An Introduction to Civil Wars

Books

Karl DeRouen

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    To my grandfather Fernand Joseph DeRouen Sr. (1898–1981) and my son Fernand Jacques DeRouen

    List of Features

    Boxes

    Figures

    Maps

    Tables

    Preface

    Civil war is the most prevalent form of organized armed violence, affecting millions of people worldwide every year. According to the Uppsala University's Uppsala Conflict Data Program, as of 2012 there were 31 active civil or internationalized civil wars—and one active interstate war (see http://www.pcr.uu.se/research/ucdp/). Scholars are well aware of the vast body of literature on the topic as well. It is therefore surprising that there are few books on civil war that are appropriate for student readers who are approaching it for the first time. This volume provides students with a systematic, comprehensive overview of the topic by covering civil war patterns, types, causes, costs (human and economic), outcomes, peace agreements, and duration; terrorism and intervention in the context of civil war; conflict management; and post-conflict issues, such as peacebuilding.

    This book is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate course adoption, researchers, and the policy-making community. The book will find its greatest use in courses on civil war, conflict management, international security and conflict, and international relations. Because of its broad coverage of the literature, it will be of special utility for classes requiring research and writing assignments. There, students can make use of the book's Appendix materials (the UCDP's list of civil wars) and the comprehensive bibliography as well. Especially useful for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses on civil wars, conflict management, and international conflict, I also include a list of suggested readings for each chapter.

    A special feature of the book is its focus on conflict management. Each chapter has a section that links conflict management (which encompasses activities like negotiation, mediation, conflict prevention, peace agreements, peacebuilding, and peacekeeping operations that are designed to ameliorate, resolve, and even prevent future conflict) to the main subject of the chapter. For example, I discuss how war termination type has implications for the duration of the peace. War type (war over control of government and territorial wars) is also expected to impact war duration and intractability. This theme helps tie the book together and puts the scholarly literature directly into conversation with the practitioner and policy-making community. The book has an empirical orientation, so readers will be able to compare features of civil war and understand trends. To this end, relevant data are presented graphically and in tables throughout the text and important datasets are identified. The Appendix also includes a list of civil wars since World War II and the names of the rebel groups fighting in each one.

    The book is organized so that, after a brief introduction that provides an overview of the subject, readers are first presented with what scholars think is the most urgent issue: the costs of civil war. To establish the importance of studying civil war, that chapter (Chapter 2) covers costs, such as casualties, economic problems, human displacement, lost educational opportunities, crime, and environmental degradation. Chapter 3 considers the dynamics of civil war including types (wars over government, such as coups and revolutions and wars over territory), trends, tactics, and counterinsurgency strategies.

    Chapter 4 covers the causes of civil war. Topics include the greed versus grievance debate, democracy, globalization, environmental causes, ethno-religious factors, and rebel opportunity. Chapter 5 focuses on natural resources and civil war. The relevant sections in this chapter are the resource curse, the role of resources such as oil, timber, and gems in war onset. Civil war termination and post-conflict issues are covered in Chapter 6. Specific topics include outcome trends, peace agreements, international intervention involving mediation and peace agreement assistance, peacebuilding, humanitarian law, and statebuilding. International intervention is the subject of Chapter 7. Here, I further discuss the role of third-party mediation, the United Nations, and peace agreements. Chapter 8 covers terrorism in civil wars. The chapter begins with the incidence of terrorism and civil war terrorism; the targets, tactics, and means of terrorists; violence against civilians; spoilers of peace processes; the role of Islam; and case studies on Iraq and Afghanistan where terrorism in the civil war context has been rampant. The final chapter is the Conclusion in which the book is summarized in the context of the conflict management theme.

    Feature boxes are incorporated throughout the text to explore certain topics like critical data resources and watershed events in further detail. For instance, in Chapter 4, we look at the Minorities at Risk Data Project, and in Chapter 3, we discuss the Arab Spring uprising in the context of failing regimes. Because the book is empirically focused, I naturally included many maps, tables, and figures to help illustrate critical trends in civil wars, and I have also included a handful of photos to help make the subject matter more immediate to readers.

    Acknowledgments

    Iowe great debts of gratitude to Paul Bellamy and Sugu Narayanan. Both played major roles in the writing of the first draft, and Paul was instrumental in helping me to revise that draft. Charisse Kiino of SAGE was a great supporter of the project and offered valuable comments and support throughout. Elise Frasier was instrumental in editing the first draft, Patrice Sutton did a great job copyediting, and the final product is much better for their efforts. I would also like to thank the reviewers of the manuscript proposal for their insights and suggestions: Roy Licklider, Rutgers University; Caroline Hartzell, Gettysburg College; Bethany Lacina, University of Rochester; Doug Lemke, Pennsylvania State University; Artyom Tonoyan, Baylor University; and Shadrack W. Nasong'o, Rhodes College.

    Many of the insights and ideas contained herein are drawn from research funded by the Folke Bernadotte Academy of Sweden, the Marsden Fund of the Royal Society of New Zealand, and the British Academy.

    Map 1.1 Civil Wars Worldwide, 1946–2011

    Sources: Gleditsch et al. (2002); Themnér and Wallensteen (2012).

  • Appendix 1

    Ucdp Civil Wars Involving at Least 25 Battle-Related Deaths per Year, 1946–2009
    GovernmentRebelsYears Active
    USSRForest Brothers1946–1948
    USSRLTS(p)A, LNPA1946
    USSRU PA1946–1950
    ChinaPLA1946–1949
    IranRepublic of Azerbaijan1946
    GreeceDSE1946–1949
    IranKDPI1946
    BoliviaPopular Revolutionary Movement1946
    USSRBDPS1946–1948
    PhilippinesHUK1946–1954
    ChinaTaiwanese insurgents1947
    ParaguayOpposition coalition (Febreristas, Liberals, and Communists)1947
    HyderabadCPI1947–1948
    MyanmarAPLP, Mujahid Party1948–1961
    MyanmarCPB-RF, CPB, PVO—“White Band” faction1948–1988
    North YemenOpposition coalition1948
    Costa RicaNational Liberation Army1948
    IndiaCPI1948–1951
    MyanmarPNDF1949–1950
    IsraelPalestinian insurgents, PLO groups, Non-PLO groups, Rejectionist Front, PFLP, PFLP-GC, Fatah, Hamas, PIJ, PNA1949–1996
    MyanmarKNUP, KNU1949–1992
    MyanmarMFL-MUF, MPSG/MPF, NMSP1949–1963
    GuatemalaMilitary faction1949
    IndonesiaRepublic of South Moluccas1950
    ChinaTibet1950
    ThailandMilitary faction (navy)1951
    BoliviaMNR1952
    IndonesiaDarul Islam1953
    CubaM-26–71953
    ParaguayMilitary faction (forces of Alfredo Stroessner)1954
    GuatemalaForces of Carlos Castillo Armas1954
    South VietnamFNL1955–1964
    ArgentinaMilitary faction (forces of Eduardo A. Lonardi Doucet)1955
    IndiaNNC1956–1959
    ChinaTibet1956
    CubaM-26–71956–1958
    MyanmarKNPP1957
    OmanState of Oman/Free Oman1957
    IndonesiaDarul Islam, PRRI, Permesta1958–1961
    MalaysiaCPM1958–1960
    LebanonIndependent Nasserite Movement/Mourabitoun militia1958
    IraqMilitary faction (Free Officers Movement), Military faction (forces of Colonel Abdul Wahab al-Shawaf)1958–1959
    ChinaTibet1959
    LaosPathet Lao, Neutralists1959–1961
    MyanmarNSH, SSIA, SNUF, SSA, SURA, SSNLO1959–1970
    CameroonUPC1960–1961
    NepalNepali Congress1960–1962
    Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire)Katanga1960–1962
    Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire)Independent Mining State of South Kasai1960–1962
    EthiopiaMilitary faction (forces of Mengistu Neway)1960
    IndiaNNC1961–1968
    MyanmarKIO1961–1992
    CubaCuban Revolutionary Council1961
    FranceOAS1961–1962
    IraqKDP1961–1970
    VenezuelaMilitary faction (navy)1962
    North YemenRoyalists1962–1970
    LaosPathet Lao1963–1973
    MalaysiaCCO1963–1966
    SudanAnya Nya/SSLM1963–1972
    IraqNCRC, Military faction (forces of Brigadier Arif)1963
    ArgentinaMilitary faction (Colorados)1963
    GuatemalaFAR I1963
    MyanmarANLP, CPA, RPF, ALP1964–1978
    ColombiaFARC, ELN, M-19, EPL1964–2009*
    EthiopiaOgaden Liberation Front1964
    Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire)CNL1964–1965
    GabonMilitary faction (forces loyal to Léon M'Ba)1964
    EthiopiaELF, EPLF, ELF-PLF1964–1991
    GuatemalaFAR I, FAR II, EGP, ORPA, URNG1965–1995
    Dominican RepublicMilitary faction (Constitutionalists)1965
    IndonesiaOPM1965
    PeruMIR, ELN1965
    BurundiMilitary faction (forces loyal to Gervais Nyangoma)1965
    IranKDPI1966–1968
    NigeriaMilitary faction (forces of Patrick Nzeogwu)1966
    SyriaMilitary faction (forces loyal to Nureddin Atassi and Youssef Zeayen)1966
    GhanaNLC1966
    ChadFrolinat, First Liberation Army, Second Liberation Army1966–1972
    IndiaMNF1966–1968
    South AfricaSWAPO1966–1988
    IndonesiaOPM1967–1969
    BoliviaELN1967
    CambodiaKhmer Rouge/FUNK1967–1975
    Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire)Opposition militias1967
    NigeriaRepublic of Biafra1967–1970
    Zimbabwe (Rhodesia)ZAPU1967–1968
    OmanPFLO1969–1975
    IndiaCPI—ML1969–1971
    PhilippinesCPP, Military Faction (forces of Honasan, Abenina, and Zumel)1969–1995
    PhilippinesMIM, MNLF, MILF1970–1990
    MadagascarMonima1971
    UgandaMilitary faction (forces of Idi Amin), Kikosi Maalum1971–1972
    PakistanMukti Bahini1971
    Sri Lanka (Ceylon)JVP1971
    MoroccoMilitary faction (forces of Mohamed Madbouh)1971
    SudanSudanese Communist Party1971
    United KingdomPIRA1971–1991
    MyanmarSSA1972–1973
    UruguayMLN/Tupamaros1972
    Zimbabwe (Rhodesia)ZANU, ZAPU, PF1973–1979
    MyanmarLNUP1973–1981
    IraqKDP, PUK, KDP-QM1973–1992
    ChileMilitary faction (forces of Augusto Pinochet, Toribio Merino, and Leigh Guzman)1973
    PakistanBaluchi separatists1974–1977
    MalaysiaCPM1974–1975
    UgandaMilitary faction (forces of Charles Arube)1974
    ArgentinaERP, Monteneros1974–1977
    ThailandCPT1974–1982
    BangladeshJSS/SB1975–1992
    EthiopiaALF1975–1976
    LebanonLNM, LAA1975–1976
    MoroccoPOLISARIO1975–1989
    AngolaFNLA, UNITA1975–1995
    IndonesiaFretilin1975–1989
    MauritaniaPOLISARIO1975–1978
    MyanmarSURA, SSRA, TRC, MTA1976–1988
    IndonesiaOPM1976–1978
    ChadFAN, FAP, FAT, GUNT1976–1984
    EthiopiaTPLF, EPRP, EDU, EPDM, Military faction (forces of Amsha Desta and Merid Negusie), EPRDF1976–1991
    SudanIslamic Charter Front1976
    EthiopiaWSLF1976–1983
    MozambiqueRenamo1977–1992
    EthiopiaOLF1977–1978
    EthiopiaSALF1977–1980
    Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire)FLNC1977–1978
    NicaraguaFSLN1977–1979
    AfghanistanPDPA, Jam'iyyat-i Islami-yi Afghanistan, Harakat-i Inqilab-i Islami-yi Afghanistan, Jabha-yi Nijat-i Milli-yi Afghanistan, Mahaz-i Milli-yi Islami-yi Afghanistan, Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan—Khalis faction, Afghanistan, Harakat-i Islami-yi Afghanistan, Hizb-i Wahdat, Military faction (forces of Shahnawaz Tanay), Junbish-i Milli-yi Islami, Taliban, UIFSA, Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan—Hekmatyar faction, Ittihad-i Islami Bara-yi Azadi-yi1978–2001
    SpainE TA1978–1982
    CambodiaKNUFNS, Khmer Rouge, KPNLF, FUNCINPEC1978–1998
    El SalvadorERP, FPL, FMLN1979–1991
    IndiaTNV1979–1988
    IranMEK1979–1982
    IranKDPI1979–1988
    UgandaKikosi Maalum, Fronasa, UNLF, FUNA, UNRF, NRA, UFM, UPDA, HSM, UPA, LRA, Lord's Army1979–1992
    North YemenNational Democratic Front1979–1982
    IranAPCO1979–1980
    SyriaMuslim Brotherhood1979–1982
    Saudi ArabiaJSM1979
    EthiopiaOLF1980–1981
    TunisiaRésistance Armée Tunisienne1980
    LiberiaMilitary faction (forces of Samuel Doe)1980
    MalaysiaCPM1981
    IndonesiaOPM1981
    GambiaNRC1981
    South AfricaANC1981–1983
    GhanaMilitary faction (forces of Jerry John Rawlings)1981
    SomaliaSSDF, SNM1982–1984
    VenezuelaBandera Roja1982
    NicaraguaContras/FDN1982–1990
    IndiaPLA1982–1988
    KenyaMilitary faction (forces of Hezekiah Ochuka)1982
    IraqSCIRI1982–1984
    PeruSendero Luminoso, MRTA1982–1999
    LebanonLNM, Amal, NUF, Lebanese Forces—Hobeika faction1982–1986
    IndiaSikh insurgents1983–1993
    EthiopiaSLM1983
    SudanSPLM/A, NDA, SLM/A, JEM, SLM/A-MM, NRF, SLM/A-Unity1983–2009*
    GhanaMilitary faction (forces of Ekow Dennis and Edward Adjei-Ampofo)1983
    EthiopiaOLF1983–1985
    CameroonMilitary faction (forces of Ibrahim Saleh)1984
    TurkeyPKK/Kadek/KONGRA-GEL1984–2009*
    Sri Lanka (Ceylon)LTTE, TELO, EPRLF1984–2001
    South AfricaANC1985–1988
    SpainE TA1985–1987
    IranMEK1986–1988
    ChadGUNT, CDR1986–1987
    South YemenYemenite Socialist Party—Abdul Fattah Ismail faction1986
    SomaliaSNM, SPM, USC, USC/SNA1986–1996
    TogoMTD1986
    IraqSCIRI1987
    MyanmarKNPP1987
    SurinameSLA1987
    Burkina FasoPopular Front1987
    EthiopiaOLF1987–1992
    Sri Lanka (Ceylon)JVP1989–1990
    ParaguayMilitary Faction (forces of Andres Rodriguez)1989
    ChadMOSANAT, Revolutionary Forces of 1 April, Islamic Legion, MPS, Military faction (forces of Maldoum Bada Abbas), MDD, CNR, CSNPD, FNT1989–1994
    LebanonLebanese Army (Aoun), Lebanese Forces1989–1990
    IndiaABSU1989–1990
    HaitiMilitary faction (forces of Himmler Rebu and Guy Francois)1989
    PanamaMilitary faction (forces of Moisés Giroldi)1989
    Papua New GuineaBRA1989–1990
    ComorosPresidential guard1989
    LaosLRM1989–1990
    IndiaKashmir Insurgents1989–2009*
    RomaniaNSF1989
    LiberiaNPFL, INPFL1989–1990
    IndiaPWG, MCC1990–1994
    IranKDPI1990
    Russia (Soviet Union)APF1990
    MyanmarABSDF1990–1992
    MyanmarNMSP1990
    IndiaULFA1990–1991
    PakistanMQM1990
    IndonesiaGAM1990–1991
    IsraelHezbollah1990–1999
    MaliMPA1990
    Trinidad and TobagoJamaat al-Muslimeen1990
    SenegalMFDC1990
    Russia (Soviet Union)Republic of Armenia1990–1991
    RwandaFPR1990–1994
    IranMEK1991–1993
    SpainE TA1991–1992
    MyanmarARIF, RSO1991–1992
    IraqSCIRI1991–1996
    Sierra LeoneRUF, AFRC, Kamajors, WSB1991–2000
    AngolaFLEC-R1991
    Serbia (Yugoslavia)Republic of Slovenia1991
    TurkeyDevrimci Sol1991–1992
    Serbia (Yugoslavia)Republic of Croatia, Croatian irregulars1991
    HaitiMilitary faction (forces of Raol Cedras)1991
    DjiboutiFRUD1991–1994
    BurundiPalipehutu1991–1992
    NigerFLAA1991–1992
    AlgeriaTakfir wa'l Hijra, MIA/FIS/AIS, GIA, AQIM1991–2009*
    GeorgiaNational Guard and Mkhedrioni, Zviadists1991–1993
    AzerbaijanRepublic of Nagorno-Karabakh1991–1994
    IndonesiaFretilin1992
    IndiaPLA, UNLF1992–2000
    SenegalMFDC1992–1993
    MyanmarKNPP1992
    Papua New GuineaBRA1992–1996
    VenezuelaMilitary faction (forces of Hugo Chávez)1992
    MoldovaPMR1992
    Bosnia and HerzegovinaSerbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbian irregulars1992–1995
    TajikistanUTO1992–1996
    CroatiaSerbian Republic of Krajina, Serbian irregulars1992–1993
    GeorgiaRepublic of South Ossetia1992
    IndiaNSCN—IM1992–1997
    GeorgiaRepublic of Abkhazia1992–1993
    IndiaATTF1992–1993
    PhilippinesMNLF, ASG, MILF, MNLF-NM, MNLF-HM1993–2009*
    IndiaNDFB1993–2004
    IranKDPI1993
    Bosnia and HerzegovinaCroatian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatian irregulars1993–1994
    EgyptAl-Gamaa al-Islamiyya1993–1998
    MyanmarMTA, SSA-S1993–2002
    AzerbaijanMilitary faction (Forces of Suret Husseinov)1993
    RussiaParliamentary forces1993
    Bosnia and HerzegovinaAutonomous Province of Western Bosnia1993–1995
    CongoNinjas1993–1994
    IndiaULFA1994–2009*
    MexicoEZLN1994
    EthiopiaOLF1994–1995
    MyanmarABSDF1994
    MyanmarRSO1994
    AngolaFLEC-R, FLEC-FAC1994
    UgandaLRA, WNBF, ADF, UNRF II1994–2009*
    EthiopiaONLF1994
    Yemen (Arab Rep. of Yemen)Democratic Republic of Yemen1994
    NigerCRA1994
    MaliFIAA1994
    BurundiCNDD, Frolina, Palipehutu-FNL, CNDD-FDD1994–2006
    RussiaRepublic of Chechnya (Ichkeria)1994–1996
    PakistanMQM1995–1996
    MyanmarKNU1995
    IraqPUK1995–1996
    AzerbaijanOPON forces1995
    CroatiaSerbian Republic of Krajina1995
    SenegalMFDC1995
    EthiopiaAl-Itahad al-Islami1995–1996
    NigerFDR1995
    IndiaNLFT1995
    EthiopiaONLF1996
    IndiaPWG, MCC, CPI-M1996–2009*
    MyanmarKNPP1996
    AngolaFLEC-FAC, FLEC-R1996–1998
    EthiopiaARDUF1996
    NepalCPN-M1996–2006
    IranKDPI1996
    MexicoEPR1996
    Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire)AFDL, RCD, RCD-ML, MLC1996–2001
    MyanmarBMA1996
    IndonesiaFretilin1997–1998
    IndiaNLFT, ATTF1997–2004
    IranMEK1997
    SenegalMFDC1997–1998
    MyanmarKNU1997–1998
    MyanmarUWSA1997
    EritreaEIJM—AS1997
    RwandaFDLR1997–2002
    RwandaFDLR2009*
    CongoCobras, Cocoyes, Ninjas, Ntsiloulous1997–1999
    IndiaKNF1997
    ComorosMPA/Republic of Anjouan1997
    NigerFARS1997
    NigerUFRA1997
    ChadFARF, MDD, MDJT1997–2002
    PhilippinesCPP1997
    EthiopiaOLF1998–2009*
    Serbia (Yugoslavia)UCK1998–1999
    AngolaUNITA1998–2002
    TajikistanUTO, Movement for Peace in Tajikistan1998
    Guinea-BissauMilitary Junta for the Consolidation of Democracy, Peace and Justice1998–1999
    United KingdomRIRA1998
    LesothoMilitary faction1998
    EritreaEIJM—AS1999
    EthiopiaONLF1999–2002
    IranMEK1999–2001
    EthiopiaAl-Itahad al-Islami1999
    IndonesiaGAM1999–2005
    UzbekistanIMU1999–2000
    RussiaRepublic of Chechnya (Ichkeria)1999–2007
    DjiboutiFRUD—AD1999
    RussiaWahhabi movement of the Buinaksk district1999
    PhilippinesCPP1999–2009*
    IsraelPNA, Fatah, Hamas, PFLP, AMB, PIJ, PRC2000–2009*
    IndiaNSCN—IM2000
    MyanmarGod's Army, KNU2000–2003
    SenegalMFDC2000–2001
    LiberiaLURD, MODEL2000–2003
    GuineaRFDG2000–2001
    MacedoniaUCK2001
    SomaliaSRRC2001–2002
    Central African RepublicMilitary faction (forces of André Kolingba), Forces of Francois Bozize2001–2002
    United States of AmericaAl-Qaeda (The Base)2001–2002
    AngolaFLEC-R, FLEC-FAC2002
    CongoNtsiloulous2002
    Cote D'IvoireMPCI, MPIGO, MJP, FN2002–2004
    EritreaEIJM—AS2003
    IndiaUNLF, PLA, PREPAK, KCP2003–2009*
    SenegalMFDC2003
    AfghanistanTaleban, Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan—Hekmatyar faction2003–2009*
    Sri Lanka (Ceylon)LTTE2003
    ThailandPatani insurgents2003–2009*
    EthiopiaONLF2004–2009*
    HaitiFLRN, OP Lavalas (Chimères)2004
    AngolaFLEC-FAC2004
    United States of AmericaAl-Qaida (The Base)2004–2009*
    UzbekistanJIG2004
    IraqAl Mahdi Army, ISI, Ansar al-Islam, RJF2004–2009*
    NigeriaNDPVF2004
    PakistanBLA, Baluch Ittehad, BRA2004–2009*
    GeorgiaRepublic of South Ossetia2004
    NigeriaAhlul Sunnah Jamaa2004
    MyanmarKNPP2005
    IndiaNSCN—K2005–2007
    MyanmarKNU2005–2009*
    TurkeyMKP2005
    IranPJAK, Jondullah2005–2009*
    AzerbaijanRepublic of Nagorno-Karabakh2005
    Sri Lanka (Ceylon)LTTE2005–2009*
    ChadFUCD, UFDD, RAFD, AN, UFR2005–2009*
    MyanmarSSA-S2005–2009*
    IsraelHezbollah2006
    SomaliaARS/UIC, Harakat Ras Kamboni, al-Shabaab, Hizbul-Islam2006–2009*
    IndiaNLFT2006
    Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire)CNDP2006–2008
    Central African RepublicUFDR2006
    Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire)BDK2007–2008
    AngolaFLEC-FAC2007
    NigerMNJ2007–2008
    PakistanTNSM, TTP2007–2009*
    MaliATNMC2007–2009*
    PeruSendero Luminoso2007–2009*
    RussiaForces of the Caucasus Emirate2007–2009*
    BurundiPalipehutu—FNL2008
    GeorgiaRepublic of South Ossetia2008
    IndiaNDFB—RD2009—*
    AngolaFLEC–FAC2009—*
    NigeriaBoko Haram2009—*
    MyanmarMNDAA2009—*
    Central African RepublicCPJP2009—*
    YemenAQAP2009—*

    Note: These data are from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program's Conflict Termination Dataset (see Kreutz 2010; UCDP 2012). Years Active represents years of at least 25 battle-related deaths. Many of the episodes are recurrences of previous warring dyads. The Conflict Termination Dataset codebook is available at http://www.pcr.uu.se/digitalAssets/55/55056_UCDP_Conflict_Termination_Dataset_v_2010–1.pdf. The reader is urged to refer to the main UCDP data website at http://www.pcr.uu.se/research/ucdp/datasets/ for more information on civil wars, such as more precise start and end dates, type of termination, and type of war. This list does not include wars between colonial powers and insurgent groups.

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    About the Author

    Karl DeRouen, Jr. is Professor of Political Science and Director of the International Studies B.A. Program at the University of Alabama. He has authored or co-authored numerous articles and chapters on civil war, mediation, diversionary use of force, defense economics, and international political economy. His most recent books are Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars (2014, Routledge Press, co-edited with Edward Newman) and Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making (2010, Cambridge University Press, with Alex Mintz).


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