous following UN-supervised election.Aug. 17
— Accuser Whittaker Chambers and accused Alger Hiss confronted each other in lobby of Hotel Commodore in New York City. Canada and the U.S. agreed on extension of the 1940 mutual defense program.Sept. 2
— Shipping strike began on West Coast and spread to all U.S. ports Sept. 12.Sept. 6
— Princess Juliana was crowned Queen of the Netherlands, succeeding Queen Wilhelmina who abdicated after 50 years.Sept. 13
— Indian troops invaded Hyderabad. Four days later Hyderabad surrendered unconditionally.Sept. 17
— Count Folke Bernadotte, UN mediator in Palestine, assassinated by terrorists in the Jewish section of Jerusalem. Dr. Ralph Bunche named to succeed Bernadotte.Sept. 19
— Soviet Union announced that all its troops would be withdrawn from Korea by Jan. 1, 1949.Sept. 22
— President Truman attacked Un-American Activities Committee and called it more un-American than the activities it investigated.Oct. 2
— Soviet Union called for outlawing the atomic bomb and establishment of an international agency to control it.Oct. 11
— India, Pakistan and Ceylon became official members of the British Commonwealth.Oct. 30
— Chinese Nationalist government admitted loss of all Manchuria to Communists.Nov. 2
— President Truman was elected for a full term, carrying 28 states and receiving 303 electoral votes. Dewey blamed the defeat on overconfidence.Nov. 4
— Rep. J. Parnell Thomas (R N.J.), chairman of HUAC, refused to testify before a grand jury on charges of padding his payroll. Four days later he was indicted on charges of defrauding the Government.Nov. 5
— UN Assembly approved a plan, 40-6, for controlling atomic energy and rejected a Soviet plan for outlawing the atomic bomb.Nov. 12
— Former Premier Hideki Tojo and six other Japanese war leaders were convicted of war crimes. All were hanged Dec. 23.Nov. 15
— Louis St. Laurent succeeded MacKenzie King as Canadian Prime Minister, the latter stepping down after 21 years in the post.Dec. 10
— The UN General Assembly adopted 48-0 the Declaration of Human Rights guarantee.Dec. 15
— Alger Hiss, former State Department official, indicted on two perjury charges.Dec. 27
— Joseph Cardinal Mindszenty was arrested by Communist government in Budapest on charges of treason, espionage and black market dealings.1949Jan. 3
— First session of the 81st Congress convened. Democratic controlled.Jan. 7
— Cease fire in Palestine. Secretary of State George C. Marshall resigned because of poor health. Succeeded by Dean Acheson.Jan. 10
— President Truman submitted a $41.858 billion budget for fiscal 1950.Jan. 20
— President Truman inaugurated; address contained Point IV program.Jan. 22
— Chinese Nationalists surrendered Peiping.Jan. 25
— David Ben-Gurion elected Prime Minister in Israel's first general election.Feb. 8
— Cardinal Mindszenty sentenced to life imprisonment in Hungary.Feb. 23
— Arab nations and Israel concluded armistice under terms proposed by UN's Ralph Bunche.March 4
— Andrei Y. Vyshinsky succeeded V.M. Molotov as Soviet Foreign Minister in Kremlin shakeup.March 5
— Judith Coplon, Justice Department employee, and Valentin A. Gubitchev, Soviet UN engineer, were arrested in New York on espionage charges.March 18
— United States, Canada and 10 Western European nations adopted a North Atlantic Pact agreement (NATO) agreeing that an attack against one would be an attack against the others. Signed April 4.March 25
— Mao Tse-tung proclaimed Peiping as capital of Chinese Peoples Republic.April 8
— Britain, France and the U.S. agreed to merger of their occupation zones in Western Germany and the establishment of a republican government for the territory.April 9
— Yugoslavia decided to trade with Western nations due to hostile attitude of Soviet Union.April 14
— Nuremberg War Crimes Trial ended.April 18
— Eire (Ireland) severed all ties with Britain on 33rd anniversary of 1916 Easter Revolution.June 20
— Premier Klement Gottwald and other high Czech officials were excommunicated by Pope Pius XII.June 26
— Nationalist China began naval blockade against Chinese mainland.June 30
— Government filed antitrust suit against duPont industrial combine.July 2
— John McCloy took over duties as first civilian Governor of Germany.July 28
— Steelworkers Union went out on strike against Big Steel.Aug. 6
— State Department released White Paper blaming Chiang Kai-shek for loss of mainland and gave notice that no further aid would be given to the Government.Aug. 8
— “Five percenter” investigations began in Senate with Maj. Gen. Harry Vaughan, James V. Hunt and John Maragon being interviewed. Vaughan admitted deep freeze gift Aug. 13.Aug. 16
— Soviet Union officially denounced Yugoslavia as enemy of Communism and recalled ambassador.Sept. 12
— Federal Republic of Germany was proclaimed in Bonn with Theodor Heuss as President and Konrad Adenauer as Chancellor.Sept. 19
— John L. Lewis called out miners.Sept. 21
— Western powers ended military control of Germany.Sept. 23
— President Truman announced that the Government had evidence that a nuclear explosion had occurred in the Soviet Union during recent weeks, ending U.S. monopoly of bomb.Oct. 7
— Soviet Union set up Communist-controlled German Democratic Republic in East Germany with Wilhelm Pieck as President.Oct. 14
— Eleven leaders of the American Communist party were convicted of advocating violent overthrow of the Government.Oct. 26
— Minimum wage raised to 75 cents.Nov. 8
— Democrats won majority of off-year elections for Congress, state and local offices.Nov. 10
— Soviet Union claimed that they would use atomic energy for peaceful purposes but would produce as many atomic bombs as necessary if the need arose.Dec. 7
— Chinese Nationalist government fled to Formosa.Dec. 9
— Rep. J. Parnell Thomas was fined and sentenced to 8 to 24 months for padding Congressional payroll.Dec. 15
— West Germany was made full partner in Marshall Plan.Dec. 27
— The United States of Indonesia became sovereign nation after more than 300 years of colonial rule by Netherlands.1950Jan. 3
— Second session of the 81st Congress convened.Jan. 5
— Britain broke relations with the Chiang Kai-shek government and recognized Communist regime the following day.Jan. 10
— Soviet delegate Jacob Malik walked out of Security Council in boycott against Nationalist Chinese, which lasted six months.Jan. 21
— Alger Hiss convicted of perjury in denying he gave U.S. secrets to Whittaker Chambers.Jan. 25
— India proclaimed independent republic at New Delhi.Jan. 29
— France recognized Viet Nam and Soviet Union recognized Viet Minh in Indo China.Jan. 31
— President Truman ordered Atomic Energy Commission to produce the hydrogen bomb.Feb. 11
— Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) said at Wheeling, W. Va., that 57 Communists were working in the State Department.Feb. 23
— Labor party returned to power in Britain by a much smaller plurality.March 1
— Dr. Klaus Fuchs, German-born physicist, found guilty in British espionage case.March 7
— Judith Coplon and Valentin Gubitchev found guilty of espionage.April 10
— Supreme Court upheld, 6-2, power of Congressional Committees to compel witnesses to state whether or not they were Communists.May 9
— Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, proposed pooling European coal and steel.June 25
— North Koreans crossed 38th parallel in full-scale invasion of South Korea.June 27
— Security Council — at that time boycotted by Soviet Union — called on United Nations members to help repel North Korean invasion. President Truman ordered U.S. air and sea forces to aid South Koreans. The following day the Reds captured Seoul.June 29
— Hollywood Eight convicted of contempt of Congress for refusing to tell Un-American Activities Committee whether they were Communists.July 8
— President Truman named Gen. Douglas MacArthur commander of all United Nations forces in Korea.Aug. 1
— Guam received U.S. citizenship and limited self-government.Aug. 15
— Republic of Indonesia proclaimed with Sukarno as President.Aug. 25
— To prevent strike, Army seized all railroads on orders of President Truman. Returned May 23, 1952.Sept. 12
— Secretary of Defense Louis A. Johnson resigned. He was succeeded by Gen. George C. Marshall on Sept. 20.Nov. 1
— Two Puerto Ricans tried to shoot their way into Blair House to assassinate President Truman who was residing there during restoration of White House. Trygve Lie's term as UN Secretary General was extended three years by General Assembly.Nov. 20
— United States 7th Division reached the Manchurian border.Nov. 26
— Two-hundred thousand fully equipped Red Chinese troops crossed into Korea in an act designated by Gen. MacArthur as an “entirely new war.”Dec. 11
— Supreme Court ruled that, under the 5th Amendment, no one could be forced to testify against himself, balking Government attempts to cite uncooperative witnesses for contempt.Dec. 16
— President Truman declared a state of national emergency because of situation in Korea.Dec. 19
— Gen. Eisenhower named NATO commander.Dec. 23
— Viet Nam proclaimed a sovereign state in the French Union.1951Jan. 3
— First session of the 82nd Congress convened.Jan. 26
— Economic Stabilization Agency ordered wage-price freeze.Jan. 27
— Atomic Energy Commission conducted series of tests in Nevada.Feb. 1
— United Nations General Assembly named Red China the aggressor in Korea.Feb. 7
— William W. Remington, Commerce Department employee, convicted of perjury.Feb. 22
— 22nd Amendment to the Constitution, limiting Presidents to two terms, adopted when Utah and Nevada became the 35th and 36th states to ratify.Feb. 28
— Preliminary report of the Kefauver Crime Committee called gambling a $20 billion-a-year industry.March 19
— Six nations initialed Schuman plan to pool European coal and steel market.April 2
— Gen. Eisenhower opened Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers in Europe (SHAPE) in Paris.April 5
— Julius and Ethel Rosenberg sentenced to death after being found guilty of conspiracy to commit wartime espionage March 29.April 11
— President Truman removed Gen. MacArthur from command.April 12
— La Prensa, independent Buenos Aires newspaper, appropriated by Peron government in Argentina.April 17
— Reconstruction Finance Agency reorganized under Stuart Symington following series of scandals.April 30
— Iran nationalized oil and expropriated property of Anglo-Iranian Oil Co.May 18
— United Nations General Assembly voted arms embargo against Red China.May 27
— Red China announced “peaceful liberation” of Tibet.June 4
— The Supreme Court upheld, 6-2, conviction of 11 Communist leaders tried in 1949 for intent to overthrow the Government. The ruling sustained the Smith Act.June 19
— President Truman signed legislation extending the Draft Act and setting up machinery for universal military training.June 23
— Russia proposed truce in Korea. Talks began July 10.July 17
— King Baudouin ascended throne of Belgium.July 20
— King Abdullah of Jordan assassinated in Jerusalem.Aug. 22
— U.S. and Israel signed treaty of friendship and commerce.Sept. 8
— Japanese Peace Treaty signed in San Francisco by 49 nations.Oct. 3
— White House announced that a second atomic explosion had taken place in the Soviet Union. A third was reported Oct. 22.Oct. 19
— War between Germany and the United States officially ended.Oct. 25
— Conservative party returned to power in England with Churchill replacing Attlee as Prime Minister.Nov. 10
— U.S., Britain and France announced plans for Middle East defense command.Nov. 16
— Massachusetts legislature banned Communist party from ballot.Dec. 11
— Internal Revenue Service rocked by irregularities uncovered by an investigation of the House Ways and Means Committee.Dec. 13
— State Department dismissed career employee John S. Service after charges of intentional and unauthorized disclosure of classified information had been upheld by the Civil Service Loyalty Review Board.Dec. 19
— Federal grand jury indicted former RFC examiner Merl Young on charges of lying under oath during investigation of the agency.Dec. 24
— Libya became independent, the first nation to achieve complete freedom under United Nations auspices.1952Jan. 2
— Internal Revenue Service reorganized following Congressional exposure of misconduct.Jan. 7
— President Truman and Prime Minister Churchill met in Washington for general discussions.Jan. 8
— The second session of the 82nd Congress, in which the Republican-Southern Democrat coalition rode rough-shod over Administration-backed legislation, convened.Jan. 21
— President Truman submitted record peacetime budget of $85.4 billion for fiscal 1953.Jan. 23
— Sen. Estes Kefauver (D Tenn.) announced candidacy for President.Feb. 1
— Newbold Morris of New York appointed head of President Truman's anti-corruption campaign. Dismissed by Attorney General J. Howard McGrath April 3. McGrath resigned a few hours later under pressure.Feb. 6
— George VI of England died, succeeded by daughter, Elizabeth, February 8.Feb. 18
— Riots broke out in Korean prisoner of war camps when hardcore Communists demanded more privileges.Feb. 20
— NATO conference approved European army; set goal of 50 divisions and 4,000 planes by end of 1952.March 10
— Gen. Fulgencio Batista, former President, ousted the government of Carlos Piros Socarras and seized control of Cuba. Soviet Union proposed peace treaty for Germany.March 29
— President Truman announced he would not be a candidate in 1952.April 8
— President Truman seized steel industry to prevent nation-wide strike. Supreme Court ruled seizure unconstitutional June 2. Strike followed on June 3, ended June 24.April 28
— Supreme Court upheld, 6-3, New York state released time program permitting public school children to attend religious services outside school buildings.May 1
— State Department banned travel to Soviet Union and its satellites.May 23
— Railroads, under Army control since Aug. 27, 1950, returned to their owners on orders of President Truman.May 27
— Treaty founding European Defense Community signed in Paris.May 28
— President Truman vetoed “Tidelands” bill, legislation granting oil and mineral rights of offshore lands to coastal states.July 7
— Republican convention convened in Chicago. Eisenhower nominated on first ballot July 10 and Sen. Nixon (R Calif.) nominated by acclamation for Vice President July 11.July 21
— Democratic convention convened in Chicago. Stevenson won nomination on third ballot July 25. Sen. Sparkman (D Ala.) nominated for Vice President July 26.July 25
— Puerto Rico became U.S. Commonwealth when Mr. Truman approved constitution.July 26
— King Farouk of Egypt was forced to abdicate after Maj. Gen. Naguib Bey seized power.Aug. 5
— William Schneiderman, alleged acting head of the U.S. Communist party, and 13 others found guilty of conspiring to overthrow the Government.Aug. 22
— Gen. Eisenhower said he wouldn't give blanket endorsement to Sen. McCarthy, but would back any Republican candidate for Congress.Sept. 9
— McCarthy won GOP Senatorial nomination in Wisconsin by huge vote.Oct. 3
— Britain successfully detonated atomic bomb.Oct. 5
— Stalin pledged support to foreign Communists in speech before 19th Congress of Communist party.Oct. 22
— Iran broke diplomatic relations with Britain.Nov. 4
— Eisenhower-Nixon elected.Nov. 10
— Trygve Lie resigned as UN Secretary General.Nov. 21
— George Meany succeeded William Green, who died, as head of AFL. Walter Reuther succeeded Philip Murray as head of the CIO after Murray's death on Dec. 4.Nov. 29
— President-elect Eisenhower flew to Korea to redeem campaign promise.1953Jan. 3
— The 83rd Congress, Republican by a slight majority and the first to serve with a Republican President in 20 years, convened.Jan. 7
— President Truman made final State of the Union message, warning Soviet Union against provoking war.Jan. 13
— Yugoslavia adopted bicameral federal assembly and chose Marshal Tito as President. Announcement of Soviet doctor's plot against Russian leaders.Jan. 20
— Dwight D. Eisenhower outlined a nine-point peace plan at inauguration ceremonies, became 34th President of the United States.Feb. 10
— High authority for European Coal and Steel Community set up a single market for coal; for steel May 1.Feb. 12
— Egypt and Britain signed an agreement providing self-government for Sudan.Feb. 17
— McCarthy Committee heard testimony charging the Voice of America with waste and inefficiency. New U.S. Information Agency took over all information activities from State Department August 1.March 5
— Stalin died.March 9
— Georgi M. Malenkov succeeded Stalin, Beria became Minister of Interior; Molotov, Foreign Minister.March 26
— Mau Mau outbreak climaxed by massacre in Kenya.March 31
— United Nations Convention on Political Rights for Women signed.April 1
— Mr. Eisenhower signed legislation creating Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.April 10
— Dag Hammarskjold began term as United Nations Secretary General.April 16
— Communist-led Viet Minh invaded Indo-China but later withdrew.April 20
— Subversive Activities Control Board ordered Communist party of U.S. to register with the Department of Justice.April 25
— U.S. atomic aid pledged to NATO in case of armed aggression. Sen. Wayne Morse (Ind. Ore.) spoke for 22 hours, 26 minutes against “Tidelands” bill in longest continuous speech in Senate history, at that time.May 2
— Faisal II became King of Iraq.May 22
— President Eisenhower signed “Tidelands” bill, giving states rights to all minerals in submerged lands within their boundaries.June 2
— Coronation of Elizabeth II of England.June 8
— Agreement on POW's reached at Panmunjom.June 17
— East Berliners rose against Communist rule. Tanks quelled riots.June 19
— Egypt proclaimed republic with Naguib President. Rosenbergs executed.July 10
— Beria imprisoned on treason charge. Executed December 23.July 27
— Korean armistice signed.Aug. 4
— Sen. Robert A. Taft (R Ohio) died.Aug. 5
— Korean War prisoner repatriation began. Ended September 6.Aug. 6
— U.S. and Japan signed mutual security agreement.Aug. 7
— Refugee Relief Act signed permitting 214,000 refugees to enter U.S. during next three years outside regular quotas.Aug. 19
— Mohammed Mossadegh ousted as Premier of Iran by Shah.Aug. 20
— Soviet Union announced explosion of hydrogen bomb. AEC put date as August 14.Sept. 8
— Governor Earl Warren of California appointed to succeed the deceased Fred Vinson as Chief Justice of the United States.Sept. 22
— International Longshoremen's Assn. expelled from AFL for failing to rid itself of undesirable elements.Sept. 26
— U.S. and Spain agreed to a 10-year defense pact giving U.S. right to bases in Spain.Nov. 6
— Attorney General Brownell accused former President Truman of appointing Harry Dexter White to an important post despite FBI report questioning White's loyalty. Brownell later apologized.Dec. 4
— Big Three meeting in Bermuda between President Eisenhower, Winston Churchill and President Joseph Laniel of France.Dec. 8
— President Eisenhower urges peaceful development of atomic energy, and an international pool of atomic resources, in speech at United Nations.Dec. 23
— 21 U.S. POW's turned down repatriation, preferred Communism.1954Jan. 6
— Second session of the 83rd Congress convened.Jan. 21
— First budget prepared entirely by the Eisenhower Administration was submitted to Congress. It called for $65.7 billion in fiscal 1955. First atomic submarine — Nautilus — launched.March 1
— Five Congressmen wounded when four Puerto Ricans fired pistols at random in the House.March 26
— East Germany became a sovereign state but Soviet troops remained.April 12
— Atomic Energy Commission withdrew security clearance for Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer on orders of the President.April 18
— Col. Gamel Abdel Nasser replaced Naguib as Egyptian Premier.April 22
— Army-McCarthy hearings opened. Ended June 17.April 23
— Soviet Union broke relations with Australia over Vladimir Petrov political asylum case.April 26
— Geneva Conference on Far Eastern Affairs opened with foreign ministers of 19 nations, including Communist China, present. Ended July 21.April 29
— India and Red China entered an eight-year pact for peaceful co-existence. India recognized Chinese control over Tibet.May 7
— Dienbienphu fell to Indo-China Red rebels.May 13
— President Eisenhower signed legislation authorizing joint Canadian-U.S. construction of St. Lawrence Seaway.May 17
— U.S. Supreme Court unanimously (9-0) banned segregation in public schools.May 19
— U.S. signed military supplies pact with Pakistan.June 17
— President Eisenhower ordered AEC to negotiate 25-year pact with Dixon-Yates group to construct power plant at West Memphis. Cancelled July 11, 1955.June 18
— Anti-Communist exiles invaded Guatemala; revolt ended July 2.June 25
— President Eisenhower and Winston Churchill held series of meetings in Washington.July 21
— Indo-China truce signed at Geneva Conference; Reds got half of Viet Nam.July 27
— Britain and Egypt signed pact of Suez Canal ending 72 years of British military occupation.Aug. 17
— President Eisenhower declared that Seventh Fleet would aid Formosa in case of attack.Sept. 6
— Mr. Eisenhower launched world atomic pool without Russia.Sept. 8
— Southeast Asia Defense Treaty signed in Manila.Oct. 23
— West Germany granted sovereignty and admitted to NATO and Western European Union.Nov. 2
— Democrats won control of Congress in biggest off-year voter turnout in history. Sen. Wayne Morse announced he would vote with Democrats to organize Senate.Nov. 27
— Alger Hiss released after 44 months in prison.Dec. 2
— Senate censured Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) on two counts by 67-22 vote.1955Jan. 5
— Democratic-controlled 84th Congress convened. It marked the first time since Rutherford B. Hayes in 1879—81 that a Republican President had faced a Congress in which both chambers were in control of the Democrats.Jan. 6
— President Eisenhower pledged cooperation with Democrats in State of the Union speech.Jan. 28
— Congress approved the President's request for emergency power to permit U.S. forces to protect Formosa and the Pescadores.Feb. 1
— Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) approved by Senate.Feb. 8
— Defense Minister Nikolai A. Bulganin replaced Georgi Malenkov as Premier in shift of power in Soviet Union believed engineered by Nikita Khrushchev.Feb. 17
— Oregon Senator Wayne Morse registered as Democrat, completing party switch begun in 1952.March 1
— Congress cleared bill raising members' pay $7,500 to $22,500 per year.March 16
— Yalta papers released.April 1
— Senate approved West German, NATO treaties.April 5
— Winston Churchill resigned, was knighted by the Queen. Anthony Eden became Prime Minister of Britain the following day.April 12
— Scientists okayed anti-polio vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas E. Salk.April 18
— First Afro-Asian conference opened at Bandung, Indonesia. Attacked colonialism, called for self-determination, independence and UN membership.May 14
— The Warsaw Pact, a 20-year mutual defense treaty, was signed by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, East Germany and the Soviet Union at Warsaw.May 15
— Austrian peace treaty signed by U.S., Britain, France and the Soviet Union at Vienna.May 26
— Khrushchev made one of first official appearances when he went to Belgrade with Premier Bulganin to patch up differences with Tito's Yugoslavia.May 31
— Supreme Court left school desegregation to regional federal courts. Set no time limit.July 2
— Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson (D Texas) suffered heart attack.July 11
— President Eisenhower cancelled Dixon-Yates contract.July 13
— Secretary of HEW Oveta Culp Hobby resigned. Succeeded by Marion B. Folsom.July 18
— Geneva summit conference (thru July 23).July 21
— Secretary of the Air Force Harold Talbott defended private business activities before Senate investigators. Resigned August 1.Aug. 2
— Congress adjourned.Sept. 19
— Argentina ousted President Peron.Sept. 24
— President Eisenhower suffered “moderate” heart attack in Denver, Colorado.Sept. 27
— Egypt announced it would buy Soviet arms.Nov. 15
— Adlai Stevenson announced his candidacy for the 1956 Presidential nomination.Dec. 7
— AFL and the CIO merged (16 million members).Dec. 14
— United Nations admitted 16 new members.Dec. 16
— Sen. Estes Kefauver (D Tenn.) announced candidacy for Presidency.1956Jan. 3
— Second session of the 84th Congress convened.Jan. 6
— President Eisenhower, at first press conference since heart attack, said he hadn't decided to seek re-election nomination.Feb. 3
— Sen. Francis Case (R S.D.) opposed natural gas bill because of a proferred $2,500 campaign contribution from lawyer-lobbyist favoring the bill. The Senate passed the bill 53-38. On February 17, the President vetoed the bill, criticizing the “arrogant” lobbyist efforts on its behalf.Feb. 22
— The U.S. released $1 billion worth of uranium for peaceful atomic power at home and abroad.Feb. 29
— President Eisenhower announced he would seek re-election. He said that he was convinced his health would permit him to carry the burdens of the Presidency under a reduced work schedule.March 5
— Victor Riesel, labor columnist, was attacked by an acid thrower and blinded for life.March 7
— The President said he would leave it to Mr. Nixon to decide whether he would seek the Vice Presidency. On March 14 he said that he would be happy to have Mr. Nixon on the ticket.March 9
— Archbishop Makarios of Cyprus was sent into exile by Britain.March 12
— 100 Southern Congressmen signed Southern Manifesto to Congress criticizing the Supreme Court school desegregation decision and pledging lawful means to overturn it.March 20
— Announcement of Nikita Khrushchev's anti-Stalin speech which was made on February 24.March 26
— Supreme Court upheld the 1954 law requiring testimony in return for prosecution immunity.April 21
— Adlai Stevenson proposed end of nuclear testing in speech to newspaper editors.April 30
— Former “Veep” Sen. Alben W. Barkley (D Ky.) died.May 21
— First aerial H-Bomb tested at Bikini Atoll.June 8—9
— President Eisenhower hospitalized with ileitis, successfully underwent surgery.June 9
— Averell Harriman officially entered Democratic Presidential race.June 17
— Sen. Theodore Francis Green (D R.I.) set record for oldest Senator: 88 years, 8 months and 15 days.June 28
— Workers rose against Communist rule in Poznan, Poland; crushed within two days.July 13
— 83 Southern Representatives signed manifesto against civil rights bill.July 19
— United States withdrew offer to build Aswan Dam for Egypt.July 23
— Harold Stassen urged Christian Herter as Republican Vice Presidential candidate instead of Nixon.July 26
— Egypt seized control of Suez Canal.July 31
— Sen. Kefauver (D Tenn.) withdrew from race for Democratic nomination, announced support for Mr. Stevenson.Aug. 13
— Democratic convention convened in Chicago, nominated Stevenson Aug. 16, Kefauver on Aug. 17.Aug. 20
— Republican convention opened in San Francisco, nominated Eisenhower-Nixon on Aug. 22.Sept. 29
— France and West Germany agreed that Saar would be returned to the latter on January 1.Oct. 11
— Rep. Adam C. Powell (D N.Y.) endorsed Eisenhower-Nixon ticket.Oct. 21
— Polish Communists put Wladyslaw Gomulka in power.Oct. 24
— Soviet troops and tanks in Hungary fought anti-Communist rebellion. Imre Nagy named new Premier.Oct. 26
— 82 nations agreed at the United Nations on a new International Atomic Energy Agency for peaceful use of the atom.Oct. 29
— Israel launched attack on Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and drove toward Suez Canal.Oct. 31
— British air attacks begun in Egypt.Nov. 4
— United Nations voted to organize police force to restore peace in Egypt.Nov. 5
— British and French troops invaded Egypt at Port Said. The following day, cease fire was called and advance halted.Nov. 6
— President Eisenhower, Nixon re-elected.Nov. 23
— Soviets kidnapped Hungarian premier Imre Nagy and replaced him with Janos Kadar.Dec. 1
— President Eisenhower ordered 21,400 Hungarian refugees admitted to the United States.Dec. 12
— United Nations General Assembly condemned Soviet Union for aggression in Hungary.Dec. 22
— Anglo-French forces withdrew from Egypt.1957Jan. 3
— First session of the 85th Congress convened. Democrats organized Senate when Sen. Frank Lausche (D Ohio) voted with them.Jan. 5
— President Eisenhower asked joint session for power to use military and economic aid in the Middle East — the Eisenhower Doctrine.Jan. 7
— Premier Chou En-lai went to Moscow, praised Soviet Union.Jan. 9
— Ailing Anthony Eden resigned. Harold Macmillan became Prime Minister of Britain the following day.Jan. 16
— The President submitted a record peacetime budget for fiscal 1958 with a $71.8 billion request. At a January 23 press conference, the President told Congress that it had a right to cut the budget if it could.Feb. 12
— Dock workers went out on strike again after 80-day Taft-Hartley injunction expired.March 1
— Israel pledged prompt withdrawal from Gaza Strip and Gulf of Aqaba. On March 6, United Nations troops took over Gaza Strip as Israelis left.March 6
— The merged former British colonies of the Gold Coast and British Togoland in Africa became the independent nation of Ghana.March 14
— FBI arrested James R. Hoffa of the Teamsters Union on a bribery charge. Acquitted by jury July 19.March 17
— President Magsaysay of the Philippines killed in a plane crash, succeeded by Vice President Garcia.March 20
— President Eisenhower and Prime Minister Macmillan met in Bermuda. U.S. agreed to give Britain guided missiles capable of reaching Moscow.March 25
— Six nations sign Treaty of Rome, which called for Euratom — pooling of atomic resources — and a Common Market.March 26
— Teamster Union President Dave Beck invoked 5th Amendment 117 times at Senate inquiry. He was suspended by the AFL-CIO.April 10
— Mr. and Mrs. Jack Soble pleaded guilty to spying for the Soviet Union.April 13
— Post offices closed and no mail delivery made as Postmaster General Summerfield battled Congress for more money. On April 15, Congress voted the extra money.April 17
— Archbishop Makarios freed, arrived in Greece after 15 months of banishment.April 25
— United States ordered Sixth Fleet to Middle East waters in support of Jordan's King Hussein against leftist elements in area.April 30
— President Eisenhower offered Soviet Union trade on “open skies” aerial inspection.May 2
— Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R Wis.) died of acute hepatitis.May 15
— Britain set off an H-Bomb over Pacific.June 3
— Supreme Court ruled that duPont controlled General Motors in violation of antitrust laws.June 10
— Conservative party under John Diefenbaker won Canadian election, ousting Liberals after 22 years in power.July 3
— The Soviet Union announced that Malenkov, Kaganovich, Shepilov and Molotov had been dismissed from the Presidium. The action had been taken June 29.Aug. 7
— Senate passed Civil Rights Act of 1957.Aug. 21
— United States offered to halt nuclear tests for two years.Aug. 27
— Wisconsin election put Democrat William Proxmire in McCarthy Senate seat.Aug. 29
— Sen. Strom Thurmond (D S.C.) completed speech of 24 hours, 27 minutes, to set a filibuster record. Congress adjourned the following day.Aug. 31
— The Federation of Malaya came into existence.Sept. 3
— Gov. Orval Faubus blocked court-ordered integration with National Guard at Little Rock.Sept. 12
— Syria announced its army had united with Egypt under Nasser command.Sept. 20
— Federal court enjoined Gov. Faubus. He withdrew National Guard from Little Rock school. Nine children entered on Sept. 23. The following day the President sent Army troops to Little Rock.Oct. 4
— Soviet Union launched first earth satellite. It circled the globe at 18,000 miles an hour 560 miles up. Teamsters Union elected James R. Hoffa president.Oct. 10
— United States warned Soviet Union that it would defend Turkey if the latter was attacked.Oct. 24
— AFL-CIO expelled Teamsters Union for corrupt practices.Nov. 3
— Second Soviet satellite launched — Sputnik II.Nov. 19
— United States moved for agreement with NATO on missile bases in Western Europe.Nov. 25
— President Eisenhower suffered a blockage of a small artery in brain. Termed a mild stroke. Returned to work quickly.Dec. 17
— First successful test firing of a U.S. intercontinental ballistic missile, the USAF Atlas, made at Cape Canaveral, Fla. The first full range firing was made Nov. 28, 1958.Dec. 18
— The first full-scale nuclear power station began producing electricity at Shippingport, Pa.1958Jan. 7
— Second session of the 85th Congress convened.Jan. 12
— President Eisenhower sent letter to Soviet Premier Nikolai Bulganin which initiated efforts to conclude a nuclear test ban agreement.Jan. 13
— AFL-CIO president Walter Reuther proposed that auto manufacturers share their profits with workers and customers.Jan. 23
— Venezuelan dictator Marcos Perez Jiminez overthrown by a military junta.Jan. 31
— The Army launched Explorer I from Cape Canaveral, first U.S. satellite.Feb. 1
— Syria and Egypt merged as the United Arab Republic. Nasser was elected President of the U A R Feb. 21. Yemen affiliated on March 8.Feb. 3
— Benelux Economic Union was begun with signing of treaty by Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.Feb. 10
— Dr. Bernard Schwartz was dismissed as chief counsel of the Special House Committee on Legislative Oversight after he had accused most members of the committee of trying to whitewash the investigation of federal regulatory agencies, especially the Federal Communications Commission.Feb. 15
— Poland and the United States signed an agreement for the sale of surplus U.S. wheat and extension of credit for Polish purchase of heavy equipment.March 8
— The last United States battleship joined the mothball fleet as the U.S.S. Wisconsin was retired.March 19
— The first meeting of the new European Parliamentary Union held in Strasbourg, France, and elected Robert Schuman president.March 27
— Nikita Khrushchev became Premier of the Soviet Union.March 31
— Soviet Union announced that it was halting nuclear tests. Urged U.S. and Britain to follow suit. Resumed testing Oct. 3, 1958, blaming U.S. failure to end tests earlier.April 14
— The Federal Reserve Board announced figures showing the worst recession in postwar history.April 27
— Vice President Nixon began South American trip which ran into a series of Communist-inspired demonstrations.June 1
— Gen. Charles de Gaulle took over presidency of France after crisis which had threatened civil war. A new constitution, giving executive extra power, was adopted on Sept. 28.June 10
— Eisenhower Administration was rocked when the House Subcommittee on Legislative Oversight made public records indicating Presidential Assistant Sherman Adams had accepted favors from Boston industrialist Bernard Goldfine. Adams resigned Sept. 22.June 17
— Former Hungarian Premier Imre Nagy, Gen. Pal Maleter and two other leaders of the Hungarian revolt executed.July 14
— Arab nationalist rebels seized Iraqi government, killed King Faisal II and Premier Nuri as-Said and proclaimed a republic.July 15
— President Eisenhower announced in a note to Congress that he had sent Marines to Lebanon, at that government's request, to forestall alleged efforts by Soviet Union and the UAR to overthrow regime. Withdrawal of Marines begun August 12.Aug. 24
— Congress adjourned.Sept. 12
— Supreme Court reversed lower court decision granting 2½-year delay in integrating Central High School in Little Rock. Gov. Faubus closed all four Little Rock high schools. Gov. J. Lindsay Almond Jr. closed nine Virginia schools.Sept. 25
— A federal grand jury indicted former FCC member Richard A. Mack and Miami attorney Thurman Whiteside on charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States.Oct. 3
— Soviet Union resumed nuclear testing, ending unilateral moratorium begun March 31.Oct. 4
— Jet airline service across the Atlantic was inaugurated by the British Overseas Corp.Oct. 9
— Pope Pius XII died. Angelo Guiseppe Cardinal Roncalli became John XXIII on Oct. 28.Oct. 27
— Gen. Mohammed Ayub Khan took control of the Pakistan government upon resignation of President Iskander Mirza.Oct. 31
— Weat began nuclear moratorium, as U.S., Britain, and Soviet test ban conference opened in Geneva. Soviets had begun new series Oct. 3. Joined moratorium Nov. 3, 1958, when series had been completed.Nov. 4
— Democrats scored sweeping victories in general elections, winning control of both House and Senate by largest margins since the Roosevelt landslide in 1936.Nov. 8
— U.S. signed an agreement with the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in Brussels to speed nuclear power production in Europe and to share the resulting benefits.Dec. 10
— First domestic jet airline service opened in U.S. when National Airlines started its New York to Miami run.Dec. 21
— Gen. Charles de Gaulle elected first President of the 5th French Republic.1959Jan. 1
— Fidel Castro assumed power in Cuba after collapse of Batista's government.Jan. 3
— President Eisenhower proclaimed Alaska the 49th state. Soviet scientists launched Lunik I which went into orbit around the sun as first man-made planet, after passing within 4660 miles of moon. Soviets claimed that it was not aimed to hit the moon but to pass by and go into a solar orbit.Jan. 6
— House Republicans revolted and selected Charles A. Halleck (R Ind.) in place of Joseph W. Martin Jr. (R Mass.) as Minority Leader.Jan. 7
— 86th Congress convened.Jan. 30
— Sen. Green (D R.I.) resigned as chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. Sen. Fulbright (D Ark.) succeeded him.Feb. 14
— Secretary of State John Foster Dulles found to be suffering from a cancer recurrence after hernia operation.March 4
— Speaker Rayburn (D Texas began 47th consecutive year in the House, which set a record for longest service.March 13
— Tibetan revolt crushed by Red China in ten-day operation. Dalai Lama fled to India.April 15
— Secretary of State Dulles resigned, succeeded by Christian Herter.April 28
— Clare Booth Luce was confirmed as Ambassador to Brazil, but raised a storm by questioning Sen. Wayne Morse's sanity. She resigned May 1.May 19
— Senate committee voted 9-8 to confirm Lewis Strauss as Secretary of Commerce. Full Senate rejected Strauss appointment 46-49 on June 19.May 24
— John Foster Dulles died.May 30
— Gov. Earl Long (D La.) was taken to a hospital for psychiatric treatment.June 26
— President Eisenhower and Queen Elizabeth opened the St. Lawrence Seaway.July 15
— Steel strike began despite the President's call for further negotiations, lasted 116 days.July 21
— N.S. Savannah, the world's first atomic-powered merchant ship, was launched.July 24
— Vice President Nixon and Premier Khrushchev debated world issues at opening of the U.S. exhibition in Moscow.Aug. 21
— Hawaii admitted to Union as 50th state.Sept. 10
— House for the first time overrode an Eisenhower veto by passing second public works bill by 12 votes more than necessary two-thirds. Senate followed suit which broke President's perfect veto record.Sept. 12
— Lunik II hit moon about 35 hours after launched.Sept. 15
— Congress adjourned after approving extension of Civil Rights Commission and Foreign Aid funds. Khrushchev arrived in Washington at noon.Sept. 18
— Khrushchev proposed “complete” disarmament in speech at the United Nations.Sept. 19
— President Eisenhower said that the 1959 Congressional session had produced “many disappointing failures.”Oct. 4
— Lunik III launched by Russia, circled moon and took photographs of the far side.Oct. 6
— President Eisenhower invoked Taft-Hartley to halt dock-workers strike.Oct. 8
— Conservatives won third consecutive British general election.Nov. 7
— Steel strike ended by Taft-Hartley injunction after 116-day stoppage, longest in industry's history.Nov. 16
— The Supreme Court upheld the Board of Monitors authority to clean up the Teamsters Union.Dec. 1
— The United States and 11 others, including the Soviet Union, signed a treaty guaranteeing peaceful development of Antarctica.Dec. 4
— President Eisenhower began a European tour.1960Jan. 2
— Sen. John F. Kennedy (D Mass.) announced his candidacy for the Presidency.Jan. 4
— European Free Trade Association — the Outer Seven — established by signing of treaty by Austria, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland.Jan. 6
— Second session of the 86th Congress convened.Jan. 8
— Vice President Nixon announced his candidacy for Republican Presidential nomination.Jan. 9
— Aswan high dam construction begun by UAR with Russian assistance.Jan. 14
— John L. Lewis resigned as United Mine Workers head.Jan. 19
— U.S. and Japan signed mutual defense treaty.Jan. 26
— President Eisenhower said that he was perplexed by Castro diatribes against U.S. but stated that he was opposed to any reprisals.Feb. 13
— First French nuclear explosion in the Sahara.March 10
— Federal Communications Commissioner John C. Doerfer resigned under pressure for taking trips on a broadcaster's yacht.April 21
— Sen. Kennedy devoted entire speech at editors' convention to the religious issue.April 22
— Income tax evasion trial of Rep. Adam C. Powell (D N.Y.) ended in hung jury.April 27
— President Syngman Rhee of Korea resigned following riots protesting rigged elections.May 5
— Khrushchev announced that the Soviets had shot down a U.S. plane on May 1 which had flown 1,200 miles inside Soviet Union. State Department and NASA called it a U-2 weather ship which might have accidently violated Soviet air space.May 7
— Khrushchev announced that U-2 pilot Gary F. Powers had admitted that he was on a photo-reconnaissance mission for the CIA. State Department said flight had no authorization from Washington.May 9
— Secretary Herter announced that U-2 flight was part of an extensive aerial surveillance program ordered by the President to protect the U.S. against surprise attack.May 10
— Sen. Kennedy defeated Sen. Humphrey by a wide margin in West Virginia Democratic Presidential primary.May 11
— President Eisenhower took full responsibility for flights over Russia.May 16
— Khrushchev demanded that President Eisenhower apologize for overflights, promise to end them and punish those responsible if Soviet Union were to attend summit meeting. He also withdrew invitation to the President to visit Russia in June. President Eisenhower rejected ultimatum.May 17
— Summit Conference called off before it began.May 22
— Adolph Eichmann captured in Argentina by Israeli agents.May 27
— Turkish government ousted by military junta.June 10
— Presidential press secretary James Hagerty and U.S. Ambassador rescued by helicopter from Japanese mob demonstrating against defense treaty and Eisenhower visit.June 12
— President Eisenhower left for a Far East good-will trip.June 16
— Japanese government called off the President's visit, declaring that it could not guarantee his safety.June 30
— Congo became a republic, ending 75 years of Belgian control.July 11
— Democratic Conventtion opened in Los Angeles, nominated Kennedy-Johnson July 13.July 14
— United Nations Security Council agreed to send emergency force to quell Congo uprising.July 23
— After an all-night session, Vice President Nixon and Gov. Rockefeller announced agreement on a 14-point policy in the Republican platform.July 25
— Republican Convention opened, nominated Nixon-Lodge July 27.Aug. 8
— Senate opened post-Convention session, followed by House on August 15.Aug. 16
— Former British Crown colony became Republic of Cyprus.Sept. 1
— Post-Convention session of Congress adjourned.Sept. 20
— Khrushchev came to New York City for the United Nations General Assembly.Sept. 22
— President Eisenhower proposed broad peace program before United Nations audience, including Tito and Castro, and Khrushchev.Sept. 23
— In General Assembly speech, Khrushchev called for replacement of Dag Hammarskjold and removal of the UN from the U.S.Sept. 26
— First Nixon-Kennedy debate was held on TV. Castro in 4½-hour speech at the UN said that Cuba might seek withdrawal of U.S. naval bases.Oct. 4
— Mr. Eisenhower became the oldest President in U.S. history - 69 years, 355 days - surpassed Andrew Jackson record.Nov. 8
— John F. Kennedy was elected President. Democrats retained control of House and Senate.Nov. 14
— President-elect Kennedy met Nixon in Miami.Nov. 15
— 1960 Census results showed U.S. population 179,323,175, up 18.5 percent over 1950. Nine states would gain House seats, 16 would lose them. U.S. nuclear submarine George Washington went on active patrol armed with first Polaris missiles.1961Jan. 3
— The United States severed diplomatic relations with Cuba. First session of the 87th Congress convened.Jan. 17
— President Eisenhower made a farewell address to the nation in a TV-radio broadcast from the White House, warning of “military-industrial complex.” Patrice Lumumba, ousted Premier of the Congo Republic, murdered in Katanga Province.Jan. 20
— John F. Kennedy was installed as 35th President of the United States.Jan. 22
— The Portuguese cruise ship Santa Maria captured in the Caribbean Sea by 24 Portuguese and Spanish political exiles.Jan. 25
— In a dramatic moment at his first press conference, President Kennedy announced that the two surviving crewmen of an RB-47 reconnaissance plane shot down over the Barents Sea on July 1, 1960 had been released by the Soviet Union.Jan. 31
— Ham, a 37½-lb. chimpanzee, was rocketed into space from Cape Canaveral in a Mercury capsule and picked up from the Atlantic 19 minutes later.Feb. 12
— The Soviet Union launched a rocket from an orbiting satellite aimed at the planet Venus. Lost radio contact Feb. 27.March 1
— President Kennedy created the Peace Corps by executive order.March 9
— Sputnik IX, carrying a dog, Chernushka (Blackie), was successfully launched and put into orbit by the Soviet Union. The spacecraft returned to earth safely the same day and marked a major step in the Soviet man-in-space program.March 15
— Union of South Africa announced its intention to withdraw from the British Commonwealth. It became a Republic on May 31.April 12
— Major Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union became the first human space traveler. He was launched into space from Siberia in Vostok 1 and returned safely after one orbit.April 17
— Cuban exiles launched invasion of homeland at the Bay of Pigs in an attempt to overthrow the Castro regime. By the 20th it was apparent that the invasion had failed.April 22
— A right-wing rebellion in Algeria, led by four French generals, broke out, collapsed by April 26.May 5
— Commander Alan B. Shepard Jr., was rocketed from Cape Canaveral 116.5 miles above the earth in the first United States sub-orbital space flight.May 15
— The Securities and Exchange Commission announced that it would make an extensive investigation into the activities of the American Stock Exchange following expulsion of two members for stock manipulation.May 30
— Generalissimo Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, 69, dictator of the Dominican Republic since 1930, assassinated.June 3
— President Kennedy conferred with Premier Khrushchev in Vienna. He also talked with President deGaulle and Prime Minister Macmillan on same trip.June 12
— The U.S. Army announced the official admonishment of Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker who had been relieved of his command of the 24th Division in Germany two months earlier pending investigation of charges that he had indoctrinated his troops with views of the John Birch Society.July 21
— Capt. Virgil 'Gus' Grissom duplicated Commander Shepard's sub-orbital flight. His Mercury capsule sank after a hatch opened prematurely, but Grissom was saved.Aug. 6
— Maj. Gherman S. Titov of the Soviet Union made a 17-orbit space flight in Vostok II. Landed safely the following day.Aug. 12
— During the night, East German officials closed the borders between East and West Berlin and began construction of the Berlin Wall.Aug. 16
— After 11 days of negotiations, the Inter-American Economic and Social Conference at Punta del Este, Uruguay, approved the basic charter of the Alliance for Progress. Cuba did not approve.Aug. 18
— President Kennedy announced that he had ordered a 1,500-man battle group to West Berlin to reinforce the 5,000-man garrison there. Vice President Johnson flew to Berlin the same day and assured the city of U.S. support in a speech to the West Berlin Parliament the following day.Sept. 1
— Soviet Union unexpectedly broke test ban moratorium which has lasted since Nov. 3, 1958. Series lasted two months, totaling 50 explosions. On Sept. 15, the U.S. and Britain resumed underground testing. Test ban talks continued in Geneva.Sept. 17
— Former Turkish Premier Adnan Menderes hanged in Istanbul for crimes against the Turkish constitution.Sept. 18
— United Nations Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold killed in a plane crash near Ndola, Northern Rhodesia, while seeking ceasefire solution in Congo.Sept. 27
— Congress adjourned, concluding longest session since 1951.Sept. 29
— Syria broke away from the United Arab Republic following a one-day revolt led by Army officers.Oct. 17
— The 22nd Communist party Congress began in Moscow. Before its end on the 31st, the Sino-Soviet rift was publicly confirmed by Khrushchev.Oct. 23
— A nuclear blast of 25 megatons was set off by the Soviet Union. The largest manmade blast in history came on Oct. 30 when a 50-megaton explosion occurred.Nov. 3
— U Thant of Burma was named acting Secretary General of the United Nations.Nov. 16
— Speaker Sam Rayburn (D Texas), 79, died in Bonham, Texas. He had held the post of Speaker for 17 years, more than twice the time of the previous record holder, Henry Clay.Nov. 29
— United States sent the chimpanzee, Enos, into space on a two-orbit flight. Named Col. John Glenn to make the first U.S. orbital flight.Dec. 2
— Cuban Premier Fidel Castro said in a television broadcast that he was, and would remain until he died, a Marxist-Leninist.Dec. 11
— Two U.S. Army helicopter units arrived in Viet Nam, the first direct U.S. military support for South Viet Nam's battle against Communist guerrillas.Dec. 18
— Indian troops invaded Goa, Damao, and Diu, Portuguese enclaves on India's west coast.1962Jan. 5
— American Stock Exchange was ordered by the SEC to clean house of “manifold and prolonged” abuses in trading practices.Jan. 6
— The United States resumed diplomatic relations with the Dominican Republic after a 17-month break.Jan. 10
— 87th Congress began its second session. Rep. John W. McCormack (D Mass.) was elected Speaker.Jan. 14
— The Council of Ministers of the European Economic Community agreed on a Common Market farm policy which would eliminate import controls on certain Market agriculture products.Jan. 25
— Representatives of 20 African nations met in Lagos, Nigeria, for African Summit meeting.Jan. 29
— After 39 months of discussions, the East-West talks on nuclear test bans were broken off in Geneva.Jan. 30
— General Assembly voted 99-2 to ask Portugal to stop repressive measures against the people of Angola. Fourteen Organization of American States nations voted for expulsion of Cuba from any participation in inter-American system at conference in Punta del Este, Uruguay.Feb. 3
— President Kennedy banned all trade with Cuba except for certain foods and medicines.Feb. 10
— U-2 pilot Gary Powers was turned over to U.S. officials in Berlin in exchange for Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.Feb. 15
— Chancellor Adenauer and Gen. deGaulle agreed in Baden-Baden that work on the political unification of Western Europe should be continued and accelerated.Feb. 20
— At 9:47 a.m., Col. John Glenn Jr. was launched into space in Friendship 7 from Cape Canaveral, Fla., for three orbits.Feb. 21
— Premier Amintore Fanfani of Italy announced formation of a new coalition government, the first left-of-center government since the war.Feb. 22
— Attorney General Robert Kennedy told Berliners that U.S. would back them up with full strength of American power.March 2
— The Army took over the government of Burma and set up a revolutionary council of 17 headed by Gen. Ne Win.March 5
— France announced that it would boycott the Geneva disarmament talks.March 9
— Mrs. John F. Kennedy started first lap of goodwill trip to India and Pakistan.March 14
— 17-nation disarmament conference opened in Geneva. Talks went on throughout the year and into 1963.March 18
— The seven-year Algerian war officially ended with signing of cease-fire by France and the Algerian Muslim rebels at Evian-les-Bains on the Swiss border.March 26
— Supreme Court ruled in a Tennessee case, Baker v. Carr, that federal courts have the right to scrutinize the apportioning of seats in state legislatures.March 28
— Military leaders took over control of the Syrian government in a bloodless coup.April 8
— In a French referendum on the Algerian peace settlement, 90 percent of those voting approved the pact, thus backing Gen. deGaulle. Military court in Havana convicted 1,179 Bay of Pigs prisoners and set ransom at $62 million.April 10
— Steel prices increased; President Kennedy's strong reaction forced companies to rescind price increase.April 23
— U.S. and Soviet scientists agreed to cooperate on a world-wide weather watch by setting up a network of regional forecasting centers tied together by meteorological satellites.April 25
— U.S. resumed atmospheric tests in the Pacific after representatives in Geneva had failed to reach agreement with Soviets. First Western atmospheric blasts since Russian series the preceding September.April 30
— In a speech before the Chamber of Commerce of the U.S., President Kennedy assured businessmen that the Administration wanted peace with the business community.May 3
— U.S. announced that television pictures were made for the first time by orbiting satellite on April 24.May 15
— U.S. Marines landed in Thailand to back up diplomatic efforts to achieve peace in Laos. President deGaulle challenged the major role that the U.S. was playing in the defense of Western Europe and discussed France's own defense plans based on modern atomic weapons.May 17
— President Kennedy said at a press conference that the FBI was investigating the Billie Sol Estes case.May 24
— Commander M. Scott Carpenter made second U.S. orbital manned space flight in Aurora 7, with three orbits.May 28
— The biggest one-day drop in stock prices since 1929 took place as shares listed in the New York Stock Exchange lost $20.8 billion in value.May 31
— Adolph Eichmann hanged in Israel.June 11
— The three Laotian Princes formed a coalition regime with Prince Souvanna Phouma as head. Cease fire announced June 23.June 18
— The Conservative party of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker lost its majority in parliamentary elections.June 23
— The Flight Engineers International Assn. struck Eastern and Pan American World Airlines in dispute over makeup of jet cockpit crews.June 25
— The Supreme Court ruled, 6-1, that it was unconstitutional to read a prayer composed by the New York Board of Regents in New York public schools.June 29
— President and Mrs. Kennedy arrived in Mexico for state visit.June 30
— Two small African territories, formerly known as Ruanda-Urundi became independent countries of Rwanda and Burundi.July 1
— Strife-torn Algeria voted for independence from France in referendum.July 4
— President deGaulle and Chancellor Adenauer, meeting in Paris, agreed to arrange an early meeting of the leaders of the Common Market countries to discuss negotiations for European political unity.July 10
— Telstar, an experimental communications satellite, went into space and relayed television broadcast between the United States and Europe.July 23
— The neutrality and independence of Laos “guaranteed” by an agreement signed by 14 countries at Geneva.July 25
— Gen. Lyman Lemnitzer succeeded Gen. Lauris Norstad as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe.July 31
— Agreement signed by Britain and Malaya to establish the Federation of Malaysia, comprised of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and North Borneo.Aug. 5
— Soviet Union began a new series of atmospheric nuclear tests.Aug. 6
— Jamaica celebrated independence.Aug. 7
— Dr. Frances O. Kelsey, Food and Drug Administration official, was awarded gold medal for distinguished civilian service for keeping drug, thalidomide, off the U.S. market.Aug. 11
— Soviet Union launched two cosmonauts into space within a day of each other.Aug. 20
— West Berliners stoned Soviet Army vehicles and fought with West German police in the fourth and worst night of riots along the Wall.Aug. 24
— U.S. and Soviet representatives reported to the 17-nation disarmament conference in Geneva that their special talks on a nuclear test ban had ended without agreement. Conference continued until Dec. 24 when it was recessed. Reconvened Feb. 12, 1963.Aug. 27
— U.S. launched a spacecraft, Mariner 11, toward the planet Venus as first step toward eventual landing on Mars. Flight considered a success.Aug. 29
— Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter retired; Arthur J. Goldberg appointed.Aug. 31
— Trinidad-Tobago marked full independence from Britain.Sept. 2
— Soviet Union announced that it had agreed to supply arms to Cuba and provide technical assistance to train Cuban armed forces.Sept. 10
— Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black ordered James Meredith admitted to the University of Mississippi which began chain of events leading to violent riots on September 30.Sept. 30
— More than 350 years of Dutch rule in New Guinea ended as United Nations assumed seven-month jurisdiction.Oct. 1
— James Meredith began classes at University of Mississippi.Oct. 3
— Commander Walter Shirra Jr. orbited around earth 6 times in flight which took 9 hours and 14 minutes in Sigma 7.Oct. 9
— Uganda achieved full independence from Britain.Oct. 11
— Pope John XXIII addressed opening session of 21st Ecumenical Council in Vatican.Oct. 13
— The 87th Congress adjourned, surpassing length of 1961 session which had been longest since Korean War year of 1951.Oct. 20
— Chinese forces launched surprise attack against India on two fronts.Oct. 22
— President Kennedy announced on TV that he was responding to presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba with quarantine on all offensive military equipment shipments to Cuba. The following day Ambassador Stevenson demanded in the United Nations that Soviet bases be withdrawn.Oct. 28
— Khrushchev announced that Soviet missiles in Cuba would be dismantled and shipped back to Russia.Oct. 30
— Red China was excluded from United Nations membership for another year.Nov. 6
— Democrats won a majority of House, Senate and Goverorship contests in elections. Former Vice President Nixon lost to Gov. Edmund Brown in California gubernatorial election. United Nations voted 67-16 that measures be taken against South Africa if it continued its racial policies.Nov. 7
— Resignation of Indian Defense Minister Krishna Menon was accepted by Nehru.Nov. 20
— The naval blockade of Cuba was lifted because Khrushchev said all Soviet bombers would be removed within 30 days.Nov. 21
— Red China suddenly declared a cease fire along the Indian border, thus halting at least temporarily China's 33-day assault.Nov. 29
— India and Pakistan agreed to negotiate their long standing dispute over possession of Kashmir.Nov. 30
— U Thant of Burma was unanimously elected Secretary General of the United Nations.Dec. 4
— President Tito of Yugoslavia arrived in Moscow for his first visit since 1956.Dec. 5
— President Kennedy declared in a letter to U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson that he had the fullest confidence in him and expressed regret at the stir caused by a Saturday Evening Post article which had said that Stevenson had wanted a softer line taken toward Cuba during the crisis.Dec. 11
— Khrushchev said in a speech to the Supreme Soviet that Communist China was trying to provoke a world war with its criticism of Soviet handling of the Cuban crisis.Dec. 13
— Second communications satellite, Relay, was launched.Dec. 14
— Mariner II flew close to Venus and for 42 minutes its instruments recorded more information about the earth's closest planetary neighbor than had been recorded in all of history.Dec. 21
— President Kennedy and Prime Minister Macmillan met in the Bahamas and agreed to the Pact of Nassau involving a NATO nuclear force and discontinuance of the Skybolt program.Dec. 24
— A Cuba-to-U.S. airlift of the Bay of Pigs prisoners was concluded. The President spoke to them in a rally in Miami's Orange Bowl.Dec. 24
— 17-nation disarmament conference in Geneva, begun in March, recessed. Talks resumed Feb. 12, 1963.1963Jan. 1
— Sen. Robert S. Kerr (D Okla.) died following heart attack.Jan. 8
— House Republican Conference met. “Young Turk” revolt succeeded in electing Rep. Gerald R. Ford Jr. (R Mich.) as chairman of the Conference replacing Rep. Charles B. Hoeven (R Iowa).Jan. 9
— First session of the 88th Congress convened at noon with Democrats in substantial command of both chambers. Line-up: Senate - D 67, R 33; House - D 259, R 176.Jan. 14
— President Kennedy called for tax cuts and reforms to bolster the economy in his State of the Union message.Jan. 14
— President deGaulle rejected Britain's membership in the European Common Market and a French role in the proposed multilateral nuclear fleet.Jan. 22
— A treaty of cooperation and reconciliation between France and West Germany was signed in Paris by President de Gaulle and Chancellor Adenauer.Feb. 8
— The U.S. resumed underground nuclear testing.Feb. 12
— The 17-nation disarmament conference resumed in Geneva.Feb. 14
— Harold Wilson was elected leader of Britain's Labor party to succeed Hugh Gaitskell, who died Jan. 18.Feb. 26
— TFX controversy began when Senate Permanent Investigations Subcommittee under Sen. McClellan (D Ark.) began closed-door testimony on award of contract to General Dynamics by Defense Secretary McNamara.March 4
— The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the nation's railroads could legally make sweeping work-rules changes to eliminate unnecessary jobs.March 24
— A Presidential Commission headed by Gen. Lucius D. Clay submitted a study report generally backing foreign aid but calling for reforms and retrenchments in some areas.April 1
— The 114-day-long New York newspaper strike ended.April 22
— Lester B. Pearson succeeded John Diefenbaker as Canadian Prime Minister.May 4
— New York Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller married Mrs. Margaretta Fitler Murphy.May 10
— Five weeks of racial tension ended in Birmingham, Ala., with an agreement providing for partial and gradual desegregation of public facilities. Two days later President Kennedy announced he was sending 3,000 troops to positions near the city to keep the peace.May 16
— Maj. L. Gordon Cooper landed safely after completing a successful 22-orbit, 34-hour, 20-minute flight.May 21
— In a referendum, U.S. wheat growers rejected a Government price support program designed to curtail surplus.May 22
— The heads of 28 independent African states met in the continent's first unity conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.May 31
— Chairman of the House Un-American Activities Committee and co-author of the McCarran-Walter Immigration Act, Francis E. Walter (D Pa.), died of leukemia.June 3
— Pope John XXIII died and Giovanni Battista Cardinal Montini, Archbishop of Milan, was elected to succeed him as Paul VI on June 21.June 4
— Teamster president James R. Hoffa and seven others were indicted on charges of having fraudulently obtained $20 million in loans from union's pension fund.June 11
— After a dramatic confrontation at the “schoolhouse door,” Alabama Governor Wallace stepped aside to allow two Negroes to enroll at the University of Alabama, when faced by National Guard troops.June 19
— President Kennedy asked Congress to enact the most far-reaching civil rights legislation to date. Two Soviet cosmonauts, one a woman, landed after separate orbits around the earth.June 20
— The U.S. and the Soviet Union signed an agreement to establish a “hot line” communications link between Washington and Moscow.June 26
— President Kennedy visited West Berlin.July 8
— U.S. banned virtually all financial transcations with Cuba.July 21
— Talks aimed at resolving ideological conflict between Soviet Union and Red China ended in failure in Moscow.July 25
— U.S., Britain and the Soviet Union initialed a test ban agreement in Moscow to prohibit nuclear testing on land, in space and under water.Aug. 10
— Sen. Estes Kefauver (D Tenn.) died following heart attack.Aug. 16
— U.S. and Canada agreed to arm Canadian air defense system with U.S.-controlled nuclear warheads.Aug. 18
— Negro James Meredith received a degree from the University of Mississippi.Aug. 27
— Congress approved a bill barring a national railroad strike by imposing compulsory arbitration for the first time in U.S. history.Aug. 28
— Some 200,000 persons walked peacefully in a “March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom” to dramatize the fight for civil rights legislation.Sept. 11
— Governor Wallace backed down and permitted integration of public schools after President Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard.Sept. 15
— Malaya, Sarawak, British North Borneo and Singapore merged into the new nation of Malaysia.Sept. 16
— The Soviet Union contracted to buy Canadian wheat.Sept. 20
— President Kennedy proposed a joint U.S.-Soviet manned moon expedition in speech before United Nations.Sept. 22
— The Senate ratified the limited test ban treaty, 80-19.Sept. 25
— A modified version of President Kennedy's tax cut program was passed by the House 270-155 and sent to the Senate.Oct. 9
— President Kennedy approved the sale of 150 million bushels of wheat to the Soviet Union.Oct. 11
— The U.N. General Assembly approved a resolution condemning South Africa's apartheid policy.Oct. 16
— Chancellor Adenauer of West Germany retired after 14 years and Ludwig Erhard succeeded him.Oct. 17
— Yugoslavia's Marshal Tito arrived in Washington for first state visit to U.S.Oct. 18
— Foreign Secretary Lord Home succeeded Harold Macmillan as Britain's Prime Minister.Nov. 1
— President Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu were assassinated when military coup deposed the government of South Viet Nam.Nov. 6
— Sen. Thomas J. Dodd (D Conn.) sharply criticized Majority Leader Mike Mansfield (D Mont.) for ineffective leadership, Senate Republicans for failure to offer hard-hitting opposition to the Administration's foreign policy and the Senate itself for “dragging and lagging.”Nov. 7
— New York Governor Rockefeller announced his candidacy for the Republican Presidential nomination.Nov. 22
— President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th President aboard the Presidential plane that took him and the dead President's body back to Washington. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested by Dallas police as the assassin.Nov. 24
— Oswald was shot and killed by Jack Ruby in the Dallas police department basement.Nov. 25
— President Kennedy was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.Nov. 27
— President Johnson pledged to continue the late President's policies and asked for early action on the civil rights and tax cut bills in address to joint session of Congress.Dec. 17
— President Johnson called for an end to the cold war “once and for all” in address before the U.N. General Assembly.Dec. 20
— East Germany agreed to open the Berlin Wall temporarily to permit West Berliners to visit relatives.Dec. 24
— The House approved a conference bill giving $3 billion for foreign aid and giving the President discretionary authority to approve Eximbank credits.Dec. 30
— The Senate approved the foreign aid measure and adjourned at 2:51 p.m., ending the longest session of Congress since the Korean War crisis of 1950.1964Jan. 3
— Sen. Barry Goldwater (R Ariz.) announced candidacy for the Republican Presidential nomination. The first of a series of Soviet purchases of U.S. wheat was completed in Moscow and announced in Washington.Jan. 7
— The second session of the 88th Congress convened.Jan. 8
— President Johnson called for war against poverty, $500 million reduction in federal spending and a 25% reduction in production of materials for nuclear weapons in first State of the Union message.Jan. 10
— Panama severed diplomatic relations with the U.S. after series of riots in Canal Zone led to 23 deaths.Jan. 11
— The U. S. Public Health Service released a federal report that described cigarette smoking as a definite “health hazard.”Jan. 17
— Arab summit conference ended with chiefs of state of 13 Arab League nations agreeing to a unification of military command for possible use against Israel.Jan. 21
— President Johnson offered to join Soviet Union in East-West negotiations to freeze the number and type of nuclear-armed strategic weapons possessed by both nations and their allies in message to opening of the 1964 Geneva 18-nation disarmament conference. President Johnson sent Congress a fiscal 1965 budget that proposed $97.9 billion in expenditures and estimated receipts of $93 billion and a deficit of $4.9 billion.Jan. 23
— Ratification of the 24th Amendment to the Constitution was completed when South Dakota became the 38th state to approve the anti-poll tax amendment.Jan. 27
— Sen. Margaret Chase Smith (R Maine) announced her candidacy for the Republican Presidential nomination. France announced recognition of Red China.Jan. 30
— South Viet Nam's ruling military junta was overthrown in bloodless coup d'etat carried out by a group of military officers led by Gen. Nguyen Khanh.Feb. 17
— The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in a 6-3 decision that Congressional districts as near as practical should be equal in population so that “one man's vote in a Congressional election is to be worth as much as another's.”Feb. 25
— The Administration's tax cut and reform bill was passed by the House 326-83. The following day the Senate passed it 73-19 and the President signed the bill into law six hours later.March 4
— Teamster president James R. Hoffa was convicted by a federal grand jury in Chattanooga, Tenn., of tampering with a federal jury in his 1962 trial in Nashville, Tenn.March 10
— U.S. Ambassador to Viet Nam Henry Cabot Lodge won the New Hampshire Presidential primary with a large write-in vote.March 14
— Jack L. Ruby was convicted in Dallas, Texas, of the “murder with malice” of Lee Harvey Oswald, suspected assassin of President Kennedy.March 16
— President Johnson sent to Congress a special message outlining plans for a $962.5 million “war on poverty.”March 19
— Presidential press secretary Pierre Salinger resigned to run for the California Democratic Senatorial nomination. George Reedy appointed his successor.March 21
— Chinese Communist party called on Communists everywhere to repudiate Premier Khrushchev and the Soviet leadership and to join China in its struggle for world revolution, Khrushchev arrived in Budapest and began a series of sharp public denunciations of Communist China's opposition to his policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with the West.March 25
— Sen. J.W. Fulbright (D Ark.) called on U.S. foreign policy leaders to “disabuse ourselves of old myths (in