Why Do English Learners Struggle With Reading?: Distinguishing Language Acquisition From Learning Disabilities

Books

John J. Hoover, Leonard M. Baca & Janette K. Klingner

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Dedication

    Dr. Janette K. Klingner

    (1953–2014)

    Janette was a leading researcher, educator, and mentor specializing in the reading education of English learners, with and without disabilities. During her career, she spent ten years as a bilingual special education teacher in California and Florida. She obtained her PhD from the University of Miami where she developed the highly effective reading method for ELs known as collaborative strategic reading (CSR), which is used in many schools nationwide. Among the many grant funded projects that Janette led, the RTI Effectiveness Model for ELLs (REME) and the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt) are two that highlight her extensive work in the field. Much of Janette’s research was funded by the US Department of Education and many private organizations. Janette received numerous honors and awards throughout her career, including the AERA—American Educational Research Association–Special Education SIG Distinguished Researcher Award. Janette was past president of the Division for Learning Disabilities in the Council for Exceptional Children, and served as vice president of the International Academy for Research on Learning Disabilities. Most recently, Janette was president-elect of the Council for Exceptional Children. Janette’s publications include over fifteen books, one hundred articles, and numerous book chapters and practitioner briefs, addressing the topics of reading education, special education, ELs, response to intervention, and culturally and linguistically diverse education. She was associate editor for the Journal of Learning Disabilities, on the editorial boards of ten professional journals, and was a past coeditor of the Review of Educational Research. Throughout her career, Janette collaborated with many colleagues in the fields of reading, special education, and culturally and linguistically diverse education. Some of her colleagues share their thoughts about Janette and her contributions to the field.

    Dean Lorrie A. Shepard, University of Colorado Boulder

    I am pleased to add my words of remembrance and admiration for Professor Janette Klingner’s many significant professional contributions. Her scholarship was prolific, her commitment to addressing inequities in educational systems unwavering, but still you would not have the whole picture if you did not understand how smart and insightful she was about particularizing supports for learning at the same time that she attended to the practical realities of classrooms, the professional development needs of teachers, and the demands for rigorous research designs. I commend this book to you, knowing Janette’s intentions “to engage all students and provide the support that enables culturally and linguistically diverse students and students identified as having disabilities to thrive and show their strengths.”

    Sharon Vaughn, University of Texas at Austin

    Janette Klingner’s passion for students with disabilities who were also English language learners influenced her thinking, writing, actions, and those of others. She launched a series of studies more than 25 years ago that influences research and practice today and the foreseeable future. Janette’s generosity in sharing what she knew, interest in including as many folks as she could in whatever problem she was tackling, and commitment to conducting high quality research that mattered to practicing professionals is legend. There simply was no issue related to promoting effective outcomes for students who were English language learners that she would not take on. Whether it was policy development, multi-cultural education, research methodology, syntheses, effective interventions, or school reform. Progress related to educational reform for English language learners will be built on her influential work.

    Beth Harry, University of Miami

    Janette Klingner’s unique contribution to the field of special education was the bringing together of three key strands related to equity in education: Learning disability, language, and racial/socioeconomic bias. Starting off as a specialist in reading issues facing bilingual learners, Janette bravely confronted the myriad ways in which this apparently simple binary was inextricably bound to the confounding of racial, socioeconomic, and language differences.

    Diane Haager, California State University, Los Angeles

    What is remarkable and unique about Janette Klingner’s contribution to education is how fluidly she melded multiple areas of expertise—cultural and linguistic diversity, special education, and reading instruction—into a singular defining research identity. Something that she accomplished with astonishing grace is helping diverse communities of educators who often hold tightly to divergent philosophies and beliefs to see value in opposing views. She was always pushing against boundaries to help us to understand complex educational problems, holding firm to her belief that complex problems would require complex solutions. It was more than a “can’t we all just get along” way of being. To Janette, looking at situations and problems from multiple perspectives, listening closely to diverse points of view, and persisting until there was consensus, was the only way to truly impact classrooms and schools. Janette was a brilliant researcher and scholar. Her collective work has led to a deeper, richer understanding of the challenges of meeting the needs of diverse populations in cumbersome educational systems.

    Nonie Lesaux, Harvard Graduate School of Education

    It was inevitable that Janette and I would cross paths, as two scholars deeply committed to increasing opportunities-to-learn for children whose home language(s) include those other than English—a population of children commonly referred to as English learners (ELs). But I was even luckier than that; I had the privilege of collaborating with Janette on some key projects. Most recently, Janette and I designed guidance, resources, and professional development modules to support educators as they shifted their instruction and assessment practices to fit the Response to Intervention (RtI) approach, using RtI as a platform for increasing learning outcomes for ELs. I hold these memories dear, and am still engaged in initiatives to support the implementation of RtI in linguistically diverse settings, continuing to cultivate the progress toward equity that Janette championed. It is through her example that I continue to facilitate and encourage action-oriented conversations about classroom- and school-level models of prevention to meet the needs of today’s diverse populations of learners.

    Julie Esparza Brown, Portland State University

    Dr. Janette Klingner has touched the lives of teachers, scholars, and especially the students in our schools, most notably English learners and students in special education, who have benefited from her teaching, research, and service to the community. Her academic and scholarly accomplishments in the fields of literacy, English Learners and special education are without question. Yet, I believe her generosity of time and heart is equally profound. As a Latina and emerging scholar with few role models and little guidance in navigating an academic career, I deeply valued Janette’s mentorship. Not only did she make an impact with her own research, but there are many others like me... [who found that her] guidance and impact on our scholarship have been invaluable.

    John J. Hoover, University of Colorado Boulder

    Leonard M. Baca, University of Colorado Boulder

    Janette was a scholar, colleague, and friend and will be missed by many. In the contents of the second edition of this book her knowledge and expertise prevail, continuing her efforts to inform, educate and prepare high quality educators in the teaching of reading to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, with or without disabilities.

    Preface

    We have each devoted our forty-plus-year careers to trying to improve educational opportunities and outcomes for culturally and linguistically diverse students, especially English learners with or without disabilities. In our years of work as classroom teachers and as professors preparing educators, we have noticed that one of the most challenging aspects of working with English learners is determining why they might be underachieving, particularly in reading. In some cases, it is that they are not being taught in environments conducive to learning or with instructional practices that are appropriate for meeting their needs. Perhaps they are struggling with English language acquisition. Or they might truly have learning disabilities. In fact, all of the above might be contributing to English learners’ slow progress.

    The first step in providing students with support that is well matched to their needs is determining the possible reasons for their difficulties. Thus, the purpose of this book is to help practitioners distinguish between learning disabilities and other possible explanations for English learners’ struggles in school. We provide readers with a wealth of information about different aspects of this important educational challenge. It is our hope that as teachers and other support personnel read through the different chapters of this book, they reflect on their own practices, discuss the content of the book with colleagues, and apply what they are learning with their students. We envision that the reader will become more confident and competent in determining why English learners might be struggling with reading.

    Acknowledgments

    We wish to acknowledge that this book is written for all the students we had the privilege of teaching who were English learners and labeled as having learning disabilities: Elvia, Jorge, Francisco, Azucena, Veronica, Richard, and Yulexis—to name only a few. Some of these students had learning disabilities, but many did not. It was their challenges and successes, their frustrations and their joys, that planted the seeds for this book so many years ago.

    This book was sponsored by the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt). There are many individuals along the way who helped with its construction whose contributions we would like to acknowledge. First, we wish to thank Dr. Grace Zamora Durán. It was her expert guidance as the project officer for NCCRESt that provided the impetus for this work. Secondly, we would like to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Dr. Alfredo Artiles, co-principal investigator for NCCRESt, whose conceptual contributions helped to frame our approach to the book. Next, we would like to thank the authors who contributed to different book chapters and helped make the book a reality: Michael J. Orosco, Laura Méndez Barletta, Amy Boelé, and Todd Fletcher, as well as Carmen de Onís, Diana Geisler, and Estella Almanza de Schonewise. Finally, we would like to show our appreciation for the researchers who coauthored papers presented at NCCRESt’s National Research Conference, “English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities,” November 18–19, 2004: Jamal Abedi, Alfredo Artiles, Manuel Barrera, Judith Bernhard, Paul Cirino, Jim Cummins, Kathy Escamilla, Richard Figueroa, Todd Fletcher, Margaret Gallego, Eugene Garcia, Michael Gerber, Diane Haager, Beth Harry, Nonie Lesaux, Sylvia Linan-Thompson, Jeff MacSwan, Laura Méndez Barletta, Patricia Newsome, Alba Ortiz, Kathryn Prater, Elba Reyes, Phyllis Robertson, Robert Rueda, Richard Ruiz, Guillermo Solano Flores, Sharon Vaughn, Cheryl Wilkinson, Michelle Windmueller, and Grace Zamora-Durán. Their research served as the foundation for the chapters in this book.

    This second edition contains all the excellent material presented in the first edition and builds on those contributions and works of the educational leaders identified above. This second edition expands upon the works that served as the foundation for the first edition by bringing updated research and contemporary insights to the education of ELs who struggle with reading. Finally, we wish to especially acknowledge our late colleague, Dr. Janette Klingner, for her insightful and leading-edge works that masterfully framed Why Do English Learners Struggle With Reading? Her contributions live on in this second edition.

    Publisher’s Acknowledgments

    Corwin would also like to thank the following for their professional contributions to the book:

    Juliana Arazi

    ESL Teacher

    Urbana School District 116

    Urbana, IL

    James Becker

    ESL Teacher

    Saint Paul Public Schools

    Saint Paul, MN

    Anne Beveridge

    Assistant Head and Primary Years Program Coordinator (Junior School)

    Branksome Hall

    Toronto, ON

    Christine Engel

    ESL Teacher

    Webster Stanley Elementary

    Oshkosh, WI

    Christine B. Rodriguez

    Elementary School Teacher

    Phoenix Elementary School District

    Phoenix, AZ

    About the Authors

    Janette K. Klingner See Dedication Page

    John J. Hoover is associate professor of research at the University of Colorado Boulder and a former K–12 special educator, teaching diverse students representing multiple languages and cultures in western, southwestern, and midwestern states. He earned a BA in elementary and special education (intellectual disabilities), an MA in learning disabilities and emotional disorders with an emphasis in reading, and a PhD in curriculum specializing in special education. His research agenda for the past two decades has focused on the topic of culturally and linguistically responsive special education referral and assessment of English language and other diverse learners. He is currently principal investigator/PI on three, multiyear grant-funded projects addressing ELs and multi-tiered supports, special education referral and assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse learners, and graduate-level teacher preparation for teaching English language and other diverse learners with and without disabilities. Select recent or in-development coauthored/coedited books include: IEPs for ELLs, and Other Diverse Learners (in development, Corwin); Linking Assessment to Instruction: Selecting Reading, Writing and Mathematics Interventions (Pearson); Differentiating Learning Differences From Learning and Behavioral Disabilities: Teaching Diverse Learners Through Multi-Tiered Response to Intervention (Allyn & Bacon); and Methods for Teaching Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners (Pearson Merrill). He also is coauthor of a nationally normed reading test, Early Reading Assessment (Pro-Ed), and of a research-based educator self-assessment and professional development tool, Core ESL Instructional Practices (CEIP) Guide. Recent refereed journal publications include “Increasing Usage of ESL Instructional Practices in a Rural County Elementary School,” Rural Educator (in press); “Culturally Responsive Special Education Referrals of English Learners in One Rural County School District: Pilot Project,” Rural Special Education Quarterly (2015), for which he was awarded the 2015 Research Article of the Year Award by the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES), and “Reducing Unnecessary Referrals: Guidelines for Teachers of Diverse Learners,” Teaching Exceptional Children (2012).

    Leonard M. Baca is professor emeritus at the University of Colorado Boulder. He earned an EdD from the University of Northern Colorado and has been a professor of education at the University of Colorado Boulder since 1973. He has taught courses in bilingual and bilingual special education and served as the program chair. Professor Baca is founder and executive director of the BUENO Center for Multicultural Education where he has directed and managed millions of dollars in grant-funded projects promoting the education of ELs and students with disabilities. He is author or coauthor of numerous publications dealing with English learners with and without disabilities, including the Bilingual Special Education Interface (Merrill) and Methods for Teaching Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners (Pearson).

  • References

    Abedi, J. (2004a, November). Psychometric issues in ELL assessment and special education eligibility. Paper presented at the NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    Abedi, J. (2004b). The No Child Left Behind Act and English language learners: Assessment and accountability issues. Educational Researcher, 33(1), 414.
    Abedi, J. (2011). Assessing English language learners: Critical issues. In M. Basterra, E. Trumbull, & G. Solano-Flores (Eds.), Cultural validity in assessment: Addressing linguistic and cultural diversity (pp. 4971). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Abedi, J., Lord, C., & Plummer, J. (1997). Language background as a variable in NAEP mathematics performance (CSE Tech. Rep. No. 429). Los Angeles: University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.
    Aceves, T. C., & Orosco, M. J. (2014). Culturally responsive teaching (Document No. IC-2). Retrieved from University of Florida, Collaboration for Effective Educator, Development, Accountability, and Reform Center website: http://ceedar.education.ufl.edu/tools/innovation-configurations/
    Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Adler, P. (1975). The transitional experiences: An alternative view of culture shock. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15(4), 1323.
    Al Otaiba, S., Connor, C. M., Folsom, J., Wanzek, J., Greulich, L., Schatschneider, C., & Wagner, R. K. (2014). To wait in Tier 1 or intervene immediately: A randomized experiment examining first-grade response to intervention in reading. Exceptional Children, 81(1), 1127.
    Albert Shanker Institute. (2015). The state of teacher diversity in American education. Retrieved from http://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/teacherdiversity
    Allen, R. V. (1979). Language experiences in communication. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Allington, R. L., & Cunningham, P. M. (2002). Schools that work: Where all children read and write. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Almasi, J. F., & Gambrell, L. B. (1994). Sociocognitive conflict in peer-led and teacher-led discussions of literature. College Park, MD: National Reading Research Center.
    Alton-Lee, A., Westera, J., & Pulegatoa-Diggins, C. (2012). BES Exemplar 4 NgaˉKete Raukura—He tauira 4: Reciprocal teaching. Ministry of Education, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/107108/BES-Exemplar4.pdf
    Alvermann, D. E., Young, J. P., Weaver, D., Hinchman, K. A., Moore, D. W., Phelps, S. F.,... Zalewski, P. Z. (1996). Middle and high school students’ perceptions of how they experience text-based discussions: A multicase study. Reading Research Quarterly, 31(3), 244267.
    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2004). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists and audiologists to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services [Knowledge and Skills]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy
    Anthony, J. L., Solari, E. J., Williams, J. M., Schoger, K. D., Zhang, Z., Branum-Martin, L., & Francis, D. J. (2009). Development of bilingual phonological awareness in Spanish-speaking English language learners: The roles of vocabulary, letter knowledge, and prior phonological awareness. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13, 535564.
    Antunez, B. (2002). Implementing reading first with English language learners. Directions in Language and Education, 15. Retrieved from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/directions/15.pdf
    Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968–2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279299.
    Artiles, A. J., Rueda, R., Salazar, J., & Higareda, I. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71, 283300.
    Artiles, A. J., & Trent, S. C. (2000). Representation of culturally/linguistically diverse students. In C. R. Reynolds & E. Fletcher-Jantzen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of special education, Vol. 1 (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 513517). New York, NY: Wiley.
    Au, K. H. (1993). Literacy instruction in multicultural settings. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Au, K. H. (2011). Literacy achievement and diversity: Keys to success for students, teachers, and schools. Multicultural Education Series. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Aud, S., Hussar, F., Johnson, G., Kena, G., & Roth, E. (2013). The condition of education 2013 (NCES 2013–037). Washington, DC: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013037.pdf
    August, D., & Hakuta, K. (1997). Improving schooling for language minority children: A research agenda. Washington, DC: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press.
    August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Baca, L., & Cervantes, H. (2004). The bilingual special education interface. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Merrill, Prentice Hall.
    Bailey, A. L., & Carroll, P. E. (2015). Assessment of English language learners in the era of new academic content standards. Review of Research in Education, 39(1), 253294.
    Ballantyne, K. G., Sanderman, A. R., & Levy, J. (2008). Educating English language learners: Building teacher capacity. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition.
    Barrera, M. (2004, November). Roles of definitional and assessment models in the identification of new or second language learners of English for special education. Paper presented at the 2004 NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    Basterra, M. D. R. (2011). Cognition, culture, language and assessment: How to select culturally valid assessments in the classroom. In M. Basterra, E. Trumbull, & G. Solano-Flores (Eds.), Cultural validity in assessment: Addressing linguistic and cultural diversity (pp. 7295). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Basterra, M. D. R., Trumbull, E., & Solano-Flores, G. (2011). Cultural validity in assessment: Addressing linguistic and cultural diversity. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Bateman, B. (1965). An educational view of a diagnostic approach to learning disorders. In J. Hellmuth (Ed.), Learning disorders: Vol. 1 pp. 219239). Seattle, WA: Special Child.
    Bernhard, J. K., Cummins, J., Campoy, F. I., & Ada, A. F. (2004, November). Cognitive engagement and identity investment in literacy development among English language learners: Evidence from the Early Authors Program. Paper presented at the 2004 NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    Bernhard, J. K., Cummins, J., Campoy, F. I., Ada, A. F., Winsler, A., & Bleiker, C. (2006). Identity texts and literacy development among preschool English language learners: Enhancing learning opportunities for children at risk of learning disabilities. Teachers College Record, 108(11), 23802405.
    Best, J. W., & Kahn, J. V. (2006). Research in education (
    8th
    ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Blackorby, J., Lenz, K., Campbell, A., Wei, X., Greene, S., Padilla, C., & Lawyer-Brook, D. (2014a). Denver Public Schools CSR Colorado: Evaluation of the 2011–12 school year. Menlo Park, CA: SRI.
    Blackorby, J., Lenz, K., Campbell, A., Wei, X., Greene, S., Padilla, C., & Lawyer-Brook, D. (2014b). Denver Public Schools CSR Colorado: Evaluation of the 2012–13 school year. Menlo Park, CA: SRI.
    Boardman, A. G., Moore, B. A., & Scornavacco, K. (2015). Disrupting the “norm” with collaborative strategic reading. English Journal, 105(1), 4854.
    Boelé, A. L., Boardman, A. G., & Klingner, J. K. (2013). Promoting high quality student talk about text. Connecticut Reading Association Journal, 2(1), 2936.
    Bos, C., & Fletcher, T. (1997). Sociocultural considerations in learning disabilities research: Knowledge gaps and future directions. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 12, 9299.
    Bronfenbrenner, U. (1995). Developmental ecology through space and time: A future perspective. In P. Moen, G. Elder, & K. Luescher (Eds.), Examining lives in context: Perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp. 619647). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Brophy, J. (2010). Motivating students to learn (
    3rd
    ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2010). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Buckley, P., Klingner, J., & Boardman, A. G. (2014, April). The impact of collaborative strategic reading over time. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.
    Buckley, P., & Moore, B. (2015, March). The relation between fidelity of implementation to collaborative strategic reading and student achievement. Paper presented to the Society for Research in Educational Effectiveness Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.
    Burden, P. R., & Byrd, D. M. (2012). Methods for effective teaching: Meeting the needs of all students (
    6th
    ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
    Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
    Calderón, M. (2008). Innovative policies and practices for developing teachers to work with English language learners. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/Media/Conferences_and_Events/pdf/ELLsympsium/Calderon.pdf
    Calderón, M., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Ivory, G., & Slavin, R. E. (1997). Effects of bilingual cooperative integrated reading and composition on students transitioning from Spanish to English reading. Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR). Retrieved from http://www.csos.jhu.edu/crespar/techReports/report10.pdf
    Camarota, S. A. (2012). Immigrants in the United States: A profile of America’s foreign-born population. Washington, DC: The Center for Immigration Studies.
    Canter, A. (2006). Problem solving and RTI: New roles for school psychologists. NASP Communiqué, 34(5). Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq345rti.aspx
    Capp, R., Fix, M., Murray, J., Ost, J., Passel, J. S., & Herwantoro, S. (2005). The new demography of America’s schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
    Carlisle, J. F., Beeman, M. M., Davis, L. H., & Spharim, G. (1999). Relationship of metalinguistic capabilities and reading achievement for children who are becomming bilingual. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 459478.
    Cazden, C. (2001). Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Celce-Murcia, M., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1983). The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher’s book. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    Cha, K., & Goldenberg, C. (2015). The complex relationship between bilingual home language input and kindergarten children’s Spanish and English oral proficiencies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(4), 935953. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000030
    Chamot, A. U. (1995, Summer/Fall). Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach: CALLA in Arlington, VA. The Bilingual Research Journal, 19(3 & 4), 379394.
    Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. M. (1996). The cognitive academic language learning approach (CALLA): A model for linguistically diverse classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 6(3), 259273.
    Chandler, J. (2003). The efficiency of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 267296.
    Chiappe, P., Siegel, L. A., & Gottardo, A. (2002). Reading-related skills of kindergartners from diverse linguistic backgrounds. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 95116.
    Child Trends. (2014). Immigrant children. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=immigrant-children
    Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Christ, T. J., Burns, M. K., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2005). Exploring RTI: Conceptual confusion within response-to-intervention vernacular: Clarifying meaningful differences. NASP Communiqué, 34(3). Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq343rti.aspx
    Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2009). Literacy instruction for English language learners: A teacher’s guide to research-based practices. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach, The (CALLA). (2015). Overview. Retrieved from http://jillrobbins.com/calla/overview.html
    Cohen, L. G., & Spenciner, L. J. (2015). Assessment of children and youth with special needs. Boston, MA: Pearson.
    Collier, C. (1988). Assessing minority students with learning and behavior problems. Boulder, CO: Hamilton.
    Collier, C. (2005). Separating language difference from disability. NABE News, 28(3), 1317.
    Collier, C., & Hoover, J. J. (1987a). Cognitive learning styles for minority handicapped students. Boulder, CO: Hamilton.
    Collier, C., & Hoover, J. J. (1987b). Sociocultural considerations when referring diverse children for learning disabilities. LD Focus, 3(1), 3945.
    Colombo, M. (2012). Teaching English language learners: 43 strategies for successful K–8 classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Colorado Department of Education (CDE). (2015). Multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS). Colorado Department of Education website: http://www.cde.state.co.us/mtss/components.
    Colorín Colorado (2007). Cooperative learning strategies. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/content/cooperative/
    Commins, N. L. (2012). What are defining features of effective programs for English language learners? In E. Hamayan & R. Freeman (Eds.), English language learners at school: A guide for administrators (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 98100). Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.
    Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Bryant, J. D. (2006). Selecting at-risk readers in first grade for early intervention: A two-year longitudinal study of decision rules and procedures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 394409.
    Congressional Budget Office. (2013). Snapshot of the foreign-born population in the United States, 18602010. Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://www.cbo.gov/publication/44135?utm_source=feedblitz&utm_medium=FeedBlitzEmail&utm_content=812526&utm_campaign=0
    Council for Exceptional Children (CEC). (2008). CEC’s position on response to intervention (RTI): Unique role of special education and special educators. In Council for Exceptional Children 2008 Policy Manual; Section Four, Part 3; pp. 110. Retrieved from https://www.cec.sped.org/~/media/Files/Policy/CEC%20Professional%20Policies%20and%20Positions/RTI.pdf
    Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC). (2013, April). Model core teaching standards and learning progressions for teachers 1.0: A resource for ongoing teacher development. Washington, DC: Author.
    Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2015). Promises to keep: Transforming educator preparation to better serve a diverse range of learners. Washington, DC: Author.
    Cramer, L. (2015). Inequities of intervention among culturally and linguistically diverse students. Penn GSE Perspectives on Urban Education, 12(1). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1056724.pdf
    Crawford, J. (1999). Bilingual education: History, politics, theory, and practice (
    4th
    ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Bilingual Educational Services.
    Crystal, D. (1997). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language (
    2nd
    ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Cummins, D. D., Kintsch, W., Reusser, K., & Weimer, R. (1988). The role of understanding in solving word problems. Cognitive Psychology, 20, 405438.
    Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 221251.
    Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California State Department of Education (Ed.), Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework (pp. 350). Sacramento: California State Department of Education.
    Cummins, J. (1984). Bilingualism and special education: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon, England, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    Cummins, J. (1986). Empowering minority students: A framework for intervention. Harvard Educational Review, 56, 1836.
    Cummins, J. (1989). A theoretical framework for bilingual special education. Exceptional Children, 56(3), 111119.
    Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Clevedon, England, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    Curtin, E. (2005). Teaching practices for ESL students. Multicultural Education, 12(3), 2227.
    Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8, 167.
    Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st-century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57, 300314.
    de Oliveira, L., C., & Burke, A. M. (2015). Mainstream elementary teachers’ perceptions about teaching English language learners. In L. C. de Oliveira & M. Yough (Eds.), Preparing teachers to work with English language learners in mainstream classrooms (pp. 315). Charlotte, NC: IAP and TESOL Press.
    de Onís, C. (2005). The mismatch between teachers and students: Meeting the challenge of preparing teachers for diversity. In R. Hoosain & F. S. Farideh (Eds.), Language in multicultural education (pp. 205229). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
    DeCapua, A., & Marshall, H. (2011). Reaching ELLs at risk: Instruction for students with limited or interrupted formal education. Preventing School Failure, 55(1), 3541.
    Dee, T. S. (2000). Teachers, race and student achievement in a randomized experiment. Unpublished manuscript, Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania.
    Deno, S. L. (2005). Problem-solving assessment. In R. Brown-Chidsey (Ed.), Assessment for intervention: A problem-solving approach (pp. 1040). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Dole, J. A., Nokes, J. D., & Drits, D. (2009). Cognitive strategy instruction. In G. G. Duffy & S. E. Israel (Eds.), Handbook of research on reading comprehension (pp. 347372). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Donovan, M. S., & Cross, C. (Eds.). (2002). Minority students in special and gifted education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Durgunoglu, A. (2002). Cross linguistic transfer in literacy development and implications for language learners. Annals of Dyslexia, 52, 189204.
    Durgunoglu, A. Y., Nagy, W. E., & Hancin-Bhatt, B. J. (1993). Cross-language transfer of phonological awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 453465.
    Echevarria, J. (1995). Interactive reading instruction: A comparison of proximal and distal effects of instructional conversations. Exceptional Children, 61(6), 536552.
    Echevarria, J. J., Vogt, M. E., & Short, D. J. (2012). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model (
    4th
    ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
    Eeds, M., & Wells, D. (1989). Grand conversations: An exploration of meaning construction in literature study groups. Research in the Teaching of English, 23(1), 429.
    Eppolito, A., Boardman, A., Jensen, C., & Wang, C. (2014). Let’s give them something to talk about: English learners’ participation and academic language use in science and social studies. Unpublished manuscript, School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
    Escamilla, K. (1999). On educating culturally and linguistically diverse students: A professional development resource series. Second Language Acquisition. Boulder: University of Colorado, BUENO Center, School of Education.
    Escamilla, K., & Escamilla, M. (2003). Literature review: Best practices for Latino pre-school children (ALMAR Research Report). Boulder, CO: Boulder County Head Start, City of Boulder Children, Youth and Families Division.
    Escamilla, K., & Hopewell, S. (2010). Transitions to biliteracy: Creating positive trajectories for emerging bilinguals in the U.S. In J. Petrovic (Ed.), International perspectives on bilingual education: Policy, practice and controversy. New York, NY: Information Age.
    Escamilla, K., Ruiz-Figueroa, O. A., Hopewell, S., Butvilofsky, S., & Sparrow, W. (2010). Transitions to biliteracy: Literacy squared 2004–2009 (Tech. Rep). Boulder: University of Colorado, Boulder School of Education, BUENO Center.
    Fairbairn, S., & Jones-Vo, S. (2010). Differentiating instruction and assessment for English language learners: A guide for K–12 teachers. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.
    Farnia, F., & Geva, E. (2011). Cognitive correlates of vocabulary growth in English language learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 711738. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0142716411000038
    Farr, M., & Ball, A. F. (1999). Standard English. In B. Spolsky (Ed.), Concise encyclopedia of educational linguistics (pp. 205208). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
    Fathman, A., & Whalley, E. (1990). Teacher response to student correction: Focus on form versus content. In Barbara Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 178185). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Ferris, D., & Hedgcock, J. S. (1998). Teaching ESL composition: Purpose, process, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Ferris, D. R. (2002). Treatment of error in second language student writing. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
    Figueroa, R. (1989). Psychological testing of linguistic-minority students: Knowledge gaps and regulations. Exceptional Children, 56, 145153.
    Figueroa, R. A., & Newsome, P. (2004, November). The diagnosis of Learning Disabilities in English language learners: Is it nondiscriminatory? Paper presented at the 2004 NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, pp. 906911.
    Ford, K. (2005). Fostering literacy development in English language learners. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/12924/
    Ford, K. (2012). ELLs and reading fluency in English. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/teaching/fluency/
    Forman, E. A., & McPhail, J. (1993). Vygotskian perspective on children’s collaborative problem-solving activities. In E. A. Forman, N. Minick, & C. A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in children’s development (pp. 213229). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Research-based recommendations for instruction and academic interventions: Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners. Houston, TX: Center on Instruction.
    Freeman, G. G. (1978, June). Interdisciplinary evaluation of children’s primary language skills. Paper presented at the World Congress on Future Special Education, First, Stirling, Scotland. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED157341.
    Fry, R., & Taylor, P. (2012). The rise of residential segregation by income. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
    Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 9399.
    Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. (2003). Responsiveness-to-instruction intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities: Research & Practice, 18(3), 157171.
    Galland, P. A. (1995). An evaluation of the cognitive academic language learning approach (CALLA) in the high intensity language training (HILT) science program in Arlington Public Schools (Unpublished master’s thesis), Washington, DC: Georgetown University.
    Gallego, M., Zamora Durán, G., & Reyes, E. (2006). It depends: A sociohistorical account of the definition and methods of identification of learning disabilities. The Teachers College Record, 108(11), 21952219.
    Galloway, E. P., & Lesaux, N. K. (2014). Leader, teacher, diagnostician, colleague, and change agent: A synthesis of the research on the role of the reading specialist in this eraof RTI-based literacy reform. The Reading Teacher, 67(7), 517526. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/trtr.1251.
    Garcia, E. (2004, November). Who are these linguistically and culturally diverse students? Paper presented at the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems Research Conference on English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Scottsdale, AZ.
    García, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Garcia, S. B., & Ortiz, A. A. (2006). Preventing disproportionate representation: Culturally and linguistically responsive prereferral interventions (NCCRESt Brief). Tempe, AZ: National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems.
    Gascoigne, C. (2004). Examining the effect of feedback in beginning L2 composition. Foreign Language Annals, 37(1), 7176.
    Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Genesee, F. (Ed.). (1994). Introduction. In F. Genesee (Ed.), Educating second language children: The whole child, the whole curriculum, the whole community (pp.111). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press on Linguistic Differences and Learning.
    Genesee, F., & Nicoladis, E. (2006). Bilingual first language acquisition. In E. Hoff & M. Shatz (Eds.), Handbook of language development (pp. 324342). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Gentile, L. (2004). The oracy instructional guide. Carlsbad, CA: Dominie Press.
    Gersten, R., & Baker, S. (2000). What we know about effective instructional practices for English-language learners. Exceptional Children, 66, 454470.
    Gersten, R., Brengelman, S., & Jimenez, R. (1994). Effective instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse students: A reconceptualization. Focus on Exceptional Children, 27(1), 116.
    Gersten, R., & Jimenez, R. (1994). A delicate balance: Enhancing literacy instruction for students of English as a second language. Reading Teacher, 47, 438449.
    Gleitman, L., & Landau, B. (1994). The acquisition of the lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Goldenberg, C. (1992–1993). Instructional conversations: Promoting comprehension through discussion, The Reading Teacher, 46(4), 316326.
    Goldenberg, C. (2006). Improving achievement for English learners: Conclusions from 2 research reviews. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/12918
    Goldenberg, C. (2008, Summer ). Teaching English language learners: What the research does and does not say. American Educator, 32(2), 844.
    Goldenberg, C. (2013). Unlocking the research on English Learners: What we know—and don’t yet know—About effective instruction. American Educator, 37(2), 411, 38.
    Goldenberg, C., Hicks, J., & Lit, I, (2013). Dual language learners: Effective instruction in early childhood. American Educator, 37(2), 2629.
    Good, R. H., & Kaminski, R. A. (Eds.). (2002). Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills (
    6th
    ed.). Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.
    Greene, J. (1997). A meta-analysis of the Rossell and Baker review of bilingual education research. Bilingual Research Journal, 21, 103122.
    Greenwood, C. R., Arreaga-Mayer, C., Utley, C. A., Gavin, K. M., & Terry, B. J. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system: Applications with elementary-level English language learners. Remedial And Special Education, 22(1), 3447.
    Greenwood, C. R., Terry, B., Utley, C. A., Montagna, D., & Walker, D. (1993). Achievement placement and services: Middle school benefits of classwide peer tutoring used at the elementary school. School Psychology Review, 22(3), 497516.
    Grigorenko, E. L. (2009). Dynamic assessment and response to intervention: Two sides of one coin. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 111132.
    Grigorenko, E. L., & Sternberg, R. J. (1998). Dynamic testing. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 75111.
    Grossman, H. (1995). Special education in a diverse society. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Gunn, B., Biglan, A., Smolkowski, K., & Ary, D. (2000). The efficacy of supplemental instruction in decoding skills for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students in early elementary school. Journal of Special Education, 34(2), 90103.
    Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Black, C., & Blair, J. (2005). Fostering the development of reading skill through supplemental instruction: Results for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. Journal of Special Education, 39, 6685.
    Haager, D. (2004, November). Promoting reading achievement for English language learners learning in English: A case for explicit instruction. Paper presented at the NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    Hallahan, D. P., & Mercer, C. (2002). Learning disabilities: Historical perspectives. In R. Bradley, L. Danielson, & D. P. Hallahan (Eds.), Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice (pp. 168). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning. London, UK: Edward Arnold.
    Hamayan, E., Marler, B., Sanchez-Lopez, C., & Damico, J. (2013). Special education considerations for English language learners: Delivering a continuum of services (
    2nd
    ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.
    Hammill, D., Leigh, F., McNutt, G., & Larsen, S. (1981). A new definition of learning disability. Learning Disability Quarterly, 4, 336342.
    Hanselman, E. (2015, February). Multi-tiered system of supports: Uniting through one vision. Beyond NCLB: Annual Statewide ESEA/NCLB Conference, February 3–5, Chicago, IL.
    Harper, C. A., & de Jong, E. J. (2004). Misconceptions about teaching ELLs. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 48(2), 152162.
    Harry, B., & Klingner, J. (2005). Why are so many minority students in special education? Understanding race and disability in schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Harry, B., & Klingner, J. (2014). Why are so many minority students in special education? New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Hernandez, J. S. (1991). Assisted performance in reading comprehension strategies with non-English proficient students. The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 8, 91112.
    Herrell, A. L., & Jordan, M. (2008). Fifty strategies for teaching English language learners. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
    Herrera, S. G., Perez, D. R., & Escamilla, K. (2015). Teaching reading to English language learners: Differentiated literacies (
    2nd
    ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
    Hidayah, T. (2009). Collaborative strategic reading (CSR) strategy and its significance for reading comprehension. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/4020740/Collaborative_Strategic_Reading_CSR_Strategy_and_Its_Significance_for_Reading_Comprehension
    Hiebert, E. H., Pearson, P. D., Taylor, B. M., Richardson, V., & Paris, S. G. (1998). Every child a reader: Applying reading research to the classroom. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan School of Education, Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement.
    Hill, J. D., & Miller, K. B. (2013). Classroom instruction that works with English language learners (
    2nd
    ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    Hite, C. E., & Evans, L. S. (2006). Mainstream first-grade teachers’ understanding of strategies for accommodating the needs of English language learners. Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(2), 89110.
    Hoover, J. J. (2006, April). Framework for culturally competent response to intervention. Invited presentation delivered at the New York City Public Schools, Summit on Differentiated Instruction and Academic Interventions, New York, NY.
    Hoover, J. J. (2010). Special education eligibility decision making in response to intervention models. Theory into Practice, 49(4), 289296.
    Hoover, J. J. (2012). Reducing unnecessary referrals: Guidelines for teachers or diverse learners. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(4), 3847.
    Hoover, J. J. (2013). Linking assessment to instruction in multi-tiered models: A teacher’s guide to selecting reading, writing, and mathematics interventions. Boston, MA: Pearson.
    Hoover, J. J., & Collier, C. (1985). Referring culturally different children: Sociocultural considerations. Academic Therapy, 20(4), 503509.
    Hoover, J. J., & Collier, C. (2003). Learning styles [CD-ROM]. Boulder: University of Colorado, BUENO Center, School of Education.
    Hoover, J. J., & Erickson, J. (2015). Culturally responsive special education referrals of English learners in one rural county school district: Pilot project. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 34(4), 1828.
    Hoover, J. J., & Klingner, J. (2011). Promoting cultural validity in the assessment of bilingual special education students. In M. Basterra, E. Trumbull, & G. Solano-Flores (Eds.), Cultural validity in assessment: Addressing linguistic and cultural diversity (pp. 143167). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Hoover, J. J., Klingner, J. K., Baca, L. M., & Patton, J. M. (2008). Teaching culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional learners. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
    Hoover, J. J., & Love, E. (2011). Supporting school-based response to intervention: A practitioner’s model. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(3), 4049.
    Hoover, J. J., & Soltero-Gonzalez, L. (2014, April). Examination of teaching abilities in the delivery of multilevel literacy instruction to ELs. Conference presentation (of OSEP funded Model Demonstration Project), Council for Exceptional Children Convention, Philadelphia, PA, April 11, 2014.
    Hosp, J. L., & Reschy, D. J. (2003). Referral rates for intervention or assessment: A meta-analysis of racial differences. Journal of Special Education, 37(2), 6780.
    Hunt, K. W. (1965). Grammatical structures written at three grade levels (Research Rep. No. 3). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1991, Pub L. No. 102119.
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, Pub. L. No. 10517, SS 601 et seq., 111 Stat. 37 (1997).
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA, 2004) H.R. 1350. Retrieved from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c108:h.1350.enr
    IRIS Center for Training Enhancements. (n.d.). Star legacy module-RtI. Retrieved from http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/resources.html
    Irujo, S. (2004). Differentiated instruction: We can no longer just aim down the middle. ELL Outlook. Retrieved from http://coursecrafters.com/ELL-Outlook/index.html
    Isik, A. (2000). The role of input in second language acquisition: More comprehensible input supported by grammar instruction or more grammar instruction? ITL: Review of Applied Linguistics, 129130, 225274.
    Jiménez, R. T. (1997). The strategic reading abilities and potential of five low-literacy Latina/o readers in middle school. Reading Research Quarterly, 32(3), 224243.
    Jiménez, R. T., García, G., & Pearson, P. D. (1994). Three children, two languages, and strategic reading: Case studies in bilingual/monolingual reading. American Educational Journal, 32, 6798.
    Kendall, J., & Khuon, O. (2005). Making sense: Small-group comprehension lessons for English language learners. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    Kirk, S. A. (1962). Educating exceptional children. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Klassen, K., & Maune, M. (2015). Common Core State Standards in English language arts: Pedagogical implications of language analysis. In L. C. de Oliveira & M. Young (Eds.), Preparing teachers to work with English language learners in mainstream classrooms (pp. 7792). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
    Klingner, J., Eppolito, A., Hoover, J. J., Soltero-González, L., Smith, C., K. White, & Cano-Rodriguez, E. (in press). Systemic issues in the implementation of RTI in culturally and linguistically diverse schools. In E. C. Lopez, S. G. Nahari, & S. L. Proctor (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural school psychology: An interdisciplinary perspective (
    2nd
    ed.). London, UK: Routledge.
    Klingner, J., & Hoover, J. J. (2014). Challenges for implementing RTI for English learners. Reading Today, July/August , pp. 1214.
    Klingner, J., Vaughn, S., Boardman, A., & Swanson, E. (2012). Now we get it! Boosting comprehension with collaborative strategic reading. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., & Barletta, L. M. (2006). English Language Learners Who Struggle With Reading Language Acquisition or LD? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 108128.
    Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., Kozleski, E., Harry, B., Zion, S., Tate, W.,... Riley, D. (2005). Addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education through culturally responsive educational systems. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13(38), 139. Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v13n38/
    Klingner, J. K., Boelé, A. L., Linan-Thompson, S., & Rodriguez, D. (2014). Essential components of special education for English language learners with learning disabilities: Position statement of the Division for Learning Disabilities of the Council for Exceptional Children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 29(3), 9396.
    Klingner, J. K., & Edwards, P. (2006). Cultural considerations with response to intervention models. Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 108117.
    Klingner, J. K., & Eppolito, A. (2014). English language learners: Differentiating between language acquisition and learning disabilities. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
    Klingner, J. K., & Harry, B. (2004, November). The special education referral and decision-making process for English language learners—Child study team meetings and staffings. Paper presented at the 2004 NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    Klingner, J. K., Soltero-Gonzalez, L., & Lesaux, N. (2010). Response to intervention for English language learners. In M. Lipson & K. Wixson (Eds.), Successful approaches to response to intervention (RTI): Collaborative practices for improving K–12 literacy (pp. 134162). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Klingner, J. K., Urbach, J., Golos, D., Brownell, M., & Menon, S. (2010). Teaching reading in the 21st century: A glimpse at how special education teachers promote reading. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 33(2), 5974.
    Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (1996). Reciprocal teaching of reading comprehension strategies for students with learning disabilities who use English as a second language. The Elementary School Journal, 96, 275292.
    Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (1998). Using collaborative strategic reading. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30, 3237.
    Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (2000). The helping behaviors of fifth-graders while using collaborative strategic reading (CSR) during ESL content classes. TESOL Quarterly, 34, pp. 6998.
    Kovaleski, J., VanDerHeyden, A., & Shapiro, E. (2013). The RTI approach to evaluating learning disabilities. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Krashen, S. D. (1981). Bilingual education and second language acquisition theory. In Bilingual Education Office (Ed.), Schooling and language-minority students: A theoretical framework, pp. 5179. Los Angeles, CA: Evaluation, Dissemination, and Assessment Center.
    Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.
    Krashen, S. D., & Terrell, T. D. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. London, UK: Prentice Hall Europe.
    Lachat, M. A. (2004). Standards-based instruction and assessment for English language learners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Ladson-Billings, G. (2009). The dreamkeepers: successful teaching for African American Students (
    2nd
    ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Lake, V. E., & Pappamihiel, N. E. (2003). Effective practices and principles to support English language learners in the early childhood classroom. Childhood Education, 79(4), 200204.
    Landis, D., Umolu, J., & Mancha, S. (2010). The power of language experience for cross-cultural reading and writing. The Reading Teacher, 63(7), 580589.
    Langdon, H. W. (1989). Language disorder or language difference? Assessing the language skills of Hispanic students. Exceptional Children, 56, 160167.
    Lantolf, J. P., & Poehner, M. E. (2004). Dynamic assessment in the language classroom (CALPER Professional Development Document CPDD-0411). University Park: The Pennsylvania State University, Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research.
    Lantolf, J. P., & Poehner, M. E. (2008). Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages. London, UK: Equinox.
    Lee, J. (2002). Racial and ethnic achievement gap trends: Reversing the progress towards equity. Educational Researcher, 32, 312.
    Lesaux, N. (2013). Focus on higher-order literacy skills: How can schools best educate Hispanic students? Education Next, 13(2). Retrieved from http://educationnext.org
    Lesaux, N., & Geva, E. (2006). Synthesis: Development of literacy in language-minority students. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Li, X., & Zhang, M. (2004). Why Mei still cannot read and what can be done. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 48(2), 92101.
    Lidz, C. (2003). The application of cognitive function scale: A dynamic assessment procedure for young children. In Tan O. S. & Seng A. S. H (Eds.), Enhancing cognitive functions: Application across contexts. Singapore, Republic of Singapore: McGraw Hill.
    Lidz, C., & Elliott, J. (Eds.). (2000). Dynamic assessment: Prevailing models and applications. Advances in cognition and educational practice (Vol. 6). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science.
    Linan-Thompson, S. (2010). Response to instruction, English language learners and disproportionate representation: The role of assessment. Psicothema, 22, 970974.
    Linan-Thompson, S., Cirino, P. T., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Determining English language learners’ Response to Intervention: Questions and some answers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30(3), 185195.
    Linan-Thompson, S., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Research-based methods of reading instruction for English language learners, Grades K–4. Alexandria, VA: The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
    Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T. (2004, November). The response to intervention of English language learners at-risk for reading problems. Paper presented at the 2004 NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    Lindsey, K. A., Manis, F. R., & Bailey, C. E. (2003). Prediction of first-grade reading in Spanish-speaking English-language learners. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 482494.
    Lloyd, J. W., & Hallahan, D. P. (2005). Going forward: How the field of learning disabilities has and will contribute to education. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(2), 133136.
    Loe, S. A., & Miranda, A. H. (2002). Assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse learners with behavioral disorders. In G. Cartledge, K. Y. Tam, S. A. Loe, A. H. Miranda, M. C., Lamberts, C. D. Kea, & S. E. Simmons-Reed (Eds.), Culturally and linguistically diverse students with behavioral disorders (pp. 2536). Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children, Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders Division.
    Macceca, S. (2007). Reading strategies for science. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.
    MacSwan, J. (2000). The threshold hypothesis, semilingualism, and other contributions to a deficit view of linguistic minorities. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 22(1), 345.
    MacSwan, J. (2004, November). The “Non-non” crisis: How language assessments mislead us about the native language ability of English Learners. Paper presented at the 2004 NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    MacSwan, J., & Rolstad, K. (2003). Linguistic diversity, schooling and social class: Rethinking our conception of language proficiency in language minority education. In C.B. Paulston & R. Tucker (Eds.), Essential readings in sociolinguistics (pp. 329340). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    MacSwan, J., & Rolstad, K. (2010). The role of language in theories of academic failure for linguistic minorities. In J. Petrovic (Ed.), International perspectives on bilingual education: Policy, practice, and controversy (pp. 173195). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
    MacSwan, J., Rolstad, K., & Glass, G. (2002). Do some school-age children have no language? Some problems of construct validity in the Pre-LAS Espanol. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(2), 395420.
    Mahoney, K. S., & MacSwan, J. (2005). Re-examining identification and reclassification of English language learners: A critical discussion of select state practices. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(1), 3142.
    McAllum, R. (2014). Reciprocal teaching: Critical reflection on practice. Kairaranga, 15(1), 2635.
    McLaughlin, B. (1984). Second language acquisition in childhood: Vol. 1. Preschool children (
    2nd
    ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Meadows Center. (2014). Instructional decision-making procedures: Ensuring appropriate instruction for struggling students in grades K–12. Austin: University of Texas Meadows Center, College of Education.
    Mestre, J. P. (1988). The role of language comprehension in mathematics and problem solving. In R. R. Cocking & J. P. Mestre (Eds.), Linguistic and cultural influences on learning mathematics (pp. 200220). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Moll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 132141.
    Moll, L. C., & Greenberg, J. B. (1990). Creating zones of possibilities: Combining social contexts for instruction. In L. C. Moll (Ed.), Vygotsky and education: Instructional implications and applications of sociohistorical psychology (pp.319348). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    Moll, L. C., & Whitmore, K. F. (1993). Vygotsky in classroom practice: Moving from individual transmission to social transaction. In E. A. Forman, N. Minick, & C. A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in children’s development, pp. 1942. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Montero, K., Newmaster, S., & Ledger, S. (2014). Exploring early reading instructional strategies to advance the print literacy development of adolescent SLIFE. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 58(1), 5969.
    Moughamian, A. C., Rivera, M. O., & Francis, D. J. (2009). Instructional models and strategies for teaching English language learners. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED517794.pdf
    National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE). (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Retrieved from NASDSE Publications website: http://www.nasdse.org
    National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2013). Digest of education statistics: 2013. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.
    National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2015). The condition of education 2015: English language learners. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgf.asp
    National Center on Response to Intervention (NCRI). (n.d.). The essential components of RTI. Retrieved from http://www.rti4success.org
    National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE). (2008). English language learners (Policy Research Brief). The James R. Squire Office for Policy Research. Retrieved from www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/PolicyResearch/ELLResearchBrief.pdf
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00–4769). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
    National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Summary report. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Development.
    Nazarro, J. N. (Ed.). (1981). Culturally diverse exceptional children in school. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
    Nguyen, H. T. (2012). General education and special education teachers collaborate to support English language learners with learning disabilities. Issues in Teacher Education, 21(1), 127152.
    Nicolopoulou, A., & Cole, M. (1993). Generation and transmission of shared knowledge in the culture of collaborative learning: The Fifth Dimension, its play-world, and its institutional contexts. In E. A. Forman, N. Minick & C. A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in children’s development (pp. 283314). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    No Child Left Behind Act (2001). Pub. L. 107110, 115 Stat. 1425.
    Ohta, A. S. (1995). Applying sociocultural theory to an analysis of learner discourse: Learner-learner collaborative interaction in the zone of proximal development. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 6(2), 93121.
    Olson, C. B., & Land, R. (2007). A cognitive strategies approach to reading and writing instruction for English language learners in secondary school. NCTE’s Research in the Teaching of English, 41(3). Retrieved from http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/download/nwp_file/8538/Booth_Olson,_Carol,_et_al.pdf?x-r=pcfile_d
    Orosco, M. (2007). Response to intervention with Latino English language learners: A school-based study (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado at Boulder.
    Orosco, M. J. (2010). A sociocultural examination of response to intervention with Latino English language learners. Theory into Practice, 49(4), 265272.
    Orosco, M. J. (2014). A word problem strategy for Latino English language learners at risk for math disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(1), 4553.
    Orosco, M. J., & Hoover, J. J. (2009). Characteristics of second language acquisition, cultural diversity and learning/behavior disabilities. In Differentiating learning differences from disabilities: Meeting diverse needs through multi-tiered response to intervention (pp. 3964). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
    Orosco, M. J., & Klingner, J. (2010). One school’s implementation of RTI with English language learners: “Referring into RTI.” Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43, 269288.
    Orosco, M. J., & O’Connor, R. (2011). Cultural aspects of teaching reading with Latino English language learners. In R. O’Connor & P. Vadasy (Eds.), Handbook of reading interventions (pp. 356379). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Orosco, M. J., & O’Connor, R. E. (2014). Culturally responsive instruction for English language learners with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities 47(6), 515531.
    Orosco, M. J., Swanson, H. L., O’Connor, R. E., & Lussier, C. (2013). The effects of dynamic strategic math on English language learners’ word problem solving. Journal of Special Education, 47(2), 96107.
    Orr, E. W. (1987). Twice as less: Black English and the performance of Black students in mathematics and science. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
    Ortiz, A. A. (1997). LD occurring concomitantly with linguistic differences. Journal of LD, 30, 321332.
    Ortiz, A. A., & Maldonado-Colon, E. (1986). Recognizing learning disabilities in bilingual children: How to lessen inappropriate referrals of language minority students to special education. Journal of Reading, Writing and Learning Disabilities International, 2(1), 4356.
    Ortiz, A. A., Robertson, P. M., Wilkinson, C., Y., Liu, Y., McGhee, B. D., & Kushner, M. I. (2011). The role of bilingual education teachers in preventing inappropriate referrals of ELLs to special education: Implications for response to intervention. Bilingual Research Journal: The Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education, 34(3), 316333. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2011.628608
    Ortiz, A., & Artiles, A. J. (2010). Meeting the needs of English language learners with disabilities: A linguistically and culturally responsive model. In G. Li & P. Edwards (Eds.). Best practices in ELL instruction (pp. 247272). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Ortiz, A., & Wilkinson, C. (1991). Assessment and intervention model for the bilingual exceptional student (AIM for the BEST). Teacher Education and Special Education, 14, pp. 3542.
    Ovando, O., Collier, V., & Combs, M. (2003). Bilingual and ESL classrooms: Teaching in multicultural contexts. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
    Padron, Y. N. (1992). The effect of strategy instruction on bilingual students’ cognitive strategy use in reading. Bilingual Research Journal, 16(34), 3551.
    Palincsar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117175.
    Palincsar, A. S., & David, Y. M. (1991). Promoting literacy through classroom dialogue. In E. Hiebert (Ed.), Literacy for a diverse society: Perspectives, programs, and policies. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Paradis, J., Genesse, F., & Crago, M. B. (2011). Dual language development & disorders: A handbook on bilingualism & second language learning (
    2nd
    ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks.
    Pearson. (2015). The SIOP Model. Retrieved from http://siop.pearson.com/about-siop/
    Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. F. (2012). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for teaching K–12 English learners (
    6th
    ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
    Pew Research Center (2013). A nation of immigrants: A portrait of the 40 million, including 11 million unauthorized. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2013/01/29/a-nation-of-immigrants/
    Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct: How the mind creates languages. New York, NY: William Morrow.
    Poehner, M. E., & Lantolf, J. P. (2005). Dynamic assessment in the language classroom. Language Teaching Research, 9(3), 233265.
    Polloway, E.,A., Patton, J. R., & Serena, L. (in press). Strategies for teaching students with special needs (
    11th
    ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
    Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Preston, D. R. (2003). American dialect research. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
    Proctor, C. P., Carlo, M., August, D., & Snow, C. E. (2005). Native Spanish-speaking children reading in English: Toward a model of comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 246256.
    Raphael, T. E. (1986). Teaching question-answer relationships. The Reading Teacher, 39, 516520.
    Richard-Amato, P. A. (2010). Making it happen: From interactive to participatory language teaching: Evolving theory and practice (
    4th
    ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
    Rinaldi, C., Ortiz, S. O., & Gamm, S., Esq. (n.d.). RTI-based SLD identification toolkit: Considerations for English language learners. Retrieved from RTI Action Network Website: http://rtinetwork.org/getstarted/sld-identification-toolkit/ld-identification-toolkit-considerations-for-ell?tmpl=component&print=1
    Rodrigo, V., Krashen, S., & Gribbons, B. (2004). The effectiveness of two comprehensible-input approaches to foreign language instruction at the intermediate level. System 32(1), 5360.
    Rolstad, K., Mahoney, K., & Glass, G. (2005). The big picture: A meta-analysis of program effectiveness research on English language learners. Educational Policy, 19, 572594.
    Rosenshine, B., & Meister, C. (1994). Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 64(4), 479530.
    Roskos, K., Boehlen, S., & Walker, B. J. (2000). Learning the art of instructional conversation: The influence of self-assessment on teachers’ instructional discourse in a reading clinic. The Elementary School Journal, 100(3), 229252.
    Rueda, R., MacGillivray, L., Monzó, L., & Arzubiaga, A. (2001). Engaged reading: A multilevel approach to considering sociocultural factors with diverse learners. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement.
    Rueda, R., & Windmueller, M. P. (2006). English language learners, LD, and overrepresentation a multiple-level analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 99107.
    Ruiz, N. (1989). An optimal learning environment for Rosemary. Exceptional Children, 56, 2941.
    Ruiz, N. T. (1995). The social construction of ability and disability: Optimal and at-risk lessons in a bilingual special education classroom. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 491502.
    Ruiz Soto, A. G., Hooker, S., & Batalova, J. (2015). Top languages spoken by English language learners nationally and by state. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
    Rutter, M., & Yule, W. (1975). The concept of specific reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 16(3), 181197.
    Ryan, C. (2013). Language use in the United States: 2011. Washington, DC: American Community Survey Reports.
    Sable, J., Plotts, C., & Mitchell, L. (2010). Characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States: 2008–09 (NCES Rep. No. 2011–301). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
    Samson, J. F., & Collins, B. A. (2012). Preparing all teachers to meet the needs of English language learners: Applying research to policy and practice for teacher effectiveness. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.
    Samson, J. F., & Lesaux, N. K. (2009). Language-minority learners in special education: Rates and predictors of identification for services. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 148162. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221 9408326221
    Santiago, I. C., & Alicea, Z. A., (2015). A conversation with Latino/Latina families and its implications for teacher beliefs about cultural and linguistic diversity. In L. C. de Oliveira & M. Yough (Eds.), Preparing teachers to work with English language learners in mainstream classrooms (pp. 5974). Charlotte, NC: IAP and TESOL Press.
    Saunders, W., O’Brien, G., Lennon, D., & McLean, J. (1998). Making the transition to English literacy successful: Effective strategies for studying literature with transition students. In R. Gersten & R. Jimenez (Eds.), Effective strategies for teaching language minority students (pp. 99132). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Saunders, W., Patthey-Chavez, G., & Goldenberg, C. (1997). Reflections on the relationship between language, curriculum content and instruction. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 10(1), 3051.
    Saunders, W. M., & Goldenberg, C. (1999). Effects of instructional conversations and literature logs on limited—and fluent—English-proficient students’ story comprehension and thematic understanding. The Elementary School Journal, 99(4), 277301.
    Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing second language acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Scornavacco, K., Boardman, A., & Klingner, J. (2014, April). Leveraging teacher leadership in a district initiative to scale up and sustain an evidence based practice (EBP). Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.
    Scornavacco, K., Moore, B., Boardman, A., Lasser, C., Buckley, P. & Klingner, J. (2015). Using collaborative strategic reading to promote student discourse. In K. R. Harris & L. J. Meltzer (Eds.), The power of peers: Enhancing learning, development and social skills (pp. 102142). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Selinker, L., Swain, M., & Dumas, G. (1975). The interlanguage hypothesis extended to children. Language Learning, 25(1), 139152.
    Short, D. J., & Echevarria, J. (2004). Using multiple perspectives in observations of diverse classrooms: The sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP). In H. C. Waxman, R. G. Tharp, & R. S. Hilberg (Eds.), Observational research in US classrooms: New approaches for understanding cultural and linguistic diversity (pp. 2147). New York, NY: Cambridge.
    Slavin, R. E. (1995). Cooperative learning: Theory, research and practice (
    2nd
    ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Slavin, R. E. (2008). Cooperative learning, success for all, and evidence-based reform in education. Education & Didactique, 2(2), 151159.
    Slavin, R. E., & Cheung, A. (2004). How do English language learners learn to read? Educational Leadership, 61(6), 5257.
    Slavin, R. E., & Cheung, A. (2005). A synthesis of research on language of reading instruction for English language learners. Review of Educational Research, 75, 247284.
    Slobin, D. I. (1968). Recall of full and truncated passive sentences in connected discourse. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 876881.
    Smith, T. E. C., Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., & Dowdy, C. A. (2012). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings. Boston, MA: Pearson.
    Snow, C. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
    Snow, C. S., Burns, S. M., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Solano-Flores, G. (2004, November). Language, dialect, and register: Sociolinguistics and the estimation of measurement error in the testing of English-language learners. Paper presented at the NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    Stuart, M. (1999). Getting ready for reading: Early phoneme awareness and phonics teaching improves reading and spelling in inner-city second language learners. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 587605.
    Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., LeDoux, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2002). Validity of IQ-discrepancy classifications of reading disabilities: A meta-analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 39, 469518.
    Swain, M. (1986). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition, 235256. New York, NY: Newbury House.
    Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principles and practice in the study of language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Swanson, H. L., Orosco, M. J., & Kudo, M. (in press). Does growth in the executive system of working memory underlie growth in literacy for bilingual children with and without reading disabilities? Journal of Learning Disabilities.
    Swanson, H. L., Orosco, M., & Lussier, C. (2012). Cognition and literacy in English language learners at risk for reading disabilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 302320. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026225
    Swanson, H. L., Orosco, M., Lussier, C., Gerber, M., & Guzman-Orth, D. (2011). The influence of working memory and phonological processing on English language learner children’s bilingual reading and language processing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(4), 838856. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024578
    Swanson, H. L., Sáez, L., Gerber, M., & Leafstedt, J. (2004). Literacy and cognitive functioning in bilingual and nonbilingual children at or not at risk for reading disabilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 318.
    Tharp, R. G. (1989). Psycho-cultural variables and constants: Effects on teaching and learning in schools. American Psychologist, 44, 349359.
    Tharp, R. G., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning, and schooling. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. P. (1997). School effectiveness for language minority students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
    Thompson, L. W. (2004). Literacy development for English language learners: Classroom challenges in the NCLB age. A Title I Communique Special Report, 110.
    Thorius, K. K., & Sullivan, A. L. (2013). Interrogating instruction and intervention in RTI research with students identified as English language learners. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 29(1), 6488.
    Thorn, E. A. (1969). Language experience approach to reading. The Reading Teacher, 23(1), 38.
    Tikunoff, W. J. (1983). Compatibility of the SBIF features with other research instruction of LEP students. San Francisco, CA: Far West Laboratory.
    Tomlinson, C. (1995). Differentiating instruction for advanced learners in the mixed-ability middle school classroom. Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED389141)
    Trumbull, E., & Solano-Flores, G. (2011). Addressing the language demands of mathematics assessments: Using a language framework and field research findings. In M. Basterra, E. Trumbull, & G. Solano-Flores (Eds.), Cultural validity in assessment: Addressing linguistic and cultural diversity (pp. 218253). New York, NY: Routledge.
    University of Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. (2003). 3-tier reading model: Reducing reading difficulties for kindergarten through third grade students. Austin: UT System/Texas Education Agency.
    US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2013). Number and percentage distribution of teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected teacher characteristics: Selected years, 1987–88 through 2011–12. Retrieved from: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_209.10.asp
    US Office of Education. (1977). Definition and criteria for defining students as learning disabled. Federal Register, 42:250, p. 65083. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
    Valdés, G. (2001). Learning and not learning English: Latino students in American schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Valdés, G., & Figueroa, R. (1994). Bilingualism and testing: A special case of bias. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Valle, J. W., & Connor, D. J. (2011). Rethinking disability: A disability studies approach to inclusive practices. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
    Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. S. (2012). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (
    8th
    ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.
    Vaughn, S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Redefining learning disabilities as inadequate response to treatment: The promise and potential problems. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18(3), 137146.
    Vaughn, S., & Klingner, J. K. (2004). Strategies for struggling second-language readers. In T. L. Jetton & J. A. Dole (Eds.), Adolescent literacy research and practice (pp. 183209). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Vaughn, S., Klingner, J. K., Swanson, E., Boardman, A., Roberts, G., Mohammed, S., & Stillman-Spisak, S. (2011). Efficacy of collaborative strategic reading with middle school students. American Educational Research Journal, 48, 938954.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1978a). Interaction between learning and development. In M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.), Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes (Chapt. 6, pp. 7991). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1978b). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1981). The instrumental method in psychology. In J. V. Wertsch (Ed.), The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp. 134144). Armonk, NY: Sharpe.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Wardhaugh, R. (2002). An introduction to sociolinguistics (
    4th
    ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Waterman, D. C. (1969). The language experience approach in elementary language arts. Contemporary Education, 40(4), 206211.
    Watkins, N. M., & Lindahl, K. M. (2010). Targeting content area literacy instruction to meet the needs of adolescent English language learners. Middle School Journal, 4(3), 2333.
    Waxman, H. C., & Tellez, K. (2002). Research synthesis on effective teaching practices for English language learners. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED474821.pdf
    What Works Clearinghouse (WWC). (2006). Instructional Conversations and Literature Logs (WWC Intervention Report). Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences.
    What Works Clearinghouse (WWC). (2007). Classwide peer tutoring (WWC Intervention Report). Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences.
    WIDA: Can Do Descriptors. (2014). Retrieved from www.wida.us/standards/CAN_DOs/
    WIDA Focus. (2015, May). Focus on SLIFE: Students with limited or interrupted formal education. Retrieved from www.wida.us
    Wilkinson, C. Y., Ortiz, A., & Robertson-Courtney, P. (2004, November). Appropriate eligibility determination for English language learners suspected of having reading-related learning disabilities: Linking school history, prereferral, referral and assessment data. Paper presented at the 2004 NCCRESt Conference, English Language Learners Struggling to Learn: Emergent Research on Linguistic Differences and Learning Disabilities, Tempe, AZ.
    Willig, A. (1985). A meta-analysis of selected studies on the effectiveness of bilingual education. Review of Educational Research, 55, 269317.
    Wolfe, P., & Brandt, R. (1998). What do we know from brain research? Educational Leadership, 56(3), 813.
    Wolfram, W. (2000). On the construction of vernacular dialect norms. In J. P. Boyle & A. Okrent (Eds.), CLS 36: The 36th meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 2000. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
    Wong Fillmore, L. (2000). Loss of family languages: Should educators be concerned? Theory into Practice, 39(4), 203210.
    Wong Fillmore, L. (2014). English language learners at the crossroads of educational reform. TESOL Quarterly, 48(3), 624632.
    Wood, K. D., & Blanton, W. E. (2009). Literacy instruction for adolescents: Research based practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Xu, Y. (2014). Literacy 2.0: New literacies in culturally and linguistically diverse K–12 classrooms. Retrieved from https://discoverarchive.vanderbilt.edu/bitstream/handle/1803/6315/XuCapstone.pdf?sequence=1
    Yell, M. (2004, February). Understanding the three-tier model. Presentation at the Colorado State Directors of Special Education Meeting, Denver, CO.
    Yoon, B. (2008). Uninvited guests: The influence of teachers’ roles and pedagogies on the positioning of English language learners in the regular classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 495522.
    Zacarian, D. (2013). Mastering academic language: A framework for supporting student achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Zehler, A., Hopstock, P., Fleishman, H., & Greniuk, C. (1994). An examination of assessment of limited English proficient students. Arlington, VA: Special Issues Analysis Center.
    Zepeda, M., & Rodriguez, J. L. (2015). Bilingual development in early childhood: Research and policy implications for Mexican American children. In Y. M. Caldera & E. W. Lindsey (Eds.), Mexican American children and families: Multidisciplinary perspectives. New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website