An Introduction to Civil Wars
An Introduction to Civil Wars takes an empirical and thematic approach to the study of civil wars. Since World War II, by far most of the wars that have been fought are civil wars—wars between groups within states, like Darfur, Somalia, Congo, Kosovo, and Chechnya—and not wars between sovereign states. The book is organized thematically to address major topics and findings on civil wars, including causes, duration, recurrence, termination, intervention, post-conflict problems, civilian victimization/terrorism, and resource-related issues. Cases at the end of chapters spotlight specific civil wars.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Costs of Civil War
- Chapter 3: Civil War Dynamics
- Chapter 4: What Causes Civil War?
- Chapter 5: Natural Resources and Civil War
- Chapter 6: The Termination of Civil War and Post-Conflict Issues
- Chapter 7: International Intervention
- Chapter 8: Terrorism and Civil War
- Chapter 9: Conclusion
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
DeRouen, Karl R., 1962-
An Introduction to civil wars / Karl DeRouen, Jr., University of Alabama.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4522-4432-7 (pbk.: alk. paper)
1. Civil war. 2. Conflict management. 3. Peace-building.
4. Intervention (International law) I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
14 15 16 17 18 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Sarah Calabi
Editorial Assistant: Davia Grant
Production Editor: Kelly DeRosa
Copy Editor: Patrice Sutton
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
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To my grandfather Fernand Joseph DeRouen Sr. (1898–1981) and my son Fernand Jacques DeRouen
List of Features[Page ix]
- 1.1Key Civil War Datasets 6
- 3.1The Cold War 54
- 3.2Fallen Regimes during the Arab Spring Uprisings 2010-2011 62
- 4.1The Minorities at Risk (MAR) Data 85
- 6.1Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 128
- 7.1The United Nations 158
- 9.1Syria 228
- 9.2U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry 231
- 1.1Number of Armed Conflicts by Type, 1946–2010 27
- 2.1Reported Battle Deaths per State-Based Armed Conflict: International Conflicts Versus Intrastate Conflicts, 1946–2008 33
- 3.1Coups, 1950 to 2011: Successful, Failed, and Total Number 63
- 3.2Internationalized Civil Wars, 1946–2004 70
- 3.3Internationalized Civil Wars, 2005–2012 71
- 7.1Peace Missions Conducted by the United Nations, Regional Organizations or Alliances and Non-standing Coalitions/Ad Hoc Coalitions, 1996–2012 159
- 1.1Comparing Different Definitions of Civil War 5
- 3.1Interstate, Civil War, and Internationalized Civil War Conflicts, 2002–2012 56
- 3.2Five Most Costly Civil Wars Over Control of Government in 2012 57
- 3.3Five Most Costly Civil Wars Over Territory in 2012 68
- 4.1Regional Poverty and Civil Wars 84
- [Page x]5.1Matching Resources to Countries and Rebel Groups 109
- 5.2Comparing Natural Resource Exports as a Share of Total Exports or GDP across Regions 113
- 6.1Outcomes of Civil Wars Terminated 1946–2009 129
- 6.2Selected Comprehensive Peace Agreements (CPAs) 132
- 6.3Selected Features that can Assist Implementation of Agreements 140
- 6.4Ten Worst Ranked Failed States in 2013 and Their 2012 Ranking 144
- 6.5Most Costly Civil Wars and Freedom of Country in 2012 147
- 7.1Number of UN Peacekeeping Operations 1948 to 2013 by Decade 157
- 7.2Number of Peace Operations and Personnel Deployed, by Region and Organization Type, 2011 160
- 7.3Forms of Diplomatic Intervention in Conflicts 1945 to 1999 166
- 7.4Average Number of Interventions per Conflict by Region 1945 to 1999 166
- 7.5Most Frequent Diplomatic Interveners and Number of Interventions in Conflicts 1945 to 1999 168
- 7.6Most Frequent Individual Mediators and Number of Mediations (and Conflicts) 1945–1999 168
- 7.7Most Frequent Five Mediators by Rank 1946 to 2004 169
- 7.8Members of UN Standby Team of Mediation Experts in 2013 170
- 8.1Comparing Incidence of Terrorism across Regions for Two Eras 188
- 9.1Major Armed Conflicts—Intrastate and Interstate 2001 to 2010 218
- 9.2Major Armed Conflicts—Civil Wars, Incompatibility, and Region 2004 to 2010 219
- 9.3New Versus Recurring Intrastate Conflicts, 1950–2009 221
Civil war is the most prevalent form of organized armed violence, affecting millions of people worldwide every year. According to the Uppsala University's Uppsala Conflict Data Program, as of 2012 there were 31 active civil or internationalized civil wars—and one active interstate war (see http://www.pcr.uu.se/research/ucdp/). Scholars are well aware of the vast body of literature on the topic as well. It is therefore surprising that there are few books on civil war that are appropriate for student readers who are approaching it for the first time. This volume provides students with a systematic, comprehensive overview of the topic by covering civil war patterns, types, causes, costs (human and economic), outcomes, peace agreements, and duration; terrorism and intervention in the context of civil war; conflict management; and post-conflict issues, such as peacebuilding.
This book is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate course adoption, researchers, and the policy-making community. The book will find its greatest use in courses on civil war, conflict management, international security and conflict, and international relations. Because of its broad coverage of the literature, it will be of special utility for classes requiring research and writing assignments. There, students can make use of the book's Appendix materials (the UCDP's list of civil wars) and the comprehensive bibliography as well. Especially useful for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses on civil wars, conflict management, and international conflict, I also include a list of suggested readings for each chapter.
A special feature of the book is its focus on conflict management. Each chapter has a section that links conflict management (which encompasses activities like negotiation, mediation, conflict prevention, peace agreements, peacebuilding, and peacekeeping operations that are designed to ameliorate, resolve, and even prevent future conflict) to the main subject of the chapter. For example, I discuss how war termination type has implications for the duration of the peace. War type (war over control of government and territorial wars) is also expected to impact war duration and intractability. This theme helps tie the book together and puts the scholarly literature directly into conversation with the practitioner [Page xii]and policy-making community. The book has an empirical orientation, so readers will be able to compare features of civil war and understand trends. To this end, relevant data are presented graphically and in tables throughout the text and important datasets are identified. The Appendix also includes a list of civil wars since World War II and the names of the rebel groups fighting in each one.
The book is organized so that, after a brief introduction that provides an overview of the subject, readers are first presented with what scholars think is the most urgent issue: the costs of civil war. To establish the importance of studying civil war, that chapter (Chapter 2) covers costs, such as casualties, economic problems, human displacement, lost educational opportunities, crime, and environmental degradation. Chapter 3 considers the dynamics of civil war including types (wars over government, such as coups and revolutions and wars over territory), trends, tactics, and counterinsurgency strategies.
Chapter 4 covers the causes of civil war. Topics include the greed versus grievance debate, democracy, globalization, environmental causes, ethno-religious factors, and rebel opportunity. Chapter 5 focuses on natural resources and civil war. The relevant sections in this chapter are the resource curse, the role of resources such as oil, timber, and gems in war onset. Civil war termination and post-conflict issues are covered in Chapter 6. Specific topics include outcome trends, peace agreements, international intervention involving mediation and peace agreement assistance, peacebuilding, humanitarian law, and statebuilding. International intervention is the subject of Chapter 7. Here, I further discuss the role of third-party mediation, the United Nations, and peace agreements. Chapter 8 covers terrorism in civil wars. The chapter begins with the incidence of terrorism and civil war terrorism; the targets, tactics, and means of terrorists; violence against civilians; spoilers of peace processes; the role of Islam; and case studies on Iraq and Afghanistan where terrorism in the civil war context has been rampant. The final chapter is the Conclusion in which the book is summarized in the context of the conflict management theme.
Feature boxes are incorporated throughout the text to explore certain topics like critical data resources and watershed events in further detail. For instance, in Chapter 4, we look at the Minorities at Risk Data Project, and in Chapter 3, we discuss the Arab Spring uprising in the context of failing regimes. Because the book is empirically focused, I naturally included many maps, tables, and figures to help illustrate critical trends in civil wars, and I have also included a handful of photos to help make the subject matter more immediate to readers.
Iowe great debts of gratitude to Paul Bellamy and Sugu Narayanan. Both played major roles in the writing of the first draft, and Paul was instrumental in helping me to revise that draft. Charisse Kiino of SAGE was a great supporter of the project and offered valuable comments and support throughout. Elise Frasier was instrumental in editing the first draft, Patrice Sutton did a great job copyediting, and the final product is much better for their efforts. I would also like to thank the reviewers of the manuscript proposal for their insights and suggestions: Roy Licklider, Rutgers University; Caroline Hartzell, Gettysburg College; Bethany Lacina, University of Rochester; Doug Lemke, Pennsylvania State University; Artyom Tonoyan, Baylor University; and Shadrack W. Nasong'o, Rhodes College.
Many of the insights and ideas contained herein are drawn from research funded by the Folke Bernadotte Academy of Sweden, the Marsden Fund of the Royal Society of New Zealand, and the British Academy.Map 1.1 Civil Wars Worldwide, 1946–2011
Sources: Gleditsch et al. (2002); Themnér and Wallensteen (2012).
Appendix 1Ucdp Civil Wars Involving at Least 25 Battle-Related Deaths per Year, 1946–2009
Government Rebels Years Active USSR Forest Brothers 1946–1948 USSR LTS(p)A, LNPA 1946 USSR U PA 1946–1950 China PLA 1946–1949 Iran Republic of Azerbaijan 1946 Greece DSE 1946–1949 Iran KDPI 1946 Bolivia Popular Revolutionary Movement 1946 USSR BDPS 1946–1948 Philippines HUK 1946–1954 China Taiwanese insurgents 1947 Paraguay Opposition coalition (Febreristas, Liberals, and Communists) 1947 Hyderabad CPI 1947–1948 Myanmar APLP, Mujahid Party 1948–1961 Myanmar CPB-RF, CPB, PVO—“White Band” faction 1948–1988 North Yemen Opposition coalition 1948 Costa Rica National Liberation Army 1948 India CPI 1948–1951 Myanmar PNDF 1949–1950 Israel Palestinian insurgents, PLO groups, Non-PLO groups, Rejectionist Front, PFLP, PFLP-GC, Fatah, Hamas, PIJ, PNA 1949–1996 Myanmar KNUP, KNU 1949–1992 Myanmar MFL-MUF, MPSG/MPF, NMSP 1949–1963 Guatemala Military faction 1949 Indonesia Republic of South Moluccas 1950 China Tibet 1950 Thailand Military faction (navy) 1951 Bolivia MNR 1952 Indonesia Darul Islam 1953 Cuba M-26–7 1953 Paraguay Military faction (forces of Alfredo Stroessner) 1954 Guatemala Forces of Carlos Castillo Armas 1954 South Vietnam FNL 1955–1964 Argentina Military faction (forces of Eduardo A. Lonardi Doucet) 1955 India NNC 1956–1959 China Tibet 1956 Cuba M-26–7 1956–1958 Myanmar KNPP 1957 Oman State of Oman/Free Oman 1957 Indonesia Darul Islam, PRRI, Permesta 1958–1961 Malaysia CPM 1958–1960 Lebanon Independent Nasserite Movement/Mourabitoun militia 1958 Iraq Military faction (Free Officers Movement), Military faction (forces of Colonel Abdul Wahab al-Shawaf) 1958–1959 China Tibet 1959 Laos Pathet Lao, Neutralists 1959–1961 Myanmar NSH, SSIA, SNUF, SSA, SURA, SSNLO 1959–1970 Cameroon UPC 1960–1961 Nepal Nepali Congress 1960–1962 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) Katanga 1960–1962 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) Independent Mining State of South Kasai 1960–1962 Ethiopia Military faction (forces of Mengistu Neway) 1960 India NNC 1961–1968 Myanmar KIO 1961–1992 Cuba Cuban Revolutionary Council 1961 France OAS 1961–1962 Iraq KDP 1961–1970 Venezuela Military faction (navy) 1962 North Yemen Royalists 1962–1970 Laos Pathet Lao 1963–1973 Malaysia CCO 1963–1966 Sudan Anya Nya/SSLM 1963–1972 Iraq NCRC, Military faction (forces of Brigadier Arif) 1963 Argentina Military faction (Colorados) 1963 Guatemala FAR I 1963 Myanmar ANLP, CPA, RPF, ALP 1964–1978 Colombia FARC, ELN, M-19, EPL 1964–2009* Ethiopia Ogaden Liberation Front 1964 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) CNL 1964–1965 Gabon Military faction (forces loyal to Léon M'Ba) 1964 Ethiopia ELF, EPLF, ELF-PLF 1964–1991 Guatemala FAR I, FAR II, EGP, ORPA, URNG 1965–1995 Dominican Republic Military faction (Constitutionalists) 1965 Indonesia OPM 1965 Peru MIR, ELN 1965 Burundi Military faction (forces loyal to Gervais Nyangoma) 1965 Iran KDPI 1966–1968 Nigeria Military faction (forces of Patrick Nzeogwu) 1966 Syria Military faction (forces loyal to Nureddin Atassi and Youssef Zeayen) 1966 Ghana NLC 1966 Chad Frolinat, First Liberation Army, Second Liberation Army 1966–1972 India MNF 1966–1968 South Africa SWAPO 1966–1988 Indonesia OPM 1967–1969 Bolivia ELN 1967 Cambodia Khmer Rouge/FUNK 1967–1975 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) Opposition militias 1967 Nigeria Republic of Biafra 1967–1970 Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) ZAPU 1967–1968 Oman PFLO 1969–1975 India CPI—ML 1969–1971 Philippines CPP, Military Faction (forces of Honasan, Abenina, and Zumel) 1969–1995 Philippines MIM, MNLF, MILF 1970–1990 Madagascar Monima 1971 Uganda Military faction (forces of Idi Amin), Kikosi Maalum 1971–1972 Pakistan Mukti Bahini 1971 Sri Lanka (Ceylon) JVP 1971 Morocco Military faction (forces of Mohamed Madbouh) 1971 Sudan Sudanese Communist Party 1971 United Kingdom PIRA 1971–1991 Myanmar SSA 1972–1973 Uruguay MLN/Tupamaros 1972 Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) ZANU, ZAPU, PF 1973–1979 Myanmar LNUP 1973–1981 Iraq KDP, PUK, KDP-QM 1973–1992 Chile Military faction (forces of Augusto Pinochet, Toribio Merino, and Leigh Guzman) 1973 Pakistan Baluchi separatists 1974–1977 Malaysia CPM 1974–1975 Uganda Military faction (forces of Charles Arube) 1974 Argentina ERP, Monteneros 1974–1977 Thailand CPT 1974–1982 Bangladesh JSS/SB 1975–1992 Ethiopia ALF 1975–1976 Lebanon LNM, LAA 1975–1976 Morocco POLISARIO 1975–1989 Angola FNLA, UNITA 1975–1995 Indonesia Fretilin 1975–1989 Mauritania POLISARIO 1975–1978 Myanmar SURA, SSRA, TRC, MTA 1976–1988 Indonesia OPM 1976–1978 Chad FAN, FAP, FAT, GUNT 1976–1984 Ethiopia TPLF, EPRP, EDU, EPDM, Military faction (forces of Amsha Desta and Merid Negusie), EPRDF 1976–1991 Sudan Islamic Charter Front 1976 Ethiopia WSLF 1976–1983 Mozambique Renamo 1977–1992 Ethiopia OLF 1977–1978 Ethiopia SALF 1977–1980 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) FLNC 1977–1978 Nicaragua FSLN 1977–1979 Afghanistan PDPA, Jam'iyyat-i Islami-yi Afghanistan, Harakat-i Inqilab-i Islami-yi Afghanistan, Jabha-yi Nijat-i Milli-yi Afghanistan, Mahaz-i Milli-yi Islami-yi Afghanistan, Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan—Khalis faction, Afghanistan, Harakat-i Islami-yi Afghanistan, Hizb-i Wahdat, Military faction (forces of Shahnawaz Tanay), Junbish-i Milli-yi Islami, Taliban, UIFSA, Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan—Hekmatyar faction, Ittihad-i Islami Bara-yi Azadi-yi 1978–2001 Spain E TA 1978–1982 Cambodia KNUFNS, Khmer Rouge, KPNLF, FUNCINPEC 1978–1998 El Salvador ERP, FPL, FMLN 1979–1991 India TNV 1979–1988 Iran MEK 1979–1982 Iran KDPI 1979–1988 Uganda Kikosi Maalum, Fronasa, UNLF, FUNA, UNRF, NRA, UFM, UPDA, HSM, UPA, LRA, Lord's Army 1979–1992 North Yemen National Democratic Front 1979–1982 Iran APCO 1979–1980 Syria Muslim Brotherhood 1979–1982 Saudi Arabia JSM 1979 Ethiopia OLF 1980–1981 Tunisia Résistance Armée Tunisienne 1980 Liberia Military faction (forces of Samuel Doe) 1980 Malaysia CPM 1981 Indonesia OPM 1981 Gambia NRC 1981 South Africa ANC 1981–1983 Ghana Military faction (forces of Jerry John Rawlings) 1981 Somalia SSDF, SNM 1982–1984 Venezuela Bandera Roja 1982 Nicaragua Contras/FDN 1982–1990 India PLA 1982–1988 Kenya Military faction (forces of Hezekiah Ochuka) 1982 Iraq SCIRI 1982–1984 Peru Sendero Luminoso, MRTA 1982–1999 Lebanon LNM, Amal, NUF, Lebanese Forces—Hobeika faction 1982–1986 India Sikh insurgents 1983–1993 Ethiopia SLM 1983 Sudan SPLM/A, NDA, SLM/A, JEM, SLM/A-MM, NRF, SLM/A-Unity 1983–2009* Ghana Military faction (forces of Ekow Dennis and Edward Adjei-Ampofo) 1983 Ethiopia OLF 1983–1985 Cameroon Military faction (forces of Ibrahim Saleh) 1984 Turkey PKK/Kadek/KONGRA-GEL 1984–2009* Sri Lanka (Ceylon) LTTE, TELO, EPRLF 1984–2001 South Africa ANC 1985–1988 Spain E TA 1985–1987 Iran MEK 1986–1988 Chad GUNT, CDR 1986–1987 South Yemen Yemenite Socialist Party—Abdul Fattah Ismail faction 1986 Somalia SNM, SPM, USC, USC/SNA 1986–1996 Togo MTD 1986 Iraq SCIRI 1987 Myanmar KNPP 1987 Suriname SLA 1987 Burkina Faso Popular Front 1987 Ethiopia OLF 1987–1992 Sri Lanka (Ceylon) JVP 1989–1990 Paraguay Military Faction (forces of Andres Rodriguez) 1989 Chad MOSANAT, Revolutionary Forces of 1 April, Islamic Legion, MPS, Military faction (forces of Maldoum Bada Abbas), MDD, CNR, CSNPD, FNT 1989–1994 Lebanon Lebanese Army (Aoun), Lebanese Forces 1989–1990 India ABSU 1989–1990 Haiti Military faction (forces of Himmler Rebu and Guy Francois) 1989 Panama Military faction (forces of Moisés Giroldi) 1989 Papua New Guinea BRA 1989–1990 Comoros Presidential guard 1989 Laos LRM 1989–1990 India Kashmir Insurgents 1989–2009* Romania NSF 1989 Liberia NPFL, INPFL 1989–1990 India PWG, MCC 1990–1994 Iran KDPI 1990 Russia (Soviet Union) APF 1990 Myanmar ABSDF 1990–1992 Myanmar NMSP 1990 India ULFA 1990–1991 Pakistan MQM 1990 Indonesia GAM 1990–1991 Israel Hezbollah 1990–1999 Mali MPA 1990 Trinidad and Tobago Jamaat al-Muslimeen 1990 Senegal MFDC 1990 Russia (Soviet Union) Republic of Armenia 1990–1991 Rwanda FPR 1990–1994 Iran MEK 1991–1993 Spain E TA 1991–1992 Myanmar ARIF, RSO 1991–1992 Iraq SCIRI 1991–1996 Sierra Leone RUF, AFRC, Kamajors, WSB 1991–2000 Angola FLEC-R 1991 Serbia (Yugoslavia) Republic of Slovenia 1991 Turkey Devrimci Sol 1991–1992 Serbia (Yugoslavia) Republic of Croatia, Croatian irregulars 1991 Haiti Military faction (forces of Raol Cedras) 1991 Djibouti FRUD 1991–1994 Burundi Palipehutu 1991–1992 Niger FLAA 1991–1992 Algeria Takfir wa'l Hijra, MIA/FIS/AIS, GIA, AQIM 1991–2009* Georgia National Guard and Mkhedrioni, Zviadists 1991–1993 Azerbaijan Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh 1991–1994 Indonesia Fretilin 1992 India PLA, UNLF 1992–2000 Senegal MFDC 1992–1993 Myanmar KNPP 1992 Papua New Guinea BRA 1992–1996 Venezuela Military faction (forces of Hugo Chávez) 1992 Moldova PMR 1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbian irregulars 1992–1995 Tajikistan UTO 1992–1996 Croatia Serbian Republic of Krajina, Serbian irregulars 1992–1993 Georgia Republic of South Ossetia 1992 India NSCN—IM 1992–1997 Georgia Republic of Abkhazia 1992–1993 India ATTF 1992–1993 Philippines MNLF, ASG, MILF, MNLF-NM, MNLF-HM 1993–2009* India NDFB 1993–2004 Iran KDPI 1993 Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatian irregulars 1993–1994 Egypt Al-Gamaa al-Islamiyya 1993–1998 Myanmar MTA, SSA-S 1993–2002 Azerbaijan Military faction (Forces of Suret Husseinov) 1993 Russia Parliamentary forces 1993 Bosnia and Herzegovina Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia 1993–1995 Congo Ninjas 1993–1994 India ULFA 1994–2009* Mexico EZLN 1994 Ethiopia OLF 1994–1995 Myanmar ABSDF 1994 Myanmar RSO 1994 Angola FLEC-R, FLEC-FAC 1994 Uganda LRA, WNBF, ADF, UNRF II 1994–2009* Ethiopia ONLF 1994 Yemen (Arab Rep. of Yemen) Democratic Republic of Yemen 1994 Niger CRA 1994 Mali FIAA 1994 Burundi CNDD, Frolina, Palipehutu-FNL, CNDD-FDD 1994–2006 Russia Republic of Chechnya (Ichkeria) 1994–1996 Pakistan MQM 1995–1996 Myanmar KNU 1995 Iraq PUK 1995–1996 Azerbaijan OPON forces 1995 Croatia Serbian Republic of Krajina 1995 Senegal MFDC 1995 Ethiopia Al-Itahad al-Islami 1995–1996 Niger FDR 1995 India NLFT 1995 Ethiopia ONLF 1996 India PWG, MCC, CPI-M 1996–2009* Myanmar KNPP 1996 Angola FLEC-FAC, FLEC-R 1996–1998 Ethiopia ARDUF 1996 Nepal CPN-M 1996–2006 Iran KDPI 1996 Mexico EPR 1996 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) AFDL, RCD, RCD-ML, MLC 1996–2001 Myanmar BMA 1996 Indonesia Fretilin 1997–1998 India NLFT, ATTF 1997–2004 Iran MEK 1997 Senegal MFDC 1997–1998 Myanmar KNU 1997–1998 Myanmar UWSA 1997 Eritrea EIJM—AS 1997 Rwanda FDLR 1997–2002 Rwanda FDLR 2009* Congo Cobras, Cocoyes, Ninjas, Ntsiloulous 1997–1999 India KNF 1997 Comoros MPA/Republic of Anjouan 1997 Niger FARS 1997 Niger UFRA 1997 Chad FARF, MDD, MDJT 1997–2002 Philippines CPP 1997 Ethiopia OLF 1998–2009* Serbia (Yugoslavia) UCK 1998–1999 Angola UNITA 1998–2002 Tajikistan UTO, Movement for Peace in Tajikistan 1998 Guinea-Bissau Military Junta for the Consolidation of Democracy, Peace and Justice 1998–1999 United Kingdom RIRA 1998 Lesotho Military faction 1998 Eritrea EIJM—AS 1999 Ethiopia ONLF 1999–2002 Iran MEK 1999–2001 Ethiopia Al-Itahad al-Islami 1999 Indonesia GAM 1999–2005 Uzbekistan IMU 1999–2000 Russia Republic of Chechnya (Ichkeria) 1999–2007 Djibouti FRUD—AD 1999 Russia Wahhabi movement of the Buinaksk district 1999 Philippines CPP 1999–2009* Israel PNA, Fatah, Hamas, PFLP, AMB, PIJ, PRC 2000–2009* India NSCN—IM 2000 Myanmar God's Army, KNU 2000–2003 Senegal MFDC 2000–2001 Liberia LURD, MODEL 2000–2003 Guinea RFDG 2000–2001 Macedonia UCK 2001 Somalia SRRC 2001–2002 Central African Republic Military faction (forces of André Kolingba), Forces of Francois Bozize 2001–2002 United States of America Al-Qaeda (The Base) 2001–2002 Angola FLEC-R, FLEC-FAC 2002 Congo Ntsiloulous 2002 Cote D'Ivoire MPCI, MPIGO, MJP, FN 2002–2004 Eritrea EIJM—AS 2003 India UNLF, PLA, PREPAK, KCP 2003–2009* Senegal MFDC 2003 Afghanistan Taleban, Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan—Hekmatyar faction 2003–2009* Sri Lanka (Ceylon) LTTE 2003 Thailand Patani insurgents 2003–2009* Ethiopia ONLF 2004–2009* Haiti FLRN, OP Lavalas (Chimères) 2004 Angola FLEC-FAC 2004 United States of America Al-Qaida (The Base) 2004–2009* Uzbekistan JIG 2004 Iraq Al Mahdi Army, ISI, Ansar al-Islam, RJF 2004–2009* Nigeria NDPVF 2004 Pakistan BLA, Baluch Ittehad, BRA 2004–2009* Georgia Republic of South Ossetia 2004 Nigeria Ahlul Sunnah Jamaa 2004 Myanmar KNPP 2005 India NSCN—K 2005–2007 Myanmar KNU 2005–2009* Turkey MKP 2005 Iran PJAK, Jondullah 2005–2009* Azerbaijan Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh 2005 Sri Lanka (Ceylon) LTTE 2005–2009* Chad FUCD, UFDD, RAFD, AN, UFR 2005–2009* Myanmar SSA-S 2005–2009* Israel Hezbollah 2006 Somalia ARS/UIC, Harakat Ras Kamboni, al-Shabaab, Hizbul-Islam 2006–2009* India NLFT 2006 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) CNDP 2006–2008 Central African Republic UFDR 2006 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) BDK 2007–2008 Angola FLEC-FAC 2007 Niger MNJ 2007–2008 Pakistan TNSM, TTP 2007–2009* Mali ATNMC 2007–2009* Peru Sendero Luminoso 2007–2009* Russia Forces of the Caucasus Emirate 2007–2009* Burundi Palipehutu—FNL 2008 Georgia Republic of South Ossetia 2008 India NDFB—RD 2009—* Angola FLEC–FAC 2009—* Nigeria Boko Haram 2009—* Myanmar MNDAA 2009—* Central African Republic CPJP 2009—* Yemen AQAP 2009—*
Note: These data are from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program's Conflict Termination Dataset (see Kreutz 2010; UCDP 2012). Years Active represents years of at least 25 battle-related deaths. Many of the episodes are recurrences of previous warring dyads. The Conflict Termination Dataset codebook is available at http://www.pcr.uu.se/digitalAssets/55/55056_UCDP_Conflict_Termination_Dataset_v_2010–1.pdf. The reader is urged to refer to the main UCDP data website at http://www.pcr.uu.se/research/ucdp/datasets/ for more information on civil wars, such as more precise start and end dates, type of termination, and type of war. This list does not include wars between colonial powers and insurgent groups.
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