Worlds of Difference
Publication Year: 2013
How can differences be understood in social theory through comparisons, and how should social theory relate to regional studies to do so? This question has been prevalent within the sociological field for over a century, but is becoming increasingly important in a globalised age in which cultural borders are constantly challenged and rapidly changing. In this collection, Arjomand and Reis illuminate the importance of exploring spatial, cultural and intellectual differences beyond generalizations, attempting to understand diversity in itself as it takes shape across the world. With contributions from internationally renowned scholars, and a focussed emphasis upon sociological key themes such as modernization, citizenship, human rights, inequality and domination, this title provides a rich and convincing discussion that will add significant value to the ongoing debate ...
- Front Matter
Part I: One or Many Modernities?
- Chapter 1: Multiple Modernities and the Promise of Comparative Sociology
- Chapter 2: Are the Theories of Multiple Modernities Eurocentric? The Problem of Colonialism and Its Knowledge(s)
- Chapter 3: The Shores of the Southern Ocean: Steps Toward a World Sociology of Modernity, with Australian Examples
- Chapter 4: Conceptualizing Overlapping Modernities: A View from Post-Communist Eastern Europe
- Chapter 5: Forms of Secularity Before Secularism: The Political Morality of Ashoka and Akbar
- Chapter 6: Two Types of Secularization: The Iranian Case
Part II: Democracy, Citizenship, Inequalities and the Challenge of Difference
- Chapter 7: Racial Redress, National Identity and Citizenship in Post-Apartheid South Africa
- Chapter 8: Democracy and the Challenge of Reconciling Equality and Difference
- Chapter 9: Suffrage without Citizenship? Deliberating About the Boundaries of the Demos in Geneva
- Chapter 10: Contemporary Citizenship: Four Types
- Chapter 11: Gradual and Categorical Inequalities
SAGE Studies in International Sociology[Page ii]
Series Editor (2010–ongoing)
Sujata Patel, Professor of Sociology at University of Hyderabad, India
All Editorial Matters © Saïd Amir Arjomand and Elisa Reis 2013
Chapter 1 © Saïd Amir Arjomand 2013
Chapter 2 © Sujata Patel 2013
Chapter 3 © Raewyn Connell 2013
Chapter 4 © Petya Kabakchieva and Pepka Boyadjieva 2013
Chapter 5 © Rajeev Bhargava 2013
Chapter 6 © Farhad Khosrokhavar 2013
Chapter 7 © Adam Habib and Kristina Bentley 2013
Chapter 8 © Elisa Reis 2013
Chapter 9 © Conor Cradden and Lucio Baccaro 2013
Chapter 10 © Bryan S. Turner 2013
Chapter 11 © Volker Schmidt 2013
First published 2013
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ISBN 978-1-4462-7532-0 (pbk)
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List of Tables
About the Contributors[Page viii]The Editors
Saïd Amir Arjomand (Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1980) is Distinguished Service Professor of Sociology and Director of the Stony Brook Institute for Global Studies. He is the founder and President (1996–2002, 2005–2008) of the Association for the Study of Persianate Societies and Editor of its organ, Journal of Persianate Studies, and served as the editor of International Sociology, the journal of the International Sociological Association (1998–2003) and Editor-in-Chief of Studies on Persianate Societies (2003–2005). He has been Fellow of St. Antony's College, Oxford, 1982–1983, Member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, 1984–1985, and Visiting Professor of Sociology and Development Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1989, the Sharpe Visiting Professor of Islamic Studies, the University of Chicago, 1993–1994, Member of the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in Social Sciences, 1998, the inaugural Crane Fellow and Visiting Professor of Public Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Princeton University, 2004–2005, and Carnegie Scholar, 2006–2008. He is the author of The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imam: Religion, Political Organization and Societal Change in Shi'ite Iran from the Beginning to l890 (The University of Chicago Press, 1984), The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran (Oxford University Press, 1988), After Khomeini: Iran under his Successors (Oxford University Press, 2009) and the editor of several books, including Constitutionalism and Political Reconstruction (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2007), and Constitutional Politics in the Middle East (London: Hart Publishers, 2008), and The Rule of Law, Islam and Constitutional Politics in Egypt and Iran (with Nathan J. Brown, State University of New York Press, 2013).
Elisa Reis is Professor of Political Sociology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. She has taught as visiting professor at several Universities including the University of California at San Diego, Columbia University, MIT, and the Ludwig Maximilian Universität in Munich. Chair of the Interdisciplinary Research Network on Inequality (NIED), she has played many academic and institutional roles such as President of the National [Page ix]Association for the Social Sciences (ANPOCS), Secretary General of the Brazilian Sociological Society, elected member of the Executive Committee of the International Political Science Association and of the International Sociological Association. She is the author of more than one hundred articles published in Brazil and elsewhere. Her major research areas are processes of state and nation building, social inequality, and the changing patterns of interaction between the state, market and civil society under the impact of global processes. She is member of the Brazilian Academy of Science, and of the Academy of Science for the Developing World (TWAS).The Contributors
Lucio Baccaro is a Professor of comparative macro sociology at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. Previously, he taught at Case Western Reserve University and MIT in the United States, and held senior research positions in the International Labour Organization. His research focuses on the political economy of employment relations and labor market institutions, as well as on the emergence of participatory and deliberative governance institutions. His work has appeared in various international journals in industrial relations, political science, and sociology, including the British Journal of Industrial Relations, Comparative Political Studies, Economic and Industrial Democracy, European Journal of Industrial Relations, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Industrial Relations, Industrial Relations Journal, International Organization, Politics & Society, Public Administration, Research in the Sociology of Work, Socio-Economic Review, World Politics, as well as elsewhere.
Kristina Bentley is an independent researcher and Senior Research Associate of the Democratic Governance and Rights Unit (DGRU) in the Department of Public Law, University of Cape Town (UCT). She holds a Ph.D. in political theory, specialising in theories of rights, from the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Her current research focuses on gender, human rights and multiculturalism; race, identity and conflict; and emerging applications of human rights. She is the co-editor of Politikon, the official journal of the South African Association of Political Studies (SAAPS). In July 2012 she was elected to the Executive Committee of RC31 (Political Philosophy) of the International Political Science Association (IPSA).
Rajeev Bhargava obtained his BA degree in Economics from the University of Delhi and M.Phil. and D.Phil. from Oxford University. [Page x]Before joining the Centre in 2005, he was Professor, Centre for Political Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University and between 2001–2005, Professor and Head, Department of Political Science, University of Delhi.
He has been a Senior fellow in Ethics, Harvard University, Leverhulme fellow, University of Bristol, Senior Fellow, Institute of Advanced Studies, Jerusalem, Distinguished Resident scholar, Institute of Religion, Public life and Toleration, Columbia University, Asia Chair at Science Po, Paris, Fellow, Wissenschaftskolleg, Berlin and at the Institute for Human Sciences (IWM), Vienna. He has also held visiting professorships at several universities. His publications include Individualism in Social Science (Clarendon Press, 1992), Secularism and Its Critics (ed.) (Oxford University Press, 1998), Politics and Ethics of the Indian Constitution (ed.) (Oxford University Press, 2008), What Is Political Theory and Why Do We Need It? (Oxford University Press, 2010) and The Promise of India's Secular Democracy (Oxford University Press, 2010). His work on Secularism and Methodological Individualism is internationally acclaimed. He has contributed to the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Oxford Handbook of Political Theory. He is on the advisory board of several national and international institutions and was a consultant to the UNDP report on cultural liberty.
Pepka Boyadjieva is Professor at the Institute for the Study of Societies and Knowledge, Chair of the Scientific Council of the Institute and member of the General Assembly of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. She is also Honorary Professor of Sociology of Education, University of Nottingham and Academic Associate at the Centre for Advanced Studies, Sofia. Boyadjieva has been lecturing at the University of Sofia and the New Bulgarian University. She is member of the Editorial Board of Journal of Social Science Education, Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy and Sociological Problems. Boyadjieva is also editorial correspondent of the International Journal of Lifelong Education.
Boyadjieva was awarded the Andrew Mellon Fellowship twice – at the Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Edinburgh in 1999 and at the American Academy in Rome in 2003. In 2007 she was selected for Fulbright's New Century Scholar Program.
Boyadjieva has published 13 books and more than 70 articles. Her main areas of specialization are sociology of education and sociology of science (with a special emphasis on the role of education and science for modernization and different models of relationships between university and society). She is member of Research Committee ‘Sociology of Education’ at the International Sociological Association.
[Page xi]Raewyn Connell is University Professor at the University of Sydney, a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia, and one of Australia's leading social scientists. Her most recent books are Southern Theory (2007), about social thought beyond the global metropole; Gender: In World Perspective (2009); and Confronting Equality (2011), about social science and politics. Her other books include Masculinities, Schools & Social Justice, Ruling Class Ruling Culture, Gender & Power, and Making the Difference. Her work has been translated into 16 languages. She has taught at universities in Australia, Canada and the USA, in departments of sociology, political science, and education. A long-term participant in the labour movement and peace movement, Raewyn has tried to make social science relevant to social justice.
Conor Cradden is a sociologist with interests in deliberation, democracy, labour organization, development and social theory. He has a bachelor's degree in philosophy, politics and economics from the University of Oxford, a masters degree in industrial relations and personnel management from the London School of Economics and a PhD in social and political sciences from the European University Institute in Florence. Currently a research fellow at the University of Lausanne, he has also worked as head of research for a UK public sector trade union and as a research fellow and course lecturer at the University of Geneva.
He is the author of Repoliticizing Management: a theory of corporate legitimacy (Ashgate, 2005) which draws out the implications of Habermas's social theory for the critical study of management, organization and employment, proposing a definition of legitimate corporate action based on the principles of communicative rationality and discourse ethics. At the University of Geneva he participated in a study of deliberation among citizens on questions of citizenship and democratic participation as well as teaching a masters course on the international political economy of standards. He is currently engaged in a research project which aims to evaluation of the impact of social conditionality in private sector development finance contracts on union organization and social dialogue.
Adam Habib is Vice-Chancellor and Principal of the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. He has held academic appointments over the last decade at the Universities of Durban-Westville and KwaZulu-Natal, the Human Science Research Council, and the University of Johannesburg. Prior to being appointed Deputy Vice-Chancellor: Research at the University of Johannesburg, and Executive Director of the Democracy and Governance Programme of the Human Science Research [Page xii]Council in 2004, he served as the founding director of the Centre for Civil Society and a research professor in the School of Development Studies at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Habib has served as co-editor of both the social science academic journal Transformation and the official disciplinary journal of the South African Association of Political Science, Politkon. He also sat on the editorial board of UNESCO's 2009 World Social Science Report. He currently sits on the editorial boards of Politikon, Voluntas and the South African Labour Bulletin. Habib's research interests include democratisation and development, contemposocial movements, giving and solidarity, institutional reform, race, redress and citizenship, and South Africa's role in Africa and beyond. He has published over 80 peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, and edited books. His forthcoming book entitled The Suspended Revolution: the Politics of Contemporary South Africa will be published by Wits University Press in 2013.
Petya Kabakchieva is Associate Professor and Head of Sociology Department at Sofia University ‘St. Kl. Ohridski’. She is a member of the editorial board of the e-journal Seminar Bg. Her main research interests are in the field of political sociology and social transformations – social structure in communist societies and its transformation, civil society and civic participation, new nationalisms, processes of Europeanization and institutional change. She is author and editor of several books and textbooks, the most important of them being ‘Rules’ and ‘Roles’. Fluid Institutions and Hybrid Identities in East European Transformation Processes (1989–2005), co-editor with Alexander Kiossev (Lit Verlag, 2009); and Civil Society vrs State: the Bulgarian Case (2001). She is a member of ISA, RC 9 Social Transformations and Sociology of Development and RC 36 Alienation Theory and Research.
Farhad Khosrokhavar is Professor at École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris, France. His main fields of study are the social movements in Iran, mainly after the Islamic Revolution; Arab societies, in particular radical Islamist movements in them; and the Arab revolutions to which he devoted his last book. He has published 18 books, 3 of which translated respectively in 8 or 9 different languages and more than 70 articles, in French, English, and Persian. He has been a Rockefeller Fellow (1990), a Yale Visiting Scholar in 2008 and a Harvard Visiting Scholar in 2009. His most recent books are L'anthropologie de la révolution iranienne (L'Harmattan, 1998), Muslims in Prison: A Comparative Perspective Between Great Britain and France (with James Beckford and Danièle Joly) (Palgrave, 2005), Suicide Bombers, The New Martyrs of[Page xiii]Allah (translation from French) (Pluto Press, Michigan University Press, 2005), Quand Al Qaeda Parle: témoignages derrière les barreaux (Grasset, 2006), Inside Jihadism: Understanding Jihadi Movements Worldwide (Paradigm Publishers, 2009), Être jeune dans le pays des ayatollahs (in cooperation with Amir Nikpey) (Robert Laffont Publishers, 2009), Jihadist Ideology, The Anthropological Perspective (CIR, Aarhus University, Denmark, 2011), and The New Arab Revolutions that Shook the World (Paradigm Publishers, 2012).
Sujata Patel is a sociologist at the University of Hyderabad. An historical sensibility and a combination of four perspectives – Marxism, feminism, spatial studies and post structuralism – post colonialism influences her work which covers diverse areas such as modernity and social theory, history of sociology/social sciences, city formation, social movements, gender construction, reservation, quota politics and caste and class formations in India. She is also an active interlocutor of teaching and learning practices, and has written on the challenges that organise its reconstitution within classrooms, university structures. She is the author of more than 60 papers and is the series editor of Sage Studies in International Sociology (including Current Sociology Monographs (2010–2014), Oxford India Studies in Contemporary Society (Oxford, India) and Cities and the Urban Imperative (Routledge, India). She is also the author of The Making of Industrial Relations (Oxford University Press, 1997), editor of The ISA Handbook of Diverse Sociological Traditions, Sage London (2010) and Doing Sociology in India, Genealogies, Locations and Practices (Oxford, 2011) as also a coeditor of five books, Bombay: Metaphor of Modern India (Oxford University Press, 1995); Bombay: Mosaic of Modern Culture (Oxford University Press, 1995); Bombay and Mumbai: The City in Transition (Oxford University Press, 2003); Thinking Social Science in India (Sage, 2002); and Urban Studies (Oxford University Press, 2006). She has been associated in various capacities with the International Sociological Association and has been its first Vice President for National Associations (2002–2006).
Volker H. Schmidt teaches Sociology at the National University of Singapore. He has held fellowships at the Center for European Studies, Harvard University (1997–1998) at the excellence cluster on ‘Religion and Politics in Modernity’, University of Münster (2008–2009), and at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research, University of Bielefeld as well as the Center for Advanced Studies in Bioethics, University of Münster, 2013–2014. Since 2012, he has also been Visiting Professor at Zeppelin University in Friedrichshafen, Germany. The author or co-author of five [Page xiv]books and editor or coeditor of another four volumes, Schmidt has published over 70 journal articles and book chapters in English and German, some of which have been translated into Chinese, Portuguese and Turkish. Since 2002, he has served as President of Research Committee 35 (Conceptual and Terminological Analysis) of the International Sociological Association and, more recently, on several advisory and editorial boards. His main areas of specialization are the sociology of justice, social policy (with a special emphasis on health care), social theory, and global modernization (with a special emphasis on East Asia).
Bryan S. Turner is Presidential Professor of Sociology at the Graduate Center, the City University of New York, and concurrently the Director of the Centre for Religion and Society at the University of Western Sydney. He made an early contribution to the study of Islam in his Weber and Islam (1974) which was followed by a more theoretical book – Religion and Social Theory (1983). In 2003 he edited Islam: Critical Concepts in Sociology (four volumes). He is currently working on a trilogy for Cambridge University Press. Religion and Modern Society came out in 2012. The second volume – The Religious and the Political – will appear in 2013. His recent empirical research has focused on the role of the Shari'a in Western societies and with Adam Possamai (UWS) and others he is working on an Australian Research Council grant comparing the role of the Shari'a in Sydney and New York. He has been closely involved in the study of citizenship and human rights. He is the foundation editor of the journal Citizenship Studies and with Engin Isin edited the Handbook of Citizenship Studies (2002). A collection of essays relating to the study of rights was published as Rights and Virtues in and Vulnerability and Human Rights came out in 2006.
Elisa Reis wants to thank the support of two Brazilian institutions: the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), and the Research Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).[Page xvi]