Congress A to Z

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      About the Book

      Congress A to Z is part of CQ Press’s five-volume American Government A to Z series, which provides essential information about the history, powers, and operations of the three branches of government, the election of members of Congress and the president, and the nation’s most important document, the Constitution. In these volumes, CQ Press’s writers and editors present engaging insight and analysis about U.S. government in a comprehensive, ready-reference encyclopedia format. The series is useful to anyone who has an interest in national government and politics.

      Congress A to Z offers accessible information about the inner workings of the legislative branch, including biographies of influential members; discussions of congressional relations with the president, the bureaucracy, interest groups, the media, political parties, and the public; and explanations of the concepts and powers related to Congress, including the committee system, the federal budget process, and congressional investigations. The entries are arranged alphabetically and are extensively cross-referenced to related information. This volume includes a detailed index, useful reference materials, and a bibliography.

      The fifth edition of Congress A to Z has been thoroughly updated to cover contemporary events, including the 2006 midterm elections that shifted party control in the House and Senate to the Democrats for the first time in twelve years. The volume contains new entries on the Capitol Visitor Center, C-SPAN, earmarks, electronic voting, line-item vetoes, and the newly formed House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming. Short biographies profile significant figures in today’s Congress, including Nancy Pelosi and Harry Reid. Presented in a new and engaging design, this edition contains a wealth of stimulating sidebar material, such as memorable quotations and numerous features inviting the reader to explore issues in further depth.

      Preface

      In the five years since Congress A to Z was last published in 2003, control of Congress—the central institution of the Founders’ plan for the new nation’s federal government—changed hands once again, illustrating both the ferment and the intractability of divided power in Washington, D.C. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats swept their Republican counterparts out of the Senate and House to take full control of Congress for the first time in twelve years.

      The Democratic ascendancy in 2006 was attributed—more than any other single factor—to voter concern about the conduct of the U.S.-led war in Iraq, which President George W. Bush launched in 2003 to topple dictator Saddam Hussein, who was believed to be harboring chemical and biological weapons and developing nuclear weapons. Republicans compounded their problems with a series of high-profile scandals in the House that allowed Democrats to argue it was time for a change. In fact, the significant switch in the fortunes of House Democrats was due to electoral wins in normally Republican-leaning districts, most of which had gone comfortably for President Bush in 2004. Whether Democrats maintain their majority is likely to depend on the outcome of contests for those seats in 2008 and later elections.

      Democratic gains in 2006 were substantial in the House but narrow in the Senate. At the start of the 110th Congress in 2007, with President Bush in office for his final two years, Washington once again returned to the divided government that has characterized much of the period since 1947.

      The first year of the 110th Congress demonstrated how little the relationship between the legislative and executive branches has changed since the advent of a more powerful modern presidency, often attributed to Franklin D. Roosevelt’s tenure as chief executive from 1933 to 1945. For example, Congress remains ill equipped to influence directly and immediately the conduct of foreign policy and military matters. The Democrats in 2006 pledged they would bring U.S. troops home swiftly if they won the midterm elections; by the end of 2007, however, American forces in Iraq had actually increased in number as Bush had deployed more soldiers in an effort to reduce growing violence, much of it between Iraqi sects. Congress can influence executive conduct of foreign policy over longer periods, but the limits of its influence in the short term were evident in 2007.

      Domestic policy was more amenable to congressional influence in 2007 because legislators had the power to enact new programs and to fund them. Yet even in domestic matters, the president retained the upper hand through his power to veto legislation—as long as his party attracted enough votes in one of the chambers to prevent a two-thirds majority vote to override, a task easily accomplished in the Senate given the presence of forty-nine Republican senators. By the end of the year, Bush had indeed vetoed several bills, and only one of those—a massive spending measure (critics called it pork-barrel legislation) that benefited a vast majority of members of both parties—had been overridden as of February 2008.

      Although 2007 brought the drama of a Republican White House pitted against a Democratic Congress, the accompanying divisiveness and partisanship had become all too familiar over the previous twelve years. In the fall 1994 elections, Republicans captured control of Congress for the first time since the 1952 elections gave them a two-year majority. Partisanship is never far away from daily activity in Congress, but the period starting with GOP control in 1995 was defined by a deep divide between the two parties over not only legislative priorities but also basic philosophies of government and fundamental political agendas. The differences existed before, but Republicans had been unable to assert their beliefs against the long-standing Democratic majority, other than through the actions of the GOP presidents who controlled the White House for much of the period from 1952 to 1992.

      Differences were exacerbated in the late 1990s by Republican hostility, principally in the House, toward Democratic president Bill Clinton. An unsuccessful House effort to remove Clinton from office through impeachment presaged the bitterness of the 2000 election, when Bush won the White House after recounts of disputed vote tallies in Florida were halted by the Supreme Court’s 5–4 decision. Partisanship deepened over the next six years as Republicans, in control of both chambers much of that time, moved aggressively, and largely successfully, to enact their legislative agenda, often via heavy-handed use of rules and political muscle. Republicans showed little interest in aggressive oversight of the executive branch, preferring to give mostly solid support to White House actions. Democrats protested vigorously but, being in the minority, had no leverage. Only after gaining the majority in the 2006 elections were the Democrats—particularly in the House—able to exercise aggressive oversight in 2007 through a number of congressional committees.

      With the parties’ roles reversed, Republicans in 2007 began singing much the same refrain as had Democrats, protesting that they were not allowed meaningful participation in legislative decisions. On some occasions Bush and members of both parties came together to attempt significant legislative accomplishments, most notably on reform of national immigration policy. They failed, however, on that issue and others, at least by halftime in the 110th Congress.

      This new edition of Congress A to Z marks the twentieth anniversary of the first edition published by Congressional Quarterly in 1988. In updating the text for the fifth edition, editors noted—as they had during previous revisions—how much did not change in the operation, procedures, structure, and even fundamental attitudes of members, despite the partisanship and the raucous differences over the issues of the day. Political parties vied for supremacy, legislation was passed, vast sums of money were appropriated, scandals occurred, and the public’s view of Congress—if the polls were to be believed—remained low.

      Congress A to Z is designed to help students, activists, interested citizens, and anyone concerned about the vitality of self-government in the United States understand better the ways in which the most representative institution of the federal government operates. Although only the president is elected by all the voters, Congress is selected by a vast array of voter subsets that arguably are as close a reflection of the views and concerns of citizens as can be obtained in a representative government. How this institution understands, reflects, and responds to these citizen concerns is of vital importance.

      The original edition of Congress A to Z was planned and in large part written by Mary Cohn, for many years a senior editor at Congressional Quarterly. Significant portions of her work are continued in this edition. Subsequent editions were updated by many CQ reporters and editors, most recently by David R. Tarr, former executive editor at CQ Press, and Ann O’Connor, a former CQ editor and director of the book publishing operations. This edition was updated under the supervision of CQ Press acquiring editor Doug Goldenberg-Hart. Anna S. Baker and Tim Arnquist ably shepherded it through the editorial process. The text was edited by Jon Preimesberger, who made endless improvements in the language and focus of the entries and who also handled the book’s production, under the guidance of managing editor Joan Gossett.

      The entries in Congress A to Z and its companion volumes on the presidency, the Supreme Court, elections, and the Constitution are arranged alphabetically and are extensively cross-referenced to guide readers to related information elsewhere in each book. Each volume also has a detailed index.

      The core of the Congress volume is a series of essays that provide overviews of major topics such as the House and the Senate, legislation, leadership, power of the purse, and war powers. Supporting the essays are shorter entries covering items mentioned in them and specific items related to Congress and legislation. Brief biographies of important congressional figures are included. An extensive appendix includes a variety of tables and other reference material for quick reference about facts and figures. A bibliography is arranged by subject.

      Readers who need more extensive, in-depth explanations of Congress as an institution may wish to consult CQ Press’s Guide to Congress, Sixth Edition, after reading the appropriate entries in Congress A to Z.

      We hope that this volume, and the others that make up the American Government A to Z series, will achieve the simple goal underpinning all the books: to provide readers with easily understood, accurate information about Congress, the presidency, the Supreme Court, the elections that so dramatically influence these institutions, and the Constitution of the United States.

      CQ Press Editors

      March 2008

      Historic Milestones

      The history of Congress is studded with events that have helped to shape the legislative branch and define its relations with the nation as a whole. Some of these milestones in congressional history are listed here.

      1787

      Delegates to the Constitutional Convention agree to establish a national legislature consisting of two chambers: a House of Representatives to be chosen by direct popular vote and a Senate to be chosen by the state legislatures. Under the terms of the “Great Compromise” between the large and small states, representation in the House would be proportional to a state’s population; in the Senate each state would have two votes.

      1789

      The First Congress is scheduled to convene on March 4 in New York City’s Federal Hall. The House does not muster a quorum to do business until April 1, and the Senate takes until April 6. Congress continues to meet in New York until August 1790. President George Washington appears twice in the Senate to consult about an American Indian treaty. His presence during Senate proceedings creates such tension that later presidents never participate directly in congressional floor proceedings.

      Federal Hall in New York City was the meeting place of the First Congress from April 1789 toAugust 1790. Library of Congress

      1790

      Congress moves to Philadelphia, where it meets in Congress Hall from December 1790 to May 1800.

      1800

      Congress formally convenes in Washington, D.C., on November 17. Both houses meet in the north wing of the Capitol, the only part of the building that has been completed.

      1801

      In its first use of contingent election procedures established by the Constitution, the House of Representatives chooses Thomas Jefferson as president. The election is thrown into the House when Democratic-Republican electors inadvertently cast equal numbers of votes for Jefferson and Aaron Burr, their candidates for president and vice president, respectively. The Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution, requiring separate votes for president and vice president, will be ratified in time for the next presidential election in 1804. (See Electing the President; Constitutional Amendments.)

      1803

      The Supreme Court, in the case of Marbury v. Madison, establishes its right of judicial review over legislation passed by Congress.

      1812

      Using its War Powers for the first time, Congress declares war against Great Britain, which has seized U.S. ships and impressed American sailors.

      1814

      British troops raid Washington, D.C., on August 24, setting fire to the Capitol Building, the White House, and other buildings. Congress meets in makeshift quarters until it can return to the Capitol in December 1819.

      In 1814 British troops raided Washington, D.C., and burned severalbuildings, including the Capitol. The Granger Collection, New York

      1820

      House Speaker Henry Clay negotiates settlement of a bitter sectional dispute over the extension of slavery. Known as the Missouri Compromise, Clay’s plan preserves the balance between slave and free states and bars slavery in any future state north of 36°30′ north latitude.

      1825

      The House settles the 1824 presidential election when none of the four major contenders for the office receives a majority of the electoral vote. Although Andrew Jackson leads in both the popular and the electoral vote, the House elects John Quincy Adams on the first ballot.

      1830

      The doctrine of nullification sparks one of the most famous debates in Senate history. As articulated by Vice President John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, the doctrine asserts the right of states to nullify federal laws they consider unconstitutional. In a stirring Senate speech, a fellow South Carolinian, Sen. Robert Y. Hayne, defends the doctrine and urges the West to ally with the South against the North. Massachusetts Whig Daniel Webster responds with a passionate plea for preservation of the Union.

      1834

      The Senate adopts a resolution censuring President Andrew Jackson for his removal of deposits from the Bank of the United States and his refusal to hand over communications to his cabinet on that issue. (The censure resolution is expunged from the Senate Journal in 1837 after Jacksonian Democrats gain control of the Senate.)

      1846

      The House passes the Wilmot Proviso, which would bar slavery in territories to be acquired from Mexico in settlement of the Mexican War. Southerners, led by Calhoun, defeat the measure in the Senate. The proviso—named for its sponsor, Rep. David Wilmot of Pennsylvania—deepens the sectional split in Congress over extension of slavery.

      1850

      The Compromise of 1850, Clay’s final attempt to keep the South from seceding from the Union, brings together Webster, Clay, and Calhoun for their last joint appearance in the Senate. Ill and near death, Calhoun drags himself into the chamber to hear his speech read by a colleague. Clay, in a speech that extends over two days, urges acceptance of his proposals, which exact concessions from both the North and South. The compromise package clears the way for California to be admitted to the Union as a free state, permits residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories to decide in the future whether they will permit slavery there, abolishes the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and establishes a strong fugitive slave law.

      Henry Clay’s last great effort to hold the Union together wasknown as the Compromise of 1850. Visitors packed the galleriesduring this debate, which marked the last joint appearance in theSenate of Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun. Library of Congress

      1854

      Congress passes the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and permitting settlers in the Kansas and Nebraska territories to decide whether they want slavery. Opponents of the new law establish the Republican Party. Conflict over slavery in Kansas leads to violence in the territories—and in Congress.

      1856

      During debate on the Kansas statehood bill, two South Carolina representatives attack Sen. Charles Sumner at his desk in the Senate chamber. They beat him so severely that the Massachusetts senator is unable to resume his seat until 1859.

      1858

      Abraham Lincoln, Republican candidate for the Senate from Illinois, challenges Sen. Stephen A. Douglas, his Democratic opponent, to a series of debates on the slavery issue. Lincoln loses the election, but his moderate views recommend him for the presidential nomination two years later.

      Abraham Lincoln rose to national prominence during his1858 debates with Sen. Stephen A. Douglas. The Granger Collection, New York

      1859

      The Thirty-sixth Congress convenes on December 5, its members inflamed by the execution of abolitionist John Brown only days before. The House takes two months and forty-four ballots to elect a Speaker; its choice is William Pennington of New Jersey, a new member of the House and a political unknown. The session is marked by verbal duels and threats of secession. Pistols are carried openly in the House and Senate chambers.

      1860

      South Carolina secedes from the Union in the wake of Lincoln’s election to the presidency. Ten other southern states follow. The Civil War and its aftermath exclude the South from representation in Congress until 1869.

      A bulletin published by theCharleston Mercuryannounces South Carolina’s decision to secede from theUnion, December 1860. The Granger Collection, New York

      1861

      Congress establishes a Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. The committee, a vehicle for Radical Republicans opposed to President Lincoln, uses its far-ranging inquiries to criticize Lincoln’s conduct of the war.

      1863–1865

      The Radicals, opposed to Lincoln’s mild policies for postwar Reconstruction of the South, pass a bill placing all Reconstruction authority under the direct control of Congress. Lincoln pocket-vetoes the bill after Congress adjourns in 1864. Radicals issue the Wade-Davis Manifesto, asserting that “the authority of Congress is paramount and must be respected.” They put their harsh Reconstruction policies into effect when Democrat Andrew Johnson becomes president after Lincoln’s assassination in 1865. (See Reconstruction Era.)

      1868

      The House votes to impeach Johnson for dismissing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton in violation of the Tenure of Office Act. In the ensuing Senate trial, Johnson wins acquittal by a one-vote margin. (See Johnson Impeachment Trial.)

      1870

      The first black members take their seats in Congress, representing newly readmitted southern states. The Mississippi legislature chooses Hiram R. Revels to fill the Senate seat once occupied by Confederate president Jefferson Davis. Joseph H. Rainey of South Carolina and Jefferson F. Long of Georgia enter the House. All are Republicans. (See Blacks in Congress.)

      1873

      Several prominent members of Congress are implicated in the Crédit Mobilier scandal. A congressional investigating committee clears House Speaker James G. Blaine, but two other representatives are censured for accepting bribes from Crédit Mobilier of America, a company involved in construction of the transcontinental railroad. (See Investigations.)

      1877

      Disputed electoral votes from several states force Congress for the first time to rule on the outcome of a presidential election. Congress determines that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes has been elected president over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden by the margin of one electoral vote. Tilden leads in the popular vote count by more than a quarter of a million votes, but Hayes wins the electoral vote, 185–184. He is sworn into office on March 4.

      Called upon to settle the disputed 1876 presidential election, Congress declared Republican Rutherford B. Hayes the winner by a one-vote electoral college margin. This printshows a campaign banner for the winning ticket of Hayes and running mate William A. Wheeler. Library of Congress

      1881

      The Supreme Court, in the case of Kilbourn v. Thompson, for the first time asserts its authority to review the propriety of congressional investigations.

      1890

      Republican Speaker Thomas Brackett Reed puts an end to Democrats’ obstructionist tactics, which have paralyzed the House. The “Reed Rules” are adopted by the House after bitter debate. (See Speaker of the House.)

      1910

      The House revolts against the autocratic rule of Speaker Joseph G. Cannon and strips him of much of his authority. The power of the Speaker goes into a decline that lasts nearly fifteen years.

      1913

      Ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution ends the practice of letting state legislatures elect senators. Senators, like representatives, now will be chosen by direct popular election. The change is part of the Progressive movement toward more democratic control of government. (See Direct Election of Senators.) Also in 1913, President Woodrow Wilson revives the practice of addressing Congress in joint session. The last president to do so was John Adams in 1800.

      1916

      Although it will be four more years before women win the franchise, the first woman is elected to Congress: Jeannette Rankin, a Montana Republican. (See Women in Congress; Women’s Suffrage.)

      1917

      A Senate Filibuster kills the Wilson administration’s bill to arm merchant ships in the closing days of the Sixty-fourth Congress. “The Senate of the United States is the only legislative body in the world which cannot act when its majority is ready for action,” Wilson rails. “A little group of willful men, representing no opinion but their own, have rendered the great government of the United States helpless and contemptible.” The Senate quickly responds by adopting restrictions on debate through a process known as cloture.

      1919

      The Senate refuses to ratify the Versailles Treaty ending World War I. Senate opposition is aimed mainly at the Covenant of the League of Nations, which forms an integral part of the treaty. During consideration of the treaty, the Senate uses its cloture rule for the first time to cut off debate. (See Treaty-Making Power.)

      1922–1923

      A Senate investigation of the Teapot Dome oil-leasing scandal exposes bribery and corruption in the administration of President Warren G. Harding. His interior secretary, Albert B. Fall, ultimately is convicted of bribery and sent to prison.

      President Franklin D. Roosevelt instituted hundreds of “New Deal” programs in the 1930s to help pull the nation out of the Great Depression. U.S. Senate Historical Office

      1933

      Franklin D. Roosevelt assumes the presidency in the depths of the Great Depression and promptly calls Congress into special session. In this session, known as the “Hundred Days,” lawmakers are asked to pass, almost sight unseen, several emergency economic measures. Roosevelt’s New Deal establishes Democrats as the majority party in Congress for most of the next sixty years.

      1934

      For the first time Congress opens its session on January 3, as required by the Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution. The amendment, ratified in 1933, also fixes January 20 as the date on which presidential terms will begin every four years; that change will take effect in 1937 at the beginning of Roosevelt’s second term.

      1937

      Roosevelt calls on Congress to increase the membership of the Supreme Court, setting off a great public uproar. The Court has ruled unconstitutional many New Deal programs, and critics claim the president wants to “pack” the Court with justices who will support his views. The plan eventually dies in the Senate. In the 1938 elections, Roosevelt tries unsuccessfully to “purge” Democratic members of Congress who opposed the plan. (See Courts and Congress.)

      1938

      The House establishes the Dies Committee, one in a succession of special committees on “un-American activities.” The committee is given a broad mandate to investigate subversion. The committee chair, Texas Democrat Martin Dies, is avowedly anticommunist and anti–New Deal.

      1941

      The Senate sets up a Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program. The committee, chaired by Missouri Democrat Harry S. Truman, earns President Roosevelt’s gratitude for serving as a “friendly watchdog” over defense spending without embarrassing the president. Truman will become Roosevelt’s vice presidential running mate in 1944 and succeed to the presidency upon Roosevelt’s death the following year.

      1946

      Congress approves a sweeping legislative reform measure. The most important provisions of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 aim to streamline committee structure, redistribute the congressional workload, and improve staff assistance. Provisions to strengthen congressional review of the federal budget soon prove unworkable and are dropped. A section on regulation of lobbying has little effect. (See Reform, Congressional.)

      1948

      The House Un-American Activities Committee launches an investigation of State Department official Alger Hiss. Its hearings, and Hiss’s later conviction for perjury, establish communism as a leading political issue and the committee as an important political force. The case against Hiss is developed by a young member of the committee, California Republican Richard NIXON.

      The House Un-American Activities Committee investigated State Department official Alger Hiss in 1948 for allegedly being a communist spy. AP Images

      1953

      Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy, a Wisconsin Republican, conducts widely publicized national investigations of communism during his two-year reign as chair of the Permanent Investigations Subcommittee of the Senate Government Operations Committee. His investigation of the armed services culminates in the 1954 Army-McCarthy hearings and McCarthy’s censure by the Senate that year. (See Investigations.)

      1957

      South Carolina senator Strom Thurmond sets a record for the longest speech in the history of the Senate. During a filibuster on a civil rights bill, Thurmond, a Democrat who later switches to the Republican Party, speaks for twenty-four hours and eighteen minutes.

      1963

      President John F. Kennedy is assassinated, and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson succeeds him. Johnson is elected president in his own right in 1964. Using political skills he honed as Senate majority leader (1955–1961), Johnson wins congressional approval of a broad array of social programs, which he labels the Great Society. Mounting opposition to his Vietnam War policy leads to his retirement in 1968.

      1964

      Congress adopts the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, giving the president broad authority for use of U.S. forces in Southeast Asia. The resolution becomes the primary legal justification for the Johnson administration’s prosecution of the Vietnam War. (Congress repeals the resolution in 1970.)

      The Supreme Court, in the case of Wesberry v. Sanders, rules that congressional districts must be substantially equal in population. Court action is necessary because Congress has failed to act legislatively on behalf of heavily populated but underrepresented areas. (See Reapportionment and Redistricting.)

      1967

      The House votes to exclude veteran representative Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. from sitting in the Ninetieth Congress. Powell, a black Democrat from New York’s Harlem district, has been charged with misuse of public funds; he ascribes his downfall to racism. Later, in 1969, the Supreme Court rules that the House improperly excluded Powell, a duly elected representative who met the constitutional requirements for citizenship. Powell is reelected to the House in 1968 but rarely occupies his seat. (See Disciplining Members.)

      1968

      New York Democrat Shirley Chisholm is the first black woman to be elected to the House of Representatives. Born in Brooklyn in 1924, she worked as a nursery school teacher and director and headed a childcare center before being elected to the state assembly in 1964.

      In 1968 Shirley Chisholm became the first black woman to be elected to the House of Representatives. Library of Congress

      1970

      Congress passes the first substantial reform of congressional procedures since 1946. The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 opens Congress to closer public scrutiny and curbs the power of committee chairs. Among other things, the act changes House voting procedures to allow for recorded floor votes on amendments, requires that all recorded committee votes be publicly disclosed, authorizes radio and television coverage of committee hearings, encourages more open committee sessions, and requires committees to have written rules. (See Voting in Congress.)

      1971

      Congress passes the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, which limits spending for media advertising by candidates for federal office and requires full disclosure of campaign contributions and expenditures. It is the first of three major campaign laws to be enacted during the 1970s; major amendments are enacted in 1974 and 1976. (See Campaign Financing.)

      1973

      The Senate establishes a select committee to investigate White House involvement in a break-in the previous year at Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate office building in Washington, D.C. The committee hearings draw a picture of political sabotage that goes far beyond the original break-in. (See Watergate Scandal.)

      In its first use of powers granted by the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution, Congress confirms President Nixon’s nomination of House minority leader Gerald R. Ford to be vice president. Ford succeeds Spiro T. Agnew, who has resigned facing criminal charges.

      Congress passes the War Powers Resolution over Nixon’s veto. The resolution restricts the president’s powers to commit U.S. forces abroad without congressional approval.

      1974

      The House Judiciary Committee recommends Nixon’s impeachment and removal from office for his role in the Watergate scandal. Nixon resigns to avoid almost certain removal. Ford succeeds to the presidency; Congress confirms Nelson A. Rockefeller, his choice as vice president. (See Judiciary Committee, House; Nixon Impeachment Effort.)

      Seeking better control over government purse strings, Congress passes the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act. The new law requires legislators to set overall budget levels and then make their individual taxing and spending decisions fit within those levels. (See Budget Process.)

      1975

      The House Democratic Caucus elects committee chairs for the first time and unseats three incumbent chairs. It thus serves notice that seniority, or length of service, will no longer be the sole factor in selecting chairs. The chairs’ defeat is one of the most dramatic manifestations of the reform wave that sweeps Congress in the 1970s. (See Seniority System.)

      1977

      The House and Senate adopt their first formal codes of Ethics, setting guidelines for members’ behavior. Personal finances must be disclosed, income earned outside Congress is restricted, and use of public funds is monitored.

      1979

      The House begins live radio and television coverage of its floor proceedings. The Senate will not begin gavel-to-gavel broadcasts until 1986.

      Brian Lamb of C-SPAN interviews former Oklahoma representative Dave McCurdy. When C-SPAN first aired in March 1979, with the mission of providing live coverage of congressional proceedings, the network had four employees, a $450,000 budget, and one telephone line. AP Images/C-SPAN

      1983

      The Supreme Court invalidates the Legislative Veto, a device Congress has used for half a century to review and overturn executive branch decisions carrying out laws. In the case of Immigration and Naturalization Service v.Chadha, the Court rules that the legislative veto violates the constitutional Separation of Powers.

      1987

      Senate and House committees hold joint hearings on the Iran-Contra Affair, investigating undercover U.S. arms sales to Iran and the diversion of profits from those sales to “Contra” guerrillas in Nicaragua. The committees conclude that President Ronald Reagan allowed a “cabal of zealots” to take over key aspects of U.S. foreign policy.

      1989

      House Speaker Jim Wright resigns as Speaker, amid questions about the ethics of the Texas Democrat’s financial dealings. It is the first time in history that a House Speaker has been forced by scandal to leave the office in the middle of his term.

      1991

      A sharply divided Congress votes to authorize the president to go to war against Iraq if that country does not end its occupation of Kuwait. Although this is not a formal declaration of war, it marks the first time since World War II that Congress has confronted the issue of sending large numbers of American troops into combat.

      1992

      Ratification of a constitutional amendment prohibiting midterm pay raises for members of Congress is completed more than two centuries after the amendment was first proposed. The amendment, proposed by James MADISON, was approved by the First Congress in 1789.

      Democrat Carol Moseley-Braun of Illinois is the first black woman elected to the Senate.

      1994

      The 1994 elections usher in a Republican-controlled House and Senate for the first time since 1953. No Republican incumbents are defeated at the polls. Newt Gingrich of Georgia is in line to become the first Republican Speaker of the House from the South. For the first time since the end of Reconstruction in the 1870s, Republicans win a majority of the congressional districts in the South.

      Another record intact since the Civil War is broken: Thomas S. Foley of Washington becomes the first sitting Speaker to lose reelection since Galusha A. Grow of Pennsylvania was defeated in 1862.

      1995

      The Republicans’ willingness to close the government fails to force President Bill Clinton to accept their plan to balance the federal budget in seven years while providing major tax cuts. The result is two partial federal government shutdowns from December 1995 to January 1996.

      1996

      For the first time ever, voters reelect a Democratic president and simultaneously entrust both chambers of Congress to the Republican Party.

      1997

      The House votes to reprimand Speaker Gingrich and impose a $300,000 penalty for violating House rules. It is the first time in history that the House reprimands a sitting Speaker.

      1998

      The federal government records a budget surplus for the first time since 1969. In the congressional elections the Democrats gain five seats, marking the first time since 1934 that the party in control of the White House gains House seats in a midterm election.

      Independent Counsel Kenneth W. Starr charges President Clinton with possible impeachable offenses in his effort to cover up an extramarital affair. After House Judiciary Committee hearings on the Starr referral, a lame-duck House votes two articles of impeachment against Clinton, charging him with perjury and obstruction of justice. Clinton becomes only the second president in history to be impeached.

      1999

      For the second time in U.S. history, the Senate acquits a president impeached by the House. The Senate vote to acquit President Clinton on two articles of impeachment falls mostly along partisan lines. (See Clinton Impeachment Trial.)

      2001

      As the 107th Congress begins, Republicans control both chambers of Congress and the White House for the first time since 1953, at the beginning of President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s administration. The Senate is evenly divided with fifty Democrats and fifty Republicans, but control goes to the GOP because the Republican vice president, Richard B. Cheney, can cast a tie-breaking vote. Recognizing the potential for deadlock, Senate leaders of the two parties negotiate a power-sharing arrangement, unprecedented in Senate history, which gives the two parties equal representation on committees.

      But control of the Senate switches from the Republicans to the Democrats six months into the session when a Republican senator from Vermont, James M. Jeffords, becomes an Independent and caucuses with the Democrats. As a result of Jeffords’s switch, Democrats take control of committees and the legislative agenda.

      Following the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon outside Washington, the Capitol is temporarily evacuated. Urgent debates over national security dominate the rest of the session. In October fears of bioterrorism arise as packages containing the deadly toxin anthrax are mailed to Majority Leader Tom Daschle, D-S.D., and others. The Hart building, where half of all senators have offices, is closed for ninety-six days.

      2002

      Congress authorizes President George W. Bush to attack Iraq.

      In the 2002 elections, Republicans break historic trends to win back Congress. For the third time in a century, the party in control of the White House wins seats in a midterm election, and for the first time, Republicans controlling the White House win back the Senate.

      2004

      George W. Bush wins reelection as president, and Republicans increase their strength in Congress, allowing the GOP in 2005 to push through important parts of their agenda, including an industry-oriented energy package, changes in tort law that Republicans said were needed to stem frivolous antibusiness lawsuits, and a major rewriting of the bankruptcy laws.

      2006

      Republicans are rocked by a series of scandals ranging from influence-peddling, to bribery, to inappropriate sexual advances toward some male House pages by a Florida representative. Democrats charge back from the wilderness to take control of Congress, winning a net of thirty seats in the House and six in the Senate. Democrats pick up seats in all four national regions. In the Northeast only one Republican survives. Republicans, still in control of Congress until 2007, leave much of the legislative agenda unfinished, passing only two of eleven appropriations bills for fiscal 2007.

      2007

      Democrats become the majority in both the Senate and House and organize Congress for the first time since 1994. Rep. Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., is elected House Speaker, the first time a woman has held that position. She thus becomes the highest-ranking woman in the government and second in line for the presidency.

      2008

      Three U.S. senators emerge as leading candidates for the presidential nomination of their parties. Republican John McCain of Arizona has all but locked up the GOP position by March. Two Democrats, Hillary Clinton of New York and Barack Obama of Illinois, are in a nearly dead heat for the Democratic nomination going into the final round of primaries in March and beyond. The match-ups mean that for the first time since 1960, when John F. Kennedy defeated Richard Nixon, a sitting senator will most likely move into the White House.

      By March 2008 three sitting senators were top contenders in that year’s presidential race: Hillary Rodham Clinton, D-N.Y., Barack Obama, D-Ill., and John McCain, R-Ariz. Reuters/Brian Snyder

      List of Entries

    • Appendix

      The Government of the United States

      Appendix

      U.S. House of Representatives

      Appendix

      U.S. Senate

      Appendix

      U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents

      Appendix

      Sessions of the U.S. Congress, 1789–2007

      Appendix

      Political Party Affiliations in Congress and the Presidency, 1789–2007

      Appendix

      Party Leadership in Congress, 1977–2007

      Appendix

      Congressional Committee Chairs since 1947

      Following is a list of House and Senate standing committee chairs from January 1947 through February 2008. The years listedreflect the tenure of the committee chairs. The 107th Congress (2001–2003) presented a special case. The 2000 elections produced a 50–50 split in the Senate between Republicans and Democrats. From the day the 107th Congress convened on January3, 2001, until inauguration day on January 20, 2001, Democrat Al Gore, who as vice president was president of the Senate,tipped the scale to a Democratic majority. When Republican Dick Cheney became vice president on January 20, 2001,the GOPbecame the majority party. Then, on June 6, 2001, Republican James M. Jeffords of Vermont declared himself an Independent,who caucused and voted with Democrats to give them a 51–49 majority to control the chamber.

      As committee names have changed through the years, the committees are listed by their names as of September 2007; former committee names are listed as well. This list also includes chairs of committees that were disbanded during the period.

      House
      Agriculture

      Clifford R. Hope (R-Kan. 1947–1949)

      Harold D. Cooley (D-N.C. 1949–1953)

      Clifford R. Hope (R-Kan. 1953–1955)

      Harold D. Cooley (D-N.C. 1955–1967)

      W.R. Poage (D-Texas 1967–1975)

      Thomas S. Foley (D-Wash. 1975–1981)

      E. “Kika” de la Garza (D-Texas 1981–1995)

      Pat Roberts (R-Kan. 1995–1997)

      Bob Smith (R-Ore. 1997–1999)

      Larry Combest (R-Texas 1999–2003)

      Robert W. Goodlatte (R-Va. 2003–2007)

      Collin C. Peterson (D-Minn. 2007– )

      Appropriations

      John Taber (R-N.Y. 1947–1949)

      Clarence Cannon (D-Mo. 1949–1953)

      John Taber (R-N.Y. 1953–1955)

      Clarence Cannon (D-Mo. 1955–1964)

      George H. Mahon (D-Texas 1964–1979)

      Jamie L. Whitten (D-Miss. 1979–1993)

      William H. Natcher (D-Ky. 1993–1994)

      David Obey (D-Wis. 1994–1995)

      Robert L. Livingston (R-La. 1995–1999)

      C.W. “Bill” Young (R-Fla. 1999–2005)

      Jerry Lewis (R-Calif. 2005–2007)

      David R. Obey (D-Wis. 2007– )

      Armed Services

      (formerly Armed Services, 1947–1995; National Security,1995–1998)

      Walter G. Andrews (R-N.Y. 1947–1949)

      Carl Vinson (D-Ga. 1949–1953)

      Dewey Short (R-Mo. 1953–1955)

      Carl Vinson (D-Ga. 1955–1965)

      L. Mendel Rivers (D-S.C. 1965–1971)

      F. Edward Hébert (D-La. 1971–1975)

      Melvin Price (D-Ill. 1975–1985)

      Les Aspin (D-Wis. 1985–1993)

      Ronald V. Dellums (D-Calif. 1993–1995)

      Floyd D. Spence (R-S.C. 1995–20013)

      Bob Stump (R-Ariz. 2001–2003)

      Duncan Hunter (R-Calif. 2003–2007)

      Ike Skelton (D-Mo. 2007– )

      Budget

      Brock Adams (D-Wash. 1975–1977)

      Robert N. Giaimo (D-Conn. 1977–1981)

      James R. Jones (D-Okla. 1981–1985)

      William H. Gray III (D-Pa. 1985–1989)

      Leon E. Panetta (D-Calif. 1989–1993)

      Martin Olav Sabo (D-Minn. 1993–1995)

      John R. Kasich (R-Ohio 1995–2001)

      Jim Nussle (R-Iowa 2001–2007)

      John M. Spratt Jr. (D-S.C. 2007– )

      District of Columbia

      Everett McKinley Dirksen (R-Ill. 1947–1949)

      John L. McMillan (D-S.C. 1949–1953)

      Sidney Elmer Simpson (R-Ill. 1953–1955)

      John L. McMillan (D-S.C. 1955–1973)

      Charles C. Diggs Jr. (D-Mich. 1973–1979)

      Ronald V. Dellums (D-Calif. 1979–1993)

      Pete Stark (D-Calif. 1993–1995)

      (Reorganized as a subcommittee of the Government Reform andOversight in 1995)

      Education and Labor

      (formerly Education and Labor, 1947–1995; Economic andEducational Opportunities, 1995–1997; Education and theWorkforce, 1997–2007)

      Fred A. Hartley Jr. (R-N.J. 1947–1949)

      John Lesinski (D-Mich. 1949–1950)

      Graham A. Barden (D-N.C. 1950–1953)

      Samuel K. McConnell Jr. (R-Pa. 1953–1955)

      Graham A. Barden (D-N.C. 1955–1961)

      Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (D-N.Y. 1961–1967)

      Carl D. Perkins (D-Ky. 1967–1984)

      Augustus F. Hawkins (D-Calif. 1984–1991)

      William D. Ford (D-Mich. 1991–1995)

      Bill Goodling (R-Pa. 1995–2001)

      John A. Boehner (R-Ohio 2001–2006)

      Howard P. “”Buck”” McKeon (R-Calif. 2006–2007)

      George Miller (D-Calif. 2007– )

      Energy and Commerce

      (formerly Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1947–1981; Energyand Commerce, 1981–1995; Commerce, 1995–2001)

      Charles A. Wolverton (R-N.J. 1947–1949)

      Robert Crosser (D-Ohio 1949–1953)

      Charles A. Wolverton (R-N.J. 1953–1955)

      J. Percy Priest (D-Tenn. 1955–1957)

      Oren Harris (D-Ark. 1957–1966)

      Harley O. Staggers (D-W.Va. 1966–1981)

      John D. Dingell (D-Mich. 1981–1995)

      Thomas J. Bliley Jr. (R-Va. 1995–2001)

      W.J. “Billy” Tauzin (R-La. 2001–2005)

      Joe L. Barton (R-Texas 2005–2007)

      John D. Dingell (D-Mich. 2007– )

      Energy Independence and Global Warming,Select Committee on

      Edward J. Markey (D-Mass. 2007– )

      Financial Services

      (formerly Banking and Currency, 1947–1975; Banking, Currencyand Housing, 1975–1977; Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs,1977–1995; Banking and Financial Services, 1995–2001)

      Jesse P. Wolcott (R-Mich. 1947–1949)

      Brent Spence (D-Ky. 1949–1953)

      Jesse P. Wolcott (R-Mich. 1953–1955)

      Brent Spence (D-Ky. 1955–1963)

      Wright Patman (D-Texas 1963–1975)

      Henry S. Reuss (D-Wis. 1975–1981)

      Fernand J. St Germain (D-R.I. 1981–1989)

      Henry B. Gonzalez (D-Texas 1989–1995)

      Jim Leach (R-Iowa 1995–2001)

      Michael G. Oxley (R-Ohio 2001–2007)

      Barney Frank (D-Mass. 2007– )

      Foreign Affairs

      (formerly Foreign Affairs, 1947–1975; International Relations,1975–1979; Foreign Affairs, 1979–1995; International Relations,1995–2007)

      Charles A. Eaton (R-N.J. 1947–1949)

      John Kee (D-W.Va. 1949–1951)

      James P. Richards (D-S.C. 1951–1953)

      Robert B. Chiperfield (R-Ill. 1953–1955)

      James P. Richards (D-S.C. 1955–1957)

      Thomas S. Gordon (D-Ill. 1957–1959)

      Thomas E. Morgan (D-Pa. 1959–1977)

      Clement J. Zablocki (D-Wis. 1977–1983)

      Dante B. Fascell (D-Fla. 1984–1993)

      Lee H. Hamilton (D-Ind. 1993–1995)

      Benjamin A. Gilman (R-N.Y. 1995–2001)

      Henry J. Hyde (R-Ill. 2001–2007)

      Tom Lantos (D-Calif. 2007–2008)

      Howard L. Berman (D-Calif. 2008– )

      Homeland Security

      (formerly Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2002–2005)

      Christopher Cox (R-Calif. 2003–2005)

      Peter T. King (R-N.Y. 2005–2007)

      Bennie Thompson (D-Miss. 2007– )

      House Administration

      (formerly House Administration, 1947–1995;House Oversight, 1995–1998)

      Karl M. LeCompte (R-Iowa 1947–1949)

      Mary T. Norton (D-N.J. 1949–1951)

      Thomas B. Stanley (D-Va. 1951–1953)

      Karl M. LeCompte (R-Iowa 1953–1955)

      Omar Burleson (D-Texas 1955–1968)

      Samuel N. Friedel (D-Md. 1968–1971)

      Wayne L. Hays (D-Ohio 1971–1976)

      Frank Thompson Jr. (D-N.J. 1976–1980)

      Augustus F. Hawkins (D-Calif. 1981–1984)

      Frank Annunzio (D-Ill. 1985–1991)

      Charlie Rose (D-N.C. 1991–1995)

      Bill Thomas (R-Calif. 1995–2001)

      Bob Ney (R-Ohio 2001–2006)

      Vernon J. Ehlers (R-Mich. 2006–2007)

      Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-Calif. 2007)

      Robert A. Brady (D-Pa. 2007– )

      Intelligence, Permanent Select Committee on

      (formerly Select Committee on Intelligence, 1975–1976)

      Lucien N. Nedzi (D-Mich. 1975)

      Otis G. Pike (D-N.Y. 1975–1976)

      Edward P. Boland (D-Mass. 1977–1985)

      Lee H. Hamilton (D-Ind. 1985–1987)

      Louis Stokes (D-Ohio 1987–1989)

      Anthony C. Beilenson (D-Calif. 1989–1991)

      Dave McCurdy (D-Okla. 1991–1993)

      Dan Glickman (D-Kan. 1993–1995)

      Larry Combest (R-Texas 1995–1997)

      Porter J. Goss (R-Fla. 1997–2004)

      Peter Hoekstra (R-Mich. 2004–2007)

      Silvestre Reyes (D-Texas 2007– )

      Internal Security

      (formerly Un-American Activities, 1947–1969)

      J. Parnell Thomas (R-N.J. 1947–1949)

      John S. Wood (D-Ga. 1949–1953)

      Harold H. Velde (R-Ill. 1953–1955)

      Francis E. Walter (D-Pa. 1955–1963)

      Edwin E. Willis (D-La. 1963–1969)

      Richard H. Ichord (D-Mo. 1969–1975)

      (The panel was abolished in 1975)

      Judiciary

      Earl C. Michener (R-Mich. 1947–1949)

      Emanuel Celler (D-N.Y. 1949–1953)

      Chauncey W. Reed (R-Ill. 1953–1955)

      Emanuel Celler (D-N.Y. 1955–1973)

      Peter W. Rodino Jr. (D-N.J. 1973–1989)

      Jack Brooks (D-Texas 1989–1995)

      Henry J. Hyde (R-Ill. 1995–2001)

      F. James Sensenbrenner Jr. (R-Wis. 2001–2007)

      John Conyers Jr. (D-Mich. 2007– )

      Merchant Marine and Fisheries

      Fred Bradley (R-Mich. 1947)

      Alvin F. Weichel (R-Ohio 1947–1949)

      Schuyler Otis Bland (D-Va. 1949–1950)

      Edward J. Hart (D-N.J. 1950–1953)

      Alvin F. Weichel (R-Ohio 1953–1955)

      Herbert C. Bonner (D-N.C. 1955–1965)

      Edward A. Garmatz (D-Md. 1966–1973)

      Leonor K. Sullivan (D-Mo. 1973–1977)

      John M. Murphy (D-N.Y. 1977–1981)

      Walter B. Jones (D-N.C. 1981–1992)

      Gerry E. Studds (D-Mass. 1992–1993)

      George Miller (D-Calif. 1993–1995)

      (Reorganized as a subcommittee of Transportation andInfrastructure in 1995.)

      Natural Resources

      (formerly Public Lands, 1947–1951; Interior and Insular Affairs,1951–1992; Natural Resources, 1993–1995; Resources,1995–2007)

      Richard J. Welch (R-Calif. 1947–1949)

      Andrew L. Somers (D-N.Y. 1949)

      J. Hardin Peterson (D-Fla. 1949–1951)

      John R. Murdock (D-Ariz. 1951–1953)

      A.L. Miller (R-Neb. 1953–1955)

      Claire Engle (D-Calif. 1955–1959)

      Wayne N. Aspinall (D-Colo. 1959–1973)

      James A. Haley (D-Fla. 1973–1977)

      Morris K. Udall (D-Ariz. 1977–1991)

      George Miller (D-Calif. 1991–1995)

      Don Young (R-Alaska, 1995–2001)

      James V. Hansen (R-Utah 2001–2003)

      Richard W. Pombo (R-Calif. 2003–2007)

      Nick J. Rahall II (D-W.Va. 2007– )

      Oversight and Government Reform

      (formerly Expenditures in the Executive Departments,1947–1952; Government Operations, 1952–1995; GovernmentReform and Oversight, 1995–1998; Government Reform,1999–2007)

      Clare E. Hoffman (R-Mich. 1947–1949)

      William L. Dawson (D-Ill. 1949–1953)

      Clare E. Hoffman (R-Mich. 1953–1955)

      William L. Dawson (D-Ill. 1955–1971)

      Chet Holifield (D-Calif. 1971–1975)

      Jack Brooks (D-Texas 1975–1989)

      John Conyers (D-Mich. 1989–1995)

      William F. Clinger (R-Pa. 1995–1997)

      Dan Burton (R-Ind. 1997–2003)

      Thomas M. Davis III (R-Va. 2003–2007)

      Henry A. Waxman (D-Calif. 2007– )

      Post Office and Civil Service

      Edward H. Rees (R-Kan. 1947–1949)

      Tom Murray (D-Tenn. 1949–1953)

      Edward H. Rees (R-Kan. 1953–1955)

      Tom Murray (D-Tenn. 1955–1967)

      Thaddeus J. Dulski (D-N.Y. 1967–1975)

      David N. Henderson (D-N.C. 1975–1977)

      Robert N.C. Nix Sr. (D-Pa. 1977–1979)

      James M. Hanley (D-N.Y. 1979–1981)

      William D. Ford (D-Mich. 1981–1991)

      William L. Clay (D-Mo. 1991–1995)

      (Reorganized as a subcommittee of Government Reform andOversight in 1995.)

      Rules

      Leo E. Allen (R-Ill. 1947–1949)

      Adolph J. Sabath (D-Ill. 1949–1953)

      Leo E. Allen (R-Ill. 1953–1955)

      Howard W. Smith (D-Va. 1955–1967)

      William M. Colmer (D-Miss. 1967–1973)

      Ray J. Madden (D-Ind. 1973–1977)

      James J. Delaney (D-N.Y. 1977–1978)

      Richard Bolling (D-Mo. 1979–1983)

      Claude Pepper (D-Fla. 1983–1989)

      Joe Moakley (D-Mass. 1989–1995)

      Gerald B.H. Solomon (R-N.Y. 1995–1999)

      David Dreier (R-Calif. 1999–2007)

      Louise M. Slaughter (D-N.Y. 2007– )

      Science and Technology

      (formerly Science and Astronautics, 1959–1975; Science andTechnology, 1975–1987; Science, Space and Technology,1987–1995; Science, 1995–2007)

      Overton Brooks (D-La. 1959–1961)

      George P. Miller (D-Calif. 1961–1973)

      Olin E. Teague (D-Texas 1973–1979)

      Don Fuqua (D-Fla. 1979–1987)

      Robert A. Roe (D-N.J. 1987–1991)

      George E. Brown Jr. (D-Calif. 1991–1995)

      Robert S. Walker (R-Pa. 1995–1997)

      F. James Sensenbrenner Jr. (R-Wis. 1997–2001)

      Sherwood Boehlert (R-N.Y. 2001–2007)

      Bart Gordon (D-Tenn. 2007– )

      Small Business

      (formerly Select Committee on Small Business, 1947–1975)

      Walter C. Ploeser (R-Mo. 1947–1949)

      Wright Patman (D-Texas 1949–1953)

      William S. Hill (R-Colo. 1953–1955)

      Wright Patman (D-Texas 1955–1963)

      Joe L. Ervins (D-Tenn. 1963–1977)

      Neal Smith (D-Iowa 1977–1981)

      Parren J. Mitchell (D-Md. 1981–1987)

      John J. LaFalce (D-N.Y. 1987–1995)

      Jan Meyers (R-Kan. 1995–1997)

      James M. Talent (R-Mo. 1997–2001)

      Donald Manzullo (R-Ill. 2001–2007)

      Nydia M. Velázquez (D-N.Y. 2007– )

      Standards of Official Conduct

      Melvin Price (D-Ill. 1969–1975)

      John J. Flynt Jr. (D-Ga. 1975–1977)

      Charles E. Bennett (D-Fla. 1977–1981)

      Louis Stokes (D-Ohio 1981–1985)

      Julian C. Dixon (D-Calif. 1985–1991)

      Louis Stokes (D-Ohio 1991–1993)

      Jim McDermott (D-Wash. 1993–1995)

      Nancy L. Johnson (R-Conn. 1995–1997)

      James V. Hansen (R-Utah 1997–1999)

      Lamar Smith (R-Texas 1999–2001)

      Joel Hefley (R-Colo. 2001–2005)

      Doc Hastings (R-Wash. 2005–2007)

      Stephanie Tubbs Jones (D-Ohio 2007– )

      Transportation and Infrastructure

      (formerly Public Works, 1947–1975; Public Works andTransportation, 1975–1995)

      George A. Dondero (R-Mich. 1947–1949)

      William M. Whittington (D-Miss. 1949–1951)

      Charles A. Buckley (D-N.Y. 1951–1953)

      George A. Dondero (R-Mich. 1953–1955)

      Charles A. Buckley (D-N.Y. 1955–1965)

      George H. Fallon (D-Md. 1965–1971)

      John A. Blatnik (D-Minn. 1971–1975)

      Robert E. Jones Jr. (D-Ala. 1975–1977)

      Harold T. Johnson (D-Calif. 1977–1981)

      James J. Howard (D-N.J. 1981–1988)

      Glenn M. Anderson (D-Calif. 1988–1991)

      Robert A. Roe (D-N.J. 1991–1993)

      Norman Y. Mineta (D-Calif. 1993–1995)

      Bud Shuster (R-Pa. 1995–2001)

      Don Young (R-Alaska 2001–2007)

      James L. Oberstar (D-Minn. 2007– )

      Veterans’ Affairs

      Edith Nourse Rogers (R-Mass. 1947–1949)

      John E. Rankin (D-Miss. 1949–1953)

      Edith Nourse Rogers (R-Mass. 1953–1955)

      Olin E. Teague (D-Texas 1955–1973)

      William Jennings Bryan Dorn (D-S.C. 1973–1975)

      Ray Roberts (D-Texas 1975–1981)

      G.V. “Sonny” Montgomery (D-Miss. 1981–1995)

      Bob Stump (R-Ariz. 1995–2001)

      Christopher H. Smith (R-N.J. 2001–2005)

      Steve Buyer (R-Ind. 2005–2007)

      Bob Filner (D-Calif. 2007– )

      Ways and Means

      Harold Knutson (R-Minn. 1947–1949)

      Robert L. Doughton (D-N.C. 1949–1953)

      Daniel A. Reed (R-N.Y. 1953–1955)

      Jere Cooper (D-Tenn. 1955–1957)

      Wilbur D. Mills (D-Ark. 1958–1975)

      Al Ullman (D-Ore. 1975–1981)

      Dan Rostenkowski (D-Ill. 1981–1994)

      Sam M. Gibbons (D-Fla. 1994–1995)

      Bill Archer (R-Texas 1995–2001)

      Bill Thomas (R-Calif. 2001–2007)

      Charles B. Rangel (D-N.Y. 2007– )

      Senate
      Aeronautical and Space Sciences

      Lyndon B. Johnson (D-Texas 1958–1961)

      Robert S. Kerr (D-Okla. 1961–1963)

      Clinton P. Anderson (D-N.M. 1963–1973)

      Frank E. Moss (D-Utah 1973–1977)

      (Abolished in 1977, when its jurisdiction was consolidatedunder Commerce.)

      Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry

      (formerly Agriculture and Forestry, 1947–1977)

      Arthur Capper (R-Kan. 1947–1949)

      Elmer Thomas (D-Okla. 1949–1951)

      Allen J. Ellender (D-La. 1951–1953)

      George D. Aiken (R-Vt. 1953–1955)

      Allen J. Ellender (D-La. 1955–1971)

      Herman E. Talmadge (D-Ga. 1971–1981)

      Jesse Helms (R-N.C. 1981–1987)

      Patrick J. Leahy (D-Vt. 1987–1995)

      Richard G. Lugar (R-Ind. 1995–2001)

      Tom Harkin (D-Iowa January 2001)

      Richard G. Lugar (R-Ind. January–June 2001)

      Tom Harkin (D-Iowa June 2001–2003)

      Thad Cochran (R-Miss. 2003–2005)

      Saxby Chambliss (R-Ga. 2005–2007)

      Tom Harkin (D-Iowa 2007– )

      Appropriations

      Styles Bridges (R-N.H. 1947–1949)

      Kenneth McKellar (D-Tenn. 1949–1953)

      Styles Bridges (R-N.H. 1953–1955)

      Carl Hayden (D-Ariz. 1955–1969)

      Richard B. Russell (D-Ga. 1969–1971)

      Allen J. Ellender (D-La. 1971–1972)

      John L. McClellan (D-Ark. 1972–1977)

      Warren G. Magnuson (D-Wash. 1978–1981)

      Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore. 1981–1987)

      John C. Stennis (D-Miss. 1987–1989)

      Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va. 1989–1995)

      Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore. 1995–1997)

      Ted Stevens (R-Alaska 1997–2001)

      Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va. January 2001)

      Ted Stevens (R-Alaska January–June 2001)

      Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va. June 2001–2003)

      Ted Stevens (R-Alaska 2003–2005)

      Thad Cochran (R-Miss. 2005–2007)

      Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va. 2007– )

      Armed Services

      Chan Gurney (R-S.D. 1947–1949)

      Millard E. Tydings (D-Md. 1949–1951)

      Richard B. Russell (D-Ga. 1951–1953)

      Leverett Saltonstall (R-Mass. 1953–1955)

      Richard B. Russell (D-Ga. 1955–1969)

      John C. Stennis (D-Miss. 1969–1981)

      John Tower (R-Texas 1981–1985)

      Barry Goldwater (R-Ariz. 1985–1987)

      Sam Nunn (D-Ga. 1987–1995)

      Strom Thurmond (R-S.C. 1995–1999)

      John W. Warner (R-Va. 1999–2001)

      Carl Levin (D-Mich. January 2001)

      John W. Warner (R-Va. January–June 2001)

      Carl Levin (D-Mich. June 2001–2003)

      John W. Warner (R-Va. 2003–2007)

      Carl Levin (D-Mich. 2007– )

      Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

      (formerly Banking and Currency, 1947–1971)

      Charles W. Tobey (R-N.H. 1947–1949)

      Burnet R. Maybank (D-S.C. 1949–1953)

      Homer E. Capehart (R-Ind. 1953–1955)

      J.W. Fulbright (D-Ark. 1955–1959)

      A. Willis Robertson (D-Va. 1959–1967)

      John J. Sparkman (D-Ala. 1967–1975)

      William Proxmire (D-Wis. 1975–1981)

      Jake Garn (R-Utah 1981–1987)

      William Proxmire (D-Wis. 1987–1989)

      Donald W. Riegle Jr. (D-Mich. 1989–1995)

      Alfonse M. D’Amato (R-N.Y. 1995–1999)

      Phil Gramm (R-Texas 1999–2001)

      Paul S. Sarbanes (D-Md. January 2001)

      Phil Gramm (R-Texas January–June 2001)

      Paul S. Sarbanes (D-Md. June 2001–2003)

      Richard C. Shelby (R-Ala. 2003–2007)

      Christopher J. Dodd (D-Conn. 2007– )

      Budget

      Edmund S. Muskie (D-Maine 1975–1979)

      Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C. 1979–1981)

      Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M. 1981–1987)

      Lawton Chiles Jr. (D-Fla. 1987–1989)

      Jim Sasser (D-Tenn. 1989–1995)

      Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M. 1995–2001)

      Kent Conrad (D-N.D. January 2001)

      Pete V. Domenici (R-N.H. January–June 2001)

      Kent Conrad (D-N.D. June 2001–2003)

      Don Nickles (R-Okla. 2003–2005)

      Judd Gregg (R-N.H. 2005–2007)

      Kent Conrad (D-N.D. 2007– )

      Commerce, Science, andTransportation

      (formerly Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1947–1961;Commerce, 1961–1977)

      Wallace H. White (R-Maine 1947–1949)

      Edwin C. Johnson (D-Colo. 1949–1953)

      Charles W. Tobey (R-N.H. 1953)

      John W. Bricker (R-Ohio 1953–1955)

      Warren G. Magnuson (D-Wash. 1955–1978)

      Howard W. Cannon (D-Nev. 1978–1981)

      Bob Packwood (R-Ore. 1981–1985)

      John C. Danforth (R-Mo. 1985–1987)

      Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C. 1987–1995)

      Larry Pressler (R-S.D. 1995–1997)

      John McCain (R-Ariz. 1997–2001)

      Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C. January 2001)

      John McCain (R-Ariz. January–June 2001)

      Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C. June 2001–2003)

      John McCain (R-Ariz. 2003–2005)

      Ted Stevens (R-Alaska 2005–2007)

      Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii 2007– )

      District of Columbia

      C. Douglass Buck (R-Del. 1947–1949)

      J. Howard McGrath (D-R.I. 1949–1951)

      Matthew M. Neely (D-W.Va. 1951–1953)

      Francis Case (R-S.D. 1953–1955)

      Matthew M. Neely (D-W.Va. 1955–1959)

      Alan Bible (D-Nev. 1959–1969)

      Joseph D. Tydings (D-Md. 1969–1971)

      Thomas Eagleton (D-Mo. 1971–1977)

      (Abolished in 1977 and its responsibilities transferred to

      Governmental Affairs.)

      Energy and Natural Resources

      Henry M. Jackson (D-Wash. 1977–1981)

      James A. McClure (R-Idaho 1981–1987)

      J. Bennett Johnston (D-La. 1987–1995)

      Frank H. Murkowski (R-Alaska 1995–2001)

      Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M. January 2001)

      Frank H. Murkowski (R-Alaska January–June 2001)

      Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M. June 2001–2003)

      Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M. 2003–2007)

      Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M. 2007– )

      Environment and Public Works

      (formerly Public Works, 1947–1977)

      Chapman Revercomb (R-W.Va. 1947–1949)

      Dennis Chavez (D-N.M. 1949–1953)

      Edward Martin (R-Pa. 1953–1955)

      Dennis Chavez (D-N.M. 1955–1962)

      Pat McNamara (D-Mich. 1963–1966)

      Jennings Randolph (D-W.Va. 1966–1981)

      Robert T. Stafford (R-Vt. 1981–1987)

      Quentin N. Burdick (D-N.D. 1987–1992)

      Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-N.Y. 1992)

      Max Baucus (D-Mont. 1993–1995)

      John H. Chafee (R-R.I. 1995–1999)

      Robert C. Smith (R-N.H. 1999–2001)

      Harry Reid (D-Nev. January 2001)

      Robert C. Smith (R-N.H. January–June 2001)

      James M. Jeffords (I-Vt. June 2001–2003)

      James M. Inhofe (R-Okla. 2003–2007)

      Barbara Boxer (D-Calif. 2007– )

      Ethics, Select Committee on

      (formerly the Select Committee on Standards and Conduct,1966–1977)

      John C. Stennis (D-Miss. 1966–1975)

      Howard W. Cannon (D-Nev. 1975–1977)

      Adlai Ewing Stevenson III (D-Ill. 1977–1981)

      Malcolm Wallop (R-Wyo. 1981–1983)

      Ted Stevens (R-Alaska 1983–1985)

      Warren B. Rudman (R-N.H. 1985–1987)

      Howell Heflin (D-Ala. 1987–1991)

      Terry Sanford (D-N.C. 1991–1993)

      Richard H. Bryan (D-Nev. 1993–1995)

      Mitch McConnell (R-Ky. 1995–1997)

      Robert C. Smith (R-N.H. 1997–2001)

      Robert C. Smith (R-N.H. 1997–1999)

      Pat Roberts (R-Kan. 1999–2001)

      Harry Reid (D-Nev. January 2001)

      Pat Roberts (R-Kan. January–June 2001)

      Harry Reid (D-Nev. June 2001–2003)

      Harry Reid (D-Nev. January 2001–2003)

      Pat Roberts (R-Kan. January–June 2001)

      Harry Reid (D-Nev. June 2001–2003)

      George V. Voinovich (R-Ohio 2003–2007)

      Tim Johnson (D-S.D. 2007– )

      Finance

      Eugene D. Millikin (R-Colo. 1947–1949)

      Walter F. George (D-Ga. 1949–1953)

      Eugene D. Millikin (R-Colo. 1953–1955)

      Harry Flood Byrd (D-Va. 1955–1965)

      Russell B. Long (D-La. 1965–1981)

      Robert Dole (R-Kan. 1981–1985)

      Bob Packwood (R-Ore. 1985–1987)

      Lloyd Bentsen (D-Texas 1987–1993)

      Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-N.Y. 1993–1995)

      Bob Packwood (R-Ore. 1995)

      William V. Roth Jr. (R-Del. 1995–2001)

      Max Baucus (D-Mont. January 2001)

      Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa January–June 2001)

      Max Baucus (D-Mont. June 2001–2003)

      Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa 2003–2007)

      Max Baucus (D-Mont. 2007– )

      Foreign Relations

      Arthur H. Vandenberg (R-Mich. 1947–1949)

      Tom Connally (D-Texas 1949–1953)

      Alexander Wiley (R-Wis. 1953–1955)

      Walter F. George (D-Ga. 1955–1957)

      Theodore Francis Green (D-R.I. 1957–1959)

      J.W. Fulbright (D-Ark. 1959–1975)

      John J. Sparkman (D-Ala. 1975–1979)

      Frank Church (D-Idaho 1979–1981)

      Charles Percy (R-Ill. 1981–1985)

      Richard G. Lugar (R-Ind. 1985–1987)

      Claiborne Pell (D-R.I. 1987–1995)

      Jesse Helms (R-N.C. 1995–2001)

      Joseph R. Biden Jr. (D-Del. January 2001)

      Jesse Helms (R-N.C. January–June 2001)

      Joseph R. Biden Jr. (D-Del. June 2001–2003)

      Richard G. Lugar (R-Ind. 2003–2007)

      Joseph R. Biden Jr. (D-Del. 2007– )

      Health, Education, Labor and Pensions

      (formerly Labor and Public Welfare, 1947–1977; Human

      Resources, 1977–1979; Labor and Human Resources,

      1979–1999)

      Robert A. Taft (R-Ohio 1947–1949)

      Elbert D. Thomas (D-Utah 1949–1951)

      James E. Murray (D-Mont. 1951–1953)

      H. Alexander Smith (R-N.J. 1953–1955)

      Lister Hill (D-Ala. 1955–1969)

      Ralph W. Yarborough (D-Texas 1969–1971)

      Harrison A. Williams Jr. (D-N.J. 1971–1981)

      Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah 1981–1987)

      Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass. 1987–1995)

      Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R-Kan. 1995–1997)

      James M. Jeffords (R-Vt. 1997–2001)

      Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass. January 2001)

      James M. Jeffords (R-Vt. January–June 2001)

      Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass. June 2001–2003)

      Judd Gregg (R-N.H. 2003–2005)

      Michael B. Enzi, (R-Wyo. 2005–2007)

      Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass. 2007– )

      Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

      (formerly Expenditures in Executive Departments, 1947–1952;Government Operations, 1952–1977; Governmental Affairs,1997–2004)

      George D. Aiken (R-Vt. 1947–1949)

      John L. McClellan (D-Ark. 1949–1953)

      Joseph R. McCarthy (R-Wis. 1953–1955)

      John L. McClellan (D-Ark. 1955–1972)

      Sam J. Ervin Jr. (D-N.C. 1972–1974)

      Abraham A. Ribicoff (D-Conn. 1975–1981)

      William V. Roth Jr. (R-Del. 1981–1987)

      John Glenn (D-Ohio 1987–1995)

      William V. Roth Jr. (R-Del. 1995–1996)

      Ted Stevens (R-Alaska 1996–1997)

      Fred Thompson (R-Tenn. 1997–2001)

      Joseph I. Lieberman (D-Conn. January 2001)

      Fred Thompson (R-Tenn. January–June 2001)

      Joseph I. Lieberman (D-Conn. June 2001–2003)

      Susan Collins (R-Maine 2003–2007)

      Joseph I. Lieberman (I-Conn. 2007– )

      Indian Affairs

      (formerly a temporary select committee; redesignated as apermanent committee in 1993.)

      Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii 1993–1995)

      John McCain (R-Ariz. 1995–1997)

      Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colo. 1997–2001)

      Daniel K.Inouye (D-Hawaii January 2001)

      Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colo. January–June 2001)

      Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii June 2001–2003)

      Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colo. 2003–2005)

      John McCain (R-Ariz. 2005–2007)

      Byron L. Dorgan (D-N.D. 2007– )

      Intelligence, Select Committee on

      Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii 1976–1978)

      Birch Bayh (D-Ind. 1978–1981)

      Barry Goldwater (R-Ariz. 1981–1985)

      Dave Durenberger (R-Minn. 1985–1987)

      David L. Boren (D-Okla. 1987–1993)

      Dennis DeConcini (D-Ariz. 1993–1995)

      Arlen Specter (R-Pa. 1995–1997)

      Richard C. Shelby (R-Ala. 1997–2001)

      Bob Graham (D-Fla. January 2001)

      Richard C. Shelby (R-Ala. January–June 2001)

      Bob Graham (D-Fla. June 2001–2003)

      Pat Roberts (R-Kan. 2003–2007)

      John D. Rockefeller IV (D-W.Va. 2007– )

      Interior and Insular Affairs

      (formerly Public Lands, 1947–1948)

      Hugh Butler (R-Neb. 1947–1949)

      Joseph C. O’Mahoney (D-Wyo. 1949–1953)

      Hugh Butler (R-Neb. 1953–1954)

      Guy Gordon (R-Ore. 1954–1955)

      James E. Murray (D-Mont. 1955–1961)

      Clinton P. Anderson (D-N.M. 1961–1963)

      Henry M. Jackson (D-Wash. 1963–1977)

      (Most of its jurisdiction transferred to Energy and NaturalResources in 1977.)

      Judiciary

      Alexander Wiley (R-Wis. 1947–1949)

      Pat McCarran (D-Nev. 1949–1953)

      William Langer (R-N.D. 1953–1955)

      Harley M. Kilgore (D-W.Va. 1955–1956)

      James O. Eastland (D-Miss. 1956–1978)

      Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass. 1979–1981)

      Strom Thurmond (R-S.C. 1981–1987)

      Joseph R. Biden Jr. (D-Del. 1987–1995)

      Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah 1995–2001)

      Patrick J. Leahy (D-Vt. January 2001)

      Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah January–June 2001)

      Patrick J. Leahy (D-Vt. June 2001–2003)

      Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah 2003–2005)

      Arlen Specter (R-Pa. 2005–2007)

      Patrick J. Leahy (D-Vt. 2007– )

      Post Office and Civil Service

      William Langer (R-N.D. 1947–1949)

      Olin D. Johnston (D-S.C. 1949–1953)

      Frank Carlson (R-Kan. 1953–1955)

      Olin D. Johnston (D-S.C. 1955–1965)

      A.S. Mike Monroney (D-Okla. 1965–1969)

      Gale W. McGee (D-Wyo. 1969–1977)

      (Abolished in 1977 and its jurisdiction transferred toGovernmental Affairs.)

      Rules and Administration

      C. Wayland Brooks (R-Ill. 1947–1949)

      Carl Hayden (D-Ariz. 1949–1953)

      William E. Jenner (R-Ind. 1953–1955)

      Theodore Francis Green (D-R.I. 1955–1957)

      Thomas C. Hennings Jr. (D-Mo. 1957–1960)

      Mike Mansfield (D-Mont. 1961–1963)

      B. Everett Jordan (D-N.C. 1963–1972)

      Howard W. Cannon (D-Nev. 1973–1977)

      Claiborne Pell (D-R.I. 1978–1981)

      Charles McC. Mathias Jr. (R-Md. 1981–1987)

      Wendell H. Ford (D-Ky. 1987–1995)

      Ted Stevens (R-Alaska 1995–1996)

      John Warner (R-Va. 1996–1999)

      Mitch McConnell (R-Ky. 1999–2001)

      Christopher J. Dodd (D-Conn. January 2001)

      Mitch McConnell (R-Ky. January–June 2001)

      Christopher J. Dodd (D-Conn. June 2001–2003)

      Trent Lott (R-Miss. 2003–2007)

      Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif. 2007– )

      Small Business and Entrepeneurship

      (formerly the Select Committee on Small Business, 1950–1981;

      Small Business, 1981–2001)

      John J. Sparkman (D-Ala. 1950–1953)

      Edward J. Thye (R-Minn. 1953–1955)

      John J. Sparkman (D-Ala. 1955–1967)

      George A. Smathers (D-Fla. 1967–1969)

      Alan Bible (D-Nev. 1969–1975)

      Gaylord Nelson (D-Wis. 1975–1981)

      Lowell P. Weicker Jr. (R-Conn. 1981–1987)

      Dale Bumpers (D-Ark. 1987–1995)

      Christopher S. Bond (R-Mo. 1995–2001)

      John Kerry (D-Mass. January 2001)

      Christopher S. Bond (R-Mo. January–June 2001)

      John Kerry (D-Mass. June 2001–2003)

      Olympia J. Snowe (R-Maine 2003–2007)

      John Kerry (D-Mass. 2007– )

      Veterans’ Affairs

      Vance Hartke (D-Ind. 1971–1977)

      Alan Cranston (D-Calif. 1977–1981)

      Alan K. Simpson (R-Wyo. 1981–1985)

      Frank H. Murkowski (R-Alaska 1985–1987)

      Alan Cranston (D-Calif. 1987–1993)

      John D. Rockefeller IV (D-W.Va. 1993–1995)

      Alan K. Simpson (R-Wyo. 1995–1997)

      Arlen Specter (R-Pa. 1997–2001)

      John D. Rockefeller (D-W.Va. January 2001)

      Arlen Specter (R-Pa. January–June 2001)

      John D. Rockefeller (D-W.Va. June 2001–2003)

      Arlen Specter (R-Pa. 2003–2005)

      Larry E. Craig (R-Idaho 2005–2007)

      Daniel K. Akaka (D-Hawaii 2007– )

      Appendix

      Extraordinary Sessions of Congress since 1797

      Article II, section 3, of the Constitution provides that the president “may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or eitherof them.”

      This procedure occurs only if Congress is convened by presidential proclamation; it does not include the many special sessions ofthe Senate called primarily to confirm nominations prior to the Twentieth Amendment.

      Appendix

      How a Bill Becomes a Law

      This graphic shows the most typical way in which proposedlegislation is enacted into law. There are more complicated, aswell as simpler, routes, and most bills never become law. Theprocess is illustrated with two hypothetical bills, House bill No. 1(HR 1) and Senate bill No. 2 (S 2). Bills must be passed by bothhouses in identical form before they can be sent to the president.The path of HR 1 is traced by a gray line, that of S 2 by a black line.In practice, most bills begin as similar proposals in both Houses.

      Appendix

      Writing to a Member of Congress

      Citizens with complaints, suggestions, comments, and requests about government can voice their views directly to Congress. You may want to support or oppose specific legislative proposals, comment more generally about public affairs, or simply seek help in dealing with government agencies.

      In the past written communication with members was largely by postal mail but today the widespread use of e-mail has given voters a new and faster way to contact representatives and senators. However you decide to contact a member a few useful rules will make your voice more effective. The following hints about writing a member of Congress were suggested by congressional sources and the League of Women Voters.

      • Write to your own senators or representative. Letters sent to other members will either be ignored or simply forwarded to your home state members.
      • Use your own words and stationery. Avoid sending form letters, which a member quickly sees as an organized campaign and is more likely to ignore.
      • Write at the proper time, when a bill is being discussed in committee or on the floor.
      • Whenever possible, identify bills by their number and include pertinent editorials from local papers.
      • Be constructive. If a bill deals with a problem you admit exists but you believe the bill is the wrong approach, suggest a better approach. If you have expert knowledge or wide experience in particular areas, share it with the member.
      • Write to members when they do something of which you approve. A note of appreciation will make them remember you more favorably the next time.
      • Feel free to write when you have a question or problem dealing with procedures of government departments. Constituent service is one of the most important jobs of elected officials.
      • Be brief, write legibly, and be sure to use the proper form of address.
      Suggested Form for Letters
      Senator

      Honorable ________________

      United States Senate

      Washington, DC 20510

      Dear Senator ________________:

      Sincerely yours,

      Representative

      Honorable ________________

      House of Representatives

      Washington, DC 20515

      Dear Representative ________________:

      Sincerely yours,

      Sending E-Mail to a Member of Congress

      Electronic mail (e-mail) is increasingly being used by constituents to convey their opinions to their senators and representatives. In sending an e-mail to members of Congress, the same letter-writing guidelines basically apply. Although an e-mail is considered less formal than a traditional letter, you should still address members of Congress formally. If you do not provide your street address within your e-mail, you most likely will only receive an e-mail response stating that your message was received. If you provide your street address, members of Congress may respond with a formal letter, as they generally do with every piece of regular mail they receive from constituents.

      Although e-mail can be looked at as just another means of communication, it can provide better access for individuals and smaller groups cut off from the participatory process. E-mail has the greatest impact when it is brief and to the point and when it concerns matters currently being debated in Congress. E-mail also allows members of Congress to gauge instantaneously the response to their speeches and votes.

      The members’ e-mail directories are readily available at the House of Representatives and the Senate Web sites (http://www.house.gov and (http://www.senate.gov).

      Appendix

      Map of Capitol Hill

      Appendix

      Capital Attractions

      Many of Washington’s foremost sightseeing attractions are clustered around the Mall, the grassy strip that stretches from the Capitol west to the Lincoln Memorial.

      Tourmobile shuttle buses provide narrated sightseeing service to twenty-five sites in the Mall area along Pennsylvania Avenue and in nearby Arlington National Cemetery. Passengers pay a single daily fee; they may board and reboard the buses as often as they like. For information, call (202) 554-5100 or (888) 868-7707. Tourmobile Web site: http://www.tourmobile.com. For information on METRO bus and subway service in the Washington area, call (202) 637-7000. Washington Area Transit Authority Web site: http://www.wmata.com.

      Listed below are major sites in the Capital area, with contact information.

      Capitol

      (202) 224-3121 (Capitol switchboard),

      (202) 225-6827 (Capitol Guide Service, tour information: http://www.aoc.gov)

      North Side of the Mall

      National Gallery of Art

      Constitution Avenue at Fourth Street, NW

      (202) 737-4215; http://www.nga.gov

      National Archives

      Constitution Avenue at Eighth Street, NW

      (866) 272-6272; http://www.archives.gov.

      Washington Monument

      Constitution Avenue at Fifteenth Street, NW

      (202) 426-6841; http://www.npa.gov/wamo

      Vietnam Veterans Memorial

      Constitution Avenue at Twenty-first Street, NW

      (202) 426-6841; http://www.nps.gov/vive

      Lincoln Memorial

      Constitution Avenue at Twenty-third Street, NW

      (202) 426-6841; http://www.nps.gov/linc

      Smithsonian Institution

      Smithsonian museums line both sides of the Mall from Third to Fourteenth Streets between Constitution Avenue and Independence Avenue. General information:

      (202) 633-1000; Smithsonian Web site, with links to individual museums: http://www.si.edu.

      National Museum of Natural History

      Constitution Avenue at Tenth Street, NW

      National Museum of American History

      Constitution Avenue at Fourteenth Street, NW

      South Side of the Mall

      U.S. Botanic Garden Conservatory

      100 Maryland Avenue, SW

      National Air and Space Museum

      Independence Avenue at Sixth Street, SW

      Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden

      Independence Avenue at Seventh Street, SW

      Arts and Industries Building

      900 Jefferson Drive, SW

      Smithsonian Castle

      1000 Jefferson Drive, SW

      National Museum of African Art

      950 Independence Avenue, SW

      Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

      1050 Independence Avenue, SW

      Freer Gallery of Art

      Jefferson Drive at Twelfth Street, SW

      Korean War Veterans Memorial

      Independence Avenue at Twenty-first Street

      (202) 426-6841; http://www.nps.gov/kowa

      Beyond the Mall

      White House

      1600 Pennsylvania Avenue

      Open Tuesday–Saturday

      (202) 456-7041; (202) 208-1631 (White House Visitor Center); http://www.nps.gov/whho. (Public tours of the

      White House were suspended following the September11, 2001, terrorists attacks. Private tours with groups often or more can be arranged by contacting a member ofCongress at least six months before a visit.)

      Jefferson Memorial

      Tidal Basin, SW

      (202) 426-6841; http://www.nps.gov/thje

      Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial

      1850 West Basin Drive, SW (Tidal Basin)

      (202) 426-6841; (202) 376-6704; http://www.nps.gov/frde

      Library of Congress

      10 First Street, SE

      (202) 707-5000 (general information);

      (202) 707-8000 (visitors’ information); http://www.loc.gov

      Ford’s Theatre

      511 Tenth Street, NW

      Museum/tours: (202) 426-6924; http://www.nps.gov/foth

      Arlington National Cemetery

      Arlington, Virginia

      National Zoological Park (Smithsonian)

      3001 Connecticut Avenue, NW

      (202) 673-4800; http://www.natzoo.si.edu

      American Art Museum’s Renwick Gallery (Smithsonian)

      Pennsylvania Avenue at 17th Street, NW

      Anacostia Museum and Center for African American

      History and Culture (Smithsonian)

      1901 Fort Place, SE

      National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian)

      Eighth and F Streets, NW

      (202) 633-8300; http://www.npg.si.edu

      National Postal Museum (Smithsonian)

      2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE

      (202) 633-5555; http://www.si.edu/postal

      Folger Shakespeare Library

      201 East Capitol Street, SE

      Appendix

      Congressional Information on the Internet

      A huge array of congressional information is available for free at Internet sites operated by the federal government, colleges and universities, and commercial firms. The sites offer the full text of bills introduced in the House and Senate, voting records, campaign finance information, transcripts of selected congressional hearings, investigative reports, and much more.

      THOMAS

      The most important site for congressional information is THOMAS (http://thomas.loc.gov), which is named for Thomas Jefferson and operated by the Library of Congress. THOMAS’s highlight is its databases containing the full text of all bills introduced in Congress since 1989 (101st Congress), the full text of the Congressional Record since 1989, and the status and summary information for all bills introduced since 1973 (93rd Congress).

      THOMAS also offers special links to bills that have received or are expected to receive floor action during the current week and newsworthy bills that are pending or that have recently been approved. Finally, THOMAS has selected committee reports, answers to frequently asked questions about accessing congressional information, publications titled How Our Laws Are Made and Enactment of a Law, and links to many other congressional Web sites.

      House of Representatives

      The U.S. House of Representatives site (http://www.house.gov) offers the schedule of bills, resolutions, and other legislative issues the House is to consider in the current week. It also has updates about current proceedings on the House floor and a list of the next day’s meeting of House committees. Other highlights include a database that helps users identify their representative, a directory of House members and committees, the House ethics manual, links to Web pages maintained by House members and committees, a calendar of congressional primary dates and candidate-filing deadlines for ballot access, the full text of all amendments to the U.S. Constitution that have been ratified and those that have been proposed but not ratified, and information about Washington, D.C., for visitors.

      Another key House site is the Office of the Clerk On-line Information Center (http://clerk.house.gov), which has records of all roll-call votes taken since 1990 (101st Congress). The votes are recorded by bill. The site also has lists of committee assignments, a telephone directory for members and committees, mailing label templates for members and committees, rules of the current Congress, election statistics from 1920 to the present, biographies of Speakers of the House, biographies of women who have served since 1917, information on public disclosure, and a virtual tour of the House chamber.

      The site operated by the House Committee on Rules (http://www.rules.house.gov) has posted dozens of Congressional Research Service reports about the legislative process. Some of the available titles include Legislative Research in CongressionalOffices: A Primer; Hearings in the House of Representatives: A Guide for Preparation and Conduct; How Measures Are Brought tothe House Floor: A Brief Introduction; House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison; and Presidential Vetoes 1789–1996:A Summary Overview

      The office of the Law Revision Counsel operates a site (http://uscode.house.gov) that has a searchable version of the U.S. Code, which contains the text of public laws enacted by Congress, and a tutorial for searching the Code.

      Senate

      The Senate’s main Web site (http://www.senate.gov) has records of all roll-call votes taken since 1989 (101st Congress, arranged by bill), brief descriptions of all bills and joint resolutions introduced in the Senate during the past week, and a calendar of upcoming committee hearings. The site also provides the standing rules of the Senate, a directory of senators and their committee assignments, lists of nominations that the president has submitted to the Senate for approval, links to Web pages operated by senators and committees, information on the history and art of the Senate, and a virtual tour of the Senate.

      General Reference

      Information about the membership, jurisdiction, and rules of each congressional committee is available at the U.S. Government Printing Office site (http://www.gpoaccess.gov/congress/index.html). It also has transcripts of selected congressional hearings, the full text of selected House and Senate reports, and the House and Senate rules manuals.

      The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO, which changed its name in 2004 from General Accounting Office), the investigative arm of Congress, operates a site (http://www.gao.gov) that provides the full text of its reports from October 1995 to the present. The reports cover a wide range of topics: aviation safety, combating terrorism, counternarcotics efforts in Mexico, defense contracting, electronic warfare, food assistance programs, hurricane preparedness, health insurance, illegal aliens, information technology, long-term care, mass transit, Medicare, military readiness, money laundering, national parks, nuclear waste, organ donation, student loan defaults, and prescription drugs, among others.

      GAO e-mail updates are excellent current awareness tools. Electronic mailing lists distribute daily and monthly lists of reports and testimony released by the GAO. Subscriptions are available by filling out a form and identifying topic interests at http://www.gao.gov/subtest/subscribe.php.

      Current budget and economic projections are provided at the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Web site (http://www.cbo.gov). The site also has reports about the economic and budget outlook for the next decade, the president’s budget proposals, federal civilian employment, Social Security privatization, cost analyses of war operations, tax reform, water use conflicts in the west, marriage and the federal income tax, and the role of foreign aid in development, among other topics. Additional highlights include monthly budget updates, historical budget data, cost estimates for bills reported by congressional committees, and transcripts of congressional testimony by CBO officials.

      The congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was eliminated in 1995, but every report it ever issued is available at The OTA Legacy (http://www.wws.princeton.edu:80/~ota), a site operated by the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. The site has more than 100,000 pages of detailed reports about aging, agricultural technology, arms control, biological research, cancer, computer security, defense technology, economic development, education, environmental protection, health and health technology, information technology, space, transportation, and many other subjects. The reports are organized in alphabetical, chronological, and topical lists.

      Campaign Finance

      Several Internet sites provide detailed campaign finance data for congressional elections. The official site is operated by the Federal Election Commission (FEC, http://www.fec.gov), which regulates political spending. The site’s highlight is its database of campaign reports filed from May 1996 to the present by House and presidential candidates, political action committees, and political party committees. Senate reports are not included because they are filed with the secretary of the Senate. The reports in the FEC’s database are scanned images of paper reports filed with the commission.

      The FEC site also has summary financial data for House and Senate candidates in the current election cycle, abstracts of court decisions pertaining to federal election law from 1976 to 2007, and a directory of national and state agencies that are responsible for releasing information about campaign financing, candidates on the ballot, election results, lobbying, and other issues. Another useful feature is a collection of brochures about federal election law, public funding of presidential elections, the ban on contributions by foreign nationals, independent expenditures supporting or opposing a candidate for federal office, contribution limits, filing a complaint, researching public records at the FEC, and other topics. Finally, the site provides the FEC’s legislative recommendations, its annual report, a report about its first thirty years in existence, the FEC’s monthly newsletter, several reports about voter registration, election results for the most recent presidential and congressional elections, and campaign guides for corporations and labor organizations, congressional candidates and committees, political party committees, and nonconnected committees.

      Another online source for campaign finance data is CQ Money Line (http://moneyline.cq.com, formerly http://politicalmoneyline.com and http://FECinfo.com) from Congressional Quarterly. Its searchable databases provide extensive itemized information about receipts and expenditures by federal candidates and political action committees from 1980 to the present. The detailed data are obtained from the FEC. For example, candidates contributions can be searched by Zip code. The site also has data on soft-money contributions, lists of the top political action committees in various categories, lists of the top contributors from each state, and much more.

      More campaign finance data are available from the Center for Responsive Politics (http://www.opensecrets.org), a public interest organization. The center provides a list of all soft-money donations to political parties of $100,000 or more in the current election cycle and data about leadership political action committees associated with individual politicians. Other databases at the site provide information about travel expenses that House members received from private sources for attending meetings and other events, activities of registered federal lobbyists, and activities of foreign agents who are registered in the United States.

      Appendix

      Selected Bibliography

      Appointment Power

      Bronner, Ethan. Battle for Justice: How the Bork Nomination Shook America. New York: Norton, 1989.

      Carter, Stephen L. The Confirmation Mess: Cleaning Up the Federal Appointments Process. New York: Basic Books, 1994.

      Epstein, Lee, and Jeffrey A. Segal. Advice and Consent: The Politics of JudicialAppointments. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Harris, Joseph P. The Advice and Consent of the Senate: A Study of the Confirmation of Appointments by the United States Senate. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1968.

      Mackenzie, G. Calvin, ed. In-and-Outers: Presidential Appointees andTransient Government in Washington. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.

      Simon, Paul. Advice & Consent: Clarence Thomas, Robert Bork, and theIntriguing History of the Supreme Court’s Nomination Battles. Washington, D.C.: National Press Books, 1992.

      Twentieth Century Fund. Obstacle Course: The Report of the TwentiethCentury Fund Task Force on the Presidential Appointment Process. New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1996.

      Campaign Financing

      Cigler, Allan J., and Burdett A. Loomis, eds. Interest Group Politics. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006. Corrado, Anthony, Thomas E. Mann, Daniel R. Ortiz, and Trevor Potter. The

      New Campaign Finance Sourcebook. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.

      Magleby, David B., Anthony Corrado, and Kelly D. Patterson, eds. Financingthe 2004 Election. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2006.

      Malbin, Michael J., ed. The Election After Reform: Money, Politics, and theBipartisan Campaign Reform Act. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

      Capitol Building

      Allen, William C. History of the United States Capitol: A Chronicle of Design,Construction, and Politics. gov/congress/senate/capitol/index.html. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2001.

      Brown, Glenn. History of the U.S. Capitol. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1903. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.

      Capitol Historical Society. We the People: The Story of the United StatesCapitol. 15th ed. Washington, D.C.: United States Capitol Historical Society, 2002.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider. Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Commerce Power

      Baum, Lawrence. The Supreme Court. 9th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Benson, Paul R., Jr. The Supreme Court and theCommerce Clause, 1937–1970. New York: Dunellen, 1970.

      Epstein, Lee, and Thomas G. Walker. ConstitutionalLaw for a Changing America: Institutional Powersand Constraints. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Gavit, Bernard C. Commerce Clause of the UnitedStates Constitution. New York: AMS Press, 1970.

      Lofgren, Charles A. “‘To Regulate Commerce’: Federal Power under the Constitution,” in ThisConstitution: Our Enduring Legacy. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1986.

      Committee System

      Baughman, John. Common Ground: Committee Politics in the U.S. House of Representatives. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2006.

      Cox, Gary W., and Mathew D. McCubbins. Setting theAgenda: Responsible Party Government in the U.S.House of Representatives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Deering, Christopher J., and Steven S. Smith. Committees in Congress. 3d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1997.

      Fenno, Richard F., Jr. Congressmen in Committees. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973.

      Frisch, Scott A., and Dean Q. Kelly. CommitteeAssignment Politics in the U.S. House of Representatives. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006.

      Goodwin, George, Jr. The Little Legislatures: Committees of Congress. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1970.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider, Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Maltzman, Forrest. Competing Principals: Committees, Parties, and the Organization of Congress. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997.

      Oleszek, Walter J. Congressional Procedures and thePolicy Process. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Unekis, Joseph K., and Leroy N. Rieselbach. Congressional Committee Politics: Continuity andChange. New York: Greenwood, 1984.

      Conference Committees

      Longley, Lawrence D., and Walter J. Oleszek. BicameralPolitics: Conference Committees in Congress. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.

      Oleszek, Walter J. Congressional Procedures and thePolicy Process. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Volger, David J. The Third House: Conference Committees in the United States Congress. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1971.

      Congress: Structure and Powers

      Congressional Quarterly. Guide to Congress. 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Jones, Charles O. Separate but Equal Branches:Congress and the Presidency. New York: Chatham House, 1999.

      Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. On the Hill: A History of theAmerican Congress. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980. Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider, Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Wilson, Woodrow. Congressional Government: A Studyin American Politics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1885. Reprint. Cleveland: Meridian Books, 1956.

      Constitutional Amendments

      Burns, James MacGregor, Jack W. Peltason, Thomas E. Cronin, and David B. Magleby. Government bythe People. 19th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2001.

      Epps, Garrett. Democracy Reborn: The FourteenthAmendment and the Fight for Equal Rights inPost–Civil War America. New York: Holt, 2006.

      Epstein, Lee, and Thomas G. Walker. ConstitutionalLaw for a Changing America: Institutional Powersand Constraints. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Katz, William L. Constitutional Amendments. New York: Franklin Watts, 1974.

      Labunski, Richard E. James Madison and the Strugglefor the Bill of Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Mansbridge, Jane J. Why We Lost the ERA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

      Nelson, Michael, ed. Guide to the Presidency. 2 vols. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Newman, Roger K., ed. The Constitution and ItsAmendments. 4 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1999.

      Vile, John R. A Companion to the United StatesConstitution and Its Amendments. 4th ed. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2006.

      Courts and Congress

      Baum, Lawrence. The Supreme Court. 9th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Berger, Raoul. Congress v. the Supreme Court. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969.

      Epstein, Lee, and Jeffrey Segal. Advice and Consent:The Politics of Judicial Appointments. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Epstein, Lee, and Thomas G. Walker. ConstitutionalLaw for a Changing America: Institutional Powersand Constraints. 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Geyh, Charles G. When Courts and Congress Collide:The Struggle for Control of America’s Judicial System. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006.

      O’Brien, David M. Storm Center: The Supreme Courtin American Politics. 5th ed. New York: Norton, 2000.

      Savage, David, ed. Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court. 2 vols. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 2004.

      Electing the President

      Congressional Quarterly. Presidential Elections1789–1996. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.

      Bennett, Robert W. Taming the Electoral College. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Law and Politics, 2006.

      Best, Judith. The Case Against Direct Election of thePresident: A Defense of the Electoral College. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975.

      ———. The Choice of the People: Debating theElectoral College. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996.

      Glennon, Michael J. When No Majority Rules: TheElectoral College and Presidential Succession. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1993.

      Heard, Alexander, and Michael Nelson, eds. Presidential Selection. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1987.

      Longley, Lawrence D., and Neal R. Peirce. The Electoral College Primer 2000. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.

      Nelson, Michael, ed. Guide to the Presidency. 2 vols. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Schumaker, Paul, and Burdett A. Loomis, eds. Choosing a President: The Electoral College andBeyond. New York: Chatham House, 2002.

      Ethics

      Amer, Mildred. House Committee on Standards ofOfficial Conduct: A Brief History of Its Evolutionand Jurisdiction. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 1997.

      Garment, Suzanne. Scandal: The Culture of Mistrust inAmerican Politics. New York: Anchor Books, 1992.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider. Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Maskell, Jack. Expulsion and Censure Actions Taken bythe Full Senate Against Members. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 1993.

      Simon, Paul. The Glass House: Politics and Morality inthe Nation’s Capital. New York: Continuum, 1984.

      Thompson, Dennis F. Ethics in Congress: FromIndividual to Institutional Corruption. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1995.

      ———. Political Ethics and Public Office. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1990.

      Executive Branch and Congress

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Fisher, Louis. The Politics of Shared Power: Congressand the Executive. 4th ed. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1998.

      ———. Constitutional Conflicts Between Congressand the President. 4th ed. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997.

      Foley, Michael, and John E. Owens. Congress and thePresidency: Institutional Politics in a SeparateSystem. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press/St. Martin’s Press, 1996.

      Harriger, Katy J., ed.Separation of Powers: Documentsand Commentary. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.

      Jones, Charles O. Separate but Equal Branches: Congress and the Presidency. 2d ed. New York: Chatham House, 1999.

      Kelley, Donald R., ed. Divided Power: The Presidency,Congress, and the Formation of American ForeignPolicy. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2005.

      Thurber, James A., ed. Rivals for Power: Presidential-Congressional Relations. 3d ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

      Filibuster

      Binder, Sarah A. Stalemate: Causes and Consequencesof Legislative Gridlock. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.

      Binder, Sarah A., and Steven S. Smith. Politics orPrinciple? Filibustering in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997.

      Brady, David W. Party, Process, and Political Change inCongress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2002.

      Burdette, Franklin L. Filibustering in the Senate. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1940.

      Caro, Robert A. Master of the Senate: The Years ofLyndon Johnson. New York: Knopf, 2002.

      Dodd, Lawrence C., and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, eds. Congress Reconsidered. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider. Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Oleszek, Walter J. Congressional Procedures and thePolicy Process. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Reid, T. R. Congressional Odyssey: The Saga of aSenate Bill. New York: Freeman, 1980.

      Wawro, Gregory J., and Eric Schickler. Filibuster:Obstruction and Lawmaking in the U.S. Senate. Princeton, N.J.; Princeton University Press, 2006.

      Whalen, Charles, and Barbara Whalen. The LongestDebate: A Legislative History of the 1964 Civil RightsAct. Washington, D.C.: Seven Locks Press, 1985.

      House of Representatives

      Baker, Ross K. House and Senate. 3d ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2001.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Dodd, Lawrence C., and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, eds. Congress Reconsidered. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

      Fenno, Richard F., Jr. Home Style: House Members inTheir Districts. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978.

      Galloway, George B. History of the House of Representatives. 2d ed. New York: Crowell, 1976.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider. Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      MacNeil, Neil. Forge of Democracy: The House ofRepresentatives. New York: David McKay, 1963.

      Sinclair, Barbara. Legislators, Leaders, and Lawmaking: The U.S. House of Representatives in thePost-reform Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

      Impeachment

      Berger, Raoul. Impeachment: The Constitutional Problems. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973.

      Black, Charles L. Impeachment: A Handbook. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1974.

      Gerhardt, Michael J. The Federal Impeachment Process: A Constitutional and Historical Analysis. Rev. ed. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2003.

      Jeffrey, Harry P., and Thomas Maxwell-Long, eds. Watergate and the Resignation of Richard Nixon:Impact of a Constitutional Crisis. Washington, D.C. CQ Press, 2004.

      Labovitz, John R. Presidential Impeachment. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1978.

      McLoughlin, Merrill, ed. The Impeachment and Trialof President Clinton: The Official Transcripts, fromthe House Judiciary Committee Hearings to theSenate Trial. New York: Times Books, 1999.

      Nichols, John. The Genius of Impeachment: TheFounders’ Cure for Royalism. New York: New Press/ Norton, 2006.

      Van Tassel, Emily Field, and Paul Finkelman. Impeachable Offenses. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999.

      Witt, Elder, ed. Watergate: Chronology of a Crisis. 1974. Reprint. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1999.

      Investigations

      Berger, Raoul. Executive Privilege: An Executive Myth. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.

      Ginsberg, Benjamin, and Martin Shefter. Politics byOther Means: Politicians, Prosecutors, and the Pressfrom Watergate to Whitewater. 3d. ed. New York: Norton, 2002.

      Hamilton, James. The Power to Probe: A Study ofCongressional Investigations. New York: Random House, 1976.

      Harriger, Katy J. The Special Prosecutor in AmericanPolitics. 2d ed. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002.

      Jeffrey, Harry P., and Thomas Maxwell-Long, eds. Watergate and the Resignation of Richard Nixon:Impact of a Constitutional Crisis. Washington, D.C. CQ Press, 2004.

      Johnson, Charles A., and Danette Brickman. Independent Counsel: The Law and the Investigations. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.

      Kean, Thomas H., Lee H. Hamilton, and Benjamin Rhodes. Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the9/11 Commission. New York: Knopf, 2006.

      Mayhew, David R. Divided We Govern: Party Control,Lawmaking, and Investigations, 1946-2002. 2d ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005.

      McGeary, M. Nelson. The Development of Congressional Investigative Power. New York: Octagon Books, 1973.

      Riddle, Donald H. The Truman Committee: A Studyin Congressional Responsibility. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1964.

      Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., and Roger Burns, eds. Congress Investigates: A Documentary History,1792–1974. 5 vols. New York: Bowker, 1975.

      Leadership

      Baker, Richard A., and Roger H. Davidson, eds. FirstAmong Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of theTwentieth Century. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1991.

      Caro, Robert A. Master of the Senate: The Years ofLyndon Johnson. New York: Knopf, 2002.

      Davidson, Roger H., Susan Webb Hammond, and Raymond W. Smock, eds. Masters of the House:Congressional Leadership over Two Centuries. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Dodd, Lawrence C., and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, eds. Congress Reconsidered. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

      Follette, Mary P. The Speaker of the House of Representatives. New York: Longmans, Green, 1896. Reprint. New York: Burt Franklin Reprints, 1974.

      Hardeman, D. B., and Donald C. Bacon. Rayburn: ABiography. Austin: Texas Monthly Press, 1987.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider. Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Kornacki, John J., ed. Leading Congress: New Styles,New Strategies. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1990.

      Mann, Thomas E., and Norman J. Ornstein, eds. TheBroken Branch: How Congress Is Failing Americaand How to Get It Back on Track. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Mayhew, David R. Divided We Govern: Party Control,Lawmaking, and Investigations, 1946–2002. 2d ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005.

      Peters, Ronald M., Jr. The American Speakership: TheOffice in Historical Perspective. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

      Sinclair, Barbara. Legislators, Leaders, and Lawmaking: The U.S. House of Representatives in thePostreform Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

      ———. Party Wars: Polarization and the Politics ofNational Policy Making. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006.

      Stonecash, Jeffrey M., Mark D. Brewer, and Mack D. Mariani. Diverging Parties: Social Change, Realignment, and Party Polarization. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2003.

      Legislative Process

      Binder, Sarah A. Stalemate: Causes and Consequencesof Legislative Gridlock. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.

      Birnbaum, Jeffrey H., and Alan S. Murray. Showdownat Gucci Gulch. New York: Random House, 1987.

      Brady, David W. Party, Process, and Political Change inCongress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2002.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Dodd, Lawrence C., and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, eds. Congress Reconsidered. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

      Elving, Ronald D. Conflict and Compromise: HowCongress Makes the Law. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider. Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Oleszek, Walter J. Congressional Procedures and thePolicy Process. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Redman, Eric. The Dance of Legislation. Reprint. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.

      Reid, T. R. Congressional Odyssey: The Saga of aSenate Bill. New York: Freeman, 1980.

      Sinclair, Barbara. Unorthodox Lawmaking: NewLegislative Processes in the U.S. Congress. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.

      Smith, Steven S. Call to Order: Floor Politics in theHouse and Senate. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1989.

      Legislative Veto

      Fisher, Louis. Constitutional Dialogues. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988.

      Lobbying

      Berry, Jeffrey M. The New Liberalism: The Rising Powerof Citizen Groups. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.

      Birnbaum, Jeffrey H., and Alan S. Murray. Showdownat Gucci Gulch: Lawmakers, Lobbyists, and theUnlikely Triumph of Tax Reform. New York: Random House, 1987.

      Cigler, Allan J., and Burdett A. Loomis. Interest GroupPolitics. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Hernson, Paul S., Ronald G. Shaiko, and Clyde Wilcox, eds. The Interest Group Connection: Electioneering, Lobbying, and Policymaking in Washington. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

      Hula, Kevin. Lobbying Together: Interest GroupCoalitions in Legislative Politics. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider. Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Kollman, Ken. Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion andInterest Group Strategies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998.

      Rozell, Mark J., Clyde Wilcox, and David Madland. Interest Groups in American Campaigns. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Skinner, Richard M. More Than Money: InterestGroup Action in Congressional Elections. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

      Wolpe, Bruce C., and Bertram J. Levine. LobbyingCongress: How the System Works. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1996.

      Political Action Committees (PACs)

      Cigler, Allan J., and Burdett A. Loomis, eds. InterestGroup Politics. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Corrado, Anthony, Thomas E. Mann, Daniel R. Ortiz, and Trevor Potter. The New Campaign FinanceSourcebook. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.

      Herrnson, Paul S. Congressional Elections: Campaigning at Home and in Washington. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004.

      Political Parties

      Aldrich, John H. Why Parties? The Origins and Transformation of Party Politics in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

      Bibby, John F., and Brian F. Shaffner. Politics, Parties,and Elections in America. 6th ed. Boston, Mass.: Thomas-Wadsworth, 2007.

      Bond, Jon R., and Richard Fleisher, eds. PolarizedPolitics: Congress and the President in a PartisanEra. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Green, John C., and Daniel J. Coffey. The State of theParties: The Changing Role of Contemporary American Parties. 5th ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowan and Littlefield, 2007.

      Keefe, William J., and Marc Hetherington. Parties,Politics, and Public Policy in America. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007

      Sabato, Larry, and Bruce A. Larson. The Party’s JustBegun: Shaping Political Parties for America’sFuture. 2d ed. New York: Longman, 2001.

      Power of the Purse

      Birnbaum, Jeffrey A., and Alan S. Murray. Showdownat Gucci Gulch: Lawmakers, Lobbyists, and theUnlikely Triumph of Tax Reform. New York: Random House, 1987.

      Fenno, Richard F., Jr. The Power of the Purse: Appropriation Politics in Congress. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973.

      LeLoup, Lance T. Parties, Rules, and the Evolution ofCongressional Budgeting. Pullman: Washington

      State University, 2005.

      Munson, Richard. The Cardinals of Capitol Hill: TheMen and Women Who Control Federal Spending. New York: Grove Press, 1993.

      Palazzolo, Daniel J. The Speaker and the Budget:Leadership in the Post-Reform House of Representatives. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.

      Rivlin, Alice M., and Isabel Sawhill, eds. Restoring Fiscal Sanity, 2005: Meeting the Long-Run Challenge. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institutions Press, 2005.

      Schick, Allen, and Felix LoStracco. The FederalBudget: Politics, Policy, Process. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.

      Press and Congress

      Arnold, R. Douglas. Congress, the Press, and PoliticalAccountability. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006.

      Cook, Timothy E. Governing with the News: The NewsMedia as a Political Institution. 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Fenno, Richard F., Jr. Home Style: House Members inTheir Districts. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978. Graber, Doris A. Mass Media and American Politics. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      ———, ed. Media Power in Politics. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Hess, Stephen. Live from Capitol Hill! Studies of Congress and the Media. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1991.

      Mann, Thomas E., and Norman J. Ornstein. Congress,the Press, and the Public. Brookings Institution Press, 1994.

      Overholser, Geneva, and Kathleen H. Jamieson, eds. The Press. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

      Perloff, Richard M. Political Communication: Politics,Press, and Public in America. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998.

      Reapportionment and Redistricting

      Congressional Districts in the 1990s: A Portrait ofAmerica. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1993.

      Congressional Districts in the 2000s: A Portrait ofAmerica. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.

      Reform, Congressional

      Adler, E. Scott. Why Congressional Reforms Fail: Reelection and the House Committee System. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

      Davidson, Roger H., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressagainst Itself. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.

      Dodd, Lawrence C., and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, eds.Congress Reconsidered. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.:CQ Press, 2005.

      Evans, C. Lawrence, and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressunder Fire: Reform Politics and the Republican Majority. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

      Hinckley, Barbara. Stability and Change in Congress. 4th ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

      Mann, Thomas E., and Norman J. Ornstein, eds. TheBroken Branch: How Congress Is Failing Americaand How to Get It Back on Track. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

      Oleszek, Walter J. Congressional Procedures and thePolicy Process. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.

      Ornstein, Norman J., ed. Congress in Change: Evolution and Reform. New York: Praeger, 1975.

      Rieselbach, Leroy N. Congressional Reform. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1986.

      Sinclair, Barbara. Legislators, Leaders, and Lawmaking: The U.S. House of Representatives in thePostreform Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

      Senate

      Baker, Richard A., and Roger H. Davidson, eds. FirstAmong Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of theTwentieth Century. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1991.

      Binder, Sarah A., and Steven S. Smith. Politics or Principle? Filibustering in the United States Senate. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997.

      Byrd, Robert C. The Senate 1789–1989. 4 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1988–1994.

      Caro, Robert A. Master of the Senate: The Years ofLyndon Johnson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Fenno, Richard F., Jr. Senators on the Campaign Trail:The Politics of Representation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.

      ———. Congressmen in Committees. Boston: Little, Brown, 1974.

      Haynes, George H. The Senate of the United States: ItsHistory and Practice. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1938.

      Loomis, Burdett, ed. Esteemed Colleagues: Civility andDeliberation in the U.S. Senate. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.

      Kessler, Alexander P., ed. The United States Senate:Chronology and Institutional Bibliography. New York: Novinka Books, 2006.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider. Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Oleszek, Walter J. Majority and Minority Whips of theSenate: History and Development of the Party WhipSystem in the United States Senate. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1985.

      Oppenheimer, Bruce I. U.S. Senate Exceptionalism. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2002.

      Sinclair, Barbara. The Transformation of the U.S.Senate. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

      Wirls, Daniel, and Stephen Wirls. The Invention of theUnited States Senate. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

      Speaker of the House

      Davidson, Roger H., Susan Webb Hammond, and Raymond W. Smock, eds. Masters of the House:Congressional Leaders over Two Centuries. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.

      Follette, Mary P. The Speaker of the House ofRepresentatives. New York: Longmans, Green, 1896. Reprint. New York: Burt Franklin Reprints, 1974.

      Hardeman, D. B., and Donald C. Bacon. Rayburn: ABiography. Austin: Texas Monthly Press, 1987.

      Koempel, Michael L., and Judy Schneider. Congressional Deskbook. 5th ed. Alexandria, Va.: TheCapitol.Net, 2007.

      Palazzolo, Daniel J. The Speaker and the Budget: Leadership in the Post-Reform House of Representatives. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.

      Peters, Ronald M., Jr. The American Speakership: TheOffice in Historical Perspective. 2d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

      ———, ed. The Speaker: Leadership in the U.S. Houseof Representatives. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1994.

      Sinclair, Barbara. Legislators, Leaders, and Lawmaking: The U.S. House of Representatives in the Post-reform Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

      O’Neill, Thomas P., Jr., with William Novak. Man ofthe House: The Life and Political Memoirs ofSpeaker Tip O’Neill. New York: Random House, 1987.

      Staff

      Bisnow, Mark. In the Shadow of the Dome: Chroniclesof a Capitol Hill Aide. New York: William Morrow, 1990.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Deering, Christopher J., and Steven S. Smith. Committees in Congress. 3d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1997.

      Fox, Harrison W., Jr., and Susan Webb Hammond. Congressional Staffs: The Invisible Force inAmerican Lawmaking. New York: Free Press, 1977.

      Malbin, Michael J. Unelected Representatives:Congressional Staffs and the Future of Representative Government. New York: Basic Books, 1980.

      Struglinski, Suzanne, ed. The Almanac of theUnelected, 2007: Staff of the U.S. Congress. 20th ed. Lanham, Md.: Bernan Press, 2007.

      States and Congress

      Conlon, Timothy. From New Federalism to Devolution: Twenty-Five Years of Intergovernmental Reform. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.

      Derthick, Martha. Keeping the Compound Republic:Essays on American Federalism. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2001.

      Treaty-Making Power

      Crabb, Cecil V., Jr., and Pat M. Holt. Invitation toStruggle: Congress, the President, and Foreign Policy. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1992.

      Fisher, Louis. Constitutional Conflicts between Congress and the President. 4th ed. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997.

      Hamilton, Lee, and Jordan Tama. A Creative Tension:The Foreign Policy Roles of the President andCongress. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2002.

      Hersman, Rebecca K. C. Friends and Foes: HowCongress and the President Really Make ForeignPolicy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.

      Jentleson, Bruce W. American Foreign Policy: TheDynamics of Choice in the 21st Century. 2d ed. New York: Norton, 2004.

      Johnson, Loch K. The Making of International Agreements: Congress Confronts the Executive. New York: New York University Press, 1984.

      Kelley, Donald R., ed. Divided Power: The Presidency,Congress, and the Formation of American ForeignPolicy. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2005.

      Papp, Daniel S., Loch Johnson, and John Endicott. American Foreign Policy: History Politics, andPolicy. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005.

      Silverstein, Gordon. Imbalance of Powers: ConstitutionalInterpretation and the Making of American ForeignPolicy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

      Vice President

      Hayes, Stephen F. Cheney: The Untold Story ofAmerica’s Most Powerful and Controversial VicePresident. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.

      Light, Paul C. Vice-Presidential Power: Advice andInfluence in the White House. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.

      Nelson, Michael. A Heartbeat Away. New York: Unwin Hyman, 1988.

      Walch, Timothy, ed. At the President’s Side: The VicePresidency in the Twentieth Century. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997.

      Voters and Congress

      Bianco, William T. Trust: Representatives and Constituents. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994.

      Davidson, Roger J., and Walter J. Oleszek. Congressand Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2006.

      Fenno, Richard F., Jr. Home Style: House Members inTheir Districts. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978.

      ———. Senators on the Campaign Trail: The Politicsof Representation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.

      ———. Congress at the Grassroots: RepresentationalChange in the South, 1970-1998. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

      Fiorina, Morris P., Samuel J. Abrams, and Jeremy C. Pope. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America. 2d ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2006.

      Herrnson, Paul S. Congressional Elections: Campaigning at Home and in Washington. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004.

      Johannes, John R. To Serve the People: Congress andConstituency Service. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

      War Powers

      Eagleton, Thomas F. War and Presidential Power. New York: Liveright, 1974.

      Fisher, Louis. Presidential War Power. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

      ———. Congressional Abdication on War andSpending. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2000.

      Haass, Richard N. Intervention: The Use of AmericanMilitary Force in the Post-Cold War World. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

      Holt, Pat M. The War Powers Resolution: The Role ofCongress in U.S. Armed Intervention. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1978.

      Reveley, W. Taylor III. War Powers of the President andCongress: Who Holds the Arrows and Olive Branch? Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981.

      Smyrl, Marc E. Conflict or Codetermination? Congress,the President, and the Power to Make War. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1988.

      Westerfield, Donald L. War Powers: The President, theCongress, and the Question of War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1996.

      Wormuth, Francis D., and Edwin B. Firmage. ToChain the Dog of War: The War Power of Congressin History and Law. 2d ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

      Yoo, John. The Power of War and Peace: The Constitution and Foreign Affairs after 9/11. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

      Watergate Scandal

      Berger, Raoul. Impeachment: The ConstitutionalProblems. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973.

      ———. Executive Privilege: An Executive Myth. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.

      Black, Charles L. Impeachment: A Handbook. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1974.

      Hamilton, James. The Power to Probe: A Study ofCongressional Investigations. New York: Random House, 1976.

      Gerhardt, Michael J. The Federal Impeachment Process:A Constitutional and Historical Analysis. Rev. ed. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2003.

      Jeffrey, Harry P., and Thomas Maxwell-Long, eds. Watergate and the Resignation of Richard Nixon:Impact of a Constitutional Crisis. Washington, D.C. CQ Press, 2004.

      Kutler, Stanley. The Wars of Watergate: The Last Crisisof Richard Nixon. New York: Norton, 1992.

      Lukas, J. Anthony. Nightmare: The Underside of theNixon Years. New York: Viking, 1976.

      Nichols, John. The Genius of Impeachment: TheFounders’ Cure for Royalism. New York: New Press/Norton, 2006.

      Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Imperial Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.

      Schudson, Michael. Watergate in American Memory. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

      White, Theodore. Breach of Faith: The Fall of RichardNixon. New York: Atheneum, 1975.

      Witt, Elder, ed. Watergate: Chronology of a Crisis. 1974. Reprint. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1999.

      Woodward, Bob, and Carl Bernstein. All thePresident’s Men. New York: Touchtone, 1989.

      ———. The Final Days. New York: Touchtone, 1987.

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