What is Geography?

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Alastair Bonnett

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  • What is Geography?

    • Geography is the world discipline.
    • Geography is rooted in the human need for survival; in the necessity of knowing and making sense of the resources and dangers of our human and physical environment. But it also seeks the bigger picture: geography helps us imagine that there is meaning and sense in the world. Geography allows us to see order in, and impose order on, what otherwise would be chaos.
    • Geography is both pre-modern and modern. It is a paradoxical and necessary combination. Geography's wide horizons and holistic sensibility are antithetical to an age of intellectual fragmentation and specialism. Yet a commitment to world knowledge is essential in a globalising era defined by environmental and political crises.
    • Geography has a wide subject matter and an equally wide constituency of contributors. Geography is both a popular and a professional activity. To hear geography's story we must listen to voices from across the world and from many different intellectual traditions.
    • In the modern era the geographical imagination has been structured into two basic tendencies, namely the pursuit of international and environmental knowledge. This division reflects modernity's global ambitions and its power to alienate people from nature (nature has been turned into something separate from people; a discrete arena for exploitation or wonder).
    • Industrial modernity has environmental and social consequences (such as environmental change, population growth, and pollution) that require geography's integrating, inclusive and global approach.
    • The modern era has produced rapid shifts in settlement activity. These have, in turn, provoked points of focus for the modern geographical imagination, notably urbanisation and mobility.
    • Geography has a number of distinctive practices. These include mapping, exploration, and connecting and combining knowledge about human and natural systems. Geography's outward disposition also encourages an engaged, involved outlook; a desire not merely to observe the world but to change it for the better.
    • Geography is an attempt to both understand and meet the world. In this sense, we may say that geographers are explorers. This ambition makes geography a distinctive contribution to increasingly bureaucratic and institutionalised systems of education. Its wide sweep, its long history and its curiosity about the world outside the window, make geography an awkward discipline for the classroom or lecture theatre. Geography's difficult institutional history within academia indicates how hard it is to mould a non-specialist activity into something that resembles conventional specialisms. However, the institutionalisation process has also been central to opening geography to wider audiences. It appears that geography must exist within and against its modern institutional forms.

    Notes

    Introduction

    1 Peter Bowler, The Fontana History of the Environmental Sciences, Fontana, London, 1992, p. 391.

    2 ‘The Blue Marble’, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Marble, accessed 27/06/2006. See also Denis Cosgrove, Apollo's Eye: A Cartographic Genealogy of the Earth in the Western Imagination, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2001.

    3 See Joseph May, Kant's Concept of Geography and its Relation to Recent Geographical Thought, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1970.

    4 Edward Hallet Carr, What is History?, Penguin, London, 1987, p. 8.

    5 Serge Latouche, The Westernization of the World: Significance, Scope and Limits of the Drive Towards Global Uniformity, Polity Press, Oxford, 1996.

    6 See also Alastair Bonnett, ‘Geography as the world discipline: connecting popular and academic geographical imaginations’, Area, 35, 1, 2003 pp. 55–63.

    1 James Romm, The Edges of the Earth in Ancient Thought: Geography, Exploration and Fiction, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1992.

    2 Lucius Seneca, Medea, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1973, p. 36. Tethys is sister and wife of Oceanus, personification of the sea.

    3 Cf. David Stoddart, On Geography, Blackwell, Oxford, 1986. For Stoddart geography is a uniquely European creation: ‘In method and in concept geography as we know it today is overwhelmingly a European discipline. It emerged as Europe encountered the rest of the world, and indeed itself, with the tools of the new objective science, and all other geographical traditions are necessarily derivative and indeed imitative of it’. p. 39.

    4 The Holy Bible, Psalms, 19, 1.

    5 Ibid., Genesis, 1, 26.

    6 See John Kirtland Wright, The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades: A Study in the History of Medieval Science and Tradition in Western Europe, Dover Publications, New York, 1965.

    7 Quoted in Wright, The Geographical Lore, 1965, p. 270.

    8 John Kirtland Wright, The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades: A Study in the History of Medieval Science and Tradition in Western Europe, Dover Publications, New York, 1965.

    9 See David Livingstone, The Geographical Tradition: Episodes in the History of a Contested Enterprise, Blackwell, Oxford, 1992.

    10 Quoted in Margarita Bowen, Empiricism and Geographical Thought: From Francis Bacon to Alexander von Humbolt, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981, p. 110.

    11 Quoted in Bowen, Empiricism and Geographical Thought, p. 277.

    12 Quoted in Livingstone, The Geographical Tradition, 1992, p. 86.

    13 Rudyard Kipling, Sixty Poems, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1939, p. 11.

    14 Quoted in Bernard Porter, Critics of Empire: British Radical Attitudes to Colonialism in Africa 1895–1914, Macmillan, London, 1968, p. 50.

    15 Benjamin Kidd, Social Evolution, Macmillan, London, 1894, p. 317.

    16 Michael Mandelbaum, The Ideas that Conquered the World: Peace, Democracy, and Free Markets in the Twenty-first Century, Public Affairs, New York, 2002.

    17 Victor Hanson, Why the West Won: Carnage and Culture from Salamis to Vietnam, Faber and Faber, London, 2001.

    18 John Roberts, The Triumph of the West, BBC, London, 1985.

    19 Ibid., p. 431

    20 Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man, Hamish Hamilton, London, 1992, p. 136.

    21 Benjamin Barber, Jihad vs McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World, Ballantine Books, New York, 1996, p. 4.

    22 Quoted in Clarence Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1976, p. 277.

    23 ‘East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c, 91 BCE–1643 CE, http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/romchin1.html, accessed on 20/12/2006.

    24 Georg Hegel, The Philosophy of History, Prometheus Books, Amherst, 1991, p. 103.

    25 Edward Said, Orientalism: Western Representations of the Orient, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1978.

    26 Quoted in Edward Hallet Carr, A History of Soviet Russia: Socialism in One Country 1924–1926: Volume One, Macmillan, London, 1958, p. 144.

    27 The Holy Bible, Ezekiel, 5, 5.

    28 ‘East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 BCE–1643 CE, http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/romchin1.html, accessed on 20/12/2006.

    29 Pliny the Elder, Natural History: A Selection, Penguin, London, 1991, p. 75

    30 Strabo, ‘The Geography of Strabo’, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/1B2*.html, accessed 20/12/2006.

    31 The name ‘Strabo’ may have been a nickname, as it is the Latin term for someone with an eye deformity or squint.

    32 Strabo, ‘The Geography of Strabo’, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/2A1*.html and ‘The Geography of Strabo’, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/4E*.html, accessed 20/12/2006.

    33 Strabo, ‘The Geography of Strabo’, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/1A*.html, accessed 20/12/2006.

    34 Strabo, ‘The Geography of Strabo’, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/7C*.html, accessed 20/12/2006.

    35 W. Yeats, ‘Introduction’, in R. Tagore, Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Macmillan, London, 1913, p. xx.

    36 Quoted in F. Rosemont, ‘Surrealists on whiteness from 1925 to the present’, Race Traitor, 9, 1988, p. 7.

    37 Henry Morton Stanley, ‘Central Africa and the Congo Basin; or, the importance of the scientific study of geography’, Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 1, pp. 1–3, 6–25, 1885, p. 8.

    38 Ibid., p. 14.

    39 Peter Davis, The Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands: Volume One, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1984.

    40 Richard Grimmett, Birds of India: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1999.

    41 Isaiah Bowman, The New World: Problems in Political Geography: Fourth Edition, World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1928, p. 6.

    42 Peter Kropotkin, ‘What geography ought to be’, in J. Agnew, D. Livingstone and A. Rogers (Eds), Human Geography: An Essential Anthology, Blackwell, Oxford, 1996, p. 141.

    43 Michel de Montaigne, The Complete Essays, Penguin Books, London, 1993, p. 231.

    44 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, A Discourse on Inequality, Penguin Books, London, 1984, p. 159.

    45 Fukuzawa Yukichi, An Outline of a Theory of Civilization, Sophia University, Tokyo, 1973, p. 99.

    46 See Jane Leonard, Wei Yuan and China's Rediscovery of the Maritime World, Harvard, University Press, 1984; Frank Dikotter, The Discourse of Race in Modern China, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1992.

    47 Quoted in Dikotter, The Discourse of Race in Modern China, 1992, p. 160.

    48 Ibid.

    49 Gerard Delanty (Ed.), Europe and Asia Beyond East and West, Routledge, London, 2006.

    1 Clarence Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1976.

    2 Ibid., p. 3.

    3 For details of Eratosthenes's calculation see The Eratosthenes Project, at http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/observatory/eratosthenes/, accessed 21.12.2006.

    4 Quoted in Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore, 1976, p. 87.

    5 Strabo, ‘The Geography of Strabo’, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/2C*.html, accessed 20/12/2006.

    6 Alfred Hettner, Die Geographie, ihre Geschichte, ihr Wesen und ihre Methoden, Ferinand Hirt, Breslau, 1927. Lucien Febvre, A Geographical Introduction to History, Knopf, London, 1925.

    7 Febvre, A Geographical Introduction, 1925.

    8 Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel: A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 Years, Vintage, London, 1998. Alfred Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986.

    9 Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Allen Lane, London, 2005.

    10 Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel, 2005, p. 32.

    11 Quoted in Livingstone, The Geographical Tradition, 1992, p. 136.

    12 Jean Brunhes, Human Geography, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1920, p. 15.

    13 Quoted in George Tatham, ‘Environmentalism and possibilism’, in Griffith Taylor (Ed.), Geography in the Twentieth Century: A Study of Growth, Fields, Techniques, Aims and Trends (Third Edition), Methuen, London, 1957, p. 152.

    14 Derek Gregory, Ideology, Science and Human Geography, Hutchinson, London, 1978, pp. 170–1.

    15 William Wordsworth, ‘Lines Written a Few miles above Tintern Abbey, on Revisiting the Banks of the Wye During a Tour, 13 July 1798’, in Duncan Wu, Romanticism: An Anthology, Blackwell, Oxford, 1994, p. 242.

    16 George Parkins Marsh, Man and Nature, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1965, p. 186.

    17 Aldo Leopold, Sand County Almanac: with other Essays on Conservation from Round River, Oxford University Press, New York, 1966, p. x.

    18 Brian Hayden, ‘Subsistence and ecological adaptations of modern hunter-gatherers’, in R. Harding and G. Teleki (Eds), Omnivorous Primates, Columbia University Press, New York, 1981.

    19 Tu Wei-ming, ‘The ecological turn in new Confucian humanism: implications for China and the world’, Daedalus 130, 4, 2001, pp. 243–264. See also P. Harris, ‘“Getting rich is glorious”: environmental values in the People's Republic of China’, Environmental Values 13, 2, 2004, pp. 145–165.

    20 Donella Meadows, Dennis Meadows, Jorgen Randers and William Behrens, Limits to Growth: A Report For The Club Of Rome's Project On The Predicament Of Mankind, A Potomac Associates Book, New York, 1972.

    21 Ernst Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful. A Study Of Economics As If People Mattered, Blond and Briggs, London, 1973.

    22 Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle: Nature, Man and Technology, Knopf, New York, 1971, p. 1.

    23 Barry Commoner, ‘Fundamental causes of the environmental crisis’, in Roderick Nash (Ed.), American Environmentalism: Readings in Conservation History, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990, p. 206.

    24 Stephen Cotgrove and Andrew Duff, ‘Environmentalism, middle-class radicalism and politics’, Sociological Review, 28, 2, 1980, pp. 333–51.

    25 Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1962, p. 12.

    26 Dave Foreman, quoted in Bill McKibben, The End of Nature: Humanity, Climate Change and the Natural World, Bloomsbury, London, 2003, p. 194.

    27 Ian Sample, ‘Forests are poised to make a comeback, study shows’, The Guardian, 14 November 2006.

    28 Spencer Weart, The Discovery of Global Warming, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2003.

    29 Svante Arrhenius, Worlds in the Making, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1908, p. 63.

    30 Nils Ekholm, ‘On the variations of the climate of the geological and historical past and their causes’, Quarterly J. Royal Meteorological Society 27, 1901, p. 61.

    31 Willi Dansgaard, Sigfus Johnsen, Henrik Clausen, Darthe Dahl-Jensen, Niels Gundestrup, Claus Hammer, Christine Huindberg, Jorgen Steffensen, Arny Sveinbjörnsdottir, Jean Jouzel and Gerard Bond ‘Evidence for general instability of climate from a 250–kyr ice-core record’, Nature 364, 1993, pp. 218–220. See also Weart, The Discovery of Global Warming, 2003.

    32 Bjon Lomborg, The Sceptical Environmentalist, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001.

    33 International Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Working Group II Contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report: Summary for Policymakers, IPCC, Geneva, 2007, p. 2.

    34 HM Treasury, The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, HM Treasury, London, 2006.

    35 Urs Siegenthaler, Thomas Stocker, Eric Monnin, Dieter Lüthi, Jakob Schwander, Bernhard Stauffer, Dominique Raynaud, Jean-Marc Barnda, Hubertus Fischer, Valérie Masson-Delmotte and Jean Jouzel, ‘Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the late Pleistocene’, Science, 310, 2005, pp. 1313–1317.

    36 Tim Barnett, David Pierce, Krishna AchutaRao, Peter Gleckler, Benjamin Santer, Jonathan Gregory and Warren Washington ‘Penetration of human-induced warming into the world's oceans’, Science, 309, 2005, pp. 284–287.

    37 HM Treasury, The Stern Review.

    38 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2001: Summary for Policy Makers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001.

    39 Katey Walter, Sergey Zimou, Jeff Chanton, Dave Verbyla and Terry Chapin, ‘Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming’, Nature, 443, 2006, pp. 71–75.

    40 HM Treasury, Stern Review, p. 12.

    41 HM Treasury, Stern Review, p. 56.

    42 Norman Myers, ‘Environmental Refugees: An Emergent Security Issue’, paper delivered at 13th Economic Forum, Prague, 23–27 May, 2005.

    43 Bhimanto Suwastoyo, ‘Haze from Indonesia fires chokes region, spreads across pacific’, http://www.terradaily.com/reports/Haze_From_Indonesia_Fires_Chokes_Region_Spreads_Across_Pacific_999.html, accessed 21.12.2006.

    44 Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group, ‘Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease’, Lancet, 360, 2002, pp. 1347–1360.

    45 Andrew Goudie and Heather Viles, The Earth Transformed: An Introduction to Human Impacts on the Environment, Blackwell, Oxford, 1997.

    46 Daniel Nepstad, Paulo Moutinho and Britaldo Soares-Filho, The Amazon in a Changing Climate: Large-Scale Reductions of Carbon Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Impoverishment,http://www.whrc.org/resources/published_literature/pdf/ Amazon-and-Climate-2006.pdf, accessed 8.4.2007.

    47 Graham Harvey, We Want Real Food, Constable, London, 2006 p. 171.

    48 Vaclav Smil, Enriching the Earth, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2001.

    49 Paul Ehrlich and John Holdren, ‘Impact of population growth’, Science, 171, 1971, pp. 1212–1217. John Holdren and Paul Ehrlich, ‘Human population and the global environment, American Scientist, 62, 3, 1974, pp. 282–292.

    50 Georgine Mace, Hillary Masundire and Jonathan Baillie, ‘Biodiversity’, in Rashid Hassan, Robert Scholes and Neville Ash (Eds) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Volume 1, Island Press, Washington, 2005, p. 109.

    51 Ibid., p. 79.

    52 UN News Center, ‘World population to reach 9.1 billion in 2050, UN projects’, http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=13451&Cr=population&Cr1, accessed 22.12.2006.

    53 Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Harmondsworth, Pelican, 1976, p. 71.

    54 Academy of Sciences, Population Summit of the World's Scientific Academies, National Academy Press, Washington, 1993.

    55 William Turner, Robert Hanham and Anthony Portararo, ‘Population pressure and agricultural intensity’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 67, 1977, pp. 386–97.

    56 Ester Boserup, Population and Technology, Blackwell, Oxford, 1980.

    57 Quoted in Clarence Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore, 1976, p. 65.

    58 Aristotle, Meteorologica, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1952. See also Pliny the Elder's discussion of the ‘eight main winds’ in Natural History: A Selection, Penguin Books, London, 1991.

    59 Svante Arrhenius, ‘On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the round’, London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, 41, 1896, pp. 237–275.

    60 Milutin Milankovitch, Theorie Mathematique des Phenomenes Thermiques produits par la Radiation Solaire, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1920. Milan Milankovitch, Mathematische Klimalehre und Astronomische Theorie der Klimaschwankungen, Handbuch der Klimalogie Band 1, Teil A Borntrager, Berlin, 1930.

    61 Edward Lorenz, Nonlinearity, Weather Prediction, and Climate Deduction, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept of Meteorology, Cambridge, 1966. Edward Lorenz, The Essence of Chaos, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1996.

    62 James Hutton, ‘THEORY of the EARTH; or an INVESTIGATION of the Laws observable in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land upon the Globe’, http://www.mala.bc.ca/~Johnstoi/essays/Hutton.htm, accessed 22.12.2006.

    63 Ibid.

    64 Ibid.

    65 Ibid.

    66 Alfred Wegener, The Origin of Continents and Oceans, Dover Publications, New York, 1966.

    67 Quoted in ‘Alfred Wegener vs just about everybody else: how the continents formed (1912–1960's) http://courses.science.fau.edu/~rjordan/phy1931/WEGENER/wegener.pdf, accessed 22.12.2006.

    68 Halford Mackinder, ‘On the scope and methods of geography’, in John. Agnew, David Livingstone and Alisdair Rogers (Eds), Human Geography: An Essential Anthology, Blackwell, Oxford, 1996, p. 170.

    69 Stephen Schneider and Penelope Boston (Eds), Scientists on Gaia, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1991, p. x.

    1 William Morris, Political Writings: Contributions to Justice and Commonweal 1883–1890, Thoemmes Press, Bristol, 1994, p. 25.

    2 Department of Economic and Social Affairs, ‘Population Division World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision’, http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WUP2005/2005wup.htm, accessed 22.12.2006.

    3 Earth Trends, ‘Population, Health and Human Well-being – Urban and Rural Areas: Urban population as a percent of total population’, http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/population-health/variable-448.html, accessed 22.12.2006.

    4 Ibid.

    5 Ibid.

    6 People's Daily Online, ‘China encourages mass urban migration’, http://english.people.com.cn/200311/28/eng20031128_129252.shtml, accessed 22.12.2006.

    7 Quoted in People's Daily Online, ‘China encourages mass urban migration’, http://english.people.com.cn/200311/28/eng20031128_129252.shtml, accessed 22.12.2006.

    8 Lewis Mumford, The City in History, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1966, p. 224.

    9 Quoted in James Donald, ‘This, here, now: imagining the modern city’, in Sallie Westwood and John Williams (Eds), Imagining Cities: Scripts, Signs, Memories, Routledge, London, 1997, p. 195. Corbusier's stark geometric plans for high rise cities were not the only solutions on offer. Although the semi-pastoral vision behind Ebernezer Howard's ‘Garden Cities’ was very different, it too was structured around a desire to achieve symmetry and the spatial division of urban functions. See Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow, Swan Sonnenschein, London, 1902.

    10 Arthur Nelson, ‘By 2030 the US will have re-built almost half its built environment’, http://www.citymayors.com/development/built_environment_usa.html, accessed 22.12.2006.

    11 Ernest Burgess, ‘The growth of the city: an introduction to a research project’, in Robert Park, Ernest Burgess and R. McKenzie (Eds), The City, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1925.

    12 John Rex, ‘The sociology of a zone of transition’, in Ray Pahl (Ed.) Readings in Urban Sociology, Pergamon, London, 1968, p. 214.

    13 David Harvey, ‘The urban process under capitalism: a framework for analysis’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2, pp. 101–31, 1978, p. 120.

    14 David Harvey, ‘Geography policies, financial institutions and neighbourhood change in United States cities, in M. Harloe (Ed.) Captive Cities, John Wiley, London, 1977, p. 124.

    15 David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity. An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, Oxford, Blackwell, 1990. This book was itself the subject of criticism from feminist writers, see Meahgan Morris, ‘The Man in the Mirror: David Harvey's “Condition” of Postmodernity’ Theory, Culture Society, 9, 1992, pp. 253–279. See also Noel Castree (Ed.) David Harvey: A Critical Reader, Blackwell, Oxford, 2006.

    16 Michel de Montaigne, The Complete Essays, 1993, p. 235.

    17 Ibid, pp. 240–1.

    18 Ferdinand Tönnies, Community and Society, Harper and Row, New York, 1963. Georg Simmel, Simmel on Culture: Selected Writings, Sage, London, 1997.

    19 Quoted in Peter Saunders, Social Theory and the Urban Question, Hutchinson, London, 1981, p. 89.

    20 Richard Sennett, Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization, Faber and Faber, London, 1994, pp. 25–26.

    21 Guy Debord, Panegyric, Verso, London, 1991, pp. 44–45.

    22 Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle, Black and Red, Detroit, 1983, thesis 177.

    23 Earth Trends, ‘Population, health and human well-being – urban and rural areas: urban population as a percent of total population’, http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/population-health/variable-448.html, accessed 22.12.2006.

    24 Stanley Brunn and Jack Williams, Cities of the World: World Regional Urban Development, Harper and Row, New York, 1983, p. 36.

    25 Mark Burkholder and Lyman Johnson, Colonial Latin America, Oxford University Press, New York, 1994, p. 175.

    26 Jonathan Spencer, ‘Occidentalism in the East: the uses of the West in the politics and anthropology of South Asia’, in J. Carrier (Ed.) Occidentalism: Images of the West, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995.

    27 Quoted in Ben Kierman, The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1996, p. 57.

    28 Rabindranath Tagore, Creative Unity, Macmillan, London, 1922, p. 144.

    29 Quoted in Stephen Hay, Asian Ideas of East and West: Tagore and his Critics in Japan, China, and India, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1970, p. 180.

    30 See, for example, Maryam Jameelah, Western Civilization Condemned by Itself: A Comprehensive Study of Moral Retrogression and its Consequences, Volume 1, Mohammad Yusaf Khan and Sons, Lahore, 1979.

    31 Ernesto Pernia (Ed.) Urban Poverty in Asia: A Survey of Critical Issues, OUP China, Hong Kong, 1999. See also Tim Bunnell, Lisa Drummond and Ho Kong Chong (Eds), Critical Perspectives on Cities in Southeast Asia, Times Academic Press, Singapore, 2002.

    32 Lewis Mumford, The City in History, 1966, p. 616.

    33 Jean Gottmann, Megalopolis: The Urbanized North-Eastern Seaboard of the United States, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1961.

    34 Arif Dirlik, ‘Place-based imagination: globalism and the politics of place’, in Roxann Prazniak and Arif Dirlik (Eds), Places and Politics in an Age of Globalization, Lanham, Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, p. 42.

    35 Edward Relph, Place and Placelessness, Pion, London, 1976; Marc Auge, Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity, Verso, London, 1995; James Kunstler, The Geography of Nowhere, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1993. See also Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Random House, New York, 1961.

    36 Marc Auge, Non-Places, 1995, p. 110.

    37 On these new class dynamics see Paul Cloke and Jo Little (Eds), Contested Countryside Cultures, Routledge, London. 1997; Jon Murdoch et al., The Differentiated Countryside, Routledge, London, 2003.

    38 Loretta Lees, ‘Urban geography: The “death” of the city?’, in Alisdair Rogers and Heather Viles (Eds), The Student's Companion to Geography: Second Edition, Blackwell, London, 2003, p.127. Lees is summarising the views of Michael Dear, The Postmodern Urban Condition, Blackwell, Oxford, 2000.

    39 James Heartfield, ‘Londonostalgia’, reprinted from Blueprint, September 2004, http://www.design4design.com/artucles/artcles_story.asp?STORYID=5765, accessed 05/04/2005.

    40 Karl Marx, The Revolutions of 1848, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1973, p. 71.

    41 Harvey is critical ‘of all those manifestations of place-bound nostalgias that infect our images of the country and the city, of region, milieu, and locality’. David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity, Blackwell, Oxford, 1989, p. 218.

    42 Doreen Massey, ‘A global sense of place’, in Trevor Barns and Derek Gregory (Eds), Reading Human Geography, Arnold, London, 1997, p. xx. Massey develops her vision of a ‘politics of place beyond place’ in World City, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2007, p. 188. See also Tim Cresswell, Place: A Short Introduction, Blackwell, London, 2004; Linda McDowell (Ed.), Undoing Place? A Geographical Reader, Arnold, London, 1997.

    43 Ibid. p. xx.

    44 William Mitchell, City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995, p. 161, p. 166.

    45 Mark Gottdiener and Leslie Budd, Key Concepts in Urban Studies, London, Sage, 2005, p. 15.

    46 Louis Wirth, ‘Urbanism as a way of life’, American Journal of Sociology, 44, pp. 1–24, 1938, p. 12.

    47 Goran Rystad, ‘Immigration history and the future of international migration’, International Migration Review, 26, 4, pp. 1168–1199, 1992, p. 1170.

    48 National Latino Statistics, http://www.justicebychoice.org/National%20Latino%20Statistics.pdf, accessed 26.12.2006.

    49 Lindsay Lowell, ‘Immigrants and labor force trends: the future, past, and present’, http://www.migrationpolicy.org/ITFIAF/TF17_Lowell.pdf, accessed 26.12.2006.

    50 Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.

    51 Pavel Polyan, CCP, (translation: ‘Not by their own will … a history and geography of forced migrations in the USSR’), , Moscow, 2001. See also Population transfer in the Soviet Union, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_transfer_in_the_Soviet_Union, accessed 26.12.2006. Terry Martin, ‘The origins of Soviet ethnic cleansing’, Journal of Modern History, 70, 1998, pp. 813–861.

    52 George Ravenstein, ‘The laws of migration’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 52, 2, 1889, pp. 241–305. See also Waldo Tobler, ‘Migration: Ravenstein, Thorntwaite, and beyond’, Urban Geography, 16, 4, 1995, pp. 327–343.

    53 Tomas Hammer, Democracy and the Nation State: Aliens, Denizens and Citizens in a World of International Migration, Avebury, Aldershot, 1990.

    54 Adrian Bailey, Making Population Geography, Hodder Arnold, London, 2005, p. 125. Bailey is drawing on the work of Doreen Mattingly, ‘The home and the world: domestic service and international networks of caring labor’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 91, pp. 370–86, 2001.

    55 Warwick Murray, Geographies of Globalization, Routledge, London, 2006.

    56 Ibid.

    57 Folker Frobel, Jurgen Heinrichs and Otto Krege, The New International Division of Labour, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980.

    58 Robert Gwynne, Thomas Klak and Denis Shaw, Alternative Capitalisms: Geographies of Emerging Regions, Arnold, London, 2003, p. 168.

    59 John Bryson and Nick Henry, ‘The global production system: from Fordism to post-Fordism’, in Peter Daniels, Michael Bradshaw, Denis Shaw and James Sidaway (Eds), Human Geography: Issues for the 21st Century, Prentice Hall, London, 2001, p. 369. See also Saskia Sassen, The Global City: London, New York, Tokyo, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2001.

    60 Corporate History, http://www.gm.com/company/corp_info/history/gmhis1920.html, accessed 26.12.2006.

    61 Olle Hagman, ‘Morning queues and parking problems: on the broken promises of the automobile’, Mobilities, 1, 1, pp. 63–74, p. 67.

    62 Luis de la Fuente Layos, Statistics in Focus: Transport: Short Distance Passenger Mobility in Europe, Eurostat, Luxembourg, 2005.

    63 Scottish Executive, ‘Statistical Bulletin Transport Series: Trn/2005/3: Travel by Scottish residents: some National Travel Survey results for 2002/2003 and earlier years’, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/04/1894658/46593, accessed 28.12.2006.

    64 Brian Handwerk, ‘China's Car Boom Tests Safety, Pollution Practices’, http://geography.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/06/0628%5F040628%5Fchinacars.htm, accessed 27.12.2006.

    65 ‘Delphi expects $1 billion China sales’, http://www.china-defense.com/forum/showthread.php?t=8620&page=6, accessed 27.12.2006.

    66 The Chinese Outbound Tourism Market, http://www.world-tourism.org/newsroom/Releases/2006/november/chineseoutbound.htm, accessed 27.12.2006.

    67 Dan MacCannell, Empty Meeting Grounds: The Tourist Papers, Routledge, London, 1992.

    68 Rabindranath Tagore, Creative Unity, Macmillan, London, 1922, p. 95.

    69 Quoted in Geoffrey Martin and Preston James, All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas, John Wiley, London, 1993, p. 440.

    70 Quoted in Goran Rystad, ‘Immigration history’, 1992, p. 1172.

    1 Halford Mackinder, ‘On the scope and methods of geography’, 1996, p. 156.

    2 Stan Stevens, ‘Fieldwork as commitment’, The Geographical Review, 91, 2001, pp. 66–73, p. 66.

    3 Bronislaw Malinowski, Argonauts of the Western Pacific, 1922, George Routledge and Sons, London.

    4 Heidi Nast, ‘Opening remarks on “women in the field”’, Professional Geographer, 46, 1994, pp. 54–66, p. 56.

    5 Gillian Rose, Feminism and Geography, Polity Press, Cambridge, 1993, p. 109.

    6 Cited in Stoddard, On Geography, p. 47.

    7 Teresa Ploszajska, Geographical Education, Empire and Citizenship: Geographical Teaching and Learning in English Schools, 1870–1944, Historical Geography Research Group, London, 1999, p. 270.

    8 Livingstone, The Geographical Tradition, 1992, p. 129.

    9 Montesquieu, Persian Letters, Penguin, London, 1973, p. 239.

    10 Malinowski, Argonauts of the Western Pacific, 1922, pp. 21–22.

    11 James Clifford, The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1988; Clifford Geertz, Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1988.

    12 See, for example, http://www.travelblogs.com/.

    13 See, for example, Transgressions: A Journal of Urban Exploration and the ‘urban explorers’ networks at http://www.urbanexplorers.net/ and http://www.sub-urban.com/fleettwo.htm.

    14 Iain Sinclair, London Orbital, Penguin, London, 2003. See also Iain Sinclair, London: City of Disappearances, Hamish Hamilton, London, 2006.

    15 Steve Watkins and Clare Jones, Unforgettable Journeys to Take Before You Die, BBC Books, London, 2000. Patricia Schultz, 1000 Places to See Before you Die, Workman Publishing, New York, 2003. Steve Davey, Unforgettable Places to See Before you Die, BBC Books, London, 2004.

    16 Carl Ritter, Comparative Geography, William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh, 1865, p. 16.

    17 Halford Mackinder, ‘On the scope and methods of geography’, 1996, p. 159.

    18 See, for example, Rob Kitchin and Nicholas Tate, Conducting Research into Human Geography, Prentice Hall, Harlow, 2000 and Guy Robinson, Techniques and Methods in Human Geography, Wiley, London, 1998. Cf. John Matthews and David Herbert, Unifying Geography: Common Heritage, Shared Future, Routledge, London, 2004.

    19 Hugh Lamprey, ‘Pastoralism yesterday and today: the over-grazing problem’, in Francois Bourliere (Ed.), Tropical Savannas: Ecosystems of the World, Volume 13, Elsevier, London, 1981.

    20 James Lovelock, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford Paperbacks, Oxford, 2000.

    21 Richard Hartshorne, The Nature of Geography: A Critical Survey of Current Thought in the Light of the Past, Association of American Geographers, Lancaster, 1961, p. xii.

    22 See, for example, Vernon Meentemeyer, ‘Geographical perspectives of space, time, and scale’, Landscape Ecology, 3, 3–4, 1989, pp. 163–173. Yehua Dennis Wei, ‘Multiscale and multimechanisms of regional inequality in China: implications for regional policy’, Journal of Contemporary China, 11, 30, 2002, pp. 109–124.

    23 Olaf Bastian, ‘Landscape ecology – towards a unified discipline’, Landscape Ecology, 16, 2002, pp. 757–766, p. 764.

    24 Elazar Barkan, The Retreat from Scientific Racism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992.

    25 Peter Haggett, The Geographer's Art, Blackwell, Oxford, 1995.

    26 Richard Hartshorne, The Nature of Geography, 1961, p. xi.

    27 Peter Gould and Rodney White, Mental Maps, Routledge, London, 1985.

    28 Jonathan Swift, On Poetry, a Rapsody, n.p., Dublin and London, 1733.

    29 Jeremy Black, Visions of the World: A History of Maps, Mitchell Beazley, London, 2003, p. 27.

    30 Quoted in Harm de Blij, Why Geography Matters: Three Challenges Facing America: Climate Change, the Rise of China, and Global Terrorism, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, p. 48.

    31 Quoted in Noel Castree, ‘Whose geography? Education as politics’, in Noel Castree, Alisdair Rogers and Douglas Sherman (Eds), Questioning Geography, Blackwell, Oxford, 2005, p. 297.

    32 Quoted in Livingstone, The Geographical Tradition, 1992, p. 104.

    33 Guy Bessette, Involving the Community: A Guide to Participatory Development Communication, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, 2004.

    34 Trevor Wickham, ‘Farmers ain't no fools: exploring the role of participatory rural appraisal to access indigenous knowledge and enhance sustainable development research and planning. A case study of Dusun Pausan, Bali, Indonesia’, Master's Thesis, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, 1993.

    35 Louise Grenier, Working with Indigenous Knowledge: A Guide for Researchers, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, 1998.

    36 See, for example, William Bunge, Fitzgerald: Geography of a Revolution, Schenkman Publishing, Cambridge, 1971.

    37 Edward Abbey, ‘Foreward!’, in Dave Foreman (Ed.), Ecodefense: A Field Guide to Monkeywrenching, Ned Ludd, Tucson, 1987, p. 7.

    38 News from Nowhere (Ed.) We Are Everywhere: The Irresistible Rise of Global Anti-capitalism, Verso, London, 2003; Paul Kingsnorth One No, Many Yeses: A Journey to the Heart of the Global Resistance Movement, Free Press, London, 2004.

    39 Karen Malone and Paul Tranter, ‘School grounds as sites of learning: making the most of environmental opportunities’, Environmental Education Research, 9, 3, 2003, pp. 283–303, p. 284. See also Gary Habhan and Stephen Trimble, The Geography of Childhood: Why Children Need Wild Places, Beacon Press, Boston 1994.

    1 Clarence Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore, 1976, p. xiii.

    2 Quoted in Peter Haggett, The Geographer's Art, 1995, p. 129.

    3 Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1, 1831, p. vii.

    4 Quoted in Om Kejariwal, The Asiatic Society of Bengal and the Discovery of India's Past, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1999, p. 35.

    5 It is interesting to observe how the regions that attract research funding and interest at any one time are usually those which are also the objects of political and economic attention. Noting the development of state funding for Soviet, Russian and Japanese studies in universities across the USA after the Second World War, Miyoshi and Harootunian explain that it was designed ‘to meet the necessity of gathering and providing information about the enemy’. See Masao Miyoshi and Harry Harootunian, ‘Introduction: the “afterlife” of Area Studies’, in Masao Miyoshi and Harry Harootunian (Eds), Learning Places: The Afterlives of Area Studies, Duke University Press, Durham, 2002, p. 2.

    6 John Nietz, Old Textbooks: Spelling, Grammar, Reading, Arithmetic, Geography, American History, Civil Government, Physiology, Penmanship, Art, Music, as Taught in the Common Schools from Colonial Days to 1900, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 1961, p. 196.

    7 John Richard Green, ‘Introduction’, in J.R. Green and Alice Green, A Short Geography of the British Isles, Macmillan, London, 1879, pp. vii–viii.

    8 Quoted in Stoddart, On Geography, 1986, p. 183.

    9 Quoted in Stoddart, On Geography, 1986, p. 83.

    10 James Conant quoted in Neil Smith, ‘“Academic wars over the field of geography”: the elimination of geography at Harvard, 1947–1952’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 77, 1982, pp. 155–72, p. 159.

    11 See, for example, Livingstone, The Geographical Tradition, 1992.

    12 Quoted in Livingstone, The Geographical Tradition, 1992, p. 204.

    13 Nevin Fenneman, ‘The circumference of geography’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 9, 1919, pp. 3–11.

    14 Isaiah Bowman, Geography in Relation to the Social Sciences, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1934, p. 146.

    15 Paul Vidal de la Blache, Principes de geographie humaine, Colin, Paris, 1922.

    16 Peter Haggett, The Geographer's Art, 1995, p. 79.

    17 George Kimble, ‘The inadequacy of the regional concept’, in Laurence Dudley Stamp and Sidney Williams Wooldridge (Eds), London Essays in Geography, Longmans, Green, London, 1951; John Paterson, ‘Writing regional geography: problems and progress in the Anglo-American realm’, Progress in Human Geography, 6, 1974, pp. 1–16.

    18 See, for example, Vernon Meentemeyer, ‘Geographical perspectives of space, time, and scale’, 1989. Yehua Wei, ‘Multiscale and multi mechanisms of regional inequality in China’, 2002.

    19 Richard Hartshorne, Perspectives on the Nature of Geography, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1959, p. 21.

    20 Peter Haggett, The Geographer's Art, 1995, p. 8.

    21 Hence the need for attempts at ‘reunification’, for example, John Matthews and David Herbert, Unifying Geography: Common Heritage, Shared Future, Routledge, London, 2004.

    22 Richard Hartshorne, The Nature of Geography, 1961, p. 460.

    23 David Harvey, The Limits to Capital, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1982.

    24 Michael Dear and Steven Flusty, ‘Introduction’, in M. Dear and S. Flusty (Eds), The Spaces of Postmodernity, Blackwell, Oxford, 2002, p. 2.

    25 Doreen Massey, For Space, Sage, London, 2005, p. 91.

    26 Ibid., p. 189.

    27 See, for example, Harry Harootunian, Overcome by Modernity: History, Culture and Community in Interwar Japan, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2000. Shmuel Eisenstadt, ‘Multiple modernities’, Daedalus, 129, 1, 2000, pp. 1–29. Alastair Bonnett, ‘Occidentalism and plural modernities: or how Fukuzawa and Tagore invented the West’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 23, 2005, pp. 505–525.

    28 Nicky Gregson, ‘Discipline games, disciplinary games and the need for a post-disciplinary pratice: responses to Nigel Thrift's “The future of geography”’, Geoforum, 34, 2003, pp. 5–7.

    29 Georges Benko and Ulf Strohmayer, ‘Conclusion, or an introduction to human geography in the 21st century’, in Georges Benko and Ulf Strohmayer (Eds), Human Geography: A History for the 21st Century, Arnold, London, 2004, p. 139.

    30 Robert Stafford quoted in Livingstone, The Geographical Tradition, 1992, p. 169.

    31 Quoted in Kirkpatrick Sale, ‘Schism in environmentalism’; Roderick Nash (Ed.), American Environmentalism: Readings in Conservation History; Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990, p. 285.

    32 See Shamima Ahmed and David Potter, NGOs in International Politics, Kumarian Press, Bloomfield, CT, 2006; Julie Fisher, Nongovernments: NGOs and the Political Redevelopment of the Third World, Kumarian Press, Bloomfield, CT, 1998.

    33 See Paul Smith, The History of Tourism: Thomas Cook and the Orgins of Leisure Travel, Routledge, London, 1998; Harmut Berghoff et al. (Eds), Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600–2000, Palgrave, London, 2002.

    34 See Donald Read, The Power of News: The History of Reuters: Second Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999; Stanley Baran and Roger Wallis, The Known World of Broadcast News: International News and the Electronic Media, Routledge, London, 1990.

    35 Joseph Conrad, Last Essays, J. M. Dent, London, 1926, p. 17.

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