Women in Indian Borderlands
Publication Year: 2011
Women in Indian Borderlands is an ethnographic compilation on the complex interrelationship between gender and political borders in South Asia, particularly in the three major areas of West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast India. The book is an outcome of a research program on Globalization, Democracy, Citizenship, Gender, and Peace Studies.
The chapters in the book examine the stories of women whose lives are intertwined with borders, who are its markers and who resist everyday violence in all its myriad forms. The borders become zones, where the power and control of one state ends and the other begins. The result is the startling revelation that women not only live on the borders, but in many ways, they form them and are a crucial part of ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: West Bengal
- Chapter 1: Bengal–Bangladesh Borderland: Chronicles from Nadia, Murshidabad and Malda
- Chapter 2: Narrated Time and Constructed Space: Remembering the Communal Violence of 1950 in Hooghly
Part 2: Jammu and Kashmir
- Chapter 3: Women's Voices: From Jammu and Kashmir
- Chapter 4: Renegotiating Internal Boundaries by Women of Jammu and Kashmir
Part 3: Northeast
- Chapter 5: Sanitized Society and Dangerous Interlopers: Law and the Chins in Mizoram
- Chapter 6: Engendered Lives: Women in the West Garo Hills
Part 4: Voices
Thank you for choosing a SAGE product! If you have any comment, observation or feedback, I would like to personally hear from you. Please write to me email@example.com
—Vivek Mehra, Managing Director and CEO, SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
SAGE India offers special discounts for purchase of books in bulk. We also make available special imprints and excerpts from our books on demand.
For orders and enquiries, write to us at
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110044, India
E-mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Get to know more about SAGE, be invited to SAGE events, get on our mailing list. Write today email@example.com
This book is also available as an e-book.
Copyright © Mahanirban Calcutta Research Group, 2011
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2011 by
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street
#02-01 Far East Square
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10/13 pt Adobe Garamond by Star Compugraphics Private Limited, Delhi and printed at Chaman Enterprises, New Delhi.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Women in Indian borderlands/edited by Paula Banerjee, Anasua Basu Ray Chaudhury.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Women—India—Social conditions. 2. Women immigrants—India—Social conditions. 3. Borderlands—Social aspects—India. I. Banerjee, Paula. II. Basu Ray Chaudhury, Anasua
ISBN: 978-81-321-0650-0 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Elina Majumdar, Sonalika Rellan, Mathew P. J. and Deepti Saxena
This volume is an outcome of a research programme supported by the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR). The support of the ICSSR is kindly acknowledged. The views expressed here are of the authors and editors.
List of Tables[Page vii]
- 1.1 Decadal Variation of Population (1901–1961) (in percentage) 9
- 1.2 Population of Administrative Division of Nadia (Sadar Subdivisions) 1911–1961 11
- 1.3 Percentage Variation in Population in Nadia (Sadar Subdivision) 12
- 1.4 Growth of Population by Sex in Murshidabad in Census Years 1901–2001 13
- 1.5 Percentage Variations in Population of Malda District from Decade to Decade, 1901–1951 14
- 1.6 Balance of Migration from Murshidabad to Malda, 1891–1921 and 1951 15
- 1.7 Migration between Malda and Other Districts of Bengal during 1891–1921 and West Bengal in 1951 16
- 1.8 Distribution of Displaced Persons in Nadia District, 1955 (Outside Govt. Camps) 20
- 1.9 Decadal Variation of Population, 1961–2001 21
- 1.10 Population by Religion, Murshidabad, 1991–2001 22
- 1.11 Displaced Persons Arriving in Malda by District of Origin, 1946–1951 23
- 1.12 Comparison of Types of Offences Committed in Nadia, Murshidabad and Malda 30
- 1.13 Offences Committed against Women 37
- 4.1 Urban Clusters in Kashmir Valley 97
- 4.2 Annual Average Growth Rate of Population in 1981 and 2001(District-wise Profile) 98
- 4.3 Rural and Urban Sex Ratio (Females per Thousand Males) 99
List of Photographs[Page ix]
- 2.1 Recent Photos of Imambarah 46–47
- 6.1 Two Photographs of Fencing under Construction and a Border Road along with Fencing in West Garo Hills 160
- 6.2 Woman Seen Fetching Water from a Pond Near the Fencing 165
- 6.3 A Mother Passing by Fencing Where Her Son Was Killed by BSF in West Garo Hills 166
- 6.4a Arfina along with Her Mother 168
- 6.4b Photo of Gumeljan Bewa 168
List of Maps
This volume is an outcome of a two-year-long research programme on ‘Globalization, Democracy, Citizenship, Gender and Peace Studies’ conducted by the Calcutta Research Group. This broad research programme has two segments namely, ‘Globalization and Sustainability of Rights’ and ‘Women and Borders in South Asia’. As a research collective that works on issues of women and borders in South Asia in general and women and Indian borderlands in particular, the CRG undertook this particular segment dealing into women and borders in order to take a hard look at the interface of gender and democracy.
We have accumulated numerous debts in preparing this volume. We are really thankful to Bhaskar Chakraborty, Bharati Ray, Rekha Chowdhary, Sanjukta Bhattacharya, N. Vijaylakshmi Brara, Gina Sangkham, Kheseli Chishi, Ritu Menon, Asha Hans, Bodhisattva Kar, Subhoranjan Dasgupta, Pradip Kumar Bose, T.C.A Anant, Pradeep Bhargava, Sharit Bhowmik, Bhupinder Brar, Partha Chatterjee, Sanjay Chaturvedi, Kalpana Kannabiran, Dipankar Sinha and Virginius Xaxa. Their valuable suggestions have helped the authors and editors of this volume to shape their ideas in finer ways. We have no words to express our gratitude to Ranabir Samaddar, who has taken the pain to go through each of the articles. His constant support, encouragement and criticism have enriched our research. We express our sincere gratitude to him. This volume may not have appeared without the editorial assistance of Purna Banerjee and we thank her for that.
We also thank our colleagues, Samir Kumar Das, Sabyasachi Basu Ray Chaudhury, Ishita Dey, Supurna Banerjee, Sutirtha Bedajna, Rajat Kanti Sur, Geetisha Dasgupta and Sucharita Sengupta, for helping us in various [Page xiv]ways in preparing this volume. We would also like to thank Samaresh Guchhait for designing the web segment of the research programme. Without the assistance of our administrative staff, we would not have been able to finish this study in time.
This work has been possible due to the generous support of the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR). We are thankful to the then chairperson of the ICSSR, Javeed Alam, and other members of the ICSSR. We would also like to put on record our thanks to the ICSSR office, in particular G.S. Saun, for his constant advice and support that facilitated the research programme. We also thank the members of the mid-term appraisal team, R.S. Deshpande, Vasanthi Raman and Chairman of the Appraisal Team, Apurba Kumar Baruah, in particular, whose suggestions and recommendations helped us in improving the papers. We also thank all the contributors of this volume. Our happiness in associating with the SAGE Publications increases with every venture.
We hope that this volume will help those who work on feminism, partition, displacement and also those who strive to put an end to racist, sexist and militarist domination in the borderlands of this region and elsewhere.Kolkata August 2010
Introduction: Resistance in the Borderlands[Page xv]and
This is an ethnographic collection on the complex correlation between gender and border. There is hardly any literature, other than one recently published volume by SAGE Publications entitled Borders, Histories, Existences: Gender and Beyond, on women's role in the borderlands of India and this collection is meant to address that lacunae. The present state system in South Asia, in particular the state system of the subcontinent, is a result largely of the partitions in the eastern and western parts of the erstwhile united India, giving birth to three states—India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The borders dividing these countries are markers of past bitter history, current separate, distinct and independent existence, and the sign of the territorial integrity/disintegration of these states. The bitterness of the past, the lack of mutual confidence at present, the security concerns of all these states, at the same time the existence of thousand and one linkages make the South Asian borders unique, both spatially and metaphorically, and it also makes this space or borderlands more complex. These spaces bear within lines of hatred, disunity, informal connections and voluminous informal trade, securitized and militarized lines, heavy para-military presence, communal discord, humanitarian crisis, human rights abuses and enormous suspicion that makes it particularly problematic for women. Recently, a few studies have appeared on the borderlands, but hardly any on the myriad roles that women play here. This collection of essays concentrate on every aspect of the borderlands on India. Paula Banerjee's volume Borders, [Page xvi]Histories, Existences: Gender and Beyond deals with the border and women's presence in it from a designated historical perspective and gives us a theoretical scaffolding of the subject. However, the present volume contains a host of ethnographic studies that at times supports Banerjee's thesis and at other times problematizes it through actual narratives and its analysis. Perhaps it will be correct to say that this book takes up from where the other volume leaves off; thereby it takes the narrative of women and borders further by foregrounding the element of justice in it.
The only borderland where a strong and separate discourse on women exists is the US–Mexico borderland. No one more than Gloria Anzaldua is responsible for the discourse to take such a trajectory. Anzaldua rebels against the cultural tyranny faced by women in this borderland, where anything that she desired for her improving her life was marked as her ‘selfishness’. She creates the ‘New Mestiza’ who dramatically reclaims the ground for female historical presence. She is also the woman who lacks an official history but creates her own legacy. Anzaldua finds many followers, not least among them Vicki Ruiz. Ruiz studies women's border journeys not in terms of travel, but in terms of accommodating, resisting and transforming through migration. Their journeys are those of survival and resilience. But what about those that did not survive so well, did they not have histories? There is little discussion on such a history. A little later when Debbie Nathan writes about Women and Other Aliens: Essays from the US–Mexico Border (1991) she also speaks of how women in the borders transform not just their dress but also their stance towards parents, husbands, children, boyfriends and birth control. Nathan, however, is much less celebratory as she discusses on the one hand how immigration is transformative for both family and gender roles, but on the other hand also talks about a plethora of other challenges women on the border face, such as abortion of illegal and unplanned child, jail sentences for petty crimes and lack of jobs for illegal existences. Interest on gender and women's lives in the region has continued. Today there are a number of works such as Mattingly and Hansen's (2006) volume that discusses socio-economic conditions on the border as they shape and are shaped by both daily life at the local level and the global economy. They discuss the change in the maquiladora workforce, the political activism of women in the borders and role of women's non-governmental organizations. Perhaps no other borderland can claim such a rich feminist discourse. Our effort is [Page xvii]certainly not to replicate it. Our geographical location have some similarities but also many differences that create different histories.
The borderlands within the purview of our discussion are marked by similar violence that plagues the US–Mexico borderland. In this site of violence a few get included but many more are left out, excluded as aliens, and most of those who are left out have feminine forms. They embody the difference that marks the borders. The border as the site where this contest over inclusion and exclusion is played out every day becomes a zone of endemic violence where masculinity is privileged. The states views them as territories that needs to be possessed by blood, if required, as they are thought to demarcate the inside from the outside, sovereignty from anarchy and the singular/pure from pluralistic/contaminated spaces. They construct the space of agency, the mode of participation in which we act as citizens in the multilayered polities to which we belong. Hence, borders to the state or its leaders are not merely lines. They are zones that situate the grey areas where the jurisdiction of the state ends and the other state takes over. They are the common ground of two or more states that share them and also interpret its meanings in very different ways to its citizens in their national narratives, history writing and collective spatialized memories. In the case of India, just like that of the USA, security concerns overwhelm all other equally legitimate concerns and values. Military security dominates over human security in the border region.
However, unlike the US–Mexico borderlands, none of India's borderlands have any industrial development. There are no common economic planning and no health services. Does one hear a sigh of relief? We can say with clear conscience that after all India does not treat its borders as vestiges of colonialism to be used and abused at will. But this does not preclude the fact that these borderlands remain as regions of endemic poverty and violence. Women living in Indian borderlands are not as fortunate as their mestiza counterpart, as they neither have a celebratory history nor have developed a celebratory discourse such as the Chicana women. Yet they survive the ordeal of violence and resist in their small ways the massive structure of state power, while some of their Western counterparts and governments are often more caught up in spending resources in trying to save them from fate worse than death or from being trafficked particularly to their respective countries and squander fortunes on anti-trafficking programmes [Page xviii]without considering how they can save themselves and their families from hunger deaths because such deaths are a reality in the world of our borderlands. So we feel the need to tell the story of these women who, albeit ordinary live in the borders, are its markers and resist everyday violence in all its multiplicities. These essays then concern themselves with women living in Indian borderlands and discuss how they negotiate their differences with a state, though democratic, but denies space to difference based on either ethnicity, religion, class or gender. Women living in the borders are the subject of this series of articles not only because they belong to these perilous territories or the borders but also because in many ways they form them.
The universalistic nature of citizenship that emanates from traditional liberal and social democratic discourses is extremely deceptive as it conceals the exclusion of women from national identities of citizenship. The nation and the state are both premised in particular gender identities. Thus the ideological constructions of the state are weighted against women who remain in the borders of democracy. Yet in moments of conflict at times women assume centrality. This is because in areas of civil conflict men withdraw from civic life for compulsions of war and self-defence, and borderlands of India are often spaces of conflict. In such a situation, the public sphere retreats into the private and women form the civil societies. They assume roles that are completely new to them and confront and negotiate with the massive power of the state machinery in their everyday lives. Further, as transmitters of cultural value, women construct differences that shape the future of the nation and the border. Yet in borderlands the feminization of civil space seldom happens, and when it happens, it seldom stays that way for long, as the recent history of Manipur suggests, which we have written elsewhere. Conflict here leads to further masculinization of the space as this is the space that demarcates the citizens from the aliens, and only men can be pristine or model citizens who can draw blood for the state, albeit the blood that is drawn can be and often is women's blood. Therefore, in fact most of our traditional efforts to make geopolitical regions such as borderlands more secure are nothing but attempts to privilege a masculine definition of security that result in only feminine insecurities. In addressing questions of security, the insecurities of women always remain in the back of beyond. In this volume we deal with insecurities of women posited on the borderlands and analyse how they deal with them. This volume is a collection of micro-narratives discussing different aspects of women's lives on [Page xix]the borders. We ask how women deal with the multiple hazards that these borders present. We do not question whether women's negotiations with the borders as bordered existences are merely an act of coping or of agency. We assume all forms of coping contain within it some form of agency. We question how women deal with perennial conflicts that are found in Indian borderlands. Whether their acts of resistance mark them as feminists or not is something that does not perturb us. We wish to recover all acts of resistance feminist or otherwise. In our essays we ask whether the effects of the border are restricted only to the borderland. We also look at bordered people, especially refugee women and analyse how the act of migration affects women's abilities to negotiate complex social, political and economic relationships? A further question that we pose is how globalization impacts on all of this. Does it in any way help us to move beyond cyclical patterns of violence? This collection of articles try to interpret these issues from new angles and locations if not answer these questions in proper social science terms. The essays throw up many issues that should interest social scientists such as how the paradigm of trafficking homogenizes offences against women, how the border becomes both a reality and a metaphor, how migration is transformative for women, how violence percolates borders, how the urge to control resources pushes matrilineal tribes to margins, etc. Spatially also this collection of essays is varied and interesting as it includes two articles that are located on the Bengal–Bangladesh border, two on Kashmir–Pakistan border and two others on Northeast–Myanmar–Bangladesh border. The last section is entitled voices. The volume gives us glimpses of the ‘real’ women living in the border dealing with complexities much larger than themselves creating, resisting and transforming their realities in their own terms. The kaleidoscopic images disturb, excite, confuse but always push us to know about these women a little more.
The first chapter is entitled ‘Bengal–Bangladesh Boderland: Chronicles from Nadia, Murshidabad and Malda’ by Paula Banerjee. Banerjee refers to three major works on borderland, including her own book entitled Borders, Histories, Existences: Gender and Beyond. Besides which the other two publications include The Marginal Nation: Transborder Migration from Bangladesh to West Bengal written by Ranabir Samaddar, and The Bengal Borderland: Beyond State and Nation in South Asia by Willem Van Schendel. Banerjee states that she wanted to move away from meta-narratives and look at borders from the perspective of capillaries of political and historical spaces. [Page xx]In this chapter she addresses a vexed issue that she has not previously dealt with. She looks at the notions of flows, and how that impacts on notions of security. With every election and every census, borders become an issue. The concern remains over undocumented migrants and whether their arrival threatens the nation. She also addresses notions of increasing violence in the borders as tool of managing and the paradigm shift in what is considered crime as a result of these flows. She looks at fencing as a marker of such violence and discusses women in this border and the evolution of their relationship to the border. She argues that violence in the borders priveleges certain forms of crime. She discusses how stopping trafficking became part of the international agenda whereas all other crimes become negligible. She returns to an intensive demographic study of the Bengal–Bangladesh borderlands in the three districts of Nadia, Murshidabad and Malda. Instead of meta-narratives she comes back to the question of micro politics and questions whether present-day flows have any relation to past histories or not. Her argument is that borders have historically evolved as gendered entity and thereby these have become spaces of extraordinary control and violence against women. Concentration on trafficking does not give justice to women but rather creates more unjust border regimes for them. All other offences are forgotten while trafficking assumes the centre stage.
Are borders real or metaphors is the question addressed in the next chapter. This chapter is entitled ‘Narrated Time and Constructed Space: Remembering the Communal Violence of 1950 in Hooghly’ and in it Anasua Basu Ray Chaudhury argues that borders are not just lines in the landscape, they actively shape the societies and cultures that they enclose. Borders denote a spatial dimension of social relationships that are continually being configured and, in this process, the meaning of borders is produced, reconstructed, strengthened or weakened. The notion of borders in today's world is a testimony to the importance of territoriality with the creation of the ‘other’. The imagery of borders has become a popular metaphor in the study of socio-spatial development in post-partition societies. In this study, Basu Ray Chaudhury unravels the stories of three Muslim women of Hooghly, an otherwise calm and quiet place, during the turbulent years of partition. Anasua's study captures the lives and experiences of the people who live through the ‘partitioned time’, of the way in which the events accompanying the partition constructs in their minds, and the identities or [Page xxi]uncertainties that partition creates or re-enforces. The main purpose of the study is to enquire on how women negotiate borders—borders of sect, community, patriarchy, and of conflicts not only in their own land but also in an alien land away from their homeland. She analyses the self-representation of the Muslims once displaced. She focuses on their narratives of victimhood, which tends to be framed in rhetoric of Hindu–Muslim differences. She argues that their memories may be subjective in nature, but their selective memories help us to understand how the displaced women negotiate. In this article she attempts to deal with the inner process of ‘line making’ and ‘line negotiating’ based on the narratives of those women, which shapes their memories of displacements with the gender-specific experiences as ‘returnees’.
Much has already been written on Kashmir and its women but very little is known about the women saddling the India–Pakistan border. In the next section there are two narratives from Kashmir. The two chapters are namely ‘Women's Voices: From Jammu and Kashmir’ by Anuradha Bhasin Jamwal and Suchismita and ‘Renegotiating Internal Boundaries by Women of Jammu and Kashmir’ by Sumona DasGupta. Anuradha in her chapter highlights women as the major victims of warfare. One of the most obvious examples of specific victimhood of women in armed conflict, she argues, is their vulnerability to sexual assault and rape. Rape and sexual abuse is nothing new in the history of warfare. Marauding armies have through different periods of history, around the globe, taken advantage of women in the course of military conquests. What is new is the role of media. Instant reporting from the field results in rapid sensitization of public opinion. It greatly reduces the time lapse between the perpetration of such tragedies and their responses to them and thereby generating responses from the people very quickly. However, in the case of borders, lack of access and no reportage make the consequent sensitization elusive. She argues that the victimization started when the borders were carved out in 1947–1948, when people living in fairly peaceful areas suddenly found themselves on the fringes of nowhere, close to places that had become simply lines drawn on a map for everybody else in South Asia. The brunt was borne not only by women living on the borders; the prolonged trauma was also shared by women living away from the borders but affected in many ways by the sudden carving of new boundaries, dislocation and its [Page xxii]multiple consequences. For the majority population of India and Pakistan, the traumatic memories of partition have become historical narratives, but in Jammu and Kashmir because of the disputed nature of its borders, these memories are a festering sore, which continues to bleed and makes people suffer in the form of displacements and dispossession on account of border skirmishes between the hostile neighbours. She claims that weird border contours on the maps of J&K intensify the militarization of borders on both sides, thus adding to the insecurity among the border population in general and women in particular. A continuum of tragedy and victimization has followed till date due to constant hostility and wars that have adversely affected the border people in many ways. In her chapter she gives examples of great onslaughts that these border people witnessed in 1965, 1971 and in the post-insurgency period of 1989 and beyond. Through narratives she argues in her chapter that violence and victimhood at the borders does not stop at the borders but percolates deep inside the nation form adding to the gendered dimension of the Indian nation.
At the very outset Sumona DasGupta identifies the term ‘border’ not just as physical boundaries represented by de facto and de jure cartographic lines that separate the sovereign writ of one state from another, but also as other fault lines generated or accentuated by a conflict. Acknowledging borders as lines that separate and delimit spaces, she goes beyond ‘cartographic anxieties’ and physical landscapes to ‘non-cartographic anxieties’—borders that are etched on mindscapes—lines that separate ‘us’ from ‘them’. In doing so she recognizes that there can be an overlap between these two sets of anxieties, and that where they intersect, fault lines come into even sharper relief. In her research she portrays how these borderlines are mediated by gender. Gender is used not just as a descriptive category but as an analytical tool that is as much about men and masculinity as it is about women and femininity. A gender perspective consequently explores how men and women's roles are constructed in society and gender sensitive conflict analysis looks at ways in which gender roles, gender identities, gender ideologies and gendered power structures may be altered in the course of a protracted conflict. Informed by this, the chapter explores some of the fault lines/borderlines in the iconography of the contemporary conflict in Jammu and Kashmir, using gender as a cross-cutting variable rather than as a separate, add-on issue.[Page xxiii]
The next section is composed of two articles from the Northeast India–Myanmar and Northeast India–Bangladesh borders. The Indo–Myanmar border is considered a fairly safe and friendly unlike the previous two borders that we discussed. Sanitized or not, even this border has its own compulsions. Sahana Basavapatna in her chapter entitled ‘Sanitized Society and Dangerous Interlopers: Law and the Chins in Mizoram’ analyses from a legal perspective the experiences of Burmese women who in migrating across international borders problematize democracy, identity and citizenship. She explores the theme from two perspectives—first, how the legal frame and, second, how cultural and political ties of Mizoram themselves affect the Burmese migrants in India. A host of factors lead to the migration of the people from the Chin state to Mizoram. The Indo-Burma border thus becomes extremely significant for continuing migration and cross-border terrorism. Sahana focuses on the experiences of women crossing these borders and the responses of both the state and the central governments. It is through the legal frame that she seeks to analyse how women who have been forced to migrate negotiate the complex social, political and economic web of relationships of being branded as foreigner and in many cases illegal. She argues that the law being rooted in the patriarchal mindset is inadequate in perceiving and responding to women's needs. She concludes how Mizoram through its restrictions of foreigners become another example of how a state seeks to sanitize society. At the focal point of Sahana's research are the Chin refugees. By considering the issue at a more transitive level where it is more than purely a struggle for ethnic and cultural rights, Sahana argues that the case represents a control over circuits of legal and paralegal trade and other transactions. Within the problematic, gender is not yet another site of difference but it is an inseparable constitutive element of the conflict itself. And here, trade and other transactions figure as processes where the element of gender plays a role.
Anjuman Ara Begum in her chapter entitled ‘Engendered Lives: Women in the West Garo Hills’ argues that partition is conceptually distinct from population transfer, though in most cases, it is accompanied by substantial sorting of populations. Partition is a political outcome that impacts social life tremendously. With partition, the border creeps in, creating lines that divides people, society and nation. The border becomes physically visible when it is fenced. Fences along the border lines make the border a concrete and fixed structure representing control of land and people. Border gives [Page xxiv]birth to the extremities of particular forms of violence that are enacted in the name of security and well-being checkpoints, walls, fences, technologies of surveillance and governance. Physical borders create metaphorical borders between people living in the area of West Garo Hill. Here the border is between the tribal Garos and the non-tribal Muslims. Each community looks upon each other with extreme suspicion, thereby always making violence a possibility. Other than that paradigms of control over borders create regimes of violence. With newer forms of border protection, women face new inequalities. For example, Border Security Force (BSF) put a stop to historical flows across borders and fencing put a stop to women's economic activities through bartering of goods across borders leading to their further pauperization. Any violence lead to backlash against women and tribal women, who are matrilineal, and are forced so that they give up their symbolic control over land and non-tribal women are forcefully pushed out of it. The author says that women's lives in the borderlines of West Garo hills reflect their sheer resilience, silent tears and a burning desire to put a step outside the line called ‘border’. It also reflects their sheer energy and will to overcome all inequity and injustice.
In the section on ‘Voices’ we have brought together interviews of women from the Bengal–Bangladesh and the Northeast–Myanmar borders. This is a project of recovery. We hope to recover the feminine voices of resistance in the borderlands. In formalistic, institutional and militarized spaces that privilege the masculine what gets primarily lost is the feminine voice. By speaking about their lives, the women regain some of the agency that had been lost. Through this process of auto-ethnography we hope to recover the lost voices of women in this highly masculine and militarized space called the ‘borders’. These interviews are brought to us by Aditi Bhaduri and Chitra Ahanthem. Aditi conducted her interviews in villages of Jayantipur, Hatkhola, Petrapole, Shutiya and correctional facilities in Kolkata. By the act of speaking, women invoke justice and resist injustices that they face in their everyday lives as marginal beings. Chitra focuses exclusively in the plight of women in the border town of Moreh. The everyday life stories of these women reflect not only their identity as women but how these realities are shaped by their location near a porous international border town where the border not only divides the lives of ‘women’ but plays a crucial role in joining them in their labouring lives as women. The border that Moreh women traverses is supposedly as safe but does it lead to feminine securities? We leave it as a question for the readers to address.[Page xxv]
The chapters are exceptional in many ways. They deal with an issue that is seldom dealt within Indian social science. As stated earlier, there is currently only one book on the gendered dimension of borderlands in South Asia. Therefore, this in many ways is an exceptional topic. Yet borderlands are an extremely vexed issue in this day of securitization and cross-border flows of all kinds. And the role that women play in these flows is extremely pertinent. Apart from that the chapters also confirm that violence is a constitutive element of borderlands when analysed from a gender perspective. All the chapters deal with violence in their own respective ways. Violence foregrounds women's experiences in all the borders, even the ones considered as benign. But with violence there is also the story of resistance, perhaps not glorious, grandiose or heroic resistance but in women's narratives those stories are few and far between. Here we speak of resistance often seemingly insignificant but transformative in its entirerity. Apart from that the chapters go beyond the trope of ‘coping’ and ‘agents’. They make the theoretical claim that all coping mechanisms are agentive. So in terms of feminist theory they mark a departure. They also deal with a number of contentious issues such as AIDS and its effects on women in the borderlands; they also feminize subjects of migrant trade and migrant labour, and grapple with the effects of globalization on bordered entities such as women. Above all they celebrate what it means to be a woman in the border and a survivor, notwithstanding whether the state recognizes her efforts as that of an agent or someone merely coping for survival. Our project is to recover her from erasure and foreground her resistance, and in this can be sought the seeds of the future project of transformation.[Page xxvi]
Consolidated Bibliography[Page 218]Primary Documents1972. Hooghly District Gazetteer. Calcutta: Government of West Bengal..2009. ‘Floodlights to Aid BSF Night Patrol’, The Assam Tribune, 3 December.Census Organisation. 1951. Census of Pakistan, 1951, Vol. III: East Bengal, Report and Tables. Karachi: Government of Pakistan.Government of India. 1951. District Census. Malda. Table 1.24, p. 79.Government of India. 1965. West Bengal District Gazetteers. Nadia, Gazetteers of India, Government Documents, National Library.Government of India. 2001. Census of India. New Delhi. Available online at http://www.censusindia.gov.in (accessed in January 2010).Government of India. 2006–07. Annual Report 2006–07. ‘National Domestic Worker's Movements—North Eastern Region’, New Delhi.Government of India. 2008. Annual Report 2007–08. Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi.Government of West Bengal. 1932. List of Active Decoit Gangs in Bengal 1930, pp. 186–204. Bengal Police, Calcutta. Procured from Hogolberia Police Station, Shikarpur, Nadia.Government of West Bengal. 1951. Census Handbook. Malda: Government of West Bengal.Government of West Bengal. 1971. District Census Handbook, Nadia. Directorate of Census Operations: Government of West Bengal.Government of West Bengal. 2007a. District Statistical Handbook. Malda: Government of West Bengal.Government of West Bengal. 2007b. District Statistical Handbook. Murshidabad: Government of West Bengal.Government of West Bengal. 2009. District Statistical Handbook, Hooghly: 2007. Kolkata: Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics.Government of West Bengal. 2004. West Bengal Human Development Report. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal.Government of Mizoram. 2003. ‘Guidelines for Regulating Entry of Myanmarese Tribals into Mizoram’, Notification No. D.32030/146/2003-HMP(BMC), dated 5 November 2003, Mizoram Gazette, 32 (347): 1–14.[Page 219]Human Rights Documentation Unit, National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma. 2008. Burma Human Rights Year Book, pp. 946–71. Available online at http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/HRDU_YB-2008/pdf/refugees.pdf (last accessed in January 2010).Human Rights Law Network. 2006. Trafficking and the Law. New Delhi: HRLN.IB File No. 1238 A/47 (Nadia), ‘Extract from the weekly report of the Superintendent of Police, Nadia, for the week ending 1.12.50’, WB State Archives, 43 Shakespeare Sarani (hereafter WBSAIB).IB File No. 1238 A/47 (Nadia), Memo No. 7491 (5) / 23:50 (Tehatta), ‘To the WB Police, DIG Central Range’, DIGIB, DM 24 Parganas, WBSAIB.IB File No. 1238 A/47, Memo no. 1908, 2/1238 A-47 / For date 7.5.1951, pp. 809–41, ‘Fortnightly report on Border incidents in West Bengal during 2nd Half of April 1951’, WBSAIB.IB File No. 1238 A/47, Untitled Memo No. 25522 / 1238 A-47 / For date 20.6.1951, p. 867, WBSAIB.IB File No. 1355-28, Serial No. NSP XLVI, ‘Sushil Kr. Chatterjee s/o Upendranath of Basantapur PO Haringhata and Gaori, Krishnanagar, Nadia’, No. 55, WBSAIB.District Minority Board Proceedings, File No. XIX, Serial No. 19, ‘From Manager of Hooghly Imambarah to Chaiman of the District Magistrate Board, 1949—50’ (unpublished primary source collected from the Imambarah strong room).1953. ‘Census 1951’, District Handbook Nadia, p. XXXVII. Calcutta: Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal.Planning Commission. 2003. ‘Demography’, Jammu and Kashmir Development Report, p. 26, State Plan Division, Government of India. Available online at http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/stateplan/sdr_jandk/sdr_jkch2.pdf (accessed on 15 January 2010).1912. Bengal District Gazetteer: Hooghly. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Book Depot.The Gazette of India. 1905. ‘Government of India Notifications’, Saturday, 22 July. Simla: Government of India.‘Young Mizo Association: A Profile’ (pamphlet) (undated) Mizoram: Central YMA.Books/Articles2007. Hooghly Chuchurar Nana Kotha (in Bengali) (Many Stories of Hooghly and Chinsura). Hooghly: Hooghly Sangbad..2008Violence touches each family in Kashmir, The WIP. Available online at http://thewip.net/contributors/2008/08/violence_touches_each_family_l.html (last accessed on 5 January 2010)..We Refugees, European Graduate School website. Available online at http://www.egs.edu/faculty/giorgio-agamben/articles/we-refugees (last accessed on 1 June 2010).. n.d.2004. Performance and Politics on the Disputed Borders of Ladakh, India. North Carolina: Duke University Press.. [Page 220]2010. Available online at: http://www.hivaidsonline.in/index.php/Vulnerable-Groups/insurgency-makes-health-care-dangerous.html (last accessed on 15 February 2010)..2003. Kashmir Behind the Vale. New Delhi: Viking.1995. ‘The Mexican-US Border: The Making of an Anthropology of Borderlands’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 24: 447–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.24.100195.002311.2007. Rigorous Road to Rehabilitation,’ Women's Features Service. Available online at http://www.indiatogether.org/2007/oct/wom-roadrehab.htm (last accessed on 5 January 2010)..Bagchi, Jasodhara, SubhoranjanDasgupta and SubhasriGhosh (ed.). 2009. The Trauma and the Triumph: Gender and Partition in Eastern India, Part 2. Kolkata: Stree.1983. Simmering Volcano: Study of Jammu's Relations with Kashmir. New Delhi: Sterling..2007. ‘Syed Keramat Ali: The Great Architect of Hooghly Imambarah’, in RanjitKumarDe (ed.), Hooghly Imambarah, pp. 13–20. Hooghly: Bhraman Barta Paribar..2003. ‘Lives Delimited by Barbed Wires’, Refugee Watch, 13 (18): 6–8.and .2003. ‘News from the Indo-Bangladesh Border’, Refugee Watch, 19 (August): 2..2009. ‘Women, Trafficking and Statelessness in South Asia’, in RoohiSanam and RanabirSamaddar (eds), Key Texts on Social Justice in India, Volume IV, pp. 343–443. New Delhi: SAGE Publications..Banerjee, Paula, SabyasachiBasu RayChaudhury, and SamirKumarDas (eds). 2005. Internal Displacement in South Asia. New Delhi: SAGE Publications.1999. ‘Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking of the Girl Child: The Indian Scenario’, Migrant Labour and Trafficking of Women: Workshop Report, pp. 32–36. Nepal: National Network against Girl Trafficking..2008. ‘What Kind of Border Regime Is in the Making? Towards a Differentiated and Uneven Border Strategy’, Cooperation and Conflict, March, 41 (1): 53–71. Available online at http://www.csa.com/ids70/gateway.php?mode=pdf&doi=10.1177%2F0010836706060935&db=polsci-set-c&s1=2a8ce637cd352c8de3c93418fca12d33&s2=878f07eac4de2168b5e51583e473e21d (last accessed on 3 December 2009). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010836706060935, and .2010. ‘Towards a “Soft Law” Framework for the Protection of Vulnerable Migrants’, Research Paper No. 162, New Issues in Refugee Research, UNHCR, May. Availale online at http://unhcr.org/48b7f9642.html (last accessed on 6 June 2010)..Bhargava, R. and H.Reifeld (eds), 2005. Civil Society, Public Sphere and Citizenship: Dialogues and Perceptions, p. 290. New Delhi: SAGE Publications.1994. Kashmir the Wounded Valley. New Delhi: UBSPD..2003. ‘The Returnees and the Refugees: Migration from Burma’, in RanabirSamaddar (ed.), Refugees and the State: Practices of Asylum and Care in India, 1947–2000, pp. 182–210. New Delhi: Sage Publications..2007. ‘Spheres of Citizenship’, Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 8 (2): 114–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1565-3404.1156.1968. Calcutta: A Social Survey. Bombay: Lakshmi Publishing House..1997. The Challenge in Kashmir: Democracy, Self Determination and a Just Peace. New Delhi: SAGE Publications.. [Page 221]2003. Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press..2008. ‘Ethical Territoriality and the Rights of Immigrants’, Amsterdam Law Forum, 1 (1): 1. Available online at http://ojs.ubvu.vu.nl/alf/article/viewArticle/54/73 (last accessed January 2010).2002. ‘Women's Role in Human Rights and Peace in the Northeast’, PUCL Bulletin. Delhi: PUCL..1995. ‘Liberation’, in Stella and FrankChipasula (eds), The Heinemann Book of African Women's Poetry, p. 53. Oxford: Heinemann's Educational Publishers.2008. Speaking Peace: Women's Voices from Kashmir. New Delhi: Kali for Women..2007. ‘Living in Hope,’ Hindu Sunday Magazine. Available online at http://www.hinduonnet.com/mag/2007/02/18/stories/2007021800030500.htm (last accessed on 5 August 2010)..Chakrabatti, Monmohan (ed.). 1918. A Summary of the Changes in the Jurisdiction of Districts in Bengal 1757–1916, Kumud Ranjan Biswas (revised and updated). Kolkata: West Bengal District Gazetteers.1999. ‘The Fashioning of a Frontier: The Radcliffe Line and Bengal's Border Landscape: 1947–1952’, Modern Asian Studies, 33 (1): 185–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X99003066.2002. Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition 1932–1947(Cambridge South Asian Studies). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..2007. Spoils of Partition: Bengal and India 1947–67. UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511497384.Chattopadhyay, Basudeb (ed.). 2007. Bengal Partitioned (West Bengal State Archives, Higher Education Department). Calcutta: Government of West Bengal.2007. ‘The Excess of Geopolitics: Partition of ‘British India’, in StefanoBianchin, SanjayChaturvedi, RadaIvekovic and RanabirSamaddar (eds), Partitions: Reshaping States and Minds, pp. 125–60. USA: Frank Cass..Chimni, B.S. (ed.). 2002. International Refugee Law: A Reader. New Delhi: SAGE Publications.2001. ‘Disturbed Border’, The Frontline, 28 April-11 May, 18 (9). Available online at http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1809/18090220.htm (last accessed on 3 December 2010)..2008. ‘Gender is Just a Political Tool’, Women's Feature Services. New Delhi: Women's Feature Service..2008. ‘Being Muslim in Jammu’, Economic and Political Weekly, 23–29 August, 43 (34): 11–14..2001. ‘Communal Violence and Literature’, trans. Tahira Naqvi, My Friend, My Enemy: Essays, Reminiscences, Portraits. New Delhi: Kali for Women..2004. The Line: Women. Partition and the Gender Order in Cyprus. UK: Zed Books..2008. ‘Beyond the Nexus: UNHCR's Evolving Perspective on Refugee Protection and International Migration’, New Issues in Refugee Research, UNHCR, Research Paper No. 155, April 2008. Available online at http://www.unhcr.org/4818749a2.html (last accessed on 6 June 2010)..2006. Life and Words: Violence and the Descent into the Ordinary. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.. [Page 222]2008. ‘Time and a Place; Survivorhood in Dardpora’, Himal Southasian, January. Available online at http://www.himalmag.com/component/content/article/949-Survivorhood-in-Dardpora.html (last accessed on 31 March 2011)..2001. Breaking the Silence: Women and Kashmir. New Delhi: WISCOMP..2006. ‘Athwaas Exploring New Paradigms of Engagement’, Working Paper, Stakeholders in Dialogue IV. New Delhi: WISCOMP.and .2008. Gender, Violence and Rights: Exploring Responses from Jammu and Kashmir, Building Constituencies of Peace: Stakeholders in Dialogue XII. New Delhi: WISCOMP.and .1953. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred. A. Knopf..Democracy and the Undocumented’. Available online at http://www.re-public.gr/en/?p=62 (last accessed in January 2010).. Undated. ‘2008. ‘Conflict in the Kashmir Valley II: Psychological Impact,’ Conflict and Health. Available online at http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/11 (last accessed on 5 January 2010)., , , , , , and .2007. ‘The Call of the Hooghly Imambarah’, in RanjitKumarDe (ed.), Hooghly Imambarah, 6–12. Hooghly: Bhraman Barta Paribar..2008. ‘Protean Borders and Unsettled Interstices’, Borderland e-journals, 7 (1). Available online at http://www.borderlands.net.au/vol7no1_2008/editors_protean.htm (last accessed on 20 January 2010).and .1906. Hooghly: Past and Present. Calcutta: M.M. Fey & Co..2006. ‘Status of Women and Areas of Concern in Jammu and Kashmir’, p. 4–5. Workshop on Population Sponsored by United Nations Population Fund. Available online at http://www.isca.org.in/reports/29.pdf (last accessed on 5 January 2010)..2003. ‘Society Must Be Defended’, Lectures at the College de France, 1975–1976, trans. DavidMacey. New York: Picador..1937. ‘The Population of Bengal, Its Distribution and Changes: A Contribution to Geographical Method’, The Geographical Journal, April, 89 (9): 344–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1785693.1996. The Refugee in International Law,2nd Ed.Oxford: Clarendon Press.2005. ‘Bangladesh: Displaced and Dispossessed’, in PaulaBanerjee, SabyasachiBasu RayChaudhury and SamirDas (eds), Internal Displacement in South Asia, pp. 344–61. New Delhi: SAGE Publications.and .2003. ‘Divorce as the Price of Displacement,’ Women's Feature Service, The Tribune Online, 7 December..2010. ‘Immigration and State Power’, Economic and Political Weekly, 30 January, XLV (5): 8–11..1997. Legacy of a Divided Nation: India's Muslims since Independence. Delhi: C. Hurst & Co. (publishers) Ltd..1991. The Law of Refugee Status. Toronto: Butterworths..1994. Trauma and Recovery: From Domestic Violence to Political Terror. London: River Oram Press..2007. Disrespect: The Normative Foundations of Critical Theory. UK: Polity Press..Human Rights Watch. 2009. ‘We Are Like Forgotten People: The Chin People of Burma: Unsafe in Burma, Unprotected in India, Human Rights Watch 2009’, p. 65. [Page 223]Available online at http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2009/01/27/we-are-forgotten-people (accessed in December 2009).1876. A Statistical Account of Bengal. London: Trübner..IANS. 2010. ‘Indo-Bangla Border to be Fenced by March 2010: BSF chief (Lead). Available at http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/uncategorized/indo-bangla-border-to-be-fenced-by-march-2010-bsf-chief-lead_!00279489.html#ixzzlGdizckql (last accessed on 25 December 2010).Migrations across Line of Control in Azad Jammu Kashmir’. Islamabad: Quaid-i-Azam University.,. Unpublished. ‘1999. The Lost Rebellion. New Delhi: Penguin..1992. Ladakh through the Ages: Towards a New Identity. New Delhi: Indus Publishing Company.and .2007. ‘The Citizen and the Migrant: Post Colonial Anxieties, Law and Politics of Inclusion/Exclusion’, Article 8, Theoretical Inquiries in Law, July, 8 (2): 544..RobinK., (ed.). 2009. Chin: History, Culture and Identity. Delhi: Dominant Publishers and Distributors.2009. Between Democracy and Nation: Gender and Militarisation in Kashmir. New Delhi: Women Unlimited..Khonumthung News. 2009. ‘Four Burmese Arrested in Arms Case in Mizoram’, Khonumthung News, Aizawl, Mizoram, 24 March.Khonumthung News. 2009. ‘Mizoram police arrest Burmese nationals’, Khonumthung News, Aizawl, Mizoram, 15 June.Khonumthung News. 2009. ‘Mizoram to Deport Burmese into Criminal Activity: Home Minister’, Khonumthung News, Aizawl, Mizoram, 2 March.2009. Nationality and Identity Shifts in Jammu and Kashmir's Armed Conflict. New Delhi: WISCOMP..Kundu, Jagabondhu (ed.). 2003. Hooghly Jelar Sahitya O Sanaskriti (in Bengali) (Literature and Culture of Hooghly District). Kolkata: Sahitya Setu Prakashani.Lalneihzovi. 2006. District Administration in Mizoram. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.1993. Kashmir a Disputed Legacy. Karachi: Oxford University Press..2010. ‘Tigress—Don't Chicken Out’. Available online at http://www.e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=leisure.Essays.Tigress_dont_chicken_out (last accessed on 15 February 2010)..2008. ‘Tension in the Rolling Hills: Burmese Population and Border Trade in Mizoram’, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, April. Available online at http://www.ipcs.org (last accessed on July 2009).and .2006. ‘Citizenship’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available online at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/citizenship/ (last accessed on January 2010)..2001. ‘Guns and Burqa: Women in the Kashmir Conflict’ in Women, War and Peace in South Asia: Beyond Victimhood to Agency, pp. 42–101. New Delhi: SAGE Publications..2007. Crossing Over: Redefining the Scope of Border Studies. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.and .1998. Borders and Boundaries: Women in India and Pakistan. New Delhi: Kali for Women.and .Mitra, Ashok (ed.). 1956. District Census Handbook: Hooghly. Calcutta: Government of India.[Page 224]1992. Hooghly Jelar Itihash O Somaj (in Bengali) (History of Hooghly District and Its Society). Calcutta: Dey's Publication..2002. Shara Chuchura (in Bengali) (Chinsura: A Town). Kolkata: Nabarun Press..2006. ‘Borders, Migration and Sub-Regional Co-operation in Eastern South Asia’, Economic and Political Weekly, April 8, 41 (14): 1351–58..2010. ‘Viewing Politics through a New Frame’, The Hindu Magazine, 30 January 2010..2009. ‘Entire Jammu under Siege but Rallies Unabated’, Daily Excelsior, Jammu, 9 August..Patnaik, K.Jagdish (ed.). 2008. Peace and Development in Mizoram: Role of the State and Civil Society, pp. 72–83. Mizoram: Department of Political Science, Mizoram University.2002. ‘Where Do We Go from Here?’, in SusanneThorbek and BandanaPattanaik (eds), Transnational Prostitution: Changing Global Patterns, pp. 217–30. London/New York: Zed Books..2009. ‘Population Displacement in Manipur in Last 100 Years’, in MonirulHussain and PradipPhanjoubam (eds), A Status Report on Displacement in Assam and Manipur, Policies and Practices No. 12, pp. 22–41. Kolkata: Calcutta Research Group..1996. Insurgency Movement in North Eastern India, p. 212. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing..2003. ‘They have a different view’, The Hindu, 7 October 2003., and .1995. Low Intensity Conflicts: The New Dimension to India's Military Commitments. Meerut, UP: Kartikeya Publications..Rediff News. 2009. ‘Pact Hurdle in Fencing India-Bangladesh Border’. Available online at http://news.rediff.com/report/2009/jun/30/indo-bangladesh-border-fencing-pact-hurdle.html (last accessed on 20 December 2009).Rediff News. 2010. ‘Curfew clamped on Mahendraganj’. Available online at http://www.rediff.com/news/oct/13curfew.htm (last accessed on 1 January 2010).2006. Memory, History, Forgetting, trans. KathleenBlamey and DavidPellauer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (paperback edition)..2009. Key Texts in Social Justice in India. New Delhi: SAGE Publications.and .2008. ‘Land and Freedom,’ The Guardian, August..2003. In Search of Chin Identity: A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma. Copenhagen: NIAS Press..2000. ‘The Last Hurrah That Continues’, Transeuropeennes, 19–22: 31–47..1999. The Marginal Nation: Transborder Migration from Bangladesh to West Bengal. New Delhi: SAGE Publications..Samaddar, Ranabir. (ed.). 2003. Refugees and the State: Practices of Asylum and Care in India: 1947–2000. New Delhi: SAGE Publications.2009. ‘What's in a Line? Is Partition a Solution to Civil War’, International Security, 34 (2): 82–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/isec.2009.34.2.82and . [Page 225]2009. ‘In the Valley of Despair, Women Look for a High,’ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-toi/view-from-venus/In-the-Valley-of-despair-women-look-for-a-high/articleshow/4923661.cms (last accessed on 5 August 2010)..Sanlaap. Unpublished. A Sanlaap Initiative Report on ‘Project: Linkage, A Situational Analysis on Trafficking and Prostitution in Dinbazaar (Jalpaiguri) and Changrabandha (Cooch Behar)’, supported by Gana Unnayan Parshad and Human Development Centre.2010. ‘Dadengiri, People and Their Socio-economic Life and Culture’. Available online at http://dadengiri.gov.in/essay.pdf (last accessed on 1 January 2010).1948. The History of Bengal, Vol. 2. Dacca: B.R. Publishing Corporation..2006. Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages. Princeton: Princeton University Press..2005. The Bengal Borderland: Beyond State and Nation in South Asia. London: Anthem South Asian Studies..1997. Kashmir in the Crossfire. New Delhi: Viva Books..2008. ‘Politics and Origin of the India-Bangladesh Border Fence’, paper presented to the 17th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia in Melbourne 1–3 July 2008. Available online at http://arts.monash.edu.au/mai/asaa/rizwanashamshad.pdf (last accessed on 1 January 2010)..Shillong Times. 2004a. Assam, Siliguri Main Trafficking Routes in NE’, Shillong Times, Shillong, Meghalaya, 5 June.2004b. ‘Human Trafficking Cases in Meghalaya Draw US Attention’, Shillong Times, Shillong, Meghalaya, 16 June..2009. ‘Border Haats of Meghalaya’, Shillong Times, 23 October..2010. ‘Look East Policy: An Opportunity or Uncertainty’. Available online at http://www.merinews.com/article/look-east-policy-an-opportunity-oruncertainty/15797260.shtml (accessed on 10 February 2010).2007. ‘Poverty in Manipur’, Economic and Political Weekly, 20–26 January, 42 (3): 251–54..2001. ‘Partition Memories, “Minoritisation” and Discourses of Rootedness in Jharkhand: A Comparison of Cross-border Displaced and “Invisible Refugees” in Jharkhand’, paper Presented at the Indo-Dutch Conference on ‘Displaced People in South Asia’, Chennai, March..Sinlung. 2009. ‘Cattle Smuggling to Bangladesh Poses a Challenge for the BSF’. Available online at http://aboutMeghalaya.blogspot.com/2009/02/cattle-smuggling-to-bangladesh-poses.html (last accessed on 15 December).2003. Mexico and the United States. New York: Marshall Cavendish..2007. District Council in Mizo Hills (updated). Aizawl: Lengchhawn Press.The Foundation for Social Transformation and Department of Social Work. 2008. Report of the Consultative Meeting with Local Civil Society Organizations in Mizoram. Guwuhati, Assam. Available online at http://fstindia.org/download/What%20we%20do/Mizoram%20Consultation%20Report.pdf (accessed in January 2010).2001. Gendering World Politics: Issues and Approaches in the Post Cold War Era. New York: Columbia University Press.. [Page 226]1997. The Open Sky. London: Verso..2003. ‘Re (Creating) the Home: Women's Role in the Development of Refugee Colonies in South Calcutta’, in JasodharaBagchi and SubhoranjanDasgupta (eds), The Trauma and the Triumph: Gender and Partition in Eastern India, Vol. 1, pp. 61–79. Kolkata: Stree..2008. Women Silent Victims in Armed Conflict., New Delhi: Serials Publications..WLB and Centre for Refugee Research. 2007. Looking Forward: A Report from Community Consultations. University of New South Wales, India. Available online at http://www.crr.unsw.edu.au/news-and-events/new-report-on-burmese-refugees-in-delhi-103.html, (last accessed in November 2009).Newspapers/Magazines
Jugantar, 28 February 1950.
The Assam Tribune. 1998. ‘Union Home Secretary Chairs a High Level Empowered Committee’ Embassy of India, Washington, 10 December 1998. Available online at http://www.indianembassy.org/policy/Foreign_Policy/FP_1998/bangladesh_fp1998.html (last accessed on 10 December 2010).
The Shillong Times, 23 October 2009.
The Assam Tribune, 10–12 January 2010.
Assam Tribune, 17 February 2009.
Anandabazar Patrika, 5 March 1950.
The Statesman, 8 March 1950.
The Statesman, 9 March 1950.
The Statesman, 31 March 1950.
The Statesman, 23 March 1950.
Meghalaya Timeline, 2009. South Asia Terrorism Patrol (SATP). Available online at http://www.satp.org (last accessed on 15 March 2009).
The Tribune Online, 7 December 2009.
The Guardian, August 2008.
The Hindu, 7 October 2003.
The Hindu Magazine, 30 January 2010.
Shillong Times, 16 June 2004.
Anandabazar Patrika, 14 January 2003.Websites[Page 227]
About the Editors and Contributors[Page 228]The Editors
Paula Banerjee specializes in issues of border and borderlands in South Asia. She has published extensively on issues of gender, forced migration and peace politics. Her recent publications include a volume entitled Borders, Histories, Existences: Gender and Beyond (2010). she has edited a volume entitled Women in Peace Politics (2008) and co-edited books on Internal Displacement in South Asia (2005), Autonomy beyond Kant and Hermeneutics (2007) and Marginalities and Justice (2009). she has been working on themes related to women, borders and democracy in South Asia, and has published extensively in journals such as International Studies and Canadian Women's Studies on issues such as histories of borders and women in conflict situations. She was the former Head of the department in the department of south and southeast Asian studies, University of Calcutta, and is currently Associate Professor in the same department. She is also the Vice President of International Association for study of Forced Migration.
Anasua Basu Ray Chaudhury is a Research Associate in the Mahanirban Calcutta Research Group (CRG) and a Guest Lecturer in the department of south and southeast Asian studies, University of Calcutta. She specializes in issues of violence and displacement, partition refugees and energy diplomacy in south Asia. She has authored a book entitled SAARC at Crossroads: The Fate of Regional Cooperation in South Asia (2006) including three monographs and journal articles. She has received the Public service Broadcasting Trust (PSBT) Senior Media Fellowship (2007–2008) and the Kodikara Award (1998–99).[Page 229]The Contributors
Chitra Ahanthem is an eminent journalist working for Imphal Free Press. Her areas of interests include issues related to drug use, HIV/AIDS, conflict and gender. She has won media fellowships for writing on HIV/AIDS in Manipur.
Sahana Basavapatna is a lawyer practising in Delhi. Prior to working full time as a litigating lawyer, she worked for three years as a Program Coordinator in a Delhi-based non-governmental organization (NGO) called The Other Media, where she coordinated their refugee programme focusing on Burmese, Afghan and Somali refugees.
Anjuman Ara Begum is currently pursuing her PhD in Department of Law, Gauhati University, Assam, India. She has been working in Northeast India on the issues of human rights, women's rights, right to information and budget analysis since 2003. She has worked with human rights organizations like South Asia Forum for Human Rights and North East Network. For the last three years, she is actively engaged in documentation of human rights violations in Northeast India. Her main areas of interest are human rights in armed conflict situation and gender rights.
Aditi Bhaduri is an independent journalist and researcher based in India who writes for the Indian and international print and electronic media. With a background in international relations, she began her writing career by covering the Middle East. Currently her work focuses on conflict, peace, displacement and gender. Women's issues form an important part of her work and she acts as a gender and media consultant to various NGOs. Aditi is also a member of several civil society initiatives in India.
Sumona DasGupta is an independent researcher and consultant based in New Delhi. She has written and published on issues related to militarization, gender, conflict and security, democracy, dialogue and peacebuilding. In March 2010, she was guest editor for an issue of Peace Prints, a South Asian journal of peacebuilding published by WISCOMP, New Delhi, on gender, conflict and peace. She has authored a book titled Citizen Initiatives and Democratic Engagements: Experiences from India (2010).
Anuradha Bhasin Jamwal is a peace activist and executive editor of Kashmir Times.
Suchismita is a journalist and works for Kashmir Times.