When Sport Meets Business: Capabilities, Challenges, Critiques
Publication Year: 2017
Written by European professors and focusing on the specificities of European sport, When Sport Meets Business analyses the growing commercialisation of professional sport in recent years and explains how it has developed into a major global industry. Structured into four sections, the book covers the key issues in the Business of professional sport: The New Sport Environment – Analysing the consequences of increasing commercialisation by looking at the multi-billion dollar sports goods industry; the effects of globalisation and how commercial influences have made running one of Europe’s most popular sports. Sport Marketing and Media – Investigating the role media and marketing has in commercialisation, with emphasis on the growth of sponsorship; media rights in European club football and the growing influence of social media in ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Section A: THE NEW SPORT ENVIRONMENT
- Chapter 1: When Sport Meets Business: A Brief Introduction
- Chapter 2: The Expansion of the Sport Goods Industry
- Chapter 3: When Globalization and Migration meet National and Local Talent Development
- Chapter 4: The Commodification and Commercialization of Elite Athletes
- Chapter 5: The Business of Running
- Section B: SPORT MARKETING AND MEDIA
- Chapter 6: The Commercial Growth of Sponsorship
- Chapter 7: The Battle for Media Rights in European Club Football
- Chapter 8: Ambush Marketing in Sport
- Chapter 9: Sport, Social Media and Online Communities
- Chapter 10: Corporate Social Responsibility in Sport
- Section C: SPORT AND FINANCE
- Chapter 11: Profits, Championships and Budget Constraints in European Professional Sport
- Chapter 12: Financial Fair Play in European Football
- Chapter 13: Corruption and the Governance of Sport
- Section D: SPORTING EVENTS
- Chapter 14: Sustainable Urban Legacies of Hosting the Olympic Games
- Chapter 15: The Cost of Hosting International Sports Events
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Preface and editorial arrangement © Ulrik Wagner, Rasmus K. Storm and Klaus Nielsen 2017
Chapter 1 © Rasmus K. Storm, Ulrik Wagner and Klaus Nielsen 2017
Chapter 2 © Anna Gerke and Maureen Benson-Rea 2017
Chapter 3 © Sine Agergaard 2017
Chapter 4 © Johannes Orlowski, Manuel Herter and Pamela Wicker 2017
Chapter 5 © Koen Breedveld and Jeroen Scheerder 2017
Chapter 6 © Thorsten Dum and Ulrik Wagner 2017
Chapter 7 © Harry Arne Solberg 2017
Chapter 8 © Simon Chadwick, Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish 2017
Chapter 9 © Bastian Popp and Herbert Woratschek 2017
Chapter 10 © Mathieu Djaballah 2017
Chapter 11 © Klaus Nielsen and Rasmus K. Storm 2017
Chapter 12 © Jan Pieper 2017
Chapter 13 © Arnout Geeraert 2017
Chapter 14 © Larissa Davies 2017
Chapter 15 © Wladimir Andreff 2017
First published 2017
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016934713
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4739-4805-1 (pbk)
Editor: Matthew Waters
Assistant editor: Lyndsay Aitken
Production editor: Imogen Roome
Marketing manager: Catherine Slinn
Cover design: Francis Kenney
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
About the Contributors[Page viii]
Sine Agergaard is a social anthropologist and an associate professor at Aarhus University. Her research focuses on migration issues within sport and is published in a wide range of peer-reviewed journals. She has contributed to and edited several books, including: Women, Soccer and Transnational Migration (Routledge, 2014). Agergaard sits on the editorial board of International Review for the Sociology of Sports and SportsWorld: The Journal of Global Sport. She is a co-founder and manager of the International Network for Research in Sport and Migration Issues.
Wladimir Andreff , Professor Emeritus at the University Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, Honorary President of the International Association of Sports Economists and the European Sports Economics Association, Honorary Member of the European Association for Comparative Economic Studies, former President of the French Economic Association (2007–08), President of the Scientific Council at the Observatory of the sports economy, French Minister for Sports, sits on 12 editorial boards and acts as a reviewer for 30 other economic journals, and has achieved 44 missions for international bodies (UNDP, UNESCO, UNIDO, ILO, EU programmes, Council of Europe) and foreign governments. His scientific publications cover international economics, economics of transition and sports economics (403 articles, 29 books). His last books in the latter area are: Disequilibrium Sports Economics: Competitive Imbalance and Budget Constraints (ed.) (Edward Elgar, 2015) and Mondialisation économique du sport. Manuel de référence en Economie du sport (De Boeck, 2012).
Maureen Benson-Rea is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Management and International Business at The University of Auckland Business School, New Zealand. With an undergraduate degree in European Studies, an MBA and a PhD in Marketing and International Business, Maureen has held academic positions in the UK as well as several international policy roles with a major UK business organisation. She has published extensively in the areas of international business, strategy and marketing. Her work has appeared in Sport Management Review, European Management Journal, Industrial Marketing Management, Public Administration, Journal of Business Research and Multinational Business Review, among others.
Cheri L. Bradish is the Loretta Rogers Research Chair in Sport Marketing with the Ted Rogers School of Management at Ryerson University. A sport marketing professional, her area of research interest is with regard to sport marketing and sponsorship, and sport and social impact, including broader global sport for development concerns. She has further developed a special related focus examining the management and marketing of the Olympic Games, including ambush marketing-related issues. Among a number of conference proceedings and publications, her research has appeared in the Journal of Sport Management, the International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, the Sport Management Review and the Sport Marketing Quarterly. Cheri also has significant experience in the sport industry, including work with the Florida Sports Foundation, Nike Canada Inc., Florida State University Department of Athletics (NCAA), Vancouver Grizzlies (NBA), and most recently with the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Games (VANOC). She has been acknowledged for her teaching, receiving the 2013 Brock University Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching; and in 2011 was chosen as the Canadian Olympic Committee’s representative to attend the International Olympic Academy (IOA) Session for Educators of Higher Institutes of Physical Education in Ancient Olympia, Greece.[Page ix]
Koen Breedveld is managing director of the Mulier Institute and professor in sport-sociology at Radboud University. As such he has published widely on the issue of sport participation, sport policies, on trends and developments in sports and on their relationship with broader social and cultural changes. Koen Breedveld has published numerous books and scientific articles, including the book Running across Europe with Jeroen Scheerder as co-editor. In addition he is the (co-) author of a great deal of policy reports on sports, for the Dutch government as well as for the European Commission. He is the present coordinator of the European Sociological Association’s Research Network for Sport & Society, and was, in 2010, with Jeroen Scheerder and Remco Hoekman, the initiator of Measure, the European network on sport-participation research.
Nicholas Burton is an Assistant Professor with the Department of Sport Management at Brock University. His research focuses on the strategic and managerial implications of international sport marketing, with a specific interest in ambush marketing, sponsorship relations, athlete branding, and entrepreneurship. Most recently, his research has examined consumer behaviour and football fan motivation, as well as media representation of ambush marketing and post-legislative interventionism in sponsorship management. Nick’s work has been published and covered widely across academic and professional media, including Thunderbird International Business Review, the Journal of Sponsorship, The Economist, the Financial Times, and the Wall Street Journal.
Simon Chadwick is ‘Class of 92’ Professor of Sports Enterprise in the Centre for Sports Business at Salford University, UK, and Director of Research at the Josoor Institute, part of Qatar’s Supreme Committee for Delivery and Legacy, the body charged with organising the 2022 FIFA World Cup. Simon’s research and teaching interests lie in the areas of sponsorship, sport marketing and commercial strategy in sport. Having previously worked at the Universities of London, where he was the founding Director of the Birkbeck Sport Business Centre, and the University of Leeds, where he was Programme Director for the MA in Advertising and Marketing, Simon is the founding Editor of Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal and a former Editor of the International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. He also recently created and edits the highly regarded academic website The Scorecard.[Page x]
Larissa Davies is a Reader in Sport Management at the Sport Industry Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University. She has over 15 years’ experience teaching and researching in the discipline areas of sport management and geography. Larissa has a PhD in the field of sports economics and specialises in the area of sport, events and urban regeneration. Her research interests include: the role of sport in economic development and regeneration; the economic and social impact and legacy of sport and events; and the tangible and intangible impact of sports stadia. She has published widely around these themes in various international journals including: European Sport Management Quarterly; Sport Management Review; Leisure Studies; International Journal of Event and Festival Management; International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship; Sport in Society and Managing Sport and Leisure. Larissa is currently working on research relating to measuring and valuing the social impact of sport.
Mathieu Djaballah , PhD, is an Associate Professor at the Department of Sport Science, University Paris-Saclay, where he is also the co-coordinator of the Master’s degree in Sport Management. He is affiliated with the research team Complexity, Innovation, and Sport Activities (CIAMS). His research focuses on the economic, social and environmental impacts of sport events as well as corporate social responsibility in sports.
Thorsten Dum is Lecturer at the Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg (DHBW) in Mannheim and Heilbronn (Cooperative State University Baden-Wuerttemberg) and specialises in marketing and service marketing, especially communication, sports marketing and sports management. As a graduate from the German Sport University Cologne (DSHS Köln), his research interest specifically is sports management (with a focus on sports sponsorship) and organisation, as well as knowledge management. Thorsten has presented and participated at several international and national conferences and published research articles and papers in his area of expertise. He has also many years of experience as a project- and sponsoring manager in professional service firms within the event and sports marketing business.
Arnout Geeraert is Post-Doctoral Fellow at Leuven International and European Studies (LINES), University of Leuven, Belgium. He develops the Sports Governance Observer for Play the Game/Danish Institute for Sports Studies. His current work explores the role of the European Union in international sport through different theoretical lenses and looks into elements of good governance in sport organisations in general. He is the author of The EU in International Sports Governance (Palgrave, 2016).[Page xi]
Anna Gerke has obtained her PhD from the faculty of sport sciences at the University of Paris-Sud. Her work analysed the influence of interorganisational linkages and behaviour on innovation in sport industry clusters. Today, she is Assistant Professor at Audencia Nantes School of Management at the Parisian campus. She teaches courses in sport management and marketing and manages the specialised Master’s programme in the management of sport organisations. Anna’s research interest are cluster theory, interorganisational linkages and behaviour, strategy, innovation and the sport system. She has published in peer-reviewed journals including Sport Management Review, European Sport Management Quarterly and Multinational Business Review. Anna is a regular attendee of international conferences such as EURAM, EASM, NAASM and WASM. In 2015 she was nominated Programme Chair for the SIG Managing Sport at the EURAM conference.
Manuel Herter , MSc, is a Research Assistant at the Department of Sport Economics and Sport Management, German Sport University Cologne, where he also completed his Master’s degree in Sport Management. His Master’s thesis was on professional football in Germany.
Klaus Nielsen is Professor of Institutional Economics at the Department of Management, Birkbeck, University of London, where he is a member of Birkbeck Sport Business Centre. He teaches research methods, innovation, business in the European Union and economics of sport. His current research areas include varieties of capitalism, innovation, social capital, elite sports and the economics of sports. He has coordinated several research projects about Danish elite sports, sports participation and economic aspects of sport. His work has been published in several books and in journals such as International Studies of Management and Organization, Journal of Economic Issues and European Sport Management Quarterly.
Johannes Orlowski , MSc, is a Lecturer and Research Associate at the Department of Sport Economics and Sport Management, German Sport University Cologne. His predominant field of research is the economics of sports participation. Further, Johannes is involved in a research project investigating labour market conditions and drivers of labour migration amongst elite sport coaches. He is currently working on his PhD which is related to the monetisation of intangible benefits associated with active and passive sports participation. He is a member of the European Sport Economics Association (ESEA) as well as the North American Association of Sport Economists (NAASE). His work has been published in journals such as Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations and Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics.
Jan Pieper is a Professor of Business Administration at the International University Bad Honnef, Campus Berlin, Germany. Jan holds a Master’s degree in Business Administration from the University of Greifswald, Germany, and a PhD in Management and Economics from the University of Zurich, Switzerland. His research interests lie in strategic management issues, which he empirically and theoretically explores in contexts of professional sports. He has published in Schmalenbach Business Review and presented papers at multiple international conferences.
Bastian Popp is Senior Research Fellow Sports Business and Marketing at Carnegie Faculty, Leeds Beckett University, UK. Moreover, he is Visiting Senior Lecturer at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, where he contributes to an MBA programme in Sport Management. He is a member of the European Association for Sport Management (EASM). His primary areas of research are innovative media and consumer behaviour, value co-creation and service-dominant logic, brand management, identification, loyalty, quality management and fan behaviour. Together with Herbert Woratschek and Chris Horbel (2014) he developed the sport value framework which integrates alternative models of value creation into traditional sport management approaches. His work has been published in journals such as European Sport Management Quarterly, Sport Management Review, International Journal of Sport Marketing and Sponsorship and Journal of Strategic Marketing.[Page xii]
Jeroen Scheerder , PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Kinesiology and head of the Policy in Sports and Physical Activity Research Group at the University of Leuven, Belgium. His research focus is on sport governance and sport participation. So far, he has (co-)supervised ten PhD projects in the fields of sport governance, sport sociology and sport marketing. He has also (co-)authored more than 60 papers in peer reviewed international journals and books. Between 2005 and 2007 he was a guest professor of sport sociology at the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences at the Ghent University, and in 2010 he co-founded MEASURE, which is a European research network on sport participation and sport governance. Since 2014 he has been the president of the European Association for Sociology of Sport (EASS).
Harry Arne Solberg is Professor of Sport Management/Sports Economics at Trondheim Business School at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), and he also holds a 20 per cent position at Molde University College. His research interests have covered economic impacts from sport and sport activities, including sporting events, sport and the media and team sport economics. He has published the book The Economics of Sport Broadcasting together with professor Chris Gratton, and also more than 50 articles in scientific journals and books.
Rasmus K. Storm , PhD, holds a position as head of research at the Danish Institute for Sports Studies. Moreover, he is Adjunct Associate Professor (10%) at Trondheim Business School. He has managed several research projects on Danish elite sport, edited and co-edited four books on sport, and has published in a variety of international sport science and sport management journals such as European Sport Management Quarterly, International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, and Soccer & Society. He is regularly interviewed in the Danish media, and gives a large number of public lectures. Furthermore, he writes regularly in Danish newspapers.
Ulrik Wagner , PhD, is an Associate Professor at the Department of Marketing and Management, University of Southern Denmark, where he is also coordinating the BA programme in Sport and Event Management offered at the Slagelse Campus. Ulrik is affiliated with the research team Management of People, and he is a member of the European Association for Sport Management (EASM). He has been working with research on organisational changes related to international anti-doping efforts and sport scandals, and he is currently involved in several projects that focus on sponsorships from an organisational sociology and critical management perspective. His work has been published in journals such as European Sport Management Quarterly, Sport Management Review, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, International Journal of Sport Communication and International Journal of Drug Policy.[Page xiii]
Pamela Wicker is a Senior Lecturer and Researcher at the Department of Sport Economics and Sport Management, German Sport University Cologne, where she obtained her PhD in 2009 and her Habilitation in 2014. Her main research interests include sport economics (e.g., economics of sport consumer behaviour, league and labour market economics, health economics, economics of physical activity), sport finance (e.g., financing non-profit sport clubs, player and coaching salaries; CVM research), and sport management (e.g., sport club research, organisational capacity and resources). Pamela is Associate Editor and Social Media Editor of Sport Management Review and a member of the Editorial Board of another five scientific journals (Journal of Sport Management, European Sport Management Quarterly, International Journal of Sport Finance, Managing Sport and Leisure, and Journal of Sport & Tourism).
Herbert Woratschek is Professor and Head of Department in Service Management at the University of Bayreuth where he is also responsible for BA, MA and MBA programmes in Sport Management. Herbert was extraordinary professor at the University of Trondheim, Norway, and visiting professor at the University of Calgary, Canada, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia and at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. He was also Vice-President of the European Association for Sport Management from 2009 to 2015. His main areas of research include the service–profit chain in various contexts, service-dominant logic, service quality, and sport management. Together with Chris Horbel and Bastian Popp (2014) he developed the sport value framework which integrates alternative models of value creation into traditional sport management approaches. His work has been published in several journals including Journal of Service Research, European Sport Management Quarterly, Sport Management Review, Journal of Strategic Marketing, Marketing Theory and Journal of Relationship Marketing.[Page xiv]