Yes, You Can!: Advice for Teachers Who Want a Great Start and a Great Finish With Their Students of Color

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Gail L. Thompson & Rufus Thompson

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    Acknowledgements

    This book is dedicated to our children, Dr. Nafissa Thompson Spires, NaChe’ Thompson, and Stephen Thompson, and our grandsons, Iveren and Isaiah.

    About the Authors

    The authors of Yes, You Can! have nearly 60 years of combined teaching experience and are the parents of three adult children, including two educators.

    Dr. Gail L. Thompson, the Wells Fargo Endowed Professor of Education at Fayetteville State University in North Carolina and the recipient of Claremont Graduate University’s Distinguished Alumna Award, has written numerous books, including the critically acclaimed Through Ebony Eyes: What Teachers Need to Know but Are Afraid to Ask About African American Students and The Power of One: How You Can Help or Harm African American Students, which was nominated for the National Staff Development Council’s Book of the Year award. Dr. Thompson, who taught junior high and high school for 14 years, has given keynote addresses and conducted professional development workshops for educators and K–12 students at conferences and schools and has conducted parent empowerment workshops at churches and schools throughout the United States. She has also appeared on numerous radio and television programs, and her essays and articles have been published in newspapers and academic journals.

    Rufus Thompson Dr. Thompson’s coauthor and husband, Rufus Thompson, wrote part of the Heath (now Houghton Mifflin) Middle Level Literature series and High School Anthology. Starting in 1988, he trained teachers throughout California on how to implement technology into the curriculum using best practices and sound classroom principles and taught middle school for 17 years before becoming the technology coordinator of the Mountain View School District in Ontario, California. He also served as a representative on the San Bernardino County BestNet Advisory Board to Superintendents, and his Middle School Journalism program was recognized by the National Middle School Association as one of 80 innovative programs in the United States. Mr. Thompson, who has a master’s degree, has taught courses at the University of Redlands, Chapman University (under contract with Webmedia Solutions), Claremont Graduate University, and California Polytechnic University, Pomona as an adjunct. He has also provided extensive professional development workshops for teachers and school administrators, organized conferences, and given presentations at several conferences, including the National School Board Association, the National Middle School Association, Computer Using Education (CUE), and California Educational Technology Professional Association (CETPA). Mr. Thompson recently retired and is the owner of Tech Guy in a Box, a technology and best-practices consulting company.

    Acknowledgments

    From Gail: I thank God for giving me the idea, motivation, and strength to cocreate this book project. I am grateful to my husband, Rufus, for his hard work and contributions; to my children, Dr. Nafissa Thompson Spires, NaChe’ Thompson, and Stephen Thompson for their ongoing encouragement; and to my grandsons, Iveren and Isaiah, for bringing so much joy and laughter into my life. My assistant, Ms. Angela Davis, proofread the first three chapters and provided positive feedback. I also want to thank all of the individuals who encouraged Rufus and me to complete this project, and I am extremely grateful to the educators who completed the Teacher Confidence (TC) Study questionnaire. Dan Alpert is a wonderful editor and is delightful to work with. Thank you, Dan, for believing in this project and for your ongoing support. Along with Rufus, I also want to thank Dr. Randall Lindsey, Dr. Angela Louque, and Lane Rankin, the founder and CEO of Illuminate Education, for their wonderful endorsements for this book, and Dr. Jenny Rankin for her enthusiasm and words of encouragement about this book.

    From Rufus: I thank God for my wife, Gail, and our children and for the opportunity to collaborate on this book. I would also like to thank my colleagues and friends who, throughout the years, have provided support for my ideas, goals, and policies that made educating students easy and exciting. I am extremely grateful to Yvette Coria, my former assistant, for giving me permission to use the parent scripts that she created.

    Publisher’s Acknowledgments: Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:

    Lori Helman
    Fernando NunezPhoenix, AZ
    Joy PearsonClark County School DistrictLas Vegas, NV
    Josán PeralesTeacher Vista Grande High SchoolTaos, NM
    Peggy Deal RedmanLa Fetra Family Endowed Chair for Excellence in Teaching and ServiceUniversity of La Verne
    A. RogersTucson, AZ

    Introduction

    At some point in their career, many teachers—especially beginning teachers—have either said “I quit!” or wished that they could quit teaching and do something else. Most began teaching with high hopes of helping children and having a rewarding career, but soon they became disappointed. In fact, according to a recently published national study, teacher morale is currently at a 20-year all-time low.1 Decreases in education funding, massive teacher layoffs, pressures to improve standardized test scores, and the disconnect from parents and even from students that many teachers feel have increased the challenges that teachers face. Consequently, being a teacher is tougher than ever—especially in urban and low-income schools—and these circumstances drive many teachers to consider quitting or to actually quit.

    Obviously, if you are a teacher who is feeling disappointed, disillusioned, or who has thought about quitting, what you need is a way to stay motivated, encouraged, and to persist, even when circumstances look bleak. Yes, You Can! Advice for Teachers Who Want a Great Start and a Great Finish With Their Students of Color will help you do this and will also help you excel at teaching. Although our main goal is to empower beginning teachers, all teachers can benefit from the wealth of information in Yes, You Can!

    This reader-friendly book contains original research based on the Teacher Confidence (TC) Study, which I (Dr. Gail L. Thompson) conducted as well as practical strategies and advice, true stories, professional development exercises, and recommended readings that will empower you. The TC Study will provide you with important feedback from 293 teacher interns, beginning teachers, and veteran teachers regarding a variety of topics, including classroom management; working with students from socioeconomically, racially, and ethnically diverse backgrounds; working with parents; working with struggling students; working with high achievers; and handling racial and ethnic conflicts.

    About the Book’s Organization

    Each chapter begins with one or more true stories and related exercises for you to complete, followed by chapter highlights, results from the TC Study, additional exercises, practical advice and strategies, and a final professional growth activity. Part I, Do YouReally LoveAll of Them? Assessing Your Teaching Self-Confidence About Working With Various Types of Students, is designed to help you better understand your beliefs about fairness, income, and gender and how these beliefs pertain to effective teaching. In the three chapters in this section, you will learn why self-confidence plays a crucial role in your teaching efficacy, discover the connection between fear and self-confidence, examine what the TC Study participants said about their teaching self-confidence, compare and contrast your beliefs and teaching self-confidence with the study participants’ comments and self-ratings, and learn practical strategies to increase your teaching self-confidence.

    The three chapters in Part II, Student Empowerment–Teacher Empowerment: Increasing Your Teaching Self-Confidence and Your Teaching Efficacy, contain research-based practical instructional strategies that will help you increase your effectiveness with all students but particularly with students of color and struggling students. This section will also help you improve your relations with students of color, strengthen your classroom management skills, and design culturally relevant standards-based lesson plans.

    In the three chapters in Part III, Getting Help From the “Village”: How to Maximize Your Relations With Parents, Colleagues, and School Leaders, you will learn how to work more effectively with parents (especially parents of color) and non-English-speaking parents. In addition to learning about the benefits of improving your relations with parents, you will learn actual scripts that you can use when you meet with parents. This section will also help you strengthen your relations with your colleagues (especially with colleagues of color) and help you get what you need from school leaders.

    The conclusion contains a final story about a beginning teacher and a list of Confidence Boosters.

    About the Book’s Title

    During his first campaign for president, Barack Obama often told the American public, “Yes, we can! Yes, we can!” On the night that he won the election, he began to chant, “Yes, we can! Yes, we can!” and audience members began to repeat this slogan. That night was momentous, for it marked the first time in U.S. history that a Black person had won the nation’s highest office. It made a country that had a strong racist history look better. It made countless Americans, especially African Americans, feel better. It was a night of hope.

    Regardless of how you feel about politics and regardless of your political affiliation, our goal in using Yes, You Can! as the title of this book is to provide you with practical strategies, advice, and hope—mainly hope about your ability to become a great educator of all students, especially students who have historically been underserved by the U.S. public school system such as African Americans, Latinos, and low-income students. As authors who have a nearly 60-year combined history as K–12 and university educators, we want to inspire you to keep teaching, even when the going gets tough. In addition to helping you to become more confident and persistent, we believe that this book will help the nation’s youth by increasing their chances of having a confident, effective, and well-qualified teacher: you.

    Notes About This Book
    • In the remainder of this book, we use the term African American to refer to all individuals who can be categorized by the racial designation of Black.
    • All of the stories contained in this book are true. However, in several cases, we have changed the names of the main character or other individuals to protect their identities.
    • In some cases, the TC Study results exceed 100 percent because percentages were rounded.
    10.4135/9781452291666.n1
  • Appendix A Background Information About the Teacher Confidence Study

    In 2009, I (Gail) distributed the Teacher Confidence Study questionnaire that I created to four groups that attended professional development workshops that I conducted in California. One group consisted of 70 K–12 public school teachers in the Los Angeles Unified School District. The second group consisted of 57 K–12 teachers in a small northern California school district. The third group consisted of 72 teachers at a Catholic high school in northern California. The fourth group consisted of 94 teacher interns. The interns were prospective teachers who were enrolled in a teacher education program at a private university in southern California. Their prior teaching experience ranged from none to several years of substitute teaching. Within four months after they completed the questionnaire, each intern would be placed in a K–12 classroom as a first-year full-time teacher.

    Appendix B Demographic Information About the 293 Teacher Confidence Study Participants

    1. How much teaching experience have you had in K–12 schools?

    a. None 9.20%
    b. One year or less 18.10%
    c. 2–3 yrs. 11.30%
    d. 4–5 yrs. 10.20%
    e. More than 5 yrs.49.80%

    2. What grade level(s) do you teach?

    a. Pre-K–3 10.90%
    b. Grades 4–5 8.90%
    c. Middle school 21.50%
    d. High school 45.40%

    3. What is your gender?

    a. Male 31%
    b. Female 67%

    4. What is your race?

    a. African American or Black14%
    b. Latino, Chicano, or Hispanic14%
    c. Asian American or Pacific Islander10%
    d. White, Anglo, or Caucasian54%
    e. Mixed race1%

    Note: Percentage totals that are less than 100 can be explained by the number of respondents who failed to answer a question.

    Appendix C Questionnaire Results From the 293 Teacher Confidence Study Participants

    V = Very Confident

    S = Somewhat Confident

    N = Not Confident

    1. How confident are you about your ability to treat all students fairly?

    2. How confident are you about your classroom management skills?

    3. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach low-income students?

    V = Very Confident

    S = Somewhat Confident

    N = Not Confident

    4. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach middle-class students?

    5. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach high-income students?

    6. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach highachievers?

    7. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach low achievers?

    8. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach students who read below grade level?

    9. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach students who have poor math skills?

    V = Very Confident

    S = Somewhat Confident

    N = Not Confident

    10. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach girls?

    11. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach boys?

    12. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach White students?

    13. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach Asian American students?

    14. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach Latino students?

    15. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach African American females?

    V = Very Confident

    S = Somewhat Confident

    N = Not Confident

    16. How confident are you about your ability to effectively teach African American males?

    17. How confident are you about incorporating racial issues into your lesson plans?

    18. How confident are you about your ability to effectively address racial conflicts that may arise in your classroom?

    19. How confident are you about your ability to work effectively with White parents?

    20. How confident are you about your ability to work effectively with Asian American parents?

    21. How confident are you about your ability to work effectively with Latino parents?

    V = Very Confident

    S = Somewhat Confident

    N = Not Confident

    22. How confident are you about your ability to work effectively with African American parents?

    23. How confident are you about your ability to work effectively with parents who don’t speak English?

    Note: Percentage totals that are less than 100 can be explained by the number of respondents who failed to answer a question.

    Notes

    Introduction

    1. MetLife. (2012). The MetLife survey of the American teacher: Teachers, parents, and the economy. New York, NY: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.

    Chapter 1

    1. Thompson, G. L. (2007). Up where we belong: Helping African American and Latino students rise in school and in life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    2. Thompson, G. L. (2010). The power of one: How you can help or harm African American students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    3. Advancement Project. (2010, March). Test, punish, and push out: How “Zero Tolerance” and high-stakes testing funnel youth into the school-to-prison pipeline. Washington, DC: Advancement Project; Thompson, G. L. (2007). Up where we belong: Helping African American and Latino students rise in school and in life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    4. Ogbu, J. U. (2003). Black American students in an affluent suburb: A study of academic disengagement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    5. United States Census Bureau. (2011, September). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    6. The National Center on Family Homelessness. The characteristics and needs of families experiencing homelessness. Retrieved July 27, 2012 from http://www.familyhomelessness.org/media/306.pdf; p. 1.

    7. Kunjufu, J. (2002). Black students. Middle class teachers. Chicago, IL: African American Images.

    8. Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of the nation: The restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York, NY: Crown Publishers; Thompson, G. L. (2007). Up where we belong: Helping African American and Latino students rise in school and in life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    9. Ferguson, A. A. (2001). Bad boys: Public schools in the making of Black masculinity. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press; Hale, J. E. (2001). Learning while Black: Creating educational excellence for African American children. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press; Kunjufu, J. (2005). Keeping Black boys out of special education. Chicago, IL: African American Images; Thompson, G. L. (2007). Up where we belong: Helping African American and Latino students rise in school and in life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    10. Thompson, G. L. (2007). Up where we belong: Helping African American and Latino students rise in school and in life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass; Thompson, G. L. (2010). The power of one: How you can help or harm African American students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Chapter 2

    1. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Racial/Ethnic enrollment in public schools (Indicator 6–2012). Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_1er.asp

    2. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Participation in education. Elementary/Secondary enrollment. Table A-6–3. Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table-1er-3.asp

    3. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Elementary and secondary education. school characteristics and climate. Table A-26–2. Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table-rcp-2.asp

    4. Thompson, G. L. (2007). Up where we belong: Helping African American and Latino students rise in school and in life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    5. Ibid.

    6. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Racial/Ethnic enrollment in public schools (Indicator 6–2012). Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_1er.asp

    7. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Participation in education. Elementary/Secondary enrollment. Table A-6–4. Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table-1er-4.asp

    8. Wing Sue, D. (2003). Overcoming our racism: The journey to liberation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass, p. 38.

    9. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Participation in education. Elementary/Secondary enrollment. Table A-6–3. Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table-1er-3.asp

    10. Rasool, J. A., & Curtis, C. A. (2000). Multicultural education in middle and secondary classrooms: Meeting the challenge of diversity and change. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

    11. Hein, J. (1995). From Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia: A refugee experience in the United States. New York, NY: Twayne Publishers; Thompson, G. L. (1998). We didn’t come here to be poor: The pre- and post-migration experiences of young immigrants. Journal of Children & Poverty, 5(1), 45–73.

    12. National Center for Education Statistics. Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities. Table 8.2b. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010015/tables/table_8_2b.asp

    13. United States Census Bureau. (2011, March). Overview of race and Hispanic origin: 2010. 2010 census briefs. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf; p. 2.

    14. U.S. Census Bureau News. (2011, March 24). 2010 census shows America’s diversity. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/2010_census/cb11-cn125.html; p.1.

    15. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Racial/ethnic enrollment in public schools (Indicator 6–2012). Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_1er.asp

    16. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Participation in education. Elementary/Secondary enrollment. Table A-6–3. Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table-1er-3.asp

    17. “Latinos’ school success: Work in progress.” (June 7, 2012). Executive Summary. Education Week, 31(34), 2.

    18. Ibid.

    19. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Participation in education. Elementary/Secondary enrollment. Table A-6–4. Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table-1er-4.asp

    20. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Racial/ethnic enrollment in public schools (Indicator 6–2012). Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_1er.asp

    21. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Participation in education. Elementary/Secondary enrollment. Table A-6–3. Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table-1er-3.asp

    22. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Racial/ethnic enrollment in public schools (Indicator 6–2012). Retrieved November 6, 2012 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_1er.asp

    23. Wing Sue, D. (2003). Overcoming our racism: The journey to liberation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    24. Thompson, G. L. (2007). Up where we belong: Helping African American and Latino students rise in school and in life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    25. Thompson, G. L. (2010). The power of one: How you can help or harm African American students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    26. Ibid.

    27. Thompson, G. L. (2000). What students say about bilingual education. The Journal of At-Risk Issues, Winter/Spring, 24–32; p. 27.

    Chapter 3

    1. West, C., & Ritz, D. (2009). Brother West: Living and loving out loud. A memoir. New York, NY: SmileyBooks, p. 10.

    2. Ibid.

    3. Ibid.

    4. Ibid., 18.

    5. Ibid.

    6. Ibid.

    7. Benard, B. (2004). Resiliency: What we have learned. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.

    8. Thompson, G. L. (2007). Up where we belong: Helping African American and Latino students rise in school and in life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    9. Wyner, J. S., Bridgeland, J. M., & Diiulio, J. Jr. (2007). Achievement trap: How America is failing millions of high-achieving students from lower-income families. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from http://www.civicenterprises.net/Education; p. 10.

    10. Ibid., 4.

    11. Ibid., 6.

    12. Ibid., 5–6.

    13. Rochkind, J., Ott, A., Immerwahr, J., Doble, J., & Johnson, J. (2007). Lessons learned: New teachers talk about their jobs, challenges and long-range plans. Issue No. 1. Washington, DC National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Available at http://www.publicagenda.org/files/lessons_learned_1.pdf

    14. Ibid., Issues No. 1, 2, & 3. Available at http://www.publicagenda.org/media/lessons-learned-series-issue-no-1; http://www.publicagenda.org/media/lessons-learned-series-issue-no-2; and http://www.publicagenda.org/media/lessons-learned-series-issue-no-3

    15. Drew, D. E. (2011). Stem the tide: Reforming science, technology, engineering, and math education in America. Baltimore, MS: The Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 77.

    16. Ibid., 92.

    17. Bozeman Public Schools. A parents’ guide to Multi-tiered System of Support (MTSS). Retrieved January 10, 2014 from http://www.bsd7.org/students_parents/a_parent_s_guide_to_m_t_s_s; p. 1.

    18. Ibid.

    19. Ibid.

    20. Thompson, G. L. (2000). What students say about bilingual education. The Journal of At-Risk Issues, Winter/Spring, 24–32; p. 27.

    Chapter 4

    1. Gonnerman, J. (2004). Life on the outside: The prison odyssey of Elaine Bartlett. New York, NY: Picador.

    2. Ibid., 87.

    3. Ibid.

    4. Ibid.

    5. Thompson, G. L. (2004). Through ebony eyes: What teachers need to know but are afraid to ask about African American students. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    6. Rochkind, J., Ott, A., Immerwahr, J., Doble, J., & Johnson, J. (2007). Lessons learned: New teachers talk about their jobs, challenges and long-range plans. Issue No. 2. Washington, DC National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality; p. 15. Available at http://www.publicagenda.org/media/lessons-learned-series-issue-no-2

    7. National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2011. Washington, DC: Author, Table 12.3.

    8. Ibid., Table 12.1.

    9. Ibid., 14, 34.

    10. Thompson, G. L. (2010). The power of one: How you can help or harm African American students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    11. Ibid., 152.

    12. Thompson, G. L. (2004). Through ebony eyes: What teachers need to know but are afraid to ask about African American students. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    13. Ibid.

    14. De Becker, G. (1997). The gift of fear: Survival signals that protect us from violence. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company; Thompson, G. L. (2000). What students say about bilingual education. The Journal of At-Risk Issues, Winter/Spring, 24–32; p. 27.

    Chapter 5

    1. Kaplan, D. A. (2013, January 14). “Bay Area medicine man.” Fortune, pp. 81–86; p. 83.

    2. Ibid.

    3. Ibid., 93.

    4. Rochkind, J., Ott, A., Immerwahr, J., Doble, J., & Johnson, J. (2007). Lessons learned: New teachers talk about their jobs, challenges and long-range plans. Issue No. 1. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality; p. 24. Available at http://www.publicagenda.org/media/lessons-learned-series-issue-no-1

    5. Ibid.

    6. Thompson, G. L. (2000). The real deal on bilingual education: Former language-minority students discuss effective and ineffective instructional practices. Educational Horizons, Winter, 128–140.

    7. Ibid., 130.

    8. Ibid.

    9. Ibid., 131.

    10. Ibid.

    11. Ibid.

    12. Ibid.

    13. Ibid.

    14. Ibid., 131–132.

    15. Ibid., 132.

    16. Ibid.

    17. Ibid.

    18. Ibid., 133.

    19. Ibid.

    20. Ibid., 134.

    21. Ibid.

    22. Ibid.

    23. Thompson, G. L. (2000). What students say about bilingual education. The Journal of At-Risk Issues, Winter/Spring, 24–32; p. 27.

    24. Ibid.

    25. Council of Chief State School Officers. (2014). The Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). Retrieved January 7, 2014 from http://www.ccsso.org/Resources/Programs/The_Common_Core_State_Standards_Initiative.html

    26. Thompson, G. L. (2004). Through ebony eyes: What teachers need to know but are afraid to ask about African American students. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    27. Thompson, G. L. (2000). What students say about bilingual education. The Journal of At-Risk Issues, Winter/Spring, 24–32; p. 27.

    Chapter 6

    1. Thompson, G. L. (2000). What students say about bilingual education. The Journal of At-Risk Issues, Winter/Spring, 24–32; p. 27.

    2. Ibid.

    3. Thompson, G. L., & Louque, A. (2005). Exposing the culture of arrogance in the academy: A blueprint for increasing Black faculty satisfaction. Sterling, VA: Stylus, p. 106.

    4. Ibid.

    5. Ibid.

    6. Ibid.

    7. Thompson, G. L. (2010). The power of one: How you can help or harm African American students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, p. 42.

    8. Ibid.

    9. Thompson, G. L. (2007). Up where we belong: Helping African American and Latino students rise in school and in life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass, p. 109.

    10. Ibid., 106–107.

    11. Ibid., 182.

    12. Ibid., 43.

    13. Ibid., 47.

    14. Ibid.

    15. Ibid., 48.

    16. “Turnaround school Howe High examines professional development.” (2013, March 1). Indianapolis Recorder. Retrieved July 3, 2013 from http://www.indianapolisrecorder.com/education/article_927ffeae-8275-11e2-b9b2-0019bb2963f4.html; p. 1.

    17. Thompson, G. L. (2004). Through ebony eyes: What teachers need to know but are afraid to ask about African American students. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    18. Fischer, J., Garza, A., McClure, J., Dix, P., & Mokry, V. A. (2007). A report of Spanish resources for mathematics teachers of English language learners. San Marcos, TX: Department of Mathematics, Texas State University-San Marcos. Retrieved June 25, 2013 from http://gato-docs.its.txstate.edu/mathematics/mell/MELL-Documents/SpanishResources_Final_2007/Spanish%20Resources%20Final%202007.pdf

    19. Thompson, G. L., & Louque, A. (2005). Exposing the culture of arrogance in the academy: A blueprint for increasing Black faculty satisfaction. Sterling, VA: Stylus, p. 149.

    Chapter 7

    1. Thompson, G. L. (1998). We didn’t come here to be poor: The pre- and post-migration experiences of young immigrants. Journal of Children & Poverty, 5(1), 45–73.

    2. Ibid.

    3. U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Parent and family involvement in education: 2002–03. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

    4. Ibid.

    5. Ibid.

    6. U.S. Department of Education. (2001). Efforts by public K–8 schools to involve parents in children’s education: Do schools and parent reports agree? Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

    7. U.S. Department of Education. (2001). Family involvement in children’s education: An idea book (abridged version). Jessup, MD: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

    8. Mora, P. (2007). How to reach out to parents of ELLs. Retrieved July 25, 2013 from http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/reachingout/outreach/

    9. Willson, J. (n.d.). How to communicate with non-English speaking parents. Retrieved July 25, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/how_7839963_communicate-nonenglish-speaking-parents.html

    10. Breiseth, L., Robertson, K., & Lafond, S. (2011). A guide for engaging ELL families: Twenty strategies for school leaders. Retrieved July 25, 2013 from http://www.colorincolorado.org/principals/family

    Chapter 8

    1. National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). Fast facts. Teacher trends. Retrieved August 5, 2013 from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id =28

    2. Scholastic, & the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (2012). Primary sources 2012: America’s teachers on the teaching profession. Retrieved August 5, 2013 from http://www.scholastic.com/primarysources/pdfs/Gates2012_full.pdf; p. 59.

    3. Ibid., 115.

    4. The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher. (2010). Collaborating for student success. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/contributions/foundation/american-teacher/MetLife_Teacher_Survey_2009.pdf; p. 9.

    5. Ibid.

    6. Rochkind, J., Ott, A., Immerwahr, J., Doble, J., & Johnson, J. (2007). Lessons learned: New teachers talk about their jobs, challenges and long-range plans. Issue No. 1. Washington, DC National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, p. 12. Available at http://www.publicagenda.org/media/lessons-learned-series-issue-no-1

    7. CNN. (November 5, 2010). Steve Perry interviews Arne Duncan on need for minority teachers. Retrieved August 7, 2013 from http://premierespeakers.com/steve_perry/blog/2011/05/24/steve_perry_interviews_arne_duncan_ on_need_for_minority_teachers

    8. Boser, U. (2011). Teacher diversity matters: A state-by-state analysis of teachers of color. Retrieved August 13, 2013 from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/report/2011/11/09/10657/teacher-diversity-matters/; p. 1.

    Chapter 9

    1. Thompson, G. L. (2010). The power of one: How you can help or harm African American students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, p. 165.

    2. Bitterman, A., Goldring, R., & Gray, L. (2013). Characteristics of public and private elementary and secondary school principals in the United States: Results from the 2011–12 Schools and Staffing Survey (NCES 2013–313). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved March 10, 2013 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013313.pdf

    3. Ibid., 3.

    4. Ibid.

    5. Ibid., 4.

    6. Ibid., 5.

    7. Ibid., 6.

    8. Ibid., 7.


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