When Treating All the Kids the SAME Is the REAL Problem: Educational Leadership and the 21st Century Dilemma of Difference
Publication Year: 2015
Subject: Diversity & Consistency
Take steps to serve disadvantaged children, and other marginalized student groups with this practical, solution-oriented guide to equity-driven reform for school leaders. Includes case studies and reflective-discussion questions.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- The Context
- Chapter 1: Why Is Treating All Students the Same the Real Problem?
- Chapter 2: What Reform Has Taught Us
- Chapter 3: The PACE Framework for Equity: Merging Job-Embedded Equity Learning Cycles With Ongoing Data Analysis
- The Practice
- Chapter 4: The Leadership-for-Equity Dilemma
- Chapter 5: Taking Instructional Leadership for Equity Into the Classroom: The Daily Quality Instruction Challenge
- Implementation and Beyond
- Chapter 6: The PACE Framework in Action
- Chapter 7: Institutionalizing the PACE Framework to Realize a Transformed Schooling Process
A SAGE Company
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London, EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10–04 Samsung Hub
© 2015 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
All trade names and trademarks recited, referenced, or reflected herein are the property of their respective owners who retain all rights thereto.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Johnson, Kendra V. (Kendra Vernelle), 1974-When treating all the kids the same is the real problem: educational leadership and the 21st century dilemma of difference / Kendra Johnson, Lisa Williams.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4522-8696-9 (alk. paper)
1. Educational equalization—United States.
2. Culturally relevant pedagogy—United States.
3. Children with social disabilites—Education— United States. 4. Educational leadership—United States. I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
14 15 16 17 18 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Dan Alpert
Associate Editor: Kimberly Greenberg
Editorial Assistant: Cesar Reyes
Production Editor: Veronica Stapleton Hooper
Copy Editor: Amy Marks
Typesetter: Hurix Systems Pvt. Ltd.
Proofreader: Sarah J. Duffy
Indexer: Sheila Bodell
Cover Designer: Michael Dubowe
Marketing Manager: Stephanie Trkay
There have been many who have been gracious enough to gift us with experiences that frame the ideas in this book. To all who have crossed our paths and influenced our work, we carry your insights with us every day. We are thankful to our mentors, fellow educators, undergraduate and graduate professors, and numerous voices we encounter in our daily walk that challenge our thinking, ideas, and understanding of what is needed for each student to be academically and emotionally successful.
All students enter school full of potential and with dreams about who they will become. If we are willing to notice, listen, and learn, they will teach us so much about who we are and what they need to thrive … to become. It is the voices, hopes, and dreams of these young people that led us to this work. We honor the young people who have taught us to honor how they show up to school daily. By acknowledging these lessons learned from students, we know more about how to understand, how we should engage, how we relate, and how we use students’ talents as strategic entry points to ensure that each student has a rigorous educational experience every day.
We want to thank our families for their support and encouragement. We hold our grandparents and parents, in particular, in the highest regard: Andrew Jefferson, Doris Jefferson, Lynell Miliam, Andrea Miliam, Jerry Brinkley, Charles Madison, Elijah Lott, Vernelle Lott, Terry Pearson, and Mary Pearson. Of course, there is nothing like a great group of friends who serve as a cheering squad. And we certainly are the beneficiaries of such a team. We want to thank our editor, Dan Alpert, who supported us tirelessly through every phase of this project. He has celebrated our work, while challenging us to refine and reflect to ensure that our work is accessible to all. For this championing of our work, we are indebted.[Page viii]
The Authors’ Voices
List of Figures[Page 164][Page 165]
- Figure 0.1. PACE Framework for Equity 3
- Figure 0.2. The Bell Curve 5
- Figure 1.1. Median Annual Earnings of Full-Time, Full-Year Wage and Salary Workers Ages 25 and Older, by Educational Attainment, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity: 2007 16
- Figure 1.2. What Beliefs Form My Case for Educating Each Student Well? 19
- Figure 1.3. Data-Driven, Student-Centered Framework for Achieving Educational Equity 21
- Figure 1.4. Identifying Gaps—Data-Driven, Student-Centered Framework Organizational Map 22
- Figure 1.5. Considering the Learners—Data-Driven, Student-Centered Framework Organizational Map 24
- Figure 1.6. Pursuing High Standards—Data-Driven, Student-Centered Framework Organizational Map 25
- Figure 2.1. School Reform vs. School Transformation 30
- Figure 2.2. Considering What Reform Has Meant in Your Experience 31
- Figure 2.3. Questions for Reflection 36
- Figure 2.4. Theoretical Construct of Standards-Based Reform 37
- Figure 2.5. A Transformative Model of Standards-Based Reform 38
- Figure 2.6. Questions for Consideration 43
- Figure 3.1. The PACE Framework for Equity 51
- Figure 3.2. Assertions Essential to the PACE Framework 52[Page 166]
- Figure 3.3. Distinguishing the School Vision From the Equity-Focused Instructional Vision 54
- Figure 3.4. Initial Thinking Guiding the Creation of an Equity-Focused Instructional Vision 59
- Figure 3.5. Theme Analysis Across Grades and Contents 65
- Figure 3.6. Teaching and Learning Snapshot 66
- Figure 3.7. Sample Teaching Practices and Indicators of Student Learning 67
- Figure 3.8. Sample Questions to Guide a School Leader's Independent Review of Student Work 68
- Figure 3.9. Equity Learning Protocol 69
- Figure 3.10. The Dual Roles of Public School Principals 71
- Figure 3.11. Sample Professional Development Evaluation 75
- Figure 3.12. Sample Types of Data to Assess Effectiveness of Professional Development 76
- Figure 3.13. Checklist of Data Sources to Assess Transfer of Professional Development 77
- Figure 4.1. Instructional Leadership for Equity Self-Inventory 85
- Figure 4.2. Professional Learning Assessment Guide 87
- Figure 4.3. Considerations for a Chief Learner and Chief Change Manager for Equity 90
- Figure 4.4. Data-Driven Student-Centered Framework for Achieving Educational Equity 93
- Figure 4.5. Educational Equity Thinking Structure 94
- Figure 5.1. Self-Assessment of Readiness to Take Equity-Based Instructional Leadership Into the Classroom 102
- Figure 5.2. Reflective Activity: Six Critical Assumptions 104
- Figure 5.3. Model for Building Cultural Awareness 110
- Figure 5.4. Template for Creating Relevant Instructional Routines 117
- Figure 5.5. Sample Teacher-Guided Reflection Template 122
- Figure 6.1. How Ready Is Your School to Implement PACE? 130
- Figure 6.2. PACE Implementation Pathway 131[Page 167]
- Figure 6.3. Determining the Entry Point for PACE Implementation: Reflections and Considerations 134
- Figure 6.4. Negotiating Entry Into PACE Implementation (Principal Smith's First Principalship) 134
- Figure 6.5. Negotiating Entry Into PACE Implementation (Principal Smith's Second Principalship) 135
- Figure 6.6. The Eight-Step Process for Leading Change 137
- Figure 6.7. Data Discussion Questions: Peeling Back the Data 139
- Figure 6.8. Sample Change Vision 140
- Figure 7.1. Model to Assess Needed Change 150
- Figure 7.2. Reflection 153
- Figure 7.3. Four-Step Method for Evaluating Common Practices 153
- Figure 7.4. Is the Equity Lens Becoming Institutionalized Practice in Our School? 156
References: Introduction2012). The condition of education 2012 (NCES 2012-045). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics., , , , , ,… (2011). The condition of education 2011 (NCES 2011-033). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics., , , , , , & (2011). Creating the opportunity to learn: Moving from research to practice to close the achievement gap. Alexandria, VA: ASCD., & (Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2013). America's children: Key national indicators of well-being, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/famsoc1.asp2009). The practice of adaptive leadership: Tools and tactics for changing your organization and the world. Boston, MA: Cambridge University Associates., , & (2010). Learning from leadership: Investigating the links to improved student learning. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/school-leadership/key-research/Pages/Investigating-the-Links-to-Improved-Student-Learning.aspx, , , , , ,… (2006). Courageous conversations about race: A field guide for achieving equity in schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (2013). Are there more gifted people than would be expected in a normal distribution? An investigation of the overabundance hypothesis. Journal of Advanced Academics, 24(4), 224–241., , & (
References: Chapter 12003). The facts about social mobility. New Economy, 10, 189–193.(2011). The condition of education 2011 (NCES 2011-033). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics., , , , , , & (1994). The micropolitics of teacher work involvement: Effective principals” impacts on teachers. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 40(1), 67–94., & (1848). 11th annual report to the Massachusetts State Board of Education. In , (Ed.), The republic and the school: Horace Mann on the education of free men (pp. 79–97). New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 1957.([Page 170] (1945). Animal farm. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.Pew Research Foundation. (2011). Wealth gaps rise to record high between whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Retrieved from http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/i/msnbc/sections/news/Wealth_Report.pdf2011). Have public schools turned out to be “the great equalizer”? Retrieved from http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/2752429/posts(U.S. Department of Commerce. (2008). Current Population Survey (CPS), annual social and economic supplement. Washington, DC: Author.U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (n.d.). Revenues and expenditures for public elementary and secondary education. Washington, DC: Author.2012). Educational policy and the law (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning., , , , & (Are America's best days behind us? Time, p. 25.(2011, March 3).
References: Chapter 22011). Creating the opportunity to learn: Moving from research to practice to close the achievement gap. Alexandria, VA: ASCD., & (Complete College America. (2012). Remediation: Higher education's bridge to nowhere. Retrieved from http://completecollege.org/docs/CCA-Remediation-final.pdf2011). Creating college readiness. Eugene, OR: Educational Policy Improvement Center. Retrieved from http://www.epiconline.org(2012). A complete definition of college and career readiness. Eugene, OR: Educational Policy Improvement Center. Retrieved from http://www.epiconline.org(Council of Chief State School Officers & National Governors Association. (2012). Common core standards webinar. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/resources2012). Multiplication is for White people: Raising expectations for other people's children. New York, NY: New Press.(2013). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2012. Current Population Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census., , & (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.(FRED Economic Research. (2014). Unemployment rate-Not enrolled in school, high school graduates, no college, 16-24 years. Retrieved from http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/LNU04023068?cid=324472013). Stratosphere: Integrating technology, pedagogy, and change knowledge. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Pearson.(2005). Good teaching matters: How well qualified teachers close the gap. Retrieved from http://www.edtrust.org/dc/publication/good-teaching-matters-how-well-qualified-teachers-can-close-the-gap(2011). Have we gotten it wrong on school reform? Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jack-jennings/school-reform-wrong_b_1110382.html(1964). Public papers of U.S. presidents: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963-1964 (1, 375-380). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.([Page 171] , & (2012). Collegiate remediation: A review of the causes and consequences. New York, NY: College Board.National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2012). 2008 Long-term trend report card. Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/ltt_2008/National Commission on Excellence in Education., (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for education reform. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/index.html1992). Understanding cultural diversity and learning. Educational Researcher, 21, 8.(1999). The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world's teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York, NY: Free Press., & (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics., (2014). The employment situation-March 2014. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf2011). Social-psychological interventions in education: They're not magic. Review of Educational Research, 81, 267–301., & (
References: Chapter 32010). Driven by data: A practical guide to improve instruction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1999). An educator's guide to block scheduling. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon., , , & (2004). Data analysis for continuous school improvement (2nd ed.). Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.(2008). Data data everywhere: Bringing it all together for continuous improvement. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.(1999). Looking together at student work. New York, NY: Teachers College Press., , & (2011). Creating the opportunity to learn: Moving from research to practice to close the achievement gap. Alexandria, VA: ASCD., & (1995). School scheduling. Educational Leadership, 53(3), 4–10., & (2009). Instructional rounds in education: A network approach to improving teaching and learning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press., , , & (2010, April). Job-embedded professional development: What it is, who is responsible, and how to get it done well. Retrieved from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/JEPD%20Issue%20Brief.PDF, , , , & (1995). Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., & (1977). Curriculum and instruction for emerging adolescents. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley., & (1996). What matters most: Teaching for America's future. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.(2004). Whatever it takes: How professional learning communities respond when kids don't learn. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press., , , & (2001). Teaching, learning, and assessment together: The reflective classroom. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.([Page 172] (1997). Education policy and practice in the aftermath of TIMSS. In (Ed.), Learning from TIMSS: Results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.2000). Reflective practice and professional development. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 449120)(2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59–109., , & (1999). Change forces: The sequel. London, UK: Taylor & Francis/Falmer.(2001). Leading in culture of change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2008). The six secrets of change: What the best leaders do to help their organizations survive and thrive. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2001). Rhetoric versus reality: What we know and what we need to know about vouchers and charter schools. Santa Monica, CA: RAND., , , & (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2002). Does it make a difference? Evaluating professional development. Educational Leadership, 59(6), 45–51.(2009). Teaching with poverty in mind. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.(2002). Using data to close the achievement gap: How to measure equity in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2009). Learning first! A school leader's guide to closing achievement gaps. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1988). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.(2001). Teaching and assessing 21st century skills. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory., & (2010). The highly engaged classroom. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory., & , (1992). Visionary leadership: Creating a compelling sense of direction for your organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1992). School's out: Hyperlearning, the new technology, and the end of education. New York, NY: William Morrow.(2013). Ensuring effective instruction: How do I improve teaching using multiple measures? Alexandria, VA: ASCD., & (2000). What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning? Educational Researcher, 29(1), 4–15., & (2007). Choosing more time for students: The what, why, and how of expanded learning. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org(1995). Advances in research on instruction. Journal of Educational Research, 88(5), 262–268.(2003). Leadership for equity and excellence: Creating high-achievement classrooms, schools, and districts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1990). Adding value to leadership gets extraordinary results. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 23–27.([Page 173] (1992). Middle level team scheduling: Appropriate grouping for adolescents. Schools in the Middle, 2(1), 30–34.U.S. Census Bureau., (2008). An older and more diverse nation by midcentury. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb08-123.htmlU.S. Bureau of the Census., (2010). 2010 U.S. Census. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/2010census/U.S. Department of Education, National Archives and Records Administration. (2009). Department of Education, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund program: Final rule. Federal Register, 74(217), 58479–58525. Retrieved from http://www.nsdc.org/standards/2004). Data-driven dialogue: A facilitator's guide to collaborative inquiry. Sherman, CT: MiraVia., & (
References: Chapter 41999). Useful definitions for exploring education equity. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Equity Mission Team.(2002). Cognitive coaching: A foundation for renaissance schools. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon., & (1991). Paying for public education: New evidence on how and why money matters. Harvard Journal on Legislation, 28, 465–499.(1998). Teachers” perceptions and expectations and the black-white test score gap. In , & (Eds.), The black-white test score gap (pp. 273–317). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.(2004). Why a book on urban education? In , & (Eds.), 19 urban questions: Teaching in the city (pp. 1–32). New York, NY: Peter Lang.(2010). Why a book on urban education? In (Ed.), 19 urban questions: Teaching in the city ((2nd ed., pp. 1–28). New York, NY: Peter Lang.2003). What we know about successful school leadership. Manchester, UK: National College for School Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.principals.in/uploads/pdf/leadership/1_NCLP.pdf, & (2007). The leadership dilemma. Journal of Surgical Research, 138, 1–9.(Stanford Educational Leadership Institute. (2007). Preparing school leaders for a changing world: Lessons from exemplary leadership development programs. Retrieved from http://seli.stanford.eduWallace Foundation., (2008). Becoming a leader: Preparing school principals for today's schools. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/school-leadership/principal-training/Pages/Becoming-a-Leader-Preparing-Principals-for-Todays-Schools.aspx
References: Chapter 52010). Driven by data: A practical guide to improve instruction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2007). What is it about me you can't teach? An instructional guide for the urban educator. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & ([Page 174] , & (2007). Data wise in action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.2003). Fires in the bathroom: Advice for teachers from high school students. New York, NY: New Press., & (2009). Fighting for quality and equality, too: How state policymakers can ensure the drive to improve teacher quality doesn't just trickle down to poor and minority children. Retrieved from http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/files/publications/files/QualityEquality, , & (2002). Using data to close the achievement gap: How to measure equity in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2010). Data strategies to uncover and eliminate hidden inequities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (2009). Learning first: A school leader's guide to closing achievement gaps. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (1995). But that's just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 159–165.(2009). The dream keepers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2010). Teach like a champion. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(National Education Association., (2013). Why cultural competence? Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/home/39783.htm1995). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Penguin.(1999). The teaching gap. New York: Free Press., & (2005). Teaching reading to black adolescent males. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.(
References: Chapter 62001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2008). The six secrets of change: What the best leaders do to help their organizations survive and thrive. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1996). Leading change: An action plan from the world's foremost expert on business leadership. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.(2010). Transforming professional development into student results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.(
References: Chapter 72013). Closing the opportunity gap: What America must do to give every child an even chance. New York, NY: Oxford University Press., & (2011). Change leader: Learning to do what matters most. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2010). The other side of innovation: Solving the execution challenge. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press., & (2010). Data strategies to uncover and eliminate hidden inequities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & ([Page 175] (2011). Change management vs. change leadership-What's the difference? Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/johnkotter/2011/07/12/change-management-vs-change-leadership-whats-the-difference/2012). Creating innovators: The making of young people who will change the world. New York, NY: Scribner's/Simon & Schuster.(