Working with Children of Alcoholics: The Practitioner's Handbook


Bryan E. Robinson & J. Lyn Rhoden

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    We extend our thanks and appreciation to our graduate assistant Karen Flynn for her important contribution to this book—her insightful and perceptive assistance and input enhanced both the process and the product.

  • References

    Ackerman, R. (1983). Children of alcoholics: A guidebook for educators, therapists, and parents (
    2nd ed.
    ). Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.
    Ackerman, R. (1987). Same house, different homes: Why adult children of alcoholics are not all the same. Pompano Beach, FL: Health Communications.
    Ainsworth, M. D., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Anderson, S., & Sabatelli, R. (1993). Family interaction: A multigenerational developmental perspective. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Anthony, E. J. (1978). A new scientific region to explore. In E. J.Anthony, C.Koupernik, & C.Chiland (Eds.), The child and his family: Vulnerable children (Vol. 4). New York: John Wiley.
    Aronson, H., & Gilbert, A. (1963). Preadolescent sons of male alcoholics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 8, 47–53.
    Aronson, H., Kyllerman, M., Sable, K. G., Sandin, B., & Olegard, R. (1985). Children of alcoholic mothers: Developmental, perceptual, and behavioral characteristics as compared to matched controls. Acta Paediatrica Scandanavia, 74, 27–35.
    Bardo, M., & Risner, M. (1985). Biochemical substrates of alcohol abuse. In M.Galizio & S.Maisto (Eds.), Determinants of substance abuse (pp. 65–99). New York: Plenum.
    Barnard, C. P., & Spoentgen, P. A. (1987). Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 3, 47–65.
    Barrett, R. J. (1985). Drug-taking behavior. In M.Galizio & S.Maisto (Eds.), Determinants of substance abuse (pp. 125–175). New York: Plenum.
    Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43–48.
    Begleiter, H., Porjesz, B., & Bihari, B. (1984). Event-related brain potentials in boys at risk for alcoholism, Science, 225, 1493–1496.
    Bell, B., & Cohen, R. (1981). The Bristol Social Adjustment Guide: Comparison between the offspring of alcoholic and nonalcoholic mothers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20, 93–95.
    Biek, J. (1981). Screen test for identifying adolescents adversely affected by a parental drinking problem. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 2, 107–113.
    Bingham, A., & Bargar, J. (1985). Children of alcoholic families. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 23, 13–15.
    Black, C. (1979, Fall). Children of alcoholics. Alcohol Health and Research World, pp. 23–27.
    Black, C. (1982). It will never happen to me!Denver, CO: MAC Publications.
    Black, C. (1986, January-February). Alcoholism and family violence. Alcoholism and Addiction Magazine, pp. 46–47.
    Black, C. (1987, November 10–11). Young and adult children of alcoholics. Seminar presented by the Randolph Clinic, Charlotte, NC.
    Black, C., Bucky, S. F., & Wilder-Padilla, S. (1986). The interpersonal and emotional consequences of being an adult child of an alcoholic. International Journal of Addictions, 21, 213–232.
    Bly, R. (1987). A conversation with Robert Bly on leaving the father's house. In RachelV. (Ed.), Family secrets. New York: Harper & Row.
    Bohman, M. (1978). Some genetic aspects of alcoholism and criminality: A population of adoptees. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 269–276.
    Bohman, M., Cloninger, R., Von Knorring, A. L., & Sigvardsson, S. (1984). An adoption study of somatoform disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 872–878.
    Bohman, M., Sigvardsson, D., & Cloninger, R. (1981). Maternal inheritance of alcohol abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 965–969.
    Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Inc. (1974). Final report on the needs of and resources for children of alcoholic parents. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Bosma, W. (1972). Alcoholism and the family: A hidden tragedy. Maryland State Medical Journal, 21, 34–36.
    Bowles, C. (1968). Children of alcoholic parents. American Journal of Nursing, 68, 1062–1064.
    Braithwaite, V., & Devine, C. (1993). Life satisfaction and adjustment of children of alcoholics: The effects of parental drinking, family disorganization, and survival roles. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 417–429.
    Brenner, A. (1984). Helping children cope with stress. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Brisbane, F. L. (1985). Using contemporary fiction with black children and adolescents in alcoholism treatment. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 2, 179–197.
    Butler, K. (1997). The anatomy of resilience. Family Therapy Networker, 21(2), 22–31.
    Cadoret, A. J., Cain, C. A., & Grove, W. M. (1980). Development of alcoholism in adoptees raised apart from alcoholic biologic relatives. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 561–563.
    Cadoret, R. J., Troughton, E., & O'Gorman, T. W. (1987). Genetic and environmental factors in alcohol abuse and antisocial personality. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48, 1–8.
    Callan, V. J., & Jackson, D. (1986). Children of alcoholic fathers and recovered alcoholic fathers: Personal and family functioning. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 47, 180–182.
    Chafetz, M. E., Blane, H. T., & Hill, M. J. (1971). Children of alcoholics: Observations in a child guidance clinic. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 32, 687–698.
    Chandy, J., Harris, L., Blum, R., & Resnick, M. (1993). Children of alcohol misusers and school performance outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review, 15, 507–519.
    Chase, N. (1997). The parentified child: Theory, research, and treatment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Clair, D., & Genest, M. (1987). Variables associated with the adjustment of offspring of alcoholic fathers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48, 345–355.
    Cloninger, R., Bohman, M., Sigvardsson, S., & Knorring, A. (1981). Inheritance of alcohol abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 861–868.
    Cloninger, R., Bohman, M., Sigvardsson, S., & Knorring, A. (1984). In M.Galanter (Ed.), Recent developments in alcoholism (Vol. 3, pp. 37–51). New York: Plenum.
    Compas, B. (1987). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development, 211–237.
    Connors, G., & Tarbox, A. (1985). Macroenvironmental factors as determinants of substance use and abuse. In M.Galizio & S.Maisto (Eds.), Determinants of substance abuse: Biological, psychological, and environmental factors (pp. 283–314). New York: Plenum.
    Cork, M. (1969). The forgotten child. Ontario, Canada: General Publishing.
    Crabbe, J., McSwigan, J., & Belknap, J. (1985). The role of genetics in substance abuse. In M.Galizio & S.Maisto (Eds.), Determinants of substance abuse (pp. 13–64). New York: Plenum.
    Cutter, C. G., & Cutter, H. S. (1987). Experience and change in Al-Anon family groups: Adult children of alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48, 29–32.
    Davis, K. (1996). Families: A handbook of concepts and techniques for the helping professional. New York: Brooks Cole.
    Deutsch, C. (1982). Broken bottles, broken dreams: Understanding and helping the children of alcoholics. New York: Teachers College Press.
    DiCicco, L., Davis, R., & Orenstein, A. (1984). Identifying the children of alcoholic parents from survey responses. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 30, 1–17.
    Donovan, B. E. (1981). A collegiate group for the sons and daughters of alcoholics. Journal of the American College Health Association, 30, 83–86.
    El-Guebaly, N., & Offord, D. R. (1977). The offspring of alcoholics: A critical review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 357–365.
    Elkind, D. (1981). The hurried child. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Norton.
    Famularo, R., Stone, K., Barnum, R., & Wharton, R. (1986). Alcoholism and severe child maltreatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 56, 481–485.
    Fassler, D. G. (1987). Children's books about alcoholism. Childhood Education, 66, 188–194.
    Fine, E. W., Yudin, L. W., Holmes, J., & Heinemann, S. (1976). Behavioral disorders in children with parental alcoholism. New York Academy of Sciences Annals, 273, 507–517.
    Flake-Hobson, C., Robinson, B. E., & Skeen, P. (1983). Child development and relationships. New York: Random House.
    Gabrielli, W., Mednick, S., Volavka, J., Pollock, V., Schulsinger, F., & Itil, T. (1982). Electroencephalogram in children of alcoholic fathers. Psychophysiology, 19, 404–407.
    Gacic, B. (1986). An ecosystemic approach to alcoholism: Theory and practice. Contemporary Family Therapy, 8, 264–278.
    Goodman, R. W. (1987). Adult children of alcoholics. Journal of Counseling and Development, 66, 162–163.
    Goodwin, D. W. (1985). Alcoholism and genetics: The sins of the fathers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 171–174.
    Goodwin, D. W., Schulsinger, F., Hermansen, L., Guze, S. B., & Winokur, G. (1973). Alcohol problems in adoptees raised apart from alcoholic biological parents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 238–242.
    Gravitz, H. (1985). Children of alcoholics handbook: Who are they, what they experience, how they recover. South Laguna, CA: The National Association for Children of Alcoholics.
    Haberman, P. W. (1966). Childhood symptoms in children of alcoholics and comparison group parents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 28, 152–154.
    Hafen, B. Q., & Frandsen, K. J. (1986). Youth suicide: Depression and loneliness. Evergreen, CO: Cordillera.
    Hammond, M. (1985). Children of alcoholics in play therapy. Pompano Beach, FL: Health Publications.
    Hegedus, A. M., Alterman, A. I., & Tarter, R. E. (1984). Learning achievement in sons of alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 8, 330–333.
    Hennecke, L. (1984). Stimulus augmenting and field dependence in children of alcoholic fathers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 486–492.
    Holzman, I. R. (1983). Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): A review. In M.Frank (Ed.), Children of exceptional parents (pp. 13–19). New York: Haworth.
    Isaacson, E. (1991). Chemical addiction: Individuals and family systems. In Chemical dependency: Theoretical appraches and strategies. New York: Haworth.
    Jalongo, M. R. (1983). Bibliotherapy: Literature to promote socioemotional growth. The Reading Teacher, 36, 796–803.
    Jones, J. W. (1983). The children of alcoholics screening test and test manual. Chicago, IL: Camelot Unlimited.
    Kammeier, M. L. (1971). Adolescents from families with and without alcohol problems. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 32, 364–372.
    Kearney, T., & Taylor, C. (1969). Emotionally disturbed adolescents with alcoholic parents. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 36, 215–221.
    Keltner, N. L., McIntyre, C. W., & Gee, R. (1986). Birth order effects in second-generation alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 47, 495–497.
    Kern, J. C., Hassett, C. A., & Collipp, P. J. (1981). Children of alcoholics: Locus of control, mental age, and zinc level. Journal of Psychiatric Treatment and Evaluation, 3, 169–173.
    Knight, S. (1993). Identifying and labeling school-aged children of alcoholics: Insights voiced by academic attainers who are daughters of alcoholics. Journal of Health Education, 24, 196–204.
    Knop, J., Teasdale, T. W., Schulsinger, F., & Goodwin, D. W. (1985). A prospective study of young men at high risk for alcoholism: School behavior and achievement. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 273–278.
    Krauthamer, C. (1979). Maternal attitudes of alcohol and nonalcoholic upper middle-class women. International Journal of Addictions, 14, 639–644.
    Kritsberg, W. (1984, November/December). Chronic shock and emotional numbness in adult children of alcoholics. Focus on Family, pp. 24–25, 40.
    Kritsberg, W. (1985). The adult children of alcoholics syndrome: From discovery to recovery. Pompano Beach, FL: Health Communications.
    Kroll, P. D., Stock, D. F., & James, M. E. (1985). The behavior of adult alcoholic men abused as children. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173, 689–693.
    Lamorey, S., Robinson, B., Rowland, B., & Coleman, M. (in press). Latchkey kids: Unlocking doors for children and their families (
    2nd ed.
    ). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Lerner, R. (1986). Codependency: The swirl of energy surrounded by confusion. In R. J.Ackerman (Ed.), Growing in the shadow: Children of alcoholics (pp. 113–121). Pompano Beach, FL: Health Communications.
    Levin, J. D. (1995). Introduction to alcoholism counseling: A bio-psycho-social approach. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
    MacDonald, D. I., & Blume, S. B. (1986). Children of alcoholics. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 140, 750–754.
    Maisto, S., Galizio, M., & Carey, K. (1985). Individual differences in substance abuse. In M.Galizio & S.Maisto (Eds.), Determinants of substance abuse: Biological, psychological, and environmental factors. New York: Plenum.
    Maisto, S., Galizio, M., & Connors, G. (1991). Drug use and misuse. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Manning, D. T. (1987). Books as therapy for children of alcoholics. Child Welfare, 66, 35–43.
    Marcus, A. M. (1986). Academic achievement in elementary school children of alcoholic mothers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 372–376.
    Matthews, K. A., & Angulo, J. (1980). Measurement of the Type A behavior pattern in children: Assessment of children's competitiveness, impatience, anger, and aggression. Child Development, 51, 466–475.
    McElligatt, K. (1986). Identifying and treating children of alcoholic parents. Social Work in Education, 9, 55–70.
    McGoldrick, M., & Gerson, R. (1985). Genograms in family assessment. New York: Norton.
    McKenna, T., & Pickens, R. (1981). Alcoholic children of alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41, 1021–1029.
    McKenna, T., & Pickens, R. (1983). Personality characteristics of alcoholic children of alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcoholism, 44, 688–700.
    McKenry, P. C., & Tischler, C. L. (1987). Le rapport entre l'usage de drogues et le suicide chez les adolescents. Médecine et Hygiène, 45, 2127–2132.
    McKenry, P. C., Tischler, C. L., & Kelley, C. (1983). The role of drugs in adolescent suicide attempts. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1(3), 166–175.
    McLachlan, J. F. C., Walderman, R. L., & Thomas, S. (1973). A study of teenagers with alcoholic parents (Research Monograph No. 3.) Toronto, Canada: Donwood Institute.
    Meddin, B. J., & Rosen, A. L. (1986). Child abuse and neglect: Prevention and reporting. Young Children, 41, 26–30.
    Merikangas, K. A., Weissman, M. M., Prusoff, B. A., Pauls, D. L., & Leckman, J. F. (1985). Depressives with secondary alcoholism: Psychiatric disorders in offspring. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 199–204.
    Miller, D., & Jang, M. (1977). Children of alcoholics: A twenty-year longitudinal study. Social Work Research and Abstracts, 13, 23–29.
    Moe, J., & Pohlman, D. (1988). Kids' power: Healing games for children of alcoholics. Redwood City, CA: Whipple & Alameda.
    Moos, R. H., & Billings, A. G. (1982). Children of alcoholics during the recovery process: Alcoholic and matched control families. Addictive Behaviors, 7, 155–163.
    Morehouse, E. R. (1986). Counseling adolescent children of alcoholics in groups. In R. J.Ackerman (Ed.), Growing in the shadow. Pompano Beach, FL: Health Communications.
    Morehouse, E. R., & Scola, C. M. (1986). Children of alcoholics: Meeting the needs of the young COA in the school setting. South Laguna, CA: National Association for Children of Alcoholics.
    National Council on Alcoholism and the American Medical Society on Addiction Medicine. (1990). Editorial: The disease of alcoholism. VIII. Is alcoholism really a disease?Medical/Scientific Advisory, 5(4), 7.
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (1981). Fourth special report to the U.S. Congress on alcohol and health from the Secretary of Health and Human Services (J. R.DeLuca, Ed.). Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office.
    New Games Foundation. (1976). The new games book. New York: Headlands Press.
    New Games Foundation. (1981). More new games. New York: Dolphin, Double-day.
    Newlon, B. J., & Furrow, W. V. (1986). Using the classroom to identify children from alcoholic homes. The School Counselor, 33, 286–291.
    Not the vintage Margaux. (1988, February 8). People Magazine, pp. 95–105.
    O'Gorman, P. A., & Oliver-Diaz, P. (1987). Breaking the cycle of addiction: A parent's guide to raising healthy kids. Pompano Beach, FL: Health Communications.
    Pardeck, J. T., & Pardeck, J. A. (1987). Using bibliotherapy to help children cope with the changing family. Social Work in Education, 9, 107–116.
    Parker, D. A., & Harford, T. C. (1987). Alcohol-related problems of children of heavy-drinking parents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48, 265–268.
    Parten, M. B. (1932). Social participation among preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 27, 243–269.
    Pelham, W., & Lang, A. (1993). Parental alcohol consumption and deviant child behavior: Laboratory studies of reciprocal effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 763–784.
    Pilat, J. M., & Jones, J. W. (1985). Identification of children of alcoholics—Two empirical studies. Alcohol and Research World, 9, 27–33.
    Poley, W., Lea, G., & Vibe, G. (1979). Alcoholism: A treatment manual. New York: Gardner.
    Post, P., & Robinson, B. E. (1998). A comparison of school-aged children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents on anxiety, self-esteem, and locus of control. The School Counselor.
    Prewett, M. J., Spence, R., & Chaknis, M. (1981). Attribution of causality by children with alcoholic parents. International Journal of the Addictions, 16, 367–370.
    Priest, K. (1985). Adolescents' response to parents' alcoholism. Social Casework Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 66, 533–539.
    Raikkonen, K., & Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L. (1992). Mothers with hostile, Type A predisposing child-rearing practices. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 153(3), 343–354.
    Ray, O., & Ksir, C. (1996). Drugs, society, and human behavior. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.
    Regan, J. M., Connors, G. J., O'Farrell, T. J., & Wyatt, C. J. (1983). Services for the families of alcoholics: A survey of treatment agencies in Massachusetts. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 44, 1072–1075.
    Rimmer, J. (1982). The children of alcoholics: An exploratory study. Children and Youth Services Review, 4, 365–373.
    Roberts, K., & Brent, E. (1982). Physician utilization and illness patterns in families of alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 119–128.
    Robins, L. N., West, P. A., Ratcliff, K. S., & Herjanic, B. M. (1977, May). Father's alcoholism and children's outcomes. Paper presented at the Annual Medical Scientific Meeting of the National Alcoholism Forum, San Diego, CA.
    Robinson, B. E. (1988). Self-esteem and anxiety level among adult children of alcoholics. Unpublished manuscript, University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
    Robinson, B. (1996). Type A children: Empirical findings and counseling implications. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 31, 34–42.
    Robinson, B.(in press). The workaholic family: A clinical perspective. American Journal of Family Therapy.
    Rubin, L. (1996). The transcendent child: Tales of triumph over the past. New York: Basic Books.
    Schaeffer, K. W., Parsons, O. A., & Yohman, J. R. (1984). Neuropsychological differences between male familial and nonfamilial alcoholics and nonalcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 8, 347–351.
    Schall, J. (1986). Alcoholism: When a parent drinks, a child struggles. Instructor, 95, 54–57.
    Schuckit, M. A. (1984a). Behavioral effects of alcohol in sons of alcoholics. In M.Galanter (Ed.) Recent developments in alcoholism (Vol. 3, pp. 11–19). New York: Plenum.
    Schuckit, M. A. (1984b). Relationship between the course of primary alcoholism in men and family history. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 334–338.
    Schuckit, M. A. (1984c). Subjective responses to alcohol in sons of alcoholics and control subjects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 879–884.
    Schuckit, M. A., Gold, E., & Risch, C. (1987). Serum prolactin levels in sons of alcoholics and control subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 854–859.
    Schuckit, M. A., Goodwin, D. A., & Winokur, G. (1972). A study of alcoholism in half siblings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 122–126.
    Schuckit, M. A., & Rayses, V. (1979). Ethanol ingestion: Differences in blood acetaldehyde concentrations in relatives of alcoholics and controls. Science, 203, 54–55.
    Schulsinger, F., Knop, J., Goodwin, D. W., Teasdale, T. W., & Mikkeisen, U. (1986). A prospective study of young men at high risk for alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 755–760.
    Seilhamer, R., Jacob, T., & Dunn, N. (1993). The impact of alcohol consumption on parent- child relationships in families of alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 54(2), 189–198.
    Sgroi, S. (1982). Handbook of clinical intervention in child sexual abuse. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Shaywitz, S., Cohen, D., & Shaywitz, B. (1980). Behavior and learning difficulties in children of normal intelligence born to alcoholic mothers. Journal of Pediatrics, 96, 978–982.
    Sher, K., Walitzer, K., Wood, P., & Brent, E. (1991). Characteristics of children of alcoholics: Putative risk factors, substance use and abuse, and psycho-pathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 427–448.
    Skeen, P., & McKenry, P. (1980). The teacher's role in facilitating a child's adjustment to divorce. Young Children, 35, 3–12.
    Slavenas, R. (1988). The role and responsibility of teachers and child care workers in identifying and reporting child abuse and neglect. Early Child Development and Care, 31, 19–25.
    Smith, A. (1988). Grandchildren of alcoholics. Pompano Beach, FL: Health Communications.
    Somers, S. (1988). Keeping secrets. New York: Warner Books.
    Steinberg, L. (1986). Latchkey children and susceptibility to peer pressure: An ecological analysis. Developmental Psychology, 22, 433–439.
    Steinhausen, H. C., Gobel, D., & Nestler, V. (1984). Psychopathology in the offspring of alcoholic parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 465–471.
    Steinhausen, H. C., Nestler, V., & Huth, H. (1982). Psychopathology and mental functions in the offspring of alcoholic and epileptic mothers. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 268–273.
    Steinhausen, H. C., Willms, J., & Spohr, H.-L. (1993). Long-term psycho-pathological and cognitive outcomes of children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 990–994.
    Tabakoff, B., Hoffman, P. L., Lee, J. M., Saito, T., Willard, B., & DeLeon-Jones, J. (1988). Differences in platelet enzyme activity between alcoholics and nonalcoholics. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 134–139.
    Talashek, M., Gerace, L., & Starr, K. (1994). The substance abuse pandemic: Determinants to guide interventions. Public Health Nursing, 11(2), 131–139.
    Tarter, R. E., Hegedus, A. M., Goldstein, G., Shelly, C., & Alterman, A. I. (1984). Adolescent sons of alcoholics: Neuropsychological and personality characteristics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 8, 216–222.
    Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1980). The dynamics of psychological development. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Tischler, C. L., & McKenry, P. C. (1982). Parental negative self and adolescent suicide attempts. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 404–408.
    Tubman, J. G. (1993). A pilot study of school-age children of men with moderate to severe alcohol dependence: Maternal distress and child outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(5), 729–741.
    Udayakumar, G. S., Mohan, A., Shariff, I. A., Sekar, K., & Eswari, C. (1984). Children of the alcoholic parent. Child Psychiatry Quarterly, 17, 9–14.
    Use of alcohol linked to rise in fetal illness. (1995, April 7). New York Times, p. A27.
    Venugopal, M. (1985). Emotional problems of the children of alcoholic fathers. Child Psychiatry Quarterly, 18, 114–117.
    Visintainer, P. F., & Matthews, K. A. (1987). Stability of overt type A behaviors in children: Results from a two- and five-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 58, 1586–1591.
    Watkins, C. (1988, March 2). Reaching adolescent COAs through student assistant programs. Paper presented at the National Association of Children of Alcoholics Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA.
    Weatherford, V. (1988, March 1). ACAs' transgenerational patterns. Paper presented at the National Association of Children of Alcoholics Conference, New Orleans, LA.
    Wegscheider, S. (1976). The family trap. Crystal, MN: Nurturing Networks.
    Weinraub, M., & Lewis, M. (1977). The determinants of children's responses to separation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 42(4, Serial No. 172).
    Werner, E. E. (1986). Resilient offspring of alcoholics: A longitudinal study from birth to age eighteen. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 47, 34–40.
    Werner, E., & Smith, R. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. New York: Cornell University Press.
    West, M. W., & Prinz, R. J. (1987). Parental alcoholism and childhood psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 204–218.
    Whitchurch, G., & Constantine, L. (1993). Systems theory. In P.Boss, W.Doherty, R.LaRossa, W.Schuman, & S.Steinmetz (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach (pp. 325–349). New York: Plenum.
    Whitfield, C. L. (1980). Children of alcoholics: Treatment issues. Maryland State Medical Journal, 29, 86–91.
    Wilson, C., & Orford, J. (1978). Children of alcoholics: Report of a preliminary study and comments on the literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 39, 121–142.
    Woititz, J. (1983). Adult children of alcoholics. Pompano Beach, FL: Health Communications.
    Wolin, S. J., Bennett, L. A., Noonan, D. L., & Teitelbaum, M. A. (1980). Disrupted family rituals: A factor in the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41, 199–214.
    Wolin, S., & Wolin, S. (1993). The resilient self: How survivors of troubled families rise above adversity. New York: Random House.
    Wood, B. (1982). The COA therapist: When the family hero turns pro. ERIC.
    Wood, B. (1987). Children of alcoholics: The struggle for self and intimacy in adult life. New York: New York University Press.
    Woodside, M. (1986). Children of alcoholics: Breaking the cycle. Journal of School Health, 56, 448–449.
    Workman-Davis, K. L., & Hesselbrock, V. M. (1987). Childhood problem behavior and neuropsychological functioning in persons at risk for alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48, 187–192.
    Yamasaki, K. (1990). Parental child-rearing attitudes associated with Type A behaviors in children. Psychological Reports, 67, 235–239.

    About the Authors

    Bryan E. Robinson, Ph.D., is Professor of Child and Family Development at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. His clinical practice includes work with children of alcoholics. He has published widely in professional journals and popular magazines and is author and coauthor of numerous books related to the impact of alcoholism and workaholism on children and families. Dr. Robinson has also written scripts for national television programs on child development and has appeared on national radio and television discussing children's needs.

    J. Lyn Rhoden, Ph.D., is Visiting Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling, Special Education, and Child Development at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. She received a master's degree in special education from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and a doctoral degree in child development and family studies from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Her research interests and publications focus on child and family development in the context of changing contemporary family configurations, gender, race, and class.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website