Women and Men at Work

Books

Irene Padavic & Barbara Reskin

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Sociology for a New Century

    A PINE FORGE PRESS SERIES

    Edited by Charles Ragin, Wendy Griswold, and Walter W. Powell Founding Editors: Charles Ragin, Wendy Griswold, Larry Griffin

    Sociology for a New Century brings the best current scholarship to today's students in a series of short texts authored by leaders of a new generation of social scientists. Each book addresses its subject from a comparative, historical, and global perspective, and, in doing so, connects social science to the wider concerns of students seeking to make sense of our dramatically changing world.

    • An Invitation to Environmental Sociology Michael M. Bell
    • Global Inequalities York Bradshaw and Michael Wallace
    • How Societies Change Daniel Chirot
    • Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World Stephen Cornell and Douglas Hartmann
    • The Sociology of Childhood William Corsaro
    • Cultures and Societies in a Changing World Wendy Griswold
    • Crime and Disrepute John Hagan
    • Gods in the Global Village: The World's Religions in Sociological Perspective Lester R. Kurtz
    • Waves of Democracy: Social Movements and Political Change John Markoff
    • Women and Men at Work Barbara Reskin and Irene Padavic
    • Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective, Second Edition Philip McMichael
    • Aging, Social Inequality, and Public Policy Fred Pampel
    • Constructing Social Research Charles C. Ragin
    • Cities in a World Economy, Second Edition Saskia Sassen
    • Gender, Family, and Social Movements Suzanne Staggenborg
    • Law/Society: Origins, Interactions, and Change John Sutton
    • Making Societies: The Historical Construction of our World William G. Roy
    • Women and Men at Work, Second Edition Irene Padavic and Barbara Reskin

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    About the Authors

    Irene Padavic is Associate Professor at Florida State University. Before becoming a professor, she worked in a variety of service-sector jobs: candy seller at a movie theater, waitperson, telephone solicitor, door-to-door promoter of real estate, paralegal, and marketing researcher. Her dissertation project provided experience in the industrial sector, where she worked as a coal handler in a power plant. Her research has been in the areas of gender and work, race differences in campus peer culture, economic restructuring, and changes in child care arrangements.

    Barbara Reskin is Professor of Sociology at Harvard University and, when this book went to press, was president of the American Sociological Association. As a student, she supported herself in a series of female-dominated clerical jobs in such disparate settings as radio and TV stations, trucking firms, temp agencies, insurance companies, and universities. The fact that most jobs for women were boring, low paying, and dead-end encouraged her to get a Ph.D. Her research examines how workers' sex, race, and ethnicity affect their work opportunities. She is especially interested in strategies that minimize discrimination, the focus of her most recent book, The Realities of Affirmative Action.

    Dedication

    For Randy and Robin

    Irene

    For Joan, Lynn, and Naomi

    Barbara

    Preface

    A look at jobs advertised in an urban newspaper from the middle of the last century1 provides a startling contrast to contemporary help wanted ads. Alongside reasonable requirements, employers frequently specified workers' sex, race, age, and other attributes that had no bearing on job performance.

    Gender was so structured into jobs that employers and newspapers published separate listings for men and women. These sex-segregated want ads were standard until the 1970s, when members of the National Organization for Women threatened to sue the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to force it to abide by the 1964 antidiscrimination law outlawing sex segregation.

    Consider some job requirements from the “Help Wanted—Men” columns:

    • Barber: Colored, experienced. Cavalry Detachment Barber Shop, Ft. Myer.
    • Bartender: Middle-aged, sober.
    • Driver: White, age 24–35. Must know city. Neat appearance. Good traffic record.
    • Truck drivers and helpers: Must be experienced in handling furniture; must be willing to work and have good references.

    The “Help Wanted—Women” section tended to be more specific regarding the kind of workers employers sought:

    • Airline Hostesses for TransWorld Airlines: High school graduate, age 20 to 27, height 5′2″ to 5′8″, weight 100 to 135, attractive, unmarried. Apply in person.
    • Cashier-Food Checker: White, middle-aged woman, honest, alert, intelligent. Experience in cashiering or food checking.
    • File Clerk: White, attractive, typing required, PBX experience helpful.
    • Fountain girl: White, for downtown drugstore; references.
    • Secretary: Real estate office has opening for experienced secretary under 40.

    The difference in the kinds of jobs men and women did can also be seen in the pay and working conditions that some ads specified. Most flagrant were pay differences. For example, an employment agency placed an identical listing for an “accountant-bookkeepe” in both sexes' columns, specifying a rate of $75 to $125 per week in the men's column and $65 to $100 a week in the women's. The work hours that ads listed for both sexes were typically 9 to 5, 5 days a week where employers were looking for white workers. In contrast, ads for female African American domestic workers described more extensive hours:

    • G.H.W. [general house work]: Colored girl to live in; good with children. Age 18 to 30. Off Sun. and half day Thurs. $20 wk.
    • Colored. Live In: modern home, private room and bath. Care of 1 child; must be able to iron men's shirts; other help. Wednesday and every other Sun. off. Salary depending on experience and willingness to assume other duties.

    U.S. society has come a long way since the days of “colored barbers” and “white fountain girls.” In 1964, Congress outlawed employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, and sex, except in small firms.2 As a result of this legislation, newspapers eventually got rid of sex-segregated classified ads and stopped mentioning race in them. And, little by little, some employers began hiring women in formerly all-male jobs.

    Openly labeling jobs as men's or women's work—as was the practice 40 years ago—signals a highly segregated workforce and legitimizes assigning jobs based on workers' sex. But eliminating these labels does not ensure that jobs are available to anyone who is qualified. Even without the sex-segregated classified ads, most Americans can still readily distinguish “women's jobs” from “men's jobs,” and millions of Americans still work in sex-segregated jobs. Among the jobs listed earlier, for example, secretary is still overwhelmingly female and truck driver overwhelmingly male. And jobs that are mostly male still pay more than jobs that are mostly female.

    Comparing classified ads from the 1950s with contemporary help-wanted listings suggests that explicit sex inequality at work is not a constant. Its presence and extent vary tremendously, not only over time, but also across work settings. When hiring workers, some contemporary employers care about only work-related qualifications and treat female and male employees equally. Others do not. Examining the reasons for this variability in inequality is an important focus of this book. This focus—along with new data and updated scholarship—is the chief way that this edition differs from the previous one. We argue that the amount of sex inequality in a workplace depends on how employers organize work, the tasks involved, organizational leadership, and the existence of external pressures, among other factors. The chapters that follow illustrate the variation in sex inequality across places of work and review evidence about factors that are thought to heighten or reduce sex differentiation at work.

    Chapter 1 examines what work is and discusses the three components of what we call “gendered work”—the sexual division of labor, the devaluation of women's work, and the construction of gender on the job—processes that we return to throughout the book. Chapter 2 provides a historical context for gendered work in the Western world. It analyzes the effects of industrialization and the evolution of the labor force. It also moves beyond a Western focus to examine the sexual division of labor in other geographic areas. Chapter 3 provides an overview of sex inequality in the workplace and introduces several general explanations for sex inequality that the following chapters assess.

    Chapter 4 focuses on workers' segregation into different kinds of work on the basis of their sex, as well as their race and ethnicity. It also examines the causes of segregation and the mechanisms that affect its level. Chapter 5 looks at two expressions of hierarchical sex segregation in the workplace—differences in opportunities to move up and differences in the opportunity to exercise authority—and evaluates possible reasons for these differences. Chapter 6 focuses on the pay gap between the sexes, comparing men of color and all women to non-Hispanic white men in their average earnings, assessing trends in the earnings ratio for the sexes, evaluating explanations for the pay gap, and discussing strategies to reduce it. Chapter 7 examines work-family conflicts as well as the conflict that employed women and men face in trying to equitably distribute household tasks. It considers what government and employers can do and are doing to deal with the problems workers confront in combining paid and family work.

    Notes

    1. The August 23, 1956, Washington, D.C., Evening Star.

    2. Subsequently Congress also outlawed age and disability discrimination.

    Acknowledgments

    This book is the product of the work of many people. We are indebted to the scholars whose ideas helped to shape our own and whom we cite in the pages that follow; to those students and colleagues who make our work fun; and to our friends who offered encouragement when we were ready to abandon this project, assume new identities, and leave town. That these groups are too large for us to thank by name does not diminish our indebtedness or gratitude. Among those who helped materially in our finishing this book are Suzanne Bianchi, Bill Bielby, Karin Brewster, Naomi Cassirer, Catalyst, Jan Combopiano, Marie Cowart, Julia Drisdell, Randy Earnest, Henry Eliassen, Robin Ely, Dorothy Friendly, Laura Geschwender, Lowell Hargens, Darlene Iskra, Jerry Jacobs, Matt Kaliner, staff of the Henry A. Murray Center, Jean Pyle, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, John Reynolds, Steve Rutter, Liana Sayer, Annamette Sorensen, Jillaine Tyson, Vonessa Vondera, and Jerry Westby. Our greatest thanks go to Carrie Conaway, whose thoroughness and dedication in updating facts and figures was vital to our completing this revision.

  • References

    Abelson, Reed. 2001. “Companies Turn to Grades, and Employees Go to Court.”New York Times, March 19, pp. A1, A12.
    Acker, Joan. 1990. “Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations.”Gender & Society4:139–58.
    Acker, Joan. 1999. “Gender and Organizations.” Pp. 177–194 in Handbook of the Sociology of Gender, edited by J.Chafetz. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
    AFL-CIO. 2001. The Union Advantage: Unions Are Important for Women. http://www.aflcio.org
    Alfano, Peter. 1985. “Signs of Problems Amid the Progress.”New York Times, December 14, pp. 25, 28.
    American Council on Education and UCLA Higher Education Research Institute. 2001. “The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 2000.”Chronicle of Higher Education, Jan. 26. http://www.chronicle.com/stats/freshmen/htm
    Amirault, Thomas. 1992. “Training to Qualify for Jobs and Improve Skills, 1991.”Monthly Labor Review115:31–36.
    Amott, Teresa L. and Julie A.Matthaei. 1996. Race, Gender, and Work: A Multicultural Economic History of Women in the United States, Revised Edition. Boston: South End.
    Amott, Teresa L.. 2001. “Race, Class, Gender, and Women's Works.” Pp. 234–242 in Race, Class and Gender,
    4th ed.
    , edited by M. L.Andersen and P. H.Collins. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Anker, Richard. 1998. Gender and Jobs: Sex Segregation of Occupations in the World. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
    Antill, John K., Jacqueline J.Goodnow, GraemeRussell, and SandraCotton. 1996. “The Influence of Parents and Family Context on Children's Involvement in Household Tasks.”Sex Roles34:215–236.
    Aven, Forrest F., BarbaraParker, and GlennMcEvoy. 1993. “Gender and Attitudinal Commitment to Organization: A Meta-Analysis.”Journal of Business Research26:63–73.
    Bachu, Amara and MartinO'Connell. 2000. “Fertility of American Women, June 1998.”Current Population Reports. U.S. Census Bureau. (Sept.) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Bailyn, Lotte, Joyce K.Fletcher, and DeborahKolb. 1997. “Unexpected Connections: Considering Employees' Personal Lives Can Revitalize Your Business.”Sloan Management Review38 (Summer):11–19.
    Baker, Ross K. 1977. “Women Finally Break Into Government Jobs in the 1800s, but the Pay Is Poor, the Jobs Menial, and Men Hostile.”Smithsonian8:82–91.
    Ballard, Nancey. 1999. Facing the Grail: Confronting the Cost of Work-Family Imbalance. Report of the Boston Bar Association on Professional Challenges and Family Needs. Boston: Boston Bar Association.
    Barko, Naomi. 2000. “The Other Gender Gap.”The American Prospect11 (15), June 19-July 3. http://www.prospect.org/print-friendly/print/V11/15/barkon.html.
    Barnett, Rosalind C. and Janet S.Hyde. 2001. “Women, Men, Work, and Family.”American Psychologist56:781–796.
    Barnett, Rosalind C. and CarylRivers. 1996. She Works/He Works: How Two-Income Families Are Happier, Healthier, and Better Off. New York: HarperCollins.
    Barr, Donald A. and Elizabeth H.Boyle. 2001. “Gender and Professional Purity: Explaining Formal and Informal Work Rewards for Physicians in Estonia.”Gender & Society15:29–54.
    Barrett, Frank J. 1996. “The Organizational Construction of Hegemonic Masculinity: The Case of the US Navy.”Gender, Work, and Organization3:129–142.
    Baxandall, Rosalyn, LindaGordon, and SusanReverby. 1976. America's Working Women. New York: Vintage.
    Becker, Gary S. 1971. The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Becker, Gary S. 1985. “Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor.”Journal of Labor Economics3 (Supplement): S33–58.
    Beechey, Veronica and TessaPerkins. 1987. A Matter of Hours: Women, Part-Time Work and the Labour Market. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Beers, Thomas M. 2000. “Flexible Schedules and Shift Work: Replacing the ‘9-to-5’ Workday?”Monthly Labor Review123:33–40 (June).
    Bell, Ella and StellaNkomo. 2001. Our Separate Ways: Black and White Women and the Struggle for Professional Identity. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Belzer, Michael H. 2000. Sweatshops on Wheels: Winners and Losers in Trucking Deregulation. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bennett, Claudette E. 1992. The Asian and Pacific Islander Population in the United States: March 1991 and 1990. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Population Characteristics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Berg, Maxine. 1985. The Age of Manufactures: Industry, Innovation, and Work in Britain, 1700–1820. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Bergmann, Barbara R. 1986. The Economic Emergence of Women. New York: Basic Books.
    Bergmann, Barbara R. and WilliamDarity, Jr.1981. “Social Relations, Productivity, and Employer Discrimination.”Monthly Labor Review104:47–49.
    Berheide, Catherine W. 1992. “Women Still ‘Stuck’ in Low-Level Jobs.”Women in Public Services: A Bulletin for the Center for Women in Government3 (Fall).
    Bianchi, Suzanne. 1995. “Changing Economic Roles of Women and Men.” Pp. 107–155 in State of the Union: America in the 1990s, vol. 1, edited by R.Farley. New York: Russell Sage.
    Bianchi, Suzanne. 2000. “Maternal Employment and Time with Children: Dramatic Change or Surprising Continuity?”Demography37:401–414.
    Bianchi, Suzanne, MelissaMilkie, LianaSayer, and John P.Robinson. 2000. “Is Anyone Doing the Housework?: Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor.”Social Forces79:191–228.
    Bianchi, Suzanne and John P.Robinson. 2001. Unpublished data.
    Bielby, Denise D. and William T.Bielby. 1988. “She Works Hard for the Money: Household Responsibilities and the Allocation of Work Effort.”American Journal of Sociology93:1031–59.
    Bielby, Denise D. and William T.Bielby. 1992. “Cumulative Versus Continuous Disadvantage in an Unstructured Labor Market.”Work and Occupations19:366–87.
    Bielby, Denise D. and William T.Bielby. 1996. “Women and Men in Film: Gender Inequality Among Writers in a Culture Industry.”Gender & Society10:248–270.
    Bielby, William T. 1998. “Firm Commitments.”Contemporary Sociology27:32–34.
    Bielby, William T. 2000. “Minimizing Workplace Gender and Racial Bias.”Contemporary Sociology29:120–29.
    Bielby, William T. and James N.Baron. 1986. “Men and Women at Work: Sex Segregation and Statistical Discrimination.”American Journal of Sociology91:759–99.
    Bielby, William T. and Denise D.Bielby. 2002. “Telling Stories About Gender and Effort: Social Science Narratives About Who Works Hard for the Money”. Pp. 193–217 in New Directions in Economic Sociology, edited by M. F.Guillen, R.Collins, P.England, and M.Meyer. New York: Russell Sage.
    Bielby, William T., Denise D.Bielby, MattHuffman, and StevenValasco. 1995. “Who Works Hard for the Money? ‘Efficiency Wages,’ Work Organization, and Gender Differences in the Allocation of Effort.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association. Washington, DC.
    Bird, Chloe. 1999. “Gender, Household Labor, and Psychological Distress: The Impact of the Amount and Division of Housework.”Journal of Health and Social Behavior40:32–45.
    Blackwelder, Julia K., 1997. Now Hiring: The Feminization of Work in the United States, 1900–1995. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.
    Blair, Sampson Lee. 1992. “Children's Participation in Household Labor: Child Socialization Versus the Need for Household Labor.”Journal of Youth and Adolescence21:241–58.
    Blair, Sampson Lee and Daniel T.Lichter. 1991. “Measuring the Division of Household Labor: Gender Segregation of Housework Among American Couples.”Journal of Family Issues12:91–113.
    Blau, David M. and Alison P.Hagy. 1998. “The Demand for Quality in Child Care.”Journal of Political Economy106:104–146.
    Blau, Francine D. and Marianne A.Ferber. 1992. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Blau, Francine D., Marianne A.Ferber, and Anne E.Winkler. 1998. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Blau, Francine D. and Lawrence M.Kahn. 1997. “Swimming Upstream: Trends in the Gender Wage Differential in the 1980s.”Journal of Labor Economics, 15:1, pt. 1:1–42.
    Blau, Francine D. and Lawrence M.Kahn. 2000. “Gender Differences in Pay.” Working Paper 7732. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w7732.
    Blauner, Robert. 1972. Racial Oppression in America. New York: Harper and Row.
    Bloom, David E. and AdiBrender. 1993. “Labour and the Emerging World Economy.”Population Bulletin, October.
    Bodenhausen, Galen V. and C. NeilMacrae. 1996. “The Self Regulation of Intergroup Perception; Mechanisms and Consequences of Stereotype Suppression.” Pp. 227–53 in Stereotypes and Stereotyping, edited by C. N.Macrae, C.Stangor, and M.Hewstone. New York: Guilford.
    Bogenschneider, Karen. 2000. “Has Family Policy Come of Age? A Decade Review of the State of U.S. Family Policy in the 1990s.”Journal of Marriage and the Family62:1136–59.
    Bond, James T., EllenGalinsky, and Jennifer E.Swanberg. 1998. The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute.
    Bose, Christine E. 2001. Women in 1900: Gateway to the Political Economy of the 20th Century. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Braddock, Jomills Henry and James M.McPartland. 1987. “How Minorities Continue to Be Excluded from Equal Employment Opportunities: Research on Labor Market and Institutional Barriers.”Journal of Social Issues43:5–39.
    Bradwell v. Illinois. 1873. 83 U.S. (16 Wall.) 130.
    Brewer, Marilynn B. 1997. “The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations: Can Research Inform Practice?”Journal of Social Issues53:197–211.
    Brewer, Marilynn B. and Rupert J.Brown. 1998. “Intergroup Relations.” Pp. 554–94 in Handbook of Social Psychology, edited by D. T.Gilbert, S. T.Fiske, and G.Lindzey. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Brewster, Karin L. and IrenePadavic. 2000. “Change in Gender Ideology, 1977–1996: The Contributions of Intracohort Change and Population Turnover.”Journal of Marriage and the Family62:477–87.
    Brewster, Karin L. and IrenePadavic. 2002. “No More Kin Care? Changes in Black Mothers' Reliance on Relatives for Childcare: 1977–1994.”Gender & Society16(4):546–63.
    Brines, Julie. 1994. “Economic Dependency, Gender, and the Division of Labor at Home.”American Journal of Sociology100:652–88.
    Britton, Dana. 1997. “Gendered Organizational Logic: Policy and Practice in Men's and Women's Prisons.”Gender & Society11:796–818.
    Britton, Dana. 2000. “The Epistemology of the Gendered Organization.”Gender & Society14:418–34.
    Britton, Dana. 2003. At Work in the Iron Cage: The Prison as Gendered Organization. New York: New York University Press.
    Bronfenbrenner, Kate and TomJuravich. 1998. “It Takes More Than House Calls: Organizing to Win With a Comprehensive Union-Building Strategy.” Pp. 19–36 in Organizing to Win: New Research on Union Strategies, edited by K.Bronfenbrenner, S.Friedman, R. W.Hurd, R. A.Oswald, and R. L.Seeber. Ithaca, NY: ILR.
    Browne, Irene and IvyKennelly. 1999. “Stereotypes and Realities: Images of Black Women in the Labor Market.” Pp. 302–326 in Latinas and African American Women in the Labor Markets, edited by I.Browne. New York: Russell Sage.
    Budig, Michelle and PaulaEngland2001. “The Wage Penalty for Motherhood.”American Sociological Review66:204–25.
    Burns, John F. and SteveLevine1996. “How Afghans' Stern Rulers Took Hold.”New York Times, December 31.
    Burstein, Paul. 1991. “‘Reverse Discrimination’ Cases in the Federal Courts: Mobilization by a Countermovement.”Sociological Quarterly32:511–28.
    Bylsma, Wayne H. and BrendaMajor1992. “Two Routes to Eliminating Gender Differences in Personal Entitlement.”Psychology of Women Quarterly16:193–200.
    Callahan, Colleen R. 1992. “Dressed for Work: Women's Clothing on the Job, 1900–1990.”Labor's Heritage4:28–49.
    Camp, Tracy, KeithMiller, and VanessaDavies. 2000. “The Incredible Shrinking Pipeline Unlikely to Reverse.”http://www.mines.edu/fs_home/tcamp/new-study/new-study.html.
    Capizzano, Jeffrey, KathrynTout, and GinaAdams. 2000. Childcare Patterns of School-Age Children With Employed Mothers. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. http://www.newfederalism.urban.org/pdf/occa41.pdf
    Carney, Judith and MichaelWatts1991. “Disciplining Women? Rice, Mechanization, and the Evolution of Mandinka Gender Relations in Senegambia.”Signs16:651–81.
    Carrington, William J. and Kenneth R.Troske. 1994. “Gender Segregation in Small Firms.”Journal of Human Resources30:503–33.
    Carrington, William J. and Kenneth R.Troske. 1998. “Sex Segregation in U.S. Manufacturing.”Industrial and Labor Relations Review51:445–64.
    Cassirer, Naomi and Barbara F.Reskin. 2000. “High Hopes: Organizational Location, Employment Experiences, and Women's and Men's Promotion Aspirations.”Work and Occupations27:438–63.
    Catalyst. 1996. Women in Corporate Leadership: Progress and Prospects. New York: Catalyst.
    Catalyst. 1998. Catalyst Census of Women Corporate Offices and Top Earners as of March 31, 1998. New York: Catalyst.
    Catalyst. 1999. Catalyst Census of Women Board Directors of the Fortune 1000. New York: Catalyst.
    Catalyst. 2000a. 2000 Catalyst Census of Women Corporate Officers and Top Earners. New York: Catalyst. http://www.catalystwomen.org/press/releases/release111300.html.
    Catalyst. 2000b. Passport to Opportunity: U.S. Women in Global Business. New York: Catalyst. http://www.catalystwomen.org/press/passportmediakit/factsglobal.html.
    Catalyst. 2001. Women in Law: Making the Case. New York: Catalyst. http://www.catalystwomen.org/press/factsheets/factslaw.html.
    Center for Women in Government. 1999. Appointed Policy Makers in State Government. http://www.cwig.albany.edu.
    Chen, Martha. 2000. The Invisible Workforce: Women in the Informal Economy. Cambridge, MA: Radcliffe Public Policy Center.
    Chenut, Helen Harden. 1996. “The Gendering of Skill as Historical Process: The Case of French Knitters in Industrial Troyes, 1880–1939.” Pp. 77–110 in Gender and Class in Modern Europe, edited by L. L.Frader and S. O.Rose. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Chetkovich, Carol. 1997. Real Heat: Gender and Race in the Urban Fire Service. New York: Routledge.
    Clark, Anna. 1995. The Struggle for the Breeches: Gender and the Making of the British Working Class. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Clarkberg, Marin. 1999. “The Price of Partnering: The Role of Economic Well-Being in Young Adults' First Union Experiences.”Social Forces77:945–68.
    Clement, Wallace and JohnMyles1994. Relations of Ruling: Class and Gender in Postindustrial Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.
    Cobb-Clark, Deborah and YvonneDunlop. 1999. “The Role of Gender in Job Promotions.”Monthly Labor Review122:32–38.
    Cobble, Dorothy Sue. 1996. “The Prospects for Unionism in a Service Society.” Pp. 333–58 in Working in the Service Society, edited by C. L.MacDonald and C.Sirianni. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Cohen, Isaac. 1985. “Workers' Control in the Cotton Industry: A Comparative Study of British and American Mule Spinning.”Labor History26:53–85.
    Cohen, Lisa E., Joseph P.Broschak, and Heather A.Haveman. 1998. “And Then There Were More? The Effects of Organizational Sex Composition on Hiring and Promotion.”American Sociological Review64:711–27.
    Cohen, Theodore F. 1993. “What Do Fathers Provide? Reconsidering the Economic and Nurturant Dimensions of Men as Parents.” Pp. 1–23 in Men, Work, and Family, edited by JaneHood. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Cohn, Samuel. 1985. The Process of Occupational Sex-Typing: The Feminization of Clerical Labor in Great Britain. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Cohn, Samuel. 1996. “Occupational Sex-Typing.” Pp. 87–89 in Women and Work: A Handbook, edited by P. J.Dubeck and K.Borman. New York: Garland.
    Cohn, Samuel. 2000. Race, Gender, and Discrimination at Work. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Collins, Randall. 1974. Conflict Sociology. New York: Academic Press.
    Coltrane, Scott. 1996. Family Man: Fatherhood, Housework, and Gender Equity. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Coltrane, Scott. 2000. “Research on Household Labor: Modeling and Measuring the Social Embeddedness of Routine Family Work.”Journal of Marriage and the Family62:1208–33.
    Commission on Family and Medical Leave. 1996. A Workable Balance: Report to Congress on Family and Medical Leave Policies. http://www.dol.gov/dol/esa/public/regs/compliance/whd/fmla/family.htm
    Cooper, Patricia. 1991. “The Faces of Gender: Sex Segregation and Work Relations at Philco, 1928–1938.” Pp. 320–50 in Work Engendered, edited by A.Baron. Ithaca: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University.
    Corcoran, Mary. 1999. “The Economic Progress of African American Women.” Pp. 35–60 in Latinas and African American Women in the Labor Market, edited by I.Browne. New York: Russell Sage.
    Corcoran, Mary, Colleen M.Heflin, and Belinda L.Reyes. 1999. “The Economic Progress of Mexican and Puerto Rican Women.” Pp. 105–138 in Latinas and African American Women in the Labor Market, edited by I.Browne. New York: Russell Sage.
    Cotter, David A., JoAnnDeFiore, Joan M.Hermsen, Brenda M.Kowalewski, and ReeveVanneman. 1997. “All Women Benefit: The Macro-Level Effect of Occupational Integration on Gender Earning Equality.”American Sociological Review62:714–34.
    Crompton, Rosemary and FionaHarris1999. “Attitudes, Women's Employment, and the Changing Domestic Division of Labour: A Cross-National Analysis.” Pp. 105–127 in Restructuring Gender Relations and Employment: The Decline of the Male Breadwinner, edited by R.Crompton. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Davidoff, Leonore and CatherineHall1987. Family Fortunes. London: Hutchinson.
    Davidoff, Leonore and CatherineHall1998. “‘The Hidden Investment’: Women and the Enterprise.” Pp. 239–93 in Women's Work: The English Experience 1650–1914, edited by P.Sharpe. New York: Arnold.
    Davies, Margery W. 1982. Woman's Place Is at the Typewriter: Office Work and Office Workers, 1870–1930. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Davis, James A., Tom W.Smith, and Peter V.Marsden. 2000. General Social Surveys, 1972–2000 [machine-readable data file]. NORC ed. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center, producer. Storrs, CT: The Roper Center for Public Opinion Research. http://www.csa.berkeley.edu:7502/archive.htm.
    DeAngelis, Catherine D. 2000. “Women in Academic Medicine: New Insights, Same Sad News.”New England Journal of Medicine342 (6): Feb. 10.
    Diaz v. Pan American World Airways, Inc. 1971. 442F. 2d 385 (5th Cir.), cert. den. 404 U.S. 950.
    Domosh, Mona and JoniSeager2001. Putting Women in Place: Feminist Geographers Make Sense of the World. New York: Guilford.
    Dublin, Thomas. 1993. Farm to Factory: Women's Letters, 1830–1860,
    2d ed.
    New York: Columbia University Press.
    Dunlop, John E. and Victoria A.Velkoff. 1999. “Women and the Economy in India.” Bureau of the Census. Economics and Statistics Administration. (January). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Dunn, Dana and SherylSkaggs1999. “Gender and Paid Work in Industrial Nations.” Pp. 321–39 in Handbook of the Sociology of Gender, edited by J. S.Chafetz. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
    Earle, Alice Morse. 1896. Colonial Dames and Good Wives. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Eaton, Susan C. 1996. “‘The Customer Is Always Interesting’: Unionized Harvard Clericals Renegotiate Work Relationships.” Pp. 333–58 in Working in the Service Society, edited by C. L.MacDonald and C.Sirianni. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    EEOC v. Sears, Roebuck & Co. 1988. 628F. Supp. 1264 (N.D. Ill. 1986), affirmed 839 F. 2d 302 (7th Cir.).
    Eichenwald, Kurt. 2000. The Informant. New York: Random House Inc. Excerpt found at http://www.thislife.org/pages/trax/text/adm2.html.
    Eisenberg, Susan. 1998. We'll Call You if We Need You. Ithaca, NY: ILR.
    Eisenhart, Margaret. 1996. “Contemporary College Women's Career Plans.” Pp. 232–35 in Women and Work: A Handbook, edited by P. J.Dubeck and K.Borman. New York: Garland.
    Ellingsoeter, Anne Lise. 1999. “Dual Breadwinners Between State and Market.” Pp. 40–59 in Restructuring Gender Relations and Employment: The Decline of the Male Breadwinner, edited by R.Crompton. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Elson, Diane. 2000. Progress of the World's Women 2000. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women. http://www.undp.org/unifem/progressww/2000/index.html.
    Ely, Robin J. 1995. “The Power in Demography: Women's Social Construction of Gender Identity at Work.”Academy of Management Journal38:589–634.
    Ely, Robin J. and Debra E.Meyerson. 2000. “Theories of Gender in Organizations: A New Approach to Organizational Analysis and Change.”Research in Organizational Behavior22:105–153.
    Employee Relocation Council. 2000. The Family Issues Research Report. Washington, DC: The Employee Relocation Council.
    England, Paula. 1996. “Occupational Skill, Gender, and Earnings.” Pp. 68–71 in Women and Work: A Handbook, edited by P. J.Dubeck and K.Borman, New York: Garland.
    England, Paula, MarilynChassie, and LindaMcCormack1982. “Skill Demands and Earnings in Female and Male Occupations.”Sociology and Social Research66:147–68.
    England, Paula, Lori L.Reid, and Barbara S.Kilbourne. 1996. “The Effect of the Sex Composition of Jobs on the Starting Wages in an Organization: Findings From the NLSY.”Demography33:511–21.
    Enloe, Cynthia. 2000. “Climates and ‘Cultures’: What Feminists See When They Look at Women's Lives Inside the State.” Talk at Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Nov. 29.
    Epstein, Cynthia F. 1993. Women in Law. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Epstein, Cynthia F., CarrollSeron, BonnieOglensky, and RobertSaute. 1999. The Part-Time Paradox: Time Norms, Professional Lives, Family, and Gender. New York: Routledge.
    Erickson, Bonnie H., PatriciaAlbanese, and SlobodanDrakulic. 2000. “Gender on a Jagged Edge: The Security Industry, Its Clients, and the Reproduction and Revision of Gender.”Work and Occupations27:294–318.
    Ettner, Susan L. 1995. “The Impact of ‘Parent Care’ on Female Labor Supply Decisions.”Demography32:63–80.
    European Industrial Relations Observatory. 1999. “Working Time Developments—Annual Update 1999.”European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. http://www.eiro.eurofound.ie/2000/02/updates.html.
    Farkas, George, PaulaEngland, KevenVicknair, and Barbara S.Kilbourne. 1997. “Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings Among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.”Social Forces75:913–38.
    Farley, Reynolds. 1984. Blacks and Whites: Narrowing the Gap. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Fernandez-Kelly, Maria P. 1983. For We Are Sold, I and My People: Women and Industry in Mexico's Frontier. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
    Fink, Deborah. 1998. Cutting into the Meatpacking Line: Workers and Change in the Rural Midwest. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Fix, Janet L. 2001. “Labor's Changing Face; Women and the Union Issues They Care About Are on the Move.”The San Diego Union-Tribune, May 7, p. D1.
    Flack, M. Ellen. 1999. Working the Family In: A Case Study of the Determinants of Employees' Access to and Use of Alternative Work Arrangements, and Their Home to Work Spillover. Columbus, OH: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University.
    Folbre, Nancy. 1991. “The Unproductive Housewife: Her Evolution in Nineteenth-Century Economic Thought.”Signs16:463–84.
    Folbre, Nancy. 2000. “Conditions Are Right for a Bold Initiative.”The Nation271 (July 3).
    Freeman, Carol. 2000. High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy: Women, Work, and Pink-Collar Identities in the Caribbean. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Fried, Mindy. 1998. Taking Time: Parental Leave Policy and Corporate Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Fullerton, Howard N. 1999. “Labor Force Projections to 2008: Steady Growth and Changing Composition.”Monthly Labor Review122(11):19–32.
    Galinsky, Ellen and JamesT. Bond. 1998. The 1998 Business Work-Life Study: A Sourcebook. New York: Families and Work Institute.
    Galinsky, Ellen, Dana E.Friedman, and Carol A.Hernandez. 1991. The Corporate Reference Guide to Work-Family Programs. New York: Families and Work Institute.
    Garey, Anita. 1999. Weaving Work and Motherhood. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Gerstel, Naomi and DanClawson2001. “Unions' Responses to Family Concerns.”Social Problems48:277–97.
    Glass, Jennifer. 1990. “The Impact of Occupational Segregation on Working Conditions.”Social Forces68:779–96.
    Glass, Jennifer. 2000. “Envisioning the Integration of Family and Work: Toward a Kinder, Gentler Workplace.”Contemporary Sociology29:129–43.
    Glazer, Nona Y. 1993. Women's Paid and Unpaid Labor: The Work Transfer in Health Care and Retailing. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Glenn, Evelyn N. 1996. “From Servitude to Service Work: Historical Continuities in the Racial Division of Paid Reproductive Labor.” Pp. 115–56 in Working in the Service Society, edited by C.MacDonald and C.Sirianni. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Goldin, Claudia. 1990. Understanding the Gender Gap. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Goldin, Claudia. 1995. “Career and Family: College Women Look to the Past.” Working Paper 5188. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
    Goode, William J. 1982. “Why Men Resist.” Pp. 131–47 in Rethinking the Family, edited by B.Thorne and M.Yalom. New York: Longman.
    Goozner, Merrill. 1991. “$3 Million Sex-Bias Accord at Marriott.”Chicago Tribune, March 6, sec. 3, p. 3.
    Gorman, Elizabeth H. 2001. Gender and Organizational Selection Decisions: Evidence from Law Firms. Cambridge, MA: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.
    Gornick, Janet C. and Marcia K.Meyers. 2001. “Support for Working Families.”American Prospect12 (Jan. 1–15): 1–14.
    Gould, Robert E. 1974. “Measuring Masculinity by the Size of a Paycheck.” In Men and Masculinity, edited by J.Pleck and J.Sawyer. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Graham, Hugh D. 1990. The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy, 1960–1972. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Grant, Linda and Kathryn B.Ward. 1996. “Women in Academia.” Pp. 165–67 in Women and Work: A Reader, edited by P. J.Dubeck and K.Borman. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Gray, Jane. 1996. “Gender and Uneven Working-Class Formation in the Irish Linen Industry.” Pp. 37–56 in Gender and Class in Modern Europe, edited by L. L.Frader and S. O.Rose. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Gross, Edward. 1968. “Plus Ca Change: The Sexual Segregation of Occupations Over Time.”Social Problems16:198–208.
    Gupta, Sanjiv. 1999. “The Effects of Transitions in Marital Status on Men's Performance of Housework.”Journal of Marriage and Family61:700–711.
    Gutek, Barbara. 1988. “Women in Clerical Work.” Pp. 225–40 in Women Working: Theory and Facts in Perspective, edited by A. H.Stromberg and S.Harkess. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
    Hanawalt, Barbara A.. 1986. “Peasant Women's Contribution to the Home Economy in Late Medieval England.” Pp. 3–19 in Women and Work in Preindustrial Europe, edited by B. A.Hanawalt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Haney-Lopez, Ian. 1996. White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. New York: New York University Press.
    Hargens, Lowell and J.Scott Long. 2002. “Demographic Inertia and Women's Representation Among Faculty in Higher Education.”Journal of Higher Education73 (July/August): 494–517.
    HarrisPoll. 1998. “Child Care: People's Chief Concerns.” (Jan.) http://www.publicagenda.org.
    Harrison, Roderick J. and Claudette E.Bennett. 1995. “Racial and Ethnic Diversity.” Pp. 141–210 in State of the Union: America in the 1990s, vol. 2, edited by R.Farley. New York: Russell Sage.
    Hayden, Anders. 1999. “Taking Up the Challenge: Europe's New Movement for Reduced Work Time”. http://www.web.net/32hours/takingup.htm.
    Hayghe, Howard V. 1990. “Family Members in the Work Force.”Monthly Labor Review113:14–19.
    Headlam, Bruce. 2000. “Barbie PC: Fashion Over Logic.”New York Times, January 20, p. G4.
    Hecker, Daniel E. 1998. “Earnings of College Graduates: Women Compared with Men.”Monthly Labor Review121:62–71.
    Heilman, Madeline E. 1995. “Sex Stereotypes and Effects in the Workplace: What We Know and What We Don't Know.”Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences10(6):3–26.
    Heim v. State of Utah. 8 F 3d. 1541 (10th Cir. 1993).
    Herlihy, David. 1990. Opera Muliebria: Women and Work in Medieval Europe. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene and Gregg L.Carter. 2000. Working Women in America: Split Dreams. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hewitt Associates, LLC. 2000. “More Employers Offer Work/Life Benefits to Gain Edge in Tight Labor Market”. Lincolnshire, IL: Hewitt Associates LLC. http://www.hewitt.com/hewitt/resource/newsroom/pressre1/2000/05-04-00.htm.
    Hewlett, Sylvia Ann and CornelWest. 1998. The War Against Parents: What We Can Do for America's Beleaguered Moms and Dads. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Hiestand, Michael. 1999. “Serving Notice of Dissatisfaction: Female Pros Volley for Equal Money.”USA Today, June 4.
    Hindon, Stan. 2001. “Raw Deal for Women? Effects of Privatizing Social Security Fiercely Disputed.”American Association for Retired Persons Bulletin42 (Sept.):18–21.
    Hochschild, Arlie with AnneMachung. 1989. The Second Shift. New York: Viking.
    Hochschild, Arlie. 1997. The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. New York: Henry Holt.
    Hofferth, Sandra. 1999. “Child Care, Maternal Employment, and Public Policy.”The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science563:20–38.
    Hofferth, Sandra L., AprilBrayfield, SharonDeich, and PamelaHolcomb. 1991. National Child Care Survey, 1990. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
    Hogan, David. 1996. “Immigrant Women in the U.S. and Work.” Pp. 41–44 in Women and Work: A Reader, edited by P. J.Dubeck and K.Borman. New York: Garland.
    Hooks, Janet. 1947. Women's Occupations Through Seven Decades. Women's Bureau Bulletin No. 218. U.S. Department of Labor. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Howell, Martha C. 1986. “Women, the Family Economy, and Market Production.” Pp. 198–222 in Women and Work in Pre-Industrial Europe, edited by B.Hanawalt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Hull, Kathleen and RobertNelson2000. “Assimilation, Choice, or Constraint? Testing Theories of Gender Differences in the Careers of Lawyers.”Social Forces79:229–64.
    Hyde, Janet S., Marilyn J.Essex, and F.Horton. 1993. “Fathers and Parental Leave: Attitudes and Experiences.”Journal of Family Issues14:616–41.
    Hymowitz, Carol and Rachel E.Silverman. 2001. “Can Workplace Stress Get Worse?”Wall Street Journal, Jan. 16, pp. B1, B4.
    Institute for Women's Policy Research. 2000. The Status of Women in the States 2000. IWPR: Washington D.C.http://www.iwpr.org/states/index.html
    International Labour Organization. 1998. Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management. Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting. Geneva: ILO.
    International Labour Organization. 2001. “Forced Labour, Human Trafficking, Slavery Haunt Us Still.”World of Work. No 39:4–6. Geneva: ILO.
    Intracorp. 1998. Too Seldom Is Heard an Encouraging Word: A Study of Work/Life Programs and Corporate Culture's Impact on Utilization. Philadelphia: Intracorp.
    Ireland, Patricia. 2001. “Talk of the Nation”interview with Juan Williams, National Public Radio. (July 3).
    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako and ScottColtrane. 1992. “Predicting the Sharing of Household Labor: Are Parenting and Housework Distinct?”Sociological Perspectives35:629–47.
    Jackman, Mary R. 1994. The Velvet Glove: Paternalism and Conflict in Gender, Class, and Race Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. 1989. “Long-Term Trends in Occupational Segregation by Sex.”American Journal of Sociology95:160–73.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. 1992. “Women's Entry Into Management: Trends in Earnings, Authority, Values, and Attitudes Among Salaried Managers.”Administrative Science Quarterly37:282–301.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. 1995. “Gender and Academic Specialties: Trends Among Recipients of College Degrees in the 1980s.”Sociology of Education68:81–98.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. 1996a. “Gender Inequality and Higher Education.”Annual Review of Sociology22:153–85.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. 1996b. “The Sex Segregation of Occupations: Structural Approaches.” Pp. 114–16 in Women and Work: A Reader, edited by P. J.Dubeck and K.Borman. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. 1999. “The Sex Segregation of Occupations: Prospects for the 21st Century.” Pp. 125–41 in Handbook of Gender and Work, edited by G. N.Powell. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. 2003. “Detours on the Road to Equality: Women, Work, and Higher Education.”Contexts2(1):32–41. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. and KathleenGerson1998. “Who Are the Overworked Americans?”Review of Social Economy56:442–59.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. and KathleenGerson. 2001. “Overworked Individuals or Overworked Families? Explaining Trends in Work, Leisure, and Family Time.”Work and Occupations28:40–63.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. and Ronnie J.Steinberg. 1990. “Compensating Differentials and the Male-Female Wage Gap: Evidence From the New York State Comparable Worth Study.”Social Forces69:439–68.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. and Ronnie J.Steinberg. 1995. “Further Evidence on Compensating Differentials and the Gender Gap in Wages.” Pp. 93–124 in Gender Inequality at Work, edited by J. A.Jacobs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Jacobsen, Joyce P. and Laurence M.Levin. 1995. “Effects of Intermittent Labor Force Attachment on Women's Earnings.”Monthly Labor Review118:4–19.
    Joekes, Susan and AnnWeston1994. Women and the New Trade Agenda. New York: United Nations, UNIFEM.
    Johnston, David. 1993. “FBI Agent to Quit Over Her Treatment in Sexual Harassment Case.”New York Times, October 11, p. A7.
    Jones, Jacquelyn. 1985. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow. New York: Vintage.
    Jones, Jacquelyn. 1998. American Work: Four Centuries of Black and White Labor. New York: Norton.
    Jurik, Nancy C. 1998. “Getting Away and Getting By: The Experiences of Self-Employed Homeworkers.”Work and Occupations25:7–35.
    Juster, F. Thomas and Frank P.Stafford. 1991. “The Allocation of Time: Empirical Findings, Behavioral Models, and Problems of Measurement.”Journal of Economic Literature29:471–522.
    Kalleberg, Arne and Barbara F.Reskin. 1995. “Gender Differences in Promotion in the United States and Norway.”Research in Social Stratification and Mobility14:237–264.
    Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F.Reskin, and KenHudson. 2000. “Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States.”American Sociological Review65:256–78.
    Kamerman, Sheila B. 2000. “Parental Leave Policies: An Essential Ingredient in Early Childhood Education and Care Policies.”Social Policy Report19:3–15.
    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1977. Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books.
    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1983. “Women Managers: Moving Up in a High Tech Society.” Pp. 21–36 in The Woman in Management: Career and Family Issues, edited by J.Farley. Ithaca: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University.
    Kaufman, Gayle and PeterUhlenberg2000. “The Influence of Parenthood on the Work Effort of Married Men and Women.”Social Forces78:931–49.
    Kay, Fiona M. and JohnHagan1999. “Cultivating Clients in the Competition for Partnership: Gender and the Organizational Restructuring of Law Firms in the 1990s.”Law & Society Review33:517–55.
    Kidwell, Claudia Brush and ValerieSteele, eds. 1989. Men and Women: Dressing the Part. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
    Kilbourne, Barbara, PaulaEngland, and KurtBeron. 1994. “Effects of Individual, Occupational, and Industrial Characteristics on Earnings: Intersections of Race and Gender.”Social Forces72:1149–76.
    Kilbourne, Barbara, PaulaEngland, GeorgeFarkas, KurtBeron, and DorotheaWeir. 1994. “Returns to Skills, Compensating Differentials, and Gender Bias: Effects of Occupational Characteristics on the Wages of White Women and Men.”American Journal of Sociology100:689–719.
    Kim, Marlene. 1989. “Gender Bias in Compensation Structures: A Case Study of Its Historical Basis and Persistence.”Journal of Social Issues45:39–50.
    Kim, T. H. and K. H.Kim. 1995. “Industrial Restructuring in Korea and Its Consequences for Women Workers.” Pp. 106–155 in Silk and Steel: Asian Women Workers Confront Challenges of Industrial Restructuring, edited by H.O'Sullivan. Hong Kong: Committee of Asian Women.
    Kimball, Gayle. 1999. 21st Century Families. Chico, CA: Equality.
    Kimmel, Michael. 2000. The Gendered Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
    King, Mary C. 1992. “Occupational Segregation by Race and Sex, 1940–88.”Monthly Labor Review115:30–36.
    King, Mary C. 1993. “Black Women's Breakthrough Into Clerical Work: An Occupational Tipping Model”. Presented at the Society for the Advancement of Socioeconomics meeting, New York.
    Kleiman, Carol. 1993. “Women End Up Sacrificing Salary for Children”. Tallahassee Democrat, March 3, p. D8.
    Klerman, Jacob Alex and ArleenLiebowitz. 1999. “Job Continuity Among New Mothers”. Demography36:145–55.
    Kondo, Dorinne K. 1990. Crafting Selves. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Konrad, Alison M., J.Edgar Ritchie, PamelaLieb, and ElizabethCorrigall. 2000. “Sex Differences and Similarities in Job Attribute Preferences: A Meta Analysis”. Psychological Bulletin126:593–641.
    Kowaleski, Maryanne and Judith M.Bennett. 1989. “Crafts, Guilds, and Women in the Middle Ages: Fifty Years After Marian K. Dale”. Signs14:474–88.
    Larson, Reed and Maryse H.Richards. 1994. Divergent Realities: The Emotional Lives of Mothers, Fathers, and Adolescents. New York: Basic Books.
    Lee, Ching Kwan. 1997. “Factory Regimes of Chinese Capitalism: Different Cultural Logics in Labor Control”. Pp. 115–42 in Ungrounded Empires: The Cultural Politics of Modern Chinese Transnationalism, edited in A.Ong and D. M.Nonini. New York: Routledge.
    Leidner, Robin. 1993. Fast Food, Fast Talk: Service Work and the Routinization of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Lerner, Gerda. 1979. “The Lady and the Mill Girl.” Pp. 182–96 in A Heritage of Her Own, edited by N. F.Cott and E. H.Pleck. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Levin, Peter. 2001. “Temporality, Work, and Gender on a National Futures Exchange”. Work and Occupations28:112–30.
    Levine, James A. and Todd L.Pittinsky. 1997. Working Fathers: New Strategies for Balancing Work and Family. New York: Addison-Wesley.
    Lin, Nan. 2000. “Inequality in Social Capital”. Contemporary Sociology29:785–95.
    Lorber, Judith. 1992. “Gender”. Pp. 748–65 in Encyclopedia of Sociology, Vol. 2, edited by E. F.Borgatta and M. L.Borgatta. New York: Macmillan.
    Lorber, Judith. 1994. The Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Lufkin, Martha. 1997. “Part-Time Work's Around, But Few Do It”. National Law Journal (Aug. 18): C5.
    Major, Brenda. 1989. “Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth”. Journal of Social Issues45:99–115.
    Major, Brenda and BlytheForcey1985. “Social Comparisons and Pay Evaluations: Preferences for Same-Sex and Same-Job Wage Comparisons”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology21:393–405.
    Major, Brenda, Dean B.McFarlin, and DianeGagnon. 1984. “Overworked and Underpaid: On the Nature of Gender Differences in Personal Entitlement”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology47:1399–412.
    Manning, Lori and Vanessa R.Wight. 2000. Women in the Military: Where They Stand,
    3d ed.
    Washington, DC: Women's Research and Education Institute.
    Margold, Jane A. 1995. “Narratives of Masculinity and Transnational Migration: Filipino Workers in the Middle East”. Pp.274–98 in Bewitching Women, Pious Men: Gender and Body Politics in Southeast Asia, edited by A.Ong and M. G.Peletz. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Marini, Margaret M., P.Fan, E.Finley, and AnnBeutel. 1996. “Gender and Job Values”. Sociology of Education69:49–65.
    Marsden, Peter V. and ElizabethGorman2001. “Social Networks, Job Changes, and Recruitment”. Pp. 467–502 in Sourcebook of Labor Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by I.Berg and A. L.Kalleberg. New York: Plenum.
    Marsden, Peter V., Arne L.Kalleberg, and Cynthia R.Cook. 1993. “Gender Differences in Organizational Commitment: Influences of Work Positions and Family Roles”. Work and Occupations20:368–90.
    Martin, Joanne. 1990. “Deconstructing Organizational Taboos: The Suppression of Gender Conflict in Organizations”. Organization Science1:1–21.
    Martin, Patricia Yancy. 2001. “‘Mobilizing Masculinities’: Women's Experiences of Men at Work”. Organization8:587–618.
    Mathias, Regina. 1993. “Female Labor in the Japanese Coal-Mining Industry”. Pp. 98–121 in Japanese Women Working, edited by J.Hunter. New York: Routledge.
    Matthaei, Julie A. 1982. An Economic History of Women in America: Women's Work, the Sexual Division of Labor, and the Development of Capitalism. New York: Schocken.
    Maume, David J., Jr.1999. “Glass Ceilings and Glass Escalators: Occupational Segregation and Race and Sex Differences in Managerial Promotions”. Work and Occupations26:483–509.
    May, Martha. 1982. “The Historical Problem of the Family Wage: The Ford Motor Company and the Five Dollar Day”. Feminist Studies8:399–419.
    McGeehan, Patrick. 1998. “Travelers Seeks to Fix Damage After Smith Barney Sex Case”. Wall Street Journal, April 10, p. C1.
    McGinley, Ann C. 1997. “The Emerging Cronyism Defense and Affirmative Action: A Critical Perspective on the Distinction Between Color Blind and Race-Conscious Decision Making Under Title VII”. Arizona Law Review39:1004–59.
    McGuire, Gail M. 2000. “Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Networks: The Factors Affecting the Status of Employees' Network Members”. Work and Occupations27:500–523.
    McNeil, John. 1992. Workers With Low Earnings: 1964–1990. U.S. Bureau of the Census Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 178. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Merton, Robert K. 1972. “Insiders and Outsiders”. American Journal of Sociology78:9–47.
    Messner, Michael A. 2000. “Barbie Girls and Sea Monsters: Children Constructing Gender”. Gender & Society14:765–84.
    Meyerson, Deborah and JoyceFletcher1999. “A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling”. Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb: 127–36 (reprint R00107).
    Mies, Maria. 1998. Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labor. New York: Zed.
    Milkman, Ruth. 1987. Gender at Work. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Milkman, Ruth1997. Farewell to the Factory: Auto Workers in the Late Twentieth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Miller, Shazia R. and James E.Rosenbaum. 1997. “Hiring in a Hobbesian World”. Work and Occupations24:498–523.
    Moen, Phyllis and YanYu1999. “Having It All: Overall Work/Life Success in Two-Earner Families”. Research in the Sociology of Work7:109–139.
    Moen, Phyllis and YanYu. 2000. “Effective Work/Life Strategies: Working Couples, Work Conditions, Gender, and Life Quality”. Social Problems47:291–326.
    Moody, Kim. 2000. “Telephone Strikers Curb Verizon's Culture of Stress”. Labor Notes, No. 259, Oct., pp. 1, 14.
    Moore, Dorothy P. 1999. “Women Entrepreneurs: Approaching a New Millennium” Pp. 371–90 in Handbook of Gender and Work, edited by G. N.Powell. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Moore, Dorothy P. and E. H.Buttner. 1997. Women Entrepreneurs: Moving Beyond the Glass Ceiling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Moore, Joan and RaquelPinderhughes2001. “The Latino Population: The Importance of Economic Restructuring”. Pp. 251–59 in Race, Class and Gender,
    4th ed.
    , edited by M. L.Andersen and P. H.Collins. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Morgan, Frank. 1999. Degrees and Other Awards Conferred by Title IV Eligible, Degree-Granting Institutions: 1996–1997. Table E. National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Morris, Betsy. 1997. “Is Your Family Wrecking Your Career?”Fortune, May 17, pp. 70–80.
    Moss, Phillip and ChrisTilly2001. Stories Employers Tell: Race, Skill, and Hiring in America. New York: Russell Sage.
    National Committee on Pay Equity. 1991. “After 28 Years, Equal Pay for Equal Work Still Not Achieved”. Newsnotes12(1):3.
    National Council for Research on Women. 1995. Sexual Harassment: Research and Resources,
    3d ed.
    New York: National Council for Research on Women.
    National Council for Research on Women. 2001. Balancing the Equation: Where Women Are in Science, Engineering, and Technology. http://www.ncrw.org.
    National Economic Council Interagency Working Group on Social Security. 1998.(Oct. 27). Women and Retirement Security. Washington, DC: Social Security Administration. http://www.ssa.gov/policy/pubs/womenrs.html.
    NBC News/Wall Street Journal. 2000. Conducted by Hart & Teeter Research Companies. June 14–18.
    Nelson, Robert L. and William P.Bridges. 1999. Legalizing Gender Inequality: Courts, Markets, and Unequal Pay for Women in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Neumark, David. 1996. “Sex Discrimination in the Restaurant Industry: An Audit Study”. Quarterly Journal of Economics111:915–41.
    New York Times. 1999. “Race and Gender in the Military”. November 25, p. A 36.
    Nock, Steven L. 1998. Marriage in Men's Lives. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nyberg, Anita. 2000. “From Foster Mothers to Child Care Centers: A History of Working Mothers and Child Care in Sweden”. Feminist Economics6:5–20.
    Oishi, Nana. 2001. Women on the Move: Globalization, State Policies, and Labor Migration in Asia. Cambridge, MA: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.
    O'Neill, June and SolomonPolachek. 1993. “Why the Gender Gap in Wages Narrowed in the 1980s”. Journal of Labor Economics11:205–28.
    Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincade. 1968. “The Sex-Labeling of Jobs”. Industrial Relations7:219–34.
    Orbuch, Terri L. and Sandra L.Eyster. 1997. Division of Household Labor Among Black Couples and White Couples”. Social Forces76: 301–332.
    Padavic, Irene. 1991. “The Re-Creation of Gender in a Male Workplace”. Symbolic Interaction14:279–94.
    Padavic, Irene and James D.Orcutt. 1997. “Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in the Florida Legal System: A Comparison of Dominance and Spillover Explanations”. Gender & Society11:682–98.
    Padavic, Irene and Barbara F.Reskin. 1990. “Men's Behavior and Women's Interest in Blue-Collar Jobs”. Social Problems37:613–28.
    Parker-Pope, Tara. 1998. “Inside P&G, a Pitch to Keep Women Employees”. Wall Street Journal, September 9, pp. B1, B6.
    Perlow, Leslie. 2000. Finding Time: How Corporations, Individuals, and Families Can Benefit From New Work Practices. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.
    Perry, Elissa L., AlisonDavis-Blake, and Carol T.Kulik. 1994. “Explaining Gender-Based Selection Decisions: A Synthesis of Contextual and Cognitive Approaches”. Academy of Management Review19:786–820.
    Petersen, Trond and Laurie A.Morgan. 1995. “Separate and Unequal: Occupation-Establishment Sex Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap”. American Journal of Sociology101:329–65.
    Pierce, Jennifer. 1995. Gender Trials: Emotional Lives in Contemporary Law Firms. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Pinchbeck, Ivy. 1930. Women Workers and the Industrial Revolution, 1750–1850. London: Virago.
    Polachek, Solomon William. 1981. “Occupational Self-Selection: A Human Capital Approach to Sex Differences in Occupational Structure”. Review of Economics and Statistics63:60–69.
    Polatnick, M. Rivka. 2000. “Working Parents: Issues for the Next Decades”. National Forum80:1–4. http://www.workingfamilies.berkeley.edu/papers.polatnick.pdf.
    Powell, Gary N. 1999. “Reflections on the Glass Ceiling: Recent Trends and Future Prospects”. Pp. 325–46 in Handbook of Gender and Work, edited by G. N.Powell. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Presser, Harriet B. 1994. “Employment Schedules Among Dual-Earner Spouses and the Division of Household Labor by Gender”. American Sociological Review59:348–64.
    Presser, Harriet B. 2000. “Nonstandard Work Schedules and Marital Instability”. Journal of Marriage and the Family62:93–110.
    Prokos, Anastasia and IrenePadavic2002. “‘There Oughtta Be a Law Against Bitches’: Masculinity Lessons in Police Academy Training”. Gender, Work, and Organization9(4):438–58.
    Prugl, Elisabeth and EileenBoris1996. Homeworkers in Global Perspective: Invisible No More. New York: Routledge.
    Pyle, Jean L. 1999. “Third World Women and Global Restructuring”. Pp. 81–104 in Handbook of the Sociology of Gender, edited by J.Chafetz. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
    Pyle, Jean L. 2001. “Sex, Maids, and Export Processing: Risks and Reasons for Gendered Global Production Networks”. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society15:55–76.
    Quadagno, Jill and CatherineFobes1995. “The Welfare-State and the Cultural Reproduction of Gender: Making Good Girls and Boys in the Job Corps”. Social Problems42:171–90.
    Rab, Sara. 2001. Sex Discrimination in Restaurant Hiring Practices. Philadelphia: Unpublished master's thesis: University of Pennsylvania.
    Radcliffe Public Policy Center. 2000. “Work-Life Survey Results Released”. Perspectives. Cambridge, MA: Radcliffe Public Policy Center. Spring.
    Ragins, Belle R. 1999. “Gender and Mentoring Relationships: A Review and Research Agenda for the Next Decade”. Pp. 347–70 in Handbook of Gender and Work, edited by G. N.Powell, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ramamurthy, Priti. 1996. “Women, Work, Patriarchy, and Development in India”. Pp. 471–74 in Woman and Work: A Handbook, edited by P. J.Dubeck and D.Borman. New York: Garland.
    Reid, Lori L. 1998. “Devaluing Women and Minorities: The Effects of Race/Ethnic and Sex Composition of Occupations on Wage Levels”. Work and Occupations25:511–36.
    Reid-Keene, Jennifer. 2001. Beyond Role Models: Workers' Family-Work Adjustments and Perceptions of Work-Family Balance. Tallahassee, FL: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University.
    Reskin, Barbara F. 1988. “Bringing the Men Back In: Sex Differentiation and the Devaluation of Women's Work”. Gender & Society2:58–81.
    Reskin, Barbara F. 1998. The Realities of Affirmative Action in Employment. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.
    Reskin, Barbara F. 2000. “The Proximate Causes of Discrimination: Research Agenda for the Twenty-First Century”. Contemporary Sociology29:319–29.
    Reskin, Barbara F. 2001. “Employment Discrimination and Its Remedies”. Pp. 567–99 in Sourcebook of Labor Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by I.Berg and A. L.Kalleberg. New York: Plenum.
    Reskin, Barbara F. 2002. “Retheorizing Employment Discrimination and Its Remedies”. Pp. 218–244 in New Directions in Economic Sociology, edited by M. F.Guillen, R.Collins, P.England, and M.Meyer. New York: Russell Sage.
    Reskin, Barbara F., Lowell L.Hargens, and Deborah J.Merritt. 2001. “Explaining Sex Differences in the Labor Market for Legal Academe”. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Anaheim, CA.
    Reskin, Barbara F. and HeidiHartmann1986. Women's Work, Men's Work: Sex Segregation on the Job. Washington, DC: National Academy.
    Reskin, Barbara F. and DebraMcBrier2000. “Why Not Ascription? Organizations' Employment of Male and Female Managers”. American Sociological Review25:335–61.
    Reskin, Barbara F. and IrenePadavic1999. “Sex, Race, and Ethnic Inequality in U.S. Workplaces”. Pp. 343–74 in Handbook of the Sociology of Gender, edited by J. S.Chafetz. New York: Plenum.
    Reskin, Barbara F. and Patricia A.Roos. 1990. Job Queues, Gender Queues: Explaining Women's Inroads Into Male Occupations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Reskin, Barbara F. and Catherine E.Ross. 1992. “Jobs, Authority, and Earnings Among Managers: The Continuing Significance of Sex”. Work and Occupations19:342–65.
    Rhode, Deborah L. 2001. Unfinished Agenda: Women and the Legal Profession. Chicago, IL: American Bar Association, Commission on Women in the Profession.
    Ricks, Thomas E. 1998. “Defense Chief Won't Segregate Sexes in Basic Training, Despite Proposals”. Wall Street Journal, March 17.
    Ridgeway, Cecilia and Shelley J.Correll. 2000. “Limiting Inequality Through Interaction: The End(s) of Gender”. Contemporary Sociology29:110–20.
    Ridgeway, Cecilia L. and LynnSmith-Lovin. 1999. “Gender and Interaction”. Pp. 247–74 in Handbook of the Sociology of Gender, edited by J.Chafetz. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
    Risman, Barbara J. 1998. Gender Vertigo: American Families in Transition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Robertson, Nan. 1992. The Girls in the Balcony. New York: Random House.
    Robinson, John P. and G.Godbey. 1999. Time for Life: The Surprising Ways Americans Use Their Time. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Robinson, John P. and Melissa A.Milkie, 1997. “Dances with Dust Bunnies: Housecleaning in America”. American Demographics59:37–40.
    Rogers, Jackie Krasas. 2000. Temps: The Many Faces of the Changing Workplace. Ithaca, NY: Cornell/ILR.
    Roos, Patricia A. and Mary L.Gatta. 1999. “The Gender Gap in Earnings”. Pp. 95–123 in Handbook of Gender and Work, edited by G. N.Powell. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Rosenfeld, Rachel A. and Arne L.Kalleberg. 1991. “A Cross-National Comparison of the Gender Gap in Income”. American Journal of Sociology96:69–106.
    Roush, Chris. 1997. “Lawyer's Skill a Major Tool in Home Depot Settlement”. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, September 23.
    Rubin, Gayle. 1975. “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the ‘Political Economy’ of Sex”. Pp. 157–209 in Toward an Anthropology of Women, edited by R.Reiter. New York: Monthly Review.
    Ruggles, Steven and MatthewSobek1997. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 2.0. Minneapolis, MN: Historical Census Projects, University of Minnesota. http://www.ipums.umn.edu.
    Ruhm, Christopher and Jacqueline L.Teague. 1997. “Parental Leave Policies in Europe and North America”. Pp. 133–56 in Gender and Family Issues in the Work Place, edited by F. D.Blau and R. G.Ehrenberg. New York: Russell Sage.
    Ryan, Mary P. 1983. Womanhood in America,
    3d ed.
    New York: Franklin Watts.
    Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina. 1990. “Socio-Economic Determinants of the Outcomes of Women's Income-Generation in Developing Countries”. Pp. 221–28 in Women, Employment, and the Family in the International Division of Labour, edited by S.Stichter and J. L.Parpart. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Salancik, Gerald R., and JeffreyPfeffer. 1978. “Uncertainty, Secrecy, and the Choice of Similar Others”. Social Psychology41:246–55.
    Sanchez, Laura and ElizabethThomson1997. “Becoming Mothers and Fathers: Parenthood, Gender, and the Division of Labor”. Gender & Society11:747–72.
    Sanders, L. H.. 1943. “Efficiency of Women Employees”. Mass Transportation: City Transit's Industry-Wide Magazine. 39(7) (July): 244, 257.
    Saso, Mary. 1990. Women in the Japanese Workplace. London: Hilary Shipman.
    Schafer, Sarah. 2000. “Many Workers Say Timeout to Overtime”. Washington Post, Sept. 4.
    Schmitt, Frederika and Patricia Y.Martin. 1999. “Unobtrusive Mobilization by an Institutionalized Rape Crisis Center: All We Do Comes From the Victims”. Gender & Society13:364–84.
    Schultz, Vicki. 1998. “Reconceptualizing Sexual Harassment”. The Yale Law Journal107(6):1682–1805.
    Scott, Joan Wallach and Louise A.Tilly. 1975. “Women's Work and the Family in Nineteenth Century Europe”. Comparative Studies in Society and History17:36–64.
    Seager, Joni. 1997. The State of Women in the World Atlas. New York: Penguin.
    Segal, Mady W. 1995. “Women's Military Roles Cross-Nationally: Past, Present, and Future”. Gender & Society9:757–75.
    Sen, Gita. 2000. “Gender Mainstreaming in Finance Ministries”. World Development28(7).
    Sessa, Valerie I. 1992. “Managing Diversity at the Xerox Corporation: Balanced Workforce Goals and Caucus Groups”. Pp. 37–64 in Diversity in the Workplace, edited by S. E.Jackson and Associates. New York: Guilford.
    Shelton, Beth Ann. 1999. “Gender and Unpaid Work”. Pp. 375–89 in Handbook of the Sociology of Gender, edited by J. S.Chafetz. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
    Shorter, Edward. 1975. The Making of the Modern Family. New York: Basic Books.
    Skolnick, Arlene. 1991. Embattled Paradise: The American Family in an Age of Uncertainty. New York: Basic Books.
    Smith, Dan. 1999. The State of the World Atlas. New York: Penguin Putnam.
    Smith, Jane I. 1994. “Women in Islam”. Pp. 303–325 in Today's Woman in World Religions, edited by A.Sharma. Albany: SUNY Press.
    Smith, Randall. 1999. “Study Finds Diversity Is Lacking at Top Levels of Securities Firms”. Wall Street Journal, April 20.
    Smith, Ryan and James R.Elliott. 2002. “Does Ethnic Concentration Influence Employees' Access to Authority? An Examination of Contemporary Urban Labor Markets”. Social Forces81:255–280.
    Smith, Shirley J. 1985. “Revised Worklife Tables Reflect 1979–80 Experience”. Monthly Labor Review108:23–30.
    Sorensen, Annemette. 2001. “Gender Equality in Earnings at Work and at Home”. Pp. 98–115 in Nordic Welfare States in the European Context, edited by M.Kautto, J.Fritzell, B.Hvinden, J.Kvist, and H.Uusitalo. New York: Routledge.
    Sorensen, Elaine. 1989. “Measuring the Effect of Occupational Sex and Race Composition on Earnings”. Pp. 49–69 in Pay Equity: Empirical Inquiries, edited by R. T.Michael, H. I.Hartmann, and B.O'Farrell. Washington, DC: National Academy.
    Spaeth, Joe L. 1989. Determinants of Promotion in Different Types of Organizations. Unpublished manuscript. Urbana: University of Illinois.
    Steinberg, Ronnie J. 1990. “The Social Construction of Skill”. Work and Occupations17:449–82.
    Stender et al. v. Lucky. 1992. “Findings of Fact and Conclusion of Law,”Federal Reporter, vol. 803, Fed. Supplement, p. 259.
    Stockard, Jean. 1999. “Gender Socialization”. Pp. 215–28 in Handbook of the Sociology of Gender, edited by J. S.Chafetz. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
    Stombler, Mindy and IrenePadavic1999. “Sister Acts: Accommodation and Resistance to Men's Domination in Fraternity Little Sister Programs”. Social Problems44:257–75.
    Sturm, Susan. 2001. “Second Generation Employment Discrimination: A Structural Approach”. Columbia Law Review101:458–568.
    Sullins, Paul. 2000. “The Stained Glass Ceiling: Career Attainment for Women Clergy”. Sociology of Religion61:243–266
    Swerdlow, Marian. 1989. “Men's Accommodations to Women Entering a Nontraditional Occupation: A Case of Rapid Transit Operatives”. Gender & Society3:373–87.
    Swoboda, Frank. 1998. “US Airways Settles ‘Glass Ceiling’ Case”. Washington Post, December, p. E2.
    Tallichet, Suzanne E. 2000. “Barriers to Women's Advancement in Underground Coal Mining”. Rural Sociology65: 234–52.
    Tentler, Leslie Woodcock. 1979. Wage-Earning Women: Industrial Work and Family Life in the United States, 1900–1930. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Tetlock, Philip M. 1992. “The Impact of Accountability on Judgment and Choice: Towards a Social Contingency Model”. Pp. 331–76 in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology23, edited by M. P.Zanna. San Diego: Academic Press.
    Thomas, David A. and Robin J.Ely. 1996. “Making Differences Matter: A New Paradigm for Managing Diversity”. Harvard Business Review, September-October, pp. 79–90.
    Thomas, Paulette. 2000. “At ‘Camp,’ Women Learn to Pitch Deals to Investors”. Wall Street Journal, July 18.
    Tiano, Susan. 1994. Patriarchy on the Line: Labor, Gender, and Ideology in the Mexican Maquila Industry. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald and SherylSkaggs. 1999. “Degendered Jobs? Organizational Processes and Gender Segregated Employment”. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility17:139–172.
    Treiman, Donald J. and Heidi I.Hartmann. 1981. Women, Work, and Wages. Washington, DC: National Academy.
    Trentham, Susan and LaurieLarwood1998. “Gender Discrimination and the Workplace: An Examination of Rational Bias Theory”. Sex Roles38:1–28.
    United Nations. 1999. 1999 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Globalization, Gender and Work. New York: UN Division for the Advancement of Women.
    United Nations. 2000. The World's Women 2000: Trends and Statistics. New York: United Nations.
    United Nations Population Fund. 2000. “The State of World Population 2000”. http://www.unfpa.org/swp2000/english/index.htm.
    University of California at Los Angeles/Korn-Ferry International. 1993. Decade of the Executive Woman. Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 1998. “Issues in Labor Statistics: Employer-Sponsored Childcare Benefits”. Summary 98–9, August. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1999a. “Fatal Occupational Injuries by Worker Characteristics and Event or Exposure, 1999”. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. August 2000. Table A-6. http://www.stats.bls.gov/special.requests/ocwc/oshwc/cfoi/cftb0127.pdf
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1999b. “National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort, 1979–1998 (rounds 1–18)” [computer file]. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, the Ohio State University.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1999c. “Employee Benefits in Small Private Establishments, 1996”. Bulletin 2507. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1999d. “Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Private Establishments, 1996”. Bulletin 2517. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Census Bureau. 1972. “U.S. Census of Population, 1970”. Subject Reports, 7C, Occupational Characteristics. Washington, DC: Census Bureau.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1975. “Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970”. Part I. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1982a. “Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Public Use Microdata Samples U.S”. [machine-readable data files, prepared by the Bureau of the Census.] Washington, DC: Census Bureau.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1982b. Current Population Reports. Series P-60, No. 132. “Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1980”. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1983. Current Population Reports. Series P-60, No. 137. “Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1981”. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1988. Current Population Reports. Series P-60, No. 159. “Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1986”. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1991. Current Population Reports. Series P-60, No. 174. “Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1990”. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1996. Current Population Reports P60–193. “Money Income in the United States: 1995”. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1998. Microdata from the Annual Demographic Survey of the March 1998 Current Population Surveys.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics1999. Microdata from the Annual Demographic Survey of the March 1998 Current Population Surveys.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics2000a. Microdata from the Annual Demographic Survey of the March 1998 Current Population Surveys.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics2000b. Current Population Reports, P60–209. “Money Income in the United States 1999”. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/p60-209.pdf.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics2000c. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics2000d. “PPL Table 11B: Average Weekly Child Care Expenditures by Employed Mothers of Children Under 5, Fall 1995”. Survey of Income and Program Participation.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics2001. “1997 Revenues for Women-Owned Businesses Show Continued Growth, Census Bureau Reports”. http://www.census.gov/press-release/www/2001/cb01-61.html.
    U.S. Department of Defense. 1999. “Selected Manpower Statistics Fiscal Year 1999”. Washington, DC: DOD Washington Headquarters Service, Directorate for Information, Operations, and Reports. http://www.web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/m01/fy99/m01fy99.pdf.
    U.S. Employment Standards Administration. 1997. “OFCCP Glass Ceiling Initiative: Are There Cracks in the Ceiling?” June. Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs. http://www.dol.gov/dol/esa/public/media/reports/ofccp/gccover.htm.
    U.S. Employment Standards Administration. 2000. “Birmingham, Alabama Bank Enters into EEO Settlement with U.S. Labor Department”. Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs. http://www/dol.gov/dol/esa/public/media/press/ofccp/of00314.htm
    U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 1999. “Charge Statistics FY 1992 through FY 1998”. http://www.eeoc.gov/stats/charges.html.
    U.S. Employment Standards Administration. 2000a. “EEOC Settles Pay Discrimination Suit for $450,000 Against Nationwide Trucking Company”. http://www.eeoc.gov/press/12-7-00.html.
    U.S. Employment Standards Administration. 2000b. “EEOC and George Junior Republic Settle Sex-Based Wage Discrimination Lawsuit”. http://www.eeoc.gov/press/7-26-00.html.
    U.S. Employment Standards Administration. 2001a. “Sexual Harassment Charges EEOC and FEPAs Combined: FY 1999-FY 2000”. http://www.eeoc.gov/stats/harass.html.
    U.S. Employment Standards Administration. 2001b. “Job Patterns for Minorities and Women in Private Industry (EEO1)”. http://www.eeoc.gov/stats.
    U.S. Government Accounting Office. 1995. “Progress of Women and Minority Criminal Investigators at Selected Agencies”. April. Washington, DC: U.S. GAO.
    U.S. Government Accounting Office. 2002. “A New Look Through the Glass Ceiling: Where Are the Women?” January. Washington, DC: U.S. GAO.
    U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board. 1996. “Fair and Equitable Treatment: A Progress Report on Minority Employment in the Federal Government”. Washington, DC: U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board.
    U.S. Office of Personnel Management. 1999. “Women in the Federal Government: A Statistical Profile”. http://apps.opm.gov/publications/pages/default_search.htm.
    U.S. Office of Personnel Management. 2001. “Demographic Profile of the Federal Workforce, 2000 edition”. Sept. 7. http://ww.opm.gov/feddata/demograph/demograph.htm.
    U.S. Women's Bureau. 1993. “Facts on Working Women”. Report No. 93–2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Women's Bureau. 1998. “Facts on Working Women. Work and Elder Care: Facts for Caregivers and Their Employers”. No. 98–1. May. http://www.dol.gov/dol/wb/public/wb_pubs/elderc.htm.
    U.S. Women's Bureau. 2000. “Earnings Differences Between Women and Men”. http://www.dol.gov/dol/wb/public/wb_pubs/wagegap2000.htm.
    Valenze, Deborah. 1995. The First Industrial Woman. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Waldfogel, Jane. 1999a. “Family Leave Coverage in the 1990s”. Monthly Labor Review122:13–21.
    Waldfogel, Jane. 1999b. “The Impact of the Family and Medical Leave Act”. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management18:281–302.
    Walsh, Mary Williams. 2000. “Where G.E. Falls Short: Diversity at the Top”. New York Times, Sept. 3, p. C1.
    West, Candace and Don H.Zimmerman. 1987. “Doing Gender”. Gender & Society1:125–51.
    Weston, Kath. 1990. “Production as Means, Production as Metaphor: Women's Struggle to Enter the Trades”. Pp. 137–51 in Uncertain Terms: Negotiating Gender in American Culture, edited by F.Ginsburg and A. L.Tsing. Boston: Beacon.
    Westover, Belinda. 1986. “‘To Fill the Kids' Tummies’: The Lives and Work of Colchester Tailoresses, 1880–1918”. Pp. 54–75 in Our Work, Our Lives, Our Words, edited by L.Davidoff and B.Westover. London: Macmillan.
    White, Jane. 1992. A Few Good Women: Breaking the Barriers to Top Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Wilkinson, R. Keith. 1998. “Employment of Scientists and Engineers Reaches 3.2 Million in 1995”. Data Brief NSF 98–325. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf.gov/srs/databrf/sdb98325.pdf.
    Wilkinson-Weber, Clare M. 1999. Embroidering Lives: Women's Work and Skill in the Lucknow Embroidery Industry. Albany: SUNY Press.
    Williams, Christine L. 1995. Still a Man's World: Men Who Do “Women's Work”. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Williams, Joan. 2000. Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Wilson, Franklin D. and Lawrence L.Wu. 1993. “A Comparative Analysis of Labor Force Activities of Ethnic Populations”. Center for Demography and Ecology Working Paper No. 93–01. Madison: University of Wisconsin.
    Working Women. 1981. In Defense of Affirmative Action: Taking the Profit Out of Discrimination. Cleveland.
    World Bank. 2000. World Development Indicators, 2000. http://www.worldbank.org/data/wdi2000/pdfs/tab1_3.pdf.
    Yarrow, Michael. 1987. “Class and Gender in the Developing Consciousness of Appalachian Coal Miners”. Presented to the fifth UMIST-ASTON Annual Conference on Organization and Control of the Labor Process, April 22–24, Manchester, England.

    • Loading...
Back to Top