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Chapter 15: No Peace without Justice in Afghanistan
In the last 35 years of war and conflict, all of Afghanistan has been affected by violence both directly and indirectly. In the context of war, Afghan citizens, women, men, and children suffered the violence of torture, harassment, rape and sexualized assaults, massacres, looting, and impoverishment. War destroyed Afghanistan's infrastructure and its governing institutions, including the parliament and the judiciary. The experience of violence was accentuated by ethnic and gendered identities.
Afghanistan is a multiethnic and traditional society with a long history of governance along tribal lines by a weak central state. The conflict reinforced social, political, economic, religious, and ethnic fault lines, dividing the society and creating ...