What Causes Men's Violence against Women?

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Edited by: Michèle Harway & James O'Neil

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Part I: Book Context and Critiques of O'Neil and Harway's Multivariate Model Explaining Men's Violence against Women

    Part II: Biological, Neuroanatomical, Hormonal, and Evolutionary Factors Explaining Men's Violence against Women

    Part III: Men's and Women's Gender-Role Socialization and Gender-Role Conflict Factors Explaining Men's Violence against Women

    Part IV: Relational and Interactional Factors Explaining Men's Violence against Women

    Part V: Macrosocietal, Racial and Cultural Explanations of Violence against Women

    Part VI: Theoretical Propositions, Revised Multivariate Model of Men's Risk Factors, New Hypotheses, and Preventive Recommendations

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    Senator Joseph R. Biden, Jr.

    Foreword

    Introduced the Violence Against Women Act in 1990 for one fundamental reason—because, at the time, violence against women, unlike any other form of violence, was virtually ignored by government agencies, social institutions, and society at large. As I stated then, the key aim of the Violence Against Women Act was to confront—and condemn—the attitudes of denial and neglect that have allowed this problem to exist and grow. The centerpiece of the bill was a new legal remedy for victims of violence that was rooted in discrimination against women. This new remedy offered victims a legal tool—including the right to file civil suits for monetary or other damages—to fight back against such violence. This new remedy sent a powerful message that violence based on gender—in the same way as violence based on race or religion—assaults an ideal of equality shared by our entire nation.

    Enacting this legislation was not easy: It took 4 years of contentious negotiation, persistence, and, finally, compromise. Why was it such a struggle? I believe it is because the Violence Against Women Act addressed such a fundamental aspect of our society: long-held attitudes about relationships between men and women. There is no more profound relationship in our culture than that between men and women. Exploring the many facets of this relationship is what this book is all about. It is not a straight path. This mission lends itself to the exploration of provocative and controversial hypotheses. Indeed, I find myself in wholehearted disagreement with some of the conclusions contained in this book. At the same time, I am convinced that the important mission of What Causes Men's Violence Against Women? must be undertaken if we are to continue to make strides against violence against women.

    Let us face a fundamental fact: This type of violence has been allowed to continue because the problem has been protected by a wall of silence, denial, and neglect. Therefore, whether it be a beating in the home, a rape by a neighbor, or an assault on the street, we cannot hope to respond effectively to violence against women unless we openly confront and condemn the attitudes that nurture the violence. We must end the silence. The Violence Against Women Act did just that, with a bold, national declaration that violence against women is unacceptable. This book continues the journey by exploring various aspects of relationships between men and women that may contribute to it. It is not an easy search; we may not like or agree with the theories that have been put forward to explain why people engage in this violence. However, I believe we have no choice but to ask the questions and examine the theories.

    In addition to helping to redefine attitudes about violence against women, the Violence Against Women Act has provided the practical components necessary to protect women from violence. On this score, the experts were unanimous: We had to do everything. In the fight to end domestic violence and sexual assault, we had to enlist the time and talents of more police, prosecutors, judges, and victim's advocates; we had to strengthen laws against rape and domestic violence; and we had to provide rape crisis centers and battered women's shelters, which can literally make the difference between a woman living or being killed.

    On this more practical front, the tangible successes of the Violence Against Women Act are many. Since being signed into law in 1994, the Act has provided shelter to more than 90,000 battered women and their children. The National Domestic Violence Hotline received over 120,000 calls in its first year and a half of operation. Police are now trained to arrest abusers and to guide victims to help. Prosecutors are trained to pursue evidence and convictions. The results have been astounding—according to the FBI, the murder rate for wives, ex-wives, and girlfriends at the hands of their intimates fell to a 19-year low in 1995.

    The Violence Against Women Act changed our laws and committed $1.6 billion over 6 years to transform the culture that permitted this epidemic to grow. Although we have made significant progress, we still have much more work to do. Congress should strengthen and build on its successes. We should improve interstate enforcement of “stay away” orders; tackle the particular problems of violence encountered by women on college campuses; get tough on users of “date rape” drugs; and help employers understand the burdens of violence and how they can help women overcome them.

    As a society, we are finally starting to recognize that violence against women is not a private matter and that it requires continued action by the criminal justice, health care, social services, and educational institutions throughout our nation. As such, the struggle to end this violence must be waged on several different fronts, and members of the academic community have much to contribute.

    The struggle to end violence against women is far from over. We must gain a better understanding of the fundamental causes and the best ways to address them. What Causes Men's Violence Against Women? makes important strides in this direction. It offers a comprehensive discussion of the many interrelated factors that contribute to this violence. It provides an important knowledge base that all who seek to reduce violence against women should master. Just as important, this book charts an important course for future research on this national problem. Only if we are armed with understanding can we ever look forward to the day when this violence is eradicated from our midst, and, surely, if we shrink from this quest for understanding, we can have no effect but to sentence millions of women to lives shattered by violence.

    Joseph R.Biden, Jr.

    United States Senator

    Preface

    The first steps of this book were, metaphorically speaking, a trust walk. We were long-time acquaintances, but never workmates. However, we were invited to present together at an American Psychological Association (APA) Miniconvention on men's violence in the family (O'Neil & Harway, 1994a). Fortunately, we were given plenty of lead time, and we needed it, because not only did we have to prepare a presentation, but first we had to develop a working style, a relationship, and a common area of focus. Early in the process, we discovered that we both loved the world of ideas and were particularly excited about using a dialogue to resolve any differences in our perspective on violence against women. We decided that, in addition to writing a paper, we would present our ideas as a public dialogue during the miniconvention presentation. We recognized that in psychology, men and women were having a difficult time dialoguing on the issues of violence against women. Consequently, we felt that our public dialogue could demonstrate that men and women can be partners in discussing this issue and in finding solutions.

    Furthermore, Michele's two books (Harway & Hansen, 1994; Hansen & Harway, 1993) on family violence and spouse abuse, and Jim's research program on men's gender-role conflict (O'Neil, Good, & Holmes, 1995) convinced each of us that scholars had not always been asking some of the critical questions about violence against women. The largest body of literature on relationship violence explored why women stay in violent relationships. Because that research contributed little to stopping violence, researchers and theorists shifted to asking, “What are batterers like?” We thought a better question might be, “Why do men batter?” This question was more relevant, because asking what batterers are like yields descriptions of batterers, but it does not explain how battering behaviors develop. Identifying the characteristics of batterers and understanding how battering occurs are, of course, related, but the former has no explanatory power and, therefore, it does not allow us to set up prevention programs. If instead, the focus shifted to why men batter, prevention strategies are more easily created. So we decided to move in that direction with our dialogues. The specific focus of our dialogues became the factors that explain men's violence against women.

    Early on, we realized that the topic of men's violence against women is one of the most difficult topics in America today and that it is one that has the possibility of polarizing the sexes, as well as ethnic communities. We also understood that violence touches each of us in a very personal way by prompting examinations of our own potential to be victims and/or victimizers. Furthermore, we recognized that having a dialogue on a sensitive topic with a colleague with whom you have never worked before has its complexities. It is even more difficult when you live at opposite ends of the country and the dialoguing must occur over the phone. As we dialogued, we found many areas of agreement and disagreement. There were times when our defenses interfered with our communication process. Many times there was silence on the line as we pondered how to resolve a seemingly unresolvable difference on the causes of violence against women. Points of silence occurred most often when the discussion shifted to a consideration of how interactional and relational factors between men and women might contribute to the violence. During the silences, we internally questioned whether we could trust each other. We explored our feelings of defensiveness and insecurity when we failed to communicate our critical points clearly. We wondered how to reconcile our differing points of view. At various times, one or the other of us struggled to follow the other's logic in explaining relationship violence. Over a period of many months, we stuck with this difficult task. We explored and stretched each other's thinking and generated possible causal connections between antecedent factors in men's lives and violence against women.

    The outcome was positive because we generated a multivariate model of factors related to men's violence against women that we presented at an APA Presidential Miniconvention (O'Neil & Harway, 1994a). We further refined the model and it was published in the journal Violence Against Women (O'Neil & Harway, 1997). Then it occurred to us that we needed to expand the dialogue further. We invited two of our colleagues (Gary Brooks and Marsali Hansen) to dialogue with each other and to present with us at another APA conference (O'Neil, Harway, Brooks, & Hansen, 1995). We believed that these types of dialogues, especially across gender lines, were important to continue.

    How did we keep the dialogue on this most difficult topic going over a 5-year period? We identified the following key factors:

    • having respect for each other;
    • sharing common political beliefs (a humanistic and feminist orientation);
    • sharing common professional interests in men's and women's issues;
    • having common training as psychologists;
    • being from the same age cohort;
    • having the same mentors at the University of Maryland who had instilled in us a belief that violence and societal oppression are important issues;
    • having mutual commitments to eradicating violence between men and women;
    • having similar intellectual styles in terms of scientist-practitioner ways of thinking about clinical issues, research, and personal-political issues.

    As we completed the first few phases of our dialogue, we also decided that a book was warranted where experts on violence against women could critique the factors and hypotheses we had developed. In this way, the dialogue was further expanded to other experts on violence against women. The book you are reading is not only an outcome of our dialogues, but also an outcome of our extended dialogues with the chapter authors.

    A book such as this rarely gets written without the involvement of many people. In our case, these people span two coasts.

    Some people we want to acknowledge together. They include our original editor, C. Terry Hendrix, and the staff at Sage Publications, who provided much guidance and support during the entire process. We also want to thank the chapter authors, who put many long hours into their chapters and responded well to our ongoing critiques. We also are grateful to Lenore Walker, whose early reactions to our convention paper and journal article (O'Neil & Harway, 1997) were a catalyst for thinking about a book on men's violence against women. Going back a little further chronologically, we want to thank Ron Fox, Ph.D., President of the APA in 1994, and the Miniconvention Planning Committee who invited us to participate in Ron's Presidential Miniconvention on the Family. As we described earlier, this invitation was instrumental in our working together and developing the original ideas in the book.

    We also want to acknowledge our graduate school professors and mentors at the University of Maryland in the Department of Psychology, the Department of Counseling and Personnel Services, and especially those on the staff in the University Counseling Center. Our mentors have shaped our thinking about critical social issues and have molded us into the professionals we have become. In particular, William Sedlacek, Ph.D., is fondly remembered and thanked. Thomas M. Magoon, Jim's mentor, is fondly acknowledged for crystallizing Jim's interest in research and professional involvement in psychology.

    At the Phillips Graduate Institute, Michele wants to thank Sandy Cushman for transmitting drafts on an emergency basis and for other forms of assistance during the manuscript preparation. Sally Peace was helpful in facilitating Michele's transition from one word-processing software to another, right in the middle of the project. Ed Cox is also acknowledged for his support of Michele's writing.

    Michele's husband, Bruce E. Antman, was a steadfast supporter and cheerleader who provided helpful suggestions. His gentle nature and his professional training as a mediator provided the perfect counterpoint for the content of this book.

    At the University of Connecticut, Jim would like to thank his undergraduate students in Men and Masculinity: Psychosocial Perspectives (HDRF 259) and those graduate students who have participated in his summer gender-role journey workshops (EPSY 325) over the last 15 years. These students have offered many insights and personal experiences that explain how relationship violence occurs. Jim also would like to thank the many men and women in the Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity (Division 51 of the American Psychological Association) who have supported his work on explaining men's gender-role conflict. Dr. Glenn Good of the University of Missouri—Columbia and Dr. James Mahalik of Boston College have been particularly influential and supportive.

    Finally, Jim would like to thank Marina Chebotayev O'Neil for her careful editing of the entire manuscript and for enduring the many long hours devoted to writing this book. Without her partnership, encouragement, and support, the book would not have been possible.

    As with our related publications on this topic, we decided on the ordering of the editorship by a toss of the coin. Our work together was truly a collaborative endeavor.

    MicheleHarway Ph.D.
    James M.O'Neil Ph.D.
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    About the Contributors

    Stephen A. Anderson, Ph.D., is a Professor in the University of Connecticut's School of Family Studies, where he teaches and supervises students in the school's accredited doctoral and master's degree programs in marriage and family therapy. With Dr. Dennis Bagarozzi, he is the coauthor of Personal, Marital, and Family Myths: Theoretical Formulations and Clinical Strategies and coeditor of Personal Myths: Psychotherapy Implications. He is also the coauthor (with Ronald Sabatelli) of Family Interaction: A Multigenerational, Developmental Perspective. He has served on the editorial boards of Family Relations, the Journal of Systemic Therapies, and the Teachers' College Press Series on Counseling and Human Development. He is a Clinical Member and Approved Supervisor in the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. At present he serves as consultant to the Domestic Violence Program at Stafford Human Services in Stafford Springs, Connecticut, where he is also engaged in research designed to identify typologies of violent couples.

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr., has served in the United States Senate since January, 1973. Now the senior Democrat on the Foreign Relations Committee and a member of the Judiciary Committee, he has earned international recognition as a policy innovator, effective legislator, and party spokesman on issues ranging from international relations and arms control to crime prevention and drug control.

    Since 1991, he has been an Adjunct Professor at the Widener University School of Law, where he teaches a seminar in constitutional law. He is widely recognized as one of the Senate's leading foreign policy experts, and he has published numerous editorials and articles, nationally and internationally, on international relations.

    Senator Biden lives in Wilmington, Delaware, and commutes to Washington when the Senate is in session. He is married to the former Jill Jacobs, and has three children: Beau, Hunter, and Ashley.

    Mary Ann Dutton, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist and forensic consultant who specializes in the area of intimate violence. She has published in both psychology and legal professional journals. Her research is focused primarily on issues related to domestic violence. She has written Empowering and Healing the Battered Woman: A Model of Assessment and Intervention, and is currently working on another book titled (tentatively) Understanding the Diversity of Battered Women's Response to Violence. She also has written about the application of scientific knowledge concerning domestic violence in the courtroom in the form of expert testimony in cases involving domestic violence, in particular, Understanding Women's Responses to Domestic Violence: A Redefinition of Battered Woman Syndrome. She authored two reports for the U.S. Department of Justice concerning the validity, use, and effect of expert testimony concerning battering and its effects in criminal trials.

    She has served over the past 12 years as a consultant and expert witness to attorneys in legal cases involving domestic violence and/or sexual assault. Currently, she holds a position as Professorial Lecturer of Law at the National Law Center, The George Washington University, and also serves as the Director of Research at The Center, Post-traumatic and Dissociative Disorders Program.

    Richard J. Gelles, Ph.D., is the Joanne and Raymond Welsh Chair of Child Welfare and Family Violence in the School of Social Work of the University of Pennsylvania.

    His book, The Violent Home, was the first systematic empirical investigation of family violence and continues to be highly influential. He is author or coauthor of 23 books and more than 100 articles and chapters on family violence. His latest books are The Book of David: How Preserving Families Can Cost Children's Lives (1996) and Intimate Violence in Families, third edition (1997). He was a member of the National Academy of Science's panel on “Assessing Family Violence Interventions.” He was also the Vice President for Publications for the National Council on Family Relations.

    Anthony F. Greene, Ph.D., received the Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical and Health Psychology from the University of South Florida in 1988. His first academic appointment was as Assistant Professor in the Medical Psychology track of the Clinical and Health Psychology department at the University of Florida. He is currently in the Regional Faculty for the Clinical Psychology doctoral program of the Fielding Insti-tute, and has adjunct appointments at the University of Florida, in addition to full-time clinical work in the Student Mental Health Service at the University of Florida. He has published numerous journal articles and chapters in the areas of health, interpersonal violence, psychopathology, and the assessment of anger.

    Michele Harway, Ph.D., is Director of Research and Core Faculty at the Phillips Graduate Institute (formerly California Family Study Center), in Encino, California. Her work has focused on domestic violence research, research on women's development, on training mental health professionals to recognize and intervene with perpetrators, and on survivors of domestic violence as well as their children. She is the editor and author of six previous books including Battering and Family Therapy: A Feminist Perspective (with M. Hansen), Spouse Abuse: Assessing and Treating Battered Women, Batterers and Their Children (also with M. Hansen), and Treating the Changing Family: Handling Normative and Unusual Events. She is a member of the Consulting Faculty of the Fielding Institute, and she maintains a private psychotherapy practice. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association in Divisions 35, 43, and 51 (Divisions on the Psychology of Women, Family Psychology, and Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity, respectively). She was named Family Psychologist of the year in 1998 by the American Psychological Association's Division of Family Psychology. She is president-elect of Division 43 of APA (Family Psychology).

    A. Stephen Lanza, M.A., L.M.F.T., is a Connecticut licensed marital and family therapist and a divorce mediator in private practice, and serves as a Special Master in the Connecticut Family Courts. Additionally, he is the editor of the professional publications of the Connecticut Association for Marriage and Family Therapy and serves on its Board of Directors. Formerly a Lecturer in the School of Family Studies at the University of Connecticut's Storrs campus, he is now an adjunct faculty member at the University's regional campus in Stamford. He was the former Director of the Family Violence Project at the University of Connecticut, School of Family Studies, and is currently the Coordinator of Research and Training for the same project. He is the Coordinator of the Domestic Violence Program serving the greater Fairfield, Connecticut, area. He has developed and been the clinical director of domestic violence treatment programs serving the Stafford and Mansfield, Connecticut, areas. His publications in the area of relationship violence include monographs, training tapes, and statefunded research projects and evaluation reports. He has presented at the national and regional levels and has taught both graduate and undergraduate students in the area of family violence and men's violence against women at three major Northeast universities. Since 1989, he has facilitated group treatment programs for men who batter and over that time, has worked with hundreds of men, women, and couples experiencing violence and abuse.

    Amy J. Marin, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology at Phoenix College, where she teaches courses in social psychology and the psychology of gender. Her research interests focus on the relationship of gender and ethnic identities to achievement and health-related behaviors and outcomes.

    Rodney A. Nadeau, M.A., is a Ph.D. Candidate in the Marriage and Family Therapy Program at the University of Connecticut. From 1992 to 1997, he was Coordinator of the Family Violence Program at the Frederick Humphrey Center for Marital and Family Therapy. He also has 10 years of clinical experience working with couples and families and has made several presentations on the topic of family violence at both the state and national levels. Currently, he is Director of the Youth Challenge Program at a Youth Service Bureau in Hebron, Connecticut. In this program, he has been working with children and families identified as having problems with anger and aggression.

    Roberta L. Nutt, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Counseling Psychology doctoral program, which emphasizes family psychology and women's and gender issues, at Texas Woman's University. She is past president of the Family Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association, Chair of the section on Feminist Professional Training and Practice of the Psychology of Women Division, former Chair of the Counseling Psychology Division Committee on Women, and former Chair of the Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists. She is coauthor of the book Bridging Separate Gender Worlds: Why Men and Women Clash and How Therapists Can Bring Them Together and the Division 17 Principles Concerning the Counseling/ Psychotherapy of Women: Rationale and Implementation. She has written and presented widely in the area of gender-sensitive psychotherapy.

    James M. O'Neil, Ph.D., is Professor of Family Studies and Educational Psychology at the University of Connecticut, Storrs. In 1975, he received his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland's Counseling and Personnel Services Department. A licensed psychologist in private practice, he also provides counseling, psychotherapy, and consultation services in South Windsor, Connecticut, and in the greater Hartford area. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association in Divisions 17, 35, 43, 51, and 52. In 1988, he coedited a special issue of The Counseling Psychologist on “Victimization and its Aftermath.” He is one of the founding members of the Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity (SPSMM), Division 51 of the American Psychological Association. SPSMM named him Researcher of the Year in 1997 for his 20-year research program on men's gender-role conflict. His research programs relate to men and masculinity, gender-role conflict, psychology of men and women, and violence and victimization. He is the author of the Gender Role Conflict Scale, a widely used measure of men's conflict with their gender roles. He has published over 40 journal articles, 13 book chapters, and his first book, Organizational Consultation: A Casebook, was published in 1992. In 1991, he was awarded a Fulbright Teaching Scholarship by the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, to lecture in the former Soviet Union. He lectured at the Moscow State Pedagogical University from February through April 1992, on the topics of psychological counseling, psychology of gender roles, and victimization. He also conducted research on Russian men's gender-role conflict and psychological violence. In 1995, he was recognized as a Teaching Fellow by the University of Connecticut for outstanding excellence and dedication to the teaching profession.

    Sandra A. Rigazio-DiGilio, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the COAMFTE-accredited masters and doctoral marriage and family therapy programs at the University of Connecticut. Additionally, she holds a joint appointment in the Department of Psychiatry. She is a licensed psychologist and a licensed marriage and family therapist.

    She is currently serving a 3-year term on the AAMFT Board of Directors. Additionally, she serves on the Editorial Board for the Journal of Counseling and Development, is the Associate Editor of the Teacher's College Press Book Series on Counseling and Development, and is the Associate Editor of the Practice Section for the Journal of Mental Health Counseling.

    She has published over 35 chapters and articles focused on an integrative, co-constructive, developmental model of therapy and an accompanying supervisory model. Both have been positively reviewed as nonpathological models and metaframeworks that (1) are gender and culture sensitive; (2) can be easily learned, applied, and researched; and (3) can be used by therapists and supervisors as a guide to tailor their work to the unique needs of those seeking service. There are several research projects currently under way to determine each model's effectiveness with different treatment and supervisory populations.

    Nancy Felipe Russo, Ph.D., is Regents Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University, where she conducts research on the relationship of gender and mental health, including the causes, consequences, and correlates of violence against women. A former member of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Male Violence Against Women, she currently serves as Editor of the Psychology of Women Quarterly. Her honors include the APA's Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest Award.

    Janis Sanchez-Hucles, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia, and a clinical psychologist in private practice in Virginia Beach, Virginia. She is also a faculty member for the Virginia Consortium for Clinical Psychology and a Community Faculty Member for Eastern Virginia Medical School. Her research has focused on clinical training, women of color and families, diversity, attachment, feminism, and issues pertaining to urbanicity and violence, and she has become a national speaker and trainer in the areas of diversity, clinical training, ethnic minority issues, and the psychology of women. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), and she has served on an APA Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family, on the APA Council of Representatives representing the Division of the Psychology of Women, and she currently cochairs the APA's Committee on Urban Initiatives. She is of African American and Cuban descent.

    Margaret C. Schlossberg is a doctoral student in the School of Family Studies at the University of Connecticut. She received a master's degree in Marriage and Family Therapy at the University of Connecticut in 1992. She has played an integral part in the University of Connecticut's (UConn's) School of Family Studies Research Project on Domestic Violence in conjunction with UConn's Departments of Family Studies, School of Education, School of Social Work, and the Institute of Public Service. She has also served as the primary research assistant to a multidisciplined research project on Youth Violence in Connecticut. Furthermore, she has worked as a clinician at diverse sites in Connecticut and recently received the Connecticut Association of Marriage and Family Therapy's 1997 Student of the Year Award. Her other research interests have included collaboration in medical family therapy and training, and supervision in marriage and family therapy. She has presented her research at both state and national conferences.

    Louise B. Silverstein, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor at the Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology at Yeshiva University. She is the cofounder of the Yeshiva Father-hood Project, which is a qualitative research study of fathering from a multicultural perspective. She is also the Codirector of the Yeshiva-Ackerman Family-School Collaboration Project, which provides specialized training to doctoral students in building family-school partnerships.

    She is a past president of the American Psychological Association's Division of Family Psychology and Chair of the Feminist Family Therapy Task Force within the Division of the Psychology of Women. She is a family therapist in private practice in New York City.


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