Welfare Words: Critical Social Work & Social Policy

Books

Paul Michael Garrett

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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    Acknowledgements

    For VB

    Acknowledgements

    ‘Rigorous, meticulously researched and edgy, Garrett’s new book seeks to understand the ideology underlying welfare words and by doing so, exposes the power and oppression operating through them. Read this book; it is the antidote to those who say that social work cannot be both a deeply intellectual and social justice-engaged endeavour’.

    Donna Baines, University of Sydney, Australia

    ‘This is an engaging and engaged revisiting of the cultural excavation of “keywords” pioneered by Raymond Williams. Garrett presents an impassioned and thorough dissection of some of the most important “keywords” of our time, the highly coded lexicon of so-called welfare reform. What you will learn about the histories of containment and struggle sedimented within each term will enrage and energise – get reading, get angry, get ready’.

    Gargi Bhattacharyya, University of East London, England

    ‘Paul Michael Garrett’s important new book highlights the power of language when it comes to social welfare. Focusing on some of the most crucial keywords of welfare discourse in the neoliberal era, he plots their politics, illuminating their complicity in enacting disciplinary practices of client subordination, but also how their incompleteness leaves an opening for resistance and revision. His politically engaged linguistic interventions help us think about how to take steps toward less oppressive and more affirmative forms of service provision. This is a must read for social workers and social theorists alike, especially if they are interested in moving beyond the strictures of neoliberalism’s oppressive disciplinary regime’.

    Sanford F. Schram, Hunter College, City University of New York (CUNY), United States

    ‘Paul Michael Garrett’s Welfare Words takes a modern, fresh look at the language of welfare. He calls upon the reader to re-visit the impact of language upon welfare choices and interventions and in doing so makes an accessible and relevant call to arms to challenge inequality and social exclusion. This book will be the go-to text for students of social work and social policy for many years to come. It is an outstanding text and highly recommended’.

    Lel Meleyal, University of Sussex, England

    ‘A must-read for critical social policy theorists but also for anyone alarmed at how neoliberal capitalism has stigmatized every aspect of social rights. Garrett’s lens of analysis of welfare keywords – dependency, underclass, social exclusion, resilience – brings out sharply how neoliberal language stereotypes and marginalizes working class people and steers deep social problems into the woefully inadequate channels of individualism. Welfare Words provides a timely counter-voice to the neoliberal policies which have devastated our post-austerity world’.

    Marnie Holborow, Dublin City University, Republic of Ireland

    ‘This is an original and insightful book, which offers us a fresh perspective on some of the key themes and challenges in social work. It will prompt new thinking and provide practitioners with important critical tools to support their interventions’.

    Roger S. Smith, University of Durham, England

    ‘Paul Michael Garrett provides an illuminating analysis of key terms that proliferate within contemporary welfare and political discourse. He examines each term in detail, exploring the origins, meanings and contradictions of each and perceptively shows the way they are used, and misused, within today’s political and welfare system. This book is essential reading for those wishing to understand the complexities behind terms that are not only ubiquitous within the political realm but which have also entered common discourse’.

    Ken McLaughlin, Senior Lecturer, Manchester Metropolitan University, England

    ‘Garrett’s book offers a comprehensive approach to the study of Social policy in social work, encouraging readers to think critically about key words in their wider historical, political and cultural context. Drawing on an innovative conceptual lens in which to view social welfare, this is a key text for critical social work and social policy’.

    Karen Roscoe, Senior Lecturer, University of Wolverhampton, England

    About the Author

    Paul Michael Garrett For several years, Paul Michael Garrett has been a member of the Critical Social Policy collective and the editorial board of the European Journal of Social Work. His interventions have appeared in academic journals across a range of disciplines and he is the author of the acclaimed Social Work and Social Theory (Policy Press, 2013) which was also published in Chinese translation. In addition, he wrote three books mapping facets of social work with children and families during the period of New Labour (1997–2010) in the UK: Remaking Social Work with Children and Families (Routledge, 2003); Social Work with Irish Children and Families in Britain (Policy Press, 2004); ‘Transforming’ Children’s Services? Social Work, Neoliberalism and the ‘Modern’ World (Open University/McGraw Hill, 2009). He is also one of the founders of the Social Work Action Network (SWAN) Ireland.

    Acknowledgements

    I am very grateful to a number people who helped me bring this book to fruition. All the anonymous peer reviewers made very helpful suggestions. Doubtless squeezed on top of all the other – frequently unnecessary – demands which scholars have to respond to within neoliberal university settings, their time-consuming reading of the draft manuscript was scrupulously diligent and critically insightful. This is my first book project for SAGE, and Delayna Spencer was always swiftly responsive to my queries and it was lovely to work with her. I am also grateful to Natalie Aguilera, Katherine Haw, Elaine Leek and Susheel Gokarakonda.

    A number of ideas featured in Welfare Words were initially tested out at international conferences. My engagement with the work of Raymond Williams was shaped in keynote papers I presented at conferences at Ghent University and the University of Chester in 2015. I thank Rudi Roose and Griet Roets and Karen Roscoe for issuing the invitations. In 2016, a paper I was asked to contribute on social work and neoliberalism at the University of Trondheim in Norway also aided me in grappling with some of the book’s core concerns and thematic preoccupations. In this context, Edgar Marthinsen, Anne Juberg and Nina Schiøll Skjefstad deserve my thanks. Chapter 9, on child adoption, is mostly derived from the keynote address I gave at the annual TiSSA conference in Ghent in 2016 and here again I would like to thank Rudi and Griet and also Jochen Devlieghere. At all of these conferences, I found the contributions from conference participants, on some of my emerging thoughts, very helpful. Thank you.

    As this project neared completion, I became involved in fascinating discussions in relation to the book’s themes with Chinese academic colleagues and students. This followed my being invited to lead a series of workshops and give a keynote paper at a symposium on Social Work and Social Theory at the East China University of Science and Technology in Shanghai. I am grateful to Professor He Xuesong for inviting me and for being, along with many others, so hospitable. In summer 2017, Nino Žganec, Robert Bergougnan and Teresa Bertotti asked me to contribute a plenary paper, on ‘social work education, disruptive thinking and welfare words’, at the European Association of Schools of Social Work (EASSW) conference at the Paris Descartes University. Pervaded by a sense of sorrow and anger following the Grenfell Tower fire occurring days before, this was still a remarkably successful event and it helped to generate more European conversations on the topic of ‘welfare words’.

    Closer to home, particular individuals were constantly supportive even though some of them probably do not realise how supportive they actually are. Escaping the icy waters of egotistical calculation, friends on the SIPTU Stewards’ Committee at NUI Galway and those associated with the Social Work Action Network (SWAN) sustain vital enclaves of solidarity. As with my other books, Paddy McDonagh provided much of the soundtrack for writing. As well as this, and much more importantly, he formed a key part of the mass movement opposing privatisation and the imposition of water charges in Ireland. Important too are the ‘keepers of the castle’ at the NUI Galway: Liam Frehan, Frank Darcy, Brian Bredin, Gerry Thornton, Mary Gleeson, Ray Conlon, Martin Maloney, Sinead McGee and Paraic Cahill. I am, of course, also grateful to all the students participating in the courses I have taught that relate to some of the preoccupations in Welfare Words. Go raibh maith agat.

    My main thanks I extend to Valeria Ballarotti who read the manuscript in various forms and suggested a range of changes to aid clarity. I am entirely responsible for any incoherence, errors or outbreaks of rampant foolishness.

    Paul Michael GarrettGalway, July 2017
  • Notes

    1. For convenience sake, I will tend to avoid using quotation marks to highlight the welfare words and phrases discussed. However, readers are welcome to infer them given my quizzical explorations.

    2. This reworked table initially appeared in Garrett (2014c). It mainly relates to the UK and it is recognised that even its broad brush validity is questionable in relation to other jurisdictions where readers may be located. In the Republic of Ireland, for example, the welfare state was never particularly ‘embedded’ even during the period loosely referred to as one of ‘embedded neoliberalism’.

    3. Financialization refers to a marked increase in the ‘significance of financial markets and institutions in the economy and a dramatic increase in the volume, velocity, complexity, and connectedness of financial flows … Financialization of the economy furnished the prerequisites for the dramatic growth of household debt and the connection between debt and discipline’ (Mahmud, 2012: 474–5).

    4. Examining the ‘deep semiotic structure of deservedness’ in the United States, Sanford F. Schram (2015: 85) makes a useful distinction between ‘discourse’ and ‘narrative’. In his rendering:

    Narratives are the surface textual representations of actions and events, while discourse is the underlying interpretative context for making sense of those surface narratives. Consciously or not, we inevitably rely on the underlying discourse for interpreting the implicit understandings that are only suggested by the explicit surface narratives … Narratives are potent with meaning in ways that only discourse can reveal. Just as we rely on implicit understandings to interpret nonverbal cues, we rely on the structure of intelligibility associated with any discourse to connect the dots in any narrative. To focus on the explicit narrative at the expense of the implicit discourse is, metaphorically speaking, to miss the forest for the trees. (Schram, 2015: 85)

    5. Nancy Fraser (2013: 214) argues ‘second-wave feminists expanded the number of axes that could harbour injustice. Rejecting the primacy of class, socialist-feminists, black-feminists, and anti-imperialist feminists also opposed radical feminist efforts to install gender in that same position of category privilege. Focusing not only on gender, but also on class, “race”, sexuality, and nationality, they pioneered an “intersectionalist” alternative that is widely accepted today.’

    1. In Ireland, an interesting example of such an approach is provided by the Social Work Action Network and its bulletin Frontline https://socialworkactionnetworkireland.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/frontline-issue-2-june-20163.pdf.

    2. I am very grateful to Michael Gorman and the publisher, the Lighthouse Press, for allowing me refer to his poem ‘The People I Grew Up With Were Afraid’.

    3. I am grateful to the poet Sarah Clancy for drawing Baldwin’s book to my attention.

    4. Wacquant also conceptualises ‘advanced marginality’ and, relatedly, ‘territorial stigmatization’. Here the aim is to focus very briefly on ‘neoliberal penality’, but his other core thematic concerns will be examined in Chapter 4 in the discussion on the underclass.

    5. The Health and Care Professions Council succeeded the GSCC in August 2012.

    1. An earlier version of this chapter, now radically revised, featured in Critical and Radical Social Work, 3 (3): 389–406. I am grateful to the Policy Press for allowing me to use part of my earlier published article.

    2. Serving from 1969 to 1974, Richard Milhous Nixon (1913–1994) was the 37th President of the United States.

    3. One respected US author has argued that it was a historical ‘British preoccupation with welfare dependency’ which was actually ‘imported to the United States and came to be infused into the systems of social provision’ (Schram, 2015: 93).

    4. In 2013, for example, Michael Philpott was found guilty of the manslaughter of six of his children and the then Chancellor, George Osborne, linked the tragedy to the need to curtail ‘excessive’ child benefit and welfare payments (see also the Editorial ‘From Death to Distortion’, The Guardian, 6 April, 2013: 40). Osborne remarked: ‘The courts are responsible for sentencing him, but I think there is a question for government and for society about the welfare state – and the taxpayers who pay for the welfare state – subsidizing lifestyles like that, and I think that debate needs to be had’ (‘Lib Dem anger at Osborne’s Philpott speech’, The Guardian, 6 April, 2013: 2).

    1. I take the phrase ‘scum semiotics’ from Imogen Tyler.

    2. Vulgate refers to an ancient Latin version of the Scriptures made by St Jerome and others in the fourth century.

    3. A resident condemned the ‘Shameless-like portrayal’ (Critchley, 2012: 34). Screened from January 2004 to May 2013, Shameless was a comedy-drama set on a fictional council estate in Manchester.

    4. See also Keenan (2013) referring to an advertisement for The Irish Examiner which featured an image of the city of Limerick with police yellow criminal incident tape plastered over it.

    1. What follows is partly derived from Garrett (2015c). I am grateful to Taylor & Francis for permitting me to have recourse to this article again.

    2. Stephen Lawrence (1974–1993) was a young, black Londoner murdered in a racially motivated attack on the evening of 22 April 1993. A public inquiry headed by Sir William Macpherson (1999) examined the original Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) investigation and concluded that the force was ‘institutionally racist’.

    3. Elsewhere, Fraser (2013: 193) has elaborated that according this ‘radical-democratic interpretation of the principle of equal moral worth, justice requires social arrangements that permit all to participate as peers in social life. Overcoming injustice means dismantling institutionalised obstacles that prevent some people from participating on a par with others, as full partners in social interaction.’

    1. A different, but foundational version of this chapter was published by the British Journal of Social Work, 46 (4): 873–89. I am grateful to Cambridge University Press for allowing me refer to this earlier contribution.

    2. This summation is derived from Howell (2015). However see also the US military website Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness: Building Resilience, Strengthening Performance. This includes an overview video http://csf2.army.mil/. In addition, the US Army now also has its own ‘Resilience Directorate’.

    1. In England and Wales, under the auspices of the Children Act 1989, being ‘in care’ was discursively rebranded as being ‘looked after’. This was partly because of the stigma associated with the former phrase, but the switch has not impacted on media reporting.

    2. Tronto (2010) provides a similar attempt to identify what she terms ‘warning signs’.

    1. The author of the article used a pseudonym. The words used in relation to adoption are points of political terminological tussle. In what follows, I will use the phrase ‘birth mother’ to refer to an adopted child’s biological mother. However, some would challenge this phrase because it qualifies the term ‘mother’.

    2. International adoption rates in the United States are lower, in terms of population ratios, than several other countries, particularly Sweden and Norway (Bartholet, 2007).

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