Vulnerable Groups in Health and Social Care
Publication Year: 2009
“The book makes it easy to dip into a topic and also gives good overviews of theories and applications. This will definitely help students.” - Lesley Groom, University of Bolton
Carefully researched and highly readable, this textbook looks at the experiences and health and social needs of key vulnerable groups. It presents an engaging social science perspective relevant to everyone exploring how we, and society, care for the vulnerable.
Each chapter defines and explores a vulnerable social group, bringing together theoretical, policy and practice perspectives. The chapters explore contemporary debates and offer a number of differing and thought provoking viewpoints. The lively and engaging style enables the reader to engage with the client group and to reflect upon their own learning and practice in a more meaningful ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Introducing vulnerable groups
- Chapter 1: Lone Parents
- Chapter 2: People with Disabilities
- Chapter 3: Older People
- Chapter 4: Children
- Chapter 5: Ethnic Minority Groups
- Chapter 6: The Mentally III
- Chapter 7: The Homeless
- Chapter 8: Asylum Seekers and Refugees
- Chapter 9: Concluding Comments: The Future for Vulnerable
© Mary Larkin 2009
First published 2009
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2008932893
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-4824-1 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by CPI Antony Rowe, Chippenham, Wiltshire
Printed on paper from sustainable resources.
For Shaun, Ruth and Matt[Page vi]
List of Illustrations[Page viii]Figures
- 2.1 The medical model of disability 34
- 2.2 The social model of disability 35
- 3.1 People aged under 16 and over 65 in the UK 48
- 3.2 Age structure of UK population 49
- 3.3 Pensioners’ incomes 1994/1995 to 2003/2004 55
- 3.4 Percentage reporting chronic illness 56
- 3.5 Age-standardised rates of long-term illness or disability 57
- 3.6 Time spent on selected activities 58
- 5.1 Unemployment, 2004 90
- 5.2 Income poverty rates 92
- 5.3 Proportion of adults who have experienced a crime 92
- 5.4 Age-standardised limiting long-term illness 94
- 6.1 Weekly prevalence of neurotic disorders 108
- 6.2 Brown and Harris's model 109
- 7.1 Households owed the main homelessness duty 131
- 7.2 Households in temporary accommodation 132
- 8.1 Asylum seeker applicants, 2005–2007 145
absolute poverty Also known as subsistence poverty, this refers to the lack of basic resources such as food and shelter that are necessary to sustain a physically healthy existence. This concept is frequently used in the analysis of poverty worldwide.
acute illness Short-term illnesses, such as a chest infection or chicken pox.
ageism When a person is discriminated against on the grounds of age.
anti-psychiatry movement The work of a range of academics in the 1960s and 1970s from several different countries, which criticised traditional theory and practice in psychiatry.
asylum seeker Someone who has fled from their home country because of war, civil unrest and conflict, has arrived in another country, has made a formal application for asylum and is awaiting a decision about their status.
bed and breakfasts Temporary accommodation for homeless people that provides them with sleeping accommodation and one meal (breakfast) only. Bathrooms are often shared with other residents.
biomedicine This rests on an assumption that all causes of disease—mental disorders as well as physical disease—are understood in biological terms and it views disease and sickness as deviations from normal functioning, which medicine has the power to put right with its scientific knowledge and understanding of the human body.
chronic illness This is defined as a long-term health disorder that interferes with social interaction and role performance, for example, heart disease and asthma.
citizenship A concept that has re-emerged in political and academic discourses since the late twentieth century. The main dimensions of the contemporary approach to citizenship are that all those who are full members of society are conferred with the status of citizenship. This locates them in reciprocal relationships with other individuals and with the state, involving equal rights and obligations.[Page 167]
communitarianism: An ideology which has strong moral and ethical elements, is opposed to pure individualism, and stresses common interests and common values arising from communal bonds. While it does emphasise the responsibilities of the state and the rights of individuals, it also stresses the social responsibilities of individual citizens, families and communities.
competition for scarce resources: A Weberian concept that refers to the way that social groups compete with each other for advantages in society, such as economic rewards, status, and employment opportunities.
consumerism: The focus on consumption in capitalist societies, as opposed to production. Consumption is used in a very broad sense and refers to consumption in many areas of life, such as food, fashion, home improvements, leisure, healthcare and education.
day shelters: Places where homeless people who sleep on the streets can go during the day. The services on offer not only address their immediate needs but can also include activities to help prevent their continued homelessness, such as learning and skills development.
direct racism: Being subjected to verbal and/or physical abuse because of membership of an ethnic minority group.
discourse The set of ideas and conceptualisations that shape ways of thinking about a particular subject. Use of language is central to the construction of discourses. A variety of discourses can exist at any one time; some discourses are more powerful than others and often reflect the interests of dominant groups.
discrimination When members of a particular group in society are denied the resources, rewards and opportunities that are available to, and can be obtained by, others in society.
dominant ideology A term used to indicate the dominant or prevailing ideas, beliefs and assumptions in a society (ideology), which tend to be those which serve the interests of the dominant social groups or classes in society.
ethnicity A social concept applied to social groups, the members of which share common characteristics often perceived to be associated with ‘race’ and physical appearance but incorporating the broadly defined culture of the group, for example, family structures, music or literature. An ethnic group can also be defined in terms of its dominant cultural characteristics such as religion and language.[Page 168]
extended family When a nuclear family (see below) is part of a larger kinship network of grandparents, brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews and so forth. The nuclear family either lives with or very near these close relatives and has a close and continuous relationship with them.
failed asylum seeker Someone who has fled from their home country because of war, civil unrest or conflict, arrived in another country, and made a formal application that has been rejected. Some failed asylum seekers return to their home country voluntarily while others are forcibly returned.
feminism A body of thought arguing that inequalities between the sexes are caused by patriarchal societies in which it is assumed that men should and can dominate and have most of the power because they are superior and that women should be subordinate to them. There are many different types of feminist theories (such as Marxist and liberal) but a central theme common to all of them is that it is men who have oppressed and excluded women from social, political and economic power.
functionalism Views society as a biological organism, such as the body, made up of different integrated parts. In order for society to function properly and maintain its structure these parts or subsystems have to fulfil their role in accordance with cultural and social expectations.
globalisation The set of global processes that are changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of social spheres such as the economic, political and environmental. This has led to an increasing global cultural system and, because of the uneven impact of these processes, further inequalities.
hidden homeless Those people without a home who do not appear in government statistics about homelessness. They are usually single people and couples without children who live in hostels, squats, bed and breakfasts or with family and friends.
hostels These provide accommodation for those sleeping on the streets.
ideology Ideas and beliefs reflecting the interests of a particular social group in society which may change over time.
indirect racism The fear of being subjected to verbal and/or physical abuse because of membership of an ethnic minority group.
individualism This stands for the rights of the individual and individual liberty against the power of the state or ruling elite.[Page 169]
individualist explanations These emphasise the way that individuals themselves contribute to social problems. They maintain that individuals are autonomous and highlight the role of characteristics, such as personality and aptitudes, in shaping choices about their actions that individuals make. The impact of social factors are usually ignored in individualist explanations.
institutional racism When a public or private body intentionally or unintentionally discriminates against people from ethnic minority groups.
labelling theory Focuses on the reactions of others to perceived deviance and how that deviance is maintained by their reactions.
life-course perspective Although there are different strands to this perspective, the predominant theme is that stages in life are not necessarily standardised, chronologically or biologically fixed, sequential or gendered but are subject to a variety of social, historical and cultural influences.
lone/one-parent family A divorced, separated, single or widowed mother or a father living without a spouse (and not cohabiting) with his or her never-married dependent child or children.
Marxist theory Approaches based on this theory maintain that the way the economy of a society is run determines the social relationships, such as inequalities, in that society. Marxists blame capitalism for these inequalities; they argue that in capitalist societies there is a minority who exploit the majority and it is this exploitation that leads to inequalities.
modernisation agenda Introduced by New Labour across all sectors of the government. Its main themes were the promotion of parternerhips between government departments with the voluntary and private sector, consultation with service users, target setting, performance monitoring and greater valuing of public services.
night shelters These provide overnight accommodation for the homeless.
nuclear family Two adults living together in a household with their own or adopted children.
outreach teams These are usually attached to day centres. They work on the street and advise people how to find accommodation and claim benefits.
postmodernism A set of theories emphasising that it is impossible to uncover the ‘truth’ about society. This is because knowledge about the social world is socially constructed and therefore constantly changing.[Page 170]
power A contested concept concerning the capacity of individuals, groups, social classes or institutions to shape and mobilize action, achieve goals and protect their interests.
race Refers to physical differences between people such as skin pigmentation, hair texture and facial features.
racism The belief that biologically rooted racial characteristics determine social activities and abilities. The result is that those groups who believe themselves to be inherently ‘superior’ discriminate against those who belong to groups deemed to be ‘inferior’. This can lead to discriminatory and aggressive behaviour towards members of ethnic groups believed to be ‘inferior’.
reconstituted family A household unit including a step-parent as a consequence of divorce, separation and remarriage. This type of family is created when a new partnership is formed by a mother and/or father who already have dependent children. Since most children remain with their mother following divorce or separation, stepfamilies are more likely to have a stepfather than a stepmother.
refugee Someone whose asylum application has been successful and has been granted permission to stay in the United Kingdom under the terms of the 1951 Refugee Convention because of a well-founded fear of persecution due to race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a social group if they returned home.
relative poverty Refers to poverty relative to standards in particular societies and reflects differences in living standards between societies and across time within the same society. It is used to indicate those groups who are excluded from full participation in their society because of a lack of resources.
reserve army of labour Composed of groups of workers or potential workers (for example, unemployed people) who are most vulnerable to irregular employment, being employed (often on only a part-time basis) or laid off as the demand for labour from employees rises and falls.
resettlement teams These are usually attached to hostels for the homeless. They can help people to find longer-term housing and may also help them to find work or enrol on a training scheme.
rough sleepers People who sleep in the open in unsuitable places deemed unfit for habitation. Examples of these are doorways, parks and disused buildings.[Page 171]
settled accommodation Accommodation in which residents have medium- to long-term security of tenure.
social bonds A dimension of social networks denoting the connections within ethnic and/or faith communities.
social bridges A dimension of social networks relating to connections between members of migrant communities and communities that do not share the same ethnicity and/or faith.
social capital The resources, trust and social networks within a community which, when accessed by individuals, are beneficial as they empower them and enable them to improve their lives.
social causation This refers to those perspectives that focus on how various social processes lead to particular social issues or problems.
social closure Practices whereby groups preserve their status by restricting entry into their ranks (for example, through setting various conditions for entry such as certain qualifications) and separate themselves from other groups.
social construction This refers to the way that aspects of society or behaviour are actively viewed or ‘constructed’ in a particular way as a result of social relations and human agency rather than being ‘natural’ or biological in origin. Social constructions vary historically, socially and culturally.
social divisions These are the substantial differences between people in society, which involve some people being in better positions than others. Examples are class, gender and race. Social divisions often interconnect and can reinforce inequalities. They are socially constructed and hence change over time.
social drift hypothesis This is based on Darwinist theories of natural selection and has been used to explain why those who are poor have higher rates of ill health. It hypothesises that those who are physically and mentally ill move down the social system and accumulate at the bottom.
social exclusion A contested concept that addresses the range of factors that constrain an individual's full participation in society. Examples of such factors are a lack of material resources, discrimination, chronic ill health, geographical location and cultural identification.
social inequalities Differences in people's share of resources in society. This can involve a wide range of such resources, such as wealth, education, health, housing, power, status and life chances.[Page 172]
social integration This concept is about the relationships between individuals and societal institutions, such as the family, employment, and religious, political and voluntary groups. Integration into these societal institutions helps people to cope when facing stressful life events because they provide mutual moral support and access to resources.
social justice This will be achieved when existing inequalities are eradicated and there are equal rights and equity for everyone in society.
social links A dimension of social networks that refers to the relationships that individuals and/or groups have with institutions, agencies and services.
social networks The patterns of individuals’ social relationships and interactions with those to whom they are connected by ties such as kinship, friendship and work relationships.
social position The social identity a person has in a given group or society.
social support This is provided by positive involvement in social networks. It has been shown to act as a buffer to stress, particularly if intimate and confiding reelationships are involved.
statutory homeless Those who do not have a home but are regarded as being legally homeless and entitled to help from their local authority.
statutory services Services to which prescribed individuals and/or groups have a legal right, such as local authorities, social services and health services. They are paid for out of taxation, with their function prescribed by law, and have a large bureaucratic structure.
stigma The social consequences of socially constructed negative characteristics that are associated with members of a particular social group.
street homelessness Those who live on the streets in the day and have nowhere to sleep at night. Some end up sleeping in the sorts of places that are unfit for habitation (such as doorways, parks, disused buildings) while others sleep at friends’ houses for short periods of time, in a squat, hostel, prison or hospital.
structuralist explanations Focus on the way that macro-level political, economic and social factors which are beyond an individual's control cause social problems.
unaccompanied asylum-seeking child (UASC) An individual under 18 who is applying for asylum in his or her own right and is either separated [Page 173]from both parents or is not being cared for by an adult who has responsibility to do so by law or custom.
underclass Those groups who fall below the lowest occupational class because they are dependent on benefits, live in poor housing, do not have a job, and have a poor employment history and limited prospects of acquiring an occupation.
unpaid carer Someone who cares for a dependant who cannot care for himself/herself and, excluding benefits, this is on an unpaid basis.
voluntary organisations These are self-governing, non-profitmaking and not directly controlled by a private (for-profit) entity or by the state. There is usually a meaningful degree of voluntarism in terms of money or time through philanthropy or voluntary citizen involvement.
Weberian perspectives These argue that class, status and authority determine the distribution of power in society. Each of these has an effect on life chances. With reference to class, scarce resources (such as educational and economic resources) give people the capacity to acquire income and assets. Where a particular category of individuals have similar resources and use these to secure certain advantages for themselves, a class relationship is formed. Class situation determines life chances, which are protected and enhanced by those individuals within the class through the exclusion of others.
welfare-to-work These policies aim to reduce the numbers of those in receipt of out-of-work benefits by encouraging as many of them to take up paid employment as possible. They have been produced in response to concerns over the costs of benefits and as part of efforts to tackle poverty and social exclusion.
References[Page 174]2007). ‘Muslim minorities in Britain: integration, multiculturalism and radicalism in the post-7–7 period.’ Journal of Intercultural Studies, 28 (3) 287–300http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07256860701429717(Action on Elder Abuse (2004). Hidden voices: older people's experience of abuse. London: Help the AgedAction on Elder Abuse (2007). The UK study of abuse and neglect of older people. London: Kings Institute of Gerontology2007). Child poverty in perspective: an overview of child well-being in rich countries. Florence: Innocenti Research Centre(2004). Indicators of integration: the experience of integration final report. London: Home Officehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e634412007-001and (2008). ‘Ethnicity and health: key themes in a developing field.’ Current Sociology, 56 (1) 47–56http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011392107084378and (2003). ‘From leisure and disability to disability leisure: developing data, definitions and discourses.’ Disability and Society, 18 (7) 955–969http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0968759032000127353(2001). ‘Rationing healthcare to disabled people.’ Sociology of Health and Illness, 23 (5) 654–677http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00270(1999). ‘Children as carers: the impact of parental illness and disability on children's caring roles.’ Journal of Family Therapy, 21 (3) 303–320http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.00121and (2003). ‘Children who care, Zero2Nineteen.’ Community Care, 24–25and (2006). ‘Understanding participation in sport and physical activity amongst children and adults: a review of qualitative studies.’ Health Education Research, Theory and Practice, 21 (6) 826–835http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/cyl063, and (American Psychiatric Association (2004) DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc.2007). ‘Ethnic ties and the question of mobilisation.’ Sociological Review, 55 (4) 788–805http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2007.00752.x(1995). Connecting gender and ageing: a sociological approach. Buckingham: OUPand (Arber, S., Davidson, S. and Ginn, J. (eds) (2003). Gender and ageing: changing roles and relationships. Buckingham: OUPhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511610714.0571965). Centuries of childhood. London: Cape(2006). Enhancing the health promotion evidence base on minority ethnic groups, refugees/asylum seekers, and gypsy travellers. Cardiff: Health ASERT Programme Wales(2007). ‘Are English local authorities’ practices on housing and council tax benefit administration meeting race quality requirements?’ Critical Social Policy, 27 (3) 381–414http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018307078848and ([Page 175]2007). ‘Official: obesity risk to half of all children’. The Observer, 2 Septemberand (2006). ‘Children's voices: the views of vulnerable children on their service providers and the relevance of services they receive.’ British Journal of Social Work, 36, 21–39http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch249and (1998). Health and health care in Britain. London: Macmillan(2004). ‘Does work pay? Employment, poverty and exclusion from social relations’ in Pantazis, C., Gordon, D. and Levitas, R. (eds) Poverty and social exclusion in Britain: the millennium survey. Bristol: Policy Press(2005). ‘Does “welfare-to-work” work? A systematic review of the effectiveness of the UK's welfare-to-work programmes for people with a disability or chronic illness.’ Social Science and Medicine, 60 (9) 1905–1918, , and (2007). ‘Psychological distress in Brazilian caregivers of relatives with dementia.’ Aging and Mental Health, 11 (1) 14–19http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860600640814, , , , and (2008). Understanding health: a sociological introduction. London: Sageand (2004). ‘The disability movement: some observations’ in Swain, J., French, S., Barnes, C. and Thomas, C. (eds) Disabling barriers, enabling environments. London: Sage in association with the Open University(2000). ‘Carers and indicators of social exclusion.’ Benefits, 28, 1–4(2005). ‘Reconsidering citizenship in the light of the concerns of the UK disability movement.’ Citizenship Studies, 9 (4) 405–421http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13621020500211412(2005). A question of balance: lone parents, childcare and work. Department for Work and Pensions Research Report 230. Leeds: Corporate Document Services, , , and (2002). ‘Children's health’ in Bradshaw, J. (ed.) The well-being of children in the UK. London: Save the Children Fund(1995). ‘The role of social relations in health promotion’. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 245–254(1979). ‘Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: a nine-year follow-up of Alameda County residents.’ American Journal of Epidemiology, 109 (2) 186–204and (2000). ‘From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium.’ Social Science and Medicine, 51, 843–857, , and (2007). Ethnicity, race and health in multicultural societies. Oxford: Oxford University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568179.001.0001(2000). Understanding ageing: images, attitudes and professional practice. Buckingham: Open University Press(2003). ‘Language barriers between nurses and asylum seekers: their impact on symptom reporting and referral.’ Social Science and Medicine, 57 (3) 5003–5012, , , , , and et al. (1998). New ambitions for our country: a new contract for welfare. London: Department of Social Security(2001). Social policy: an introduction. Buckingham: Open University Press(2006). The persistence of poverty across generations. London: Policy Pressand ([Page 176]2003). ‘The quality of life of spouse dementia caregivers: changes associated with yielding to formal care and widowhood.’ Social Science and Medicine, 57: 2385–2395, and (2006). ‘Belonging and becoming: national identity and exclusion.’ Sociology, 40 (4) 609–626http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038506065149(2003). ‘Reconceptualizing intimacy and ageing: living apart together’ in Arber, S. et al. (eds) Gender and ageing: changing roles and relationships. Buckingham: OUPand (2006). ‘Mainstreaming equality: implications of the provision of support at home for majority and minority ethnic older people.’ Social Policy and Administration, 40 (7) 739–757http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2006.00530.x(2008). ‘Asylum policy and asylum experiences: interactions in a Scottish context.’ Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31 (1) 1–21, and (Bradshaw, J. (ed.) (2002). The well-being of children in the UK. London: Save the Children Fundhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781847428370.001.00012006). ‘Child poverty and deprivation’ in Bradshaw,J., and Mayhew, E. (eds.) (2005) The well-being of children in the UK,(2nd edn.London: Save the Children FundBradshaw, J. and Mayhew, E. (eds) (2005). The well-being of children in the UK,2nd edn.London: Save the Children Fund2006). Comparing child Well-being in OECD countries:concepts and methods. Florence: UNICEF, and (2007). ‘Irreconcilable differences: health professionals’ constructions of adolescence and moterhood.’ Social Science and Medicine, 64 (1) 112–124and (2006). What will it take to end child poverty?York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, and (British Medical Association (2002). Asylum seekers: meeting their health care needs. London: BMABritish Medical Association (2005). Asylum seekers and their health. London: BMA1978). Social Origins of Depression:A study of psychiatric disorder in women. London:Tavistock. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700018791and (1999). ‘The labor of caregiving: a theoretical model of caregiving during potentially fatal illness.’ Qualitative Health Research, 9 (2): 182–197http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104973299129121776and (2005). The education of pregant young women and young mothers in England. Bristol: University of Bristoland (2007). ‘Including the socially excluded: the impact of government policy on vulnerable families and children in need.’ British Journal of Social Work, 37, 187–207http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcl013(2005). ‘Selective inclusion: asylum seekers and other marginalized groups’ in Hills, J. and Stewart, K. (eds) A more equal society? New Labour, poverty, inequality and exclusion. Bristol: Policy Press(2002). Older people and fear of crime. London: Help the Aged(2001a). ‘Asylum seekers and refugees in Britain: What brings asylum seekers to the United Kingdom?’ British Medical Journal, 322, 485–488http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7284.485and (2001b). ‘The health of survivors of torture and organised violence.’ British Medical Journal, 322, 606–609http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7286.606and (2004). ‘Lone mothers’ experience of physical and sexual violence: association with psychiatric disorders.’ The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 21–27http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.184.1.21([Page 177]2003). ‘Visual representations of later life’ in Faircloth, C. (ed.) Ageing bodies: Images and everyday experience. Walnut Creek, California: Altamira Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781847426185.003.0005(Cabinet Office (2005). Controlling our borders: making migration work for Britain. Five year strategy for asylum and immigration. London: HMSOCabinet Office (2006). Reaching out: an action plan on social exclusion. London: HMSO2007). ‘Albion Drive: a saga of modern Britain.’ The Observer, 13 May, 6–9(2004). A review of antisocial behaviour orders. London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate(2001). ‘Constituting sexuality through social policy: the case of lone motherhood 1834 and today.’ Social and Legal Studies, 10 (3) 291–314(2003). Ethnicity, exclusion and the workplace. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230005822(Carver, V. and Liddiard, P. (eds) (1978). An ageing population: a reader and sourcebook. Milton Keynes: Open University Press2000). Child maltreatment in the UK: a study of the prevalence of child abuse and neglect. London: NSPCC, , and (2001). ‘Lone parent families in Europe: a variety of economic and social circumstances.’ Social Policy and Administration, 35 (6) 658–671http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00259(2000). Cultures of care: biographies of carers in Britain and the two Germanies. Bristol: Policy Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0029-6554%2805%2980010-7and (2007). ‘The increasing prevalence of diabetes in South Australia: the relationship with population ageing and obesity.’ Public Health, 121 (2) 92–99http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2006.09.017, , and (1996). ‘The relationship between social support and health status of elderly people: does social support slow down physical and functional deterioration?’ Social Work Research, 20 (1) 52–63and (2007). ‘Differences in stress and coping models of emotional distress among Korean, Korean-American and White-American caregivers.’ Aging and Mental Health, 11 (1) 20–29http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860600736232, and (Civitas (2002). The lone parent trap: how the welfare system discourages marriage. http://www.civitas.org.uk2007). Ethnic minorities in the labour market: dynamics and diversity. Abingdon: Policy Pressand (2007). The periphery of care: emergency services for homeless people in rural areas.’ Journal of Rural Studies, 23 (4) 387–401http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.05.006, and (Cohen, G. (ed.) (1987). Social change and life course. London:Tavistock Publicationshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00031224093591652006). ‘Poor Cathy still can't come home because there is no home to go to.’ The Observer, 15 October, 11(2001). Asylum seekers’ and refugees’ health experience. London: Kings Fund(2007). ‘How clinical diagnosis might exacerbate the stigma of mental illness.’ Social Work, 52 (1) 31–39http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/52.1.31(2004). ‘Citizenship, exclusion and older people.’ Journal of Social Policy, 33 (1) 95–114http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047279403007207(2005). ‘Responding to the needs of older homeless people.’ Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 18 (2) 137–152http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13511610500096434and (2006). Child first, migrant second: ensuring that every child matters. London: Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association(Crisis (2008). What we do. London: Crisis[Page 178]2006). When children become parents: welfare responses to teenage pregnancy. Bristol: Policy Pressand (2006). ‘A life-course perspective on ethnic differences in women's economic activity in Britain.’ European Sociological Review, 22 (4) 459–476http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcl009, and (2006). ‘Employment policy and disabled people: old wine in new glasses.’ Disability and Society, 21 (5) 485–498http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590600785944and (2007). ‘Racial identity amongst white graduate students.’ Journal of Transformative Education, 5 (1) 59–78http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541344607299210(2007). A shared responsibility: safeguarding arrangements between hospitals and children's social services. London: National Children's Bureauand (2002). ‘Disenfranchising the disabled: the inaccessibility of internet-based health information.’ Journal of Health Communication, 7 (4) 355–367http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730290001701(2007). ‘The prevalence and recognition of major depression among low-level aged care residents with and without cognitive impairment.’ Ageing and Mental Health, 11 (1) 82–88, , , , and (2002). Perspectives on welfare: ideas, ideologies and policy debates. BuckinghamOUPhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2524.2003.04184.x(2007). ‘Aversive disablism: subtle prejudice towards disabled people.’ Disability and Society, 22 (1) 93–107http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590601056667(2007). ‘Minding the gap: the construction of old age and oldness amongst peers.’ Journal of Aging Studies, 21 (1) 69–80http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2006.02.001(2006). ‘Regulating stop and search: a challenge for police and community relations in England and Wales.’ Critical Criminology, 14 (3) 241–263http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10612-006-9013-1and (2006). Impact of care to learn: tracking the destinations of young parents funded in 2004/5. Brighton: Institute of Employment Studies([Page 179]Department for Children, Schools and Families (2007a). The children's plan: building brighter futures. Stationery OfficeDepartment for Children, Schools and Families (2007b). Sure Start children's centres: Phase 3 planning and delivery. Nottingham: HMSODepartment for Children, Schools and Families (2007c). Extended schools: building on experience. Nottingham: HMSODepartment for Education and Skills (2003). Every child matters. London: DfESDepartment for Education and Skills (2004). Children Act 2004. London: HMSODepartment for Education and Skills (2006). Ethnicity and education - the evidence on minority ethnic pupils aged 5–16. London: HMSODepartment for Work and Pensions (1999). Opportunity for all. London: Stationery OfficeDepartment for Work and Pensions (2004). Opportunity for all: Sixth Annual Report 2004. London: Stationery OfficeDepartment for Work and Pensions (2005a). Opportunity age. London: Stationery OfficeDepartment for Work and Pensions (2005b). Working to rebuild lives:a refugee employment strategy. London: Stationery OfficeDepartment for Work and Pensions (2006). Work, saving and retirement among ethnic minorities: a qualitative study. London: HMSODepartment for Work and Pensions (2007). In work, better off. London: Stationery OfficeDepartment of Communities and Local Government (2006). Homeless prevention - a guide to good practice. Policy Briefing 15. London: HMSODepartment of Communities and Local Government (2007a). Statutory homelessness: 3rd quarter 2007. London: HMSODepartment of Communities and Local Government (2007b). Evaluating homelessness prevention. London: HMSODepartment of Health (1999). National service framework for mental health. London: HMSODepartment of Health (2000). Health survey for England. London: HMSODepartment of Health (2001). National plan for safeguarding children from commercial sexual exploitation. London: HMSODepartment of Health (2004a). Community care statistics. London: HMSODepartment of Health (2004b). Better health in old age. London: HMSODepartment of Health (2004c). Choosing health: making healthy choices easier. London: HMSODepartment of Health (2004d). Action on stigma:promoting mental health, ending discrimination at work. London: HMSODepartment of Health and Home Office (2000). No secrets:guidance on developing and implementing multi-agency policies and procedures to protect vulnerable adults from abuse. OH Circular HSC 2000/0072000). ‘Maternal education and child health: A feminist dilemma.’ Feminst Studies, 26 (2) 425–446http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3178543(Disability Rights Commission (2006). Disability briefing. Disability Rights Commission Research PaperDPI (1982). Disabled People's International: proceedings of the First World Congress. Singapore: Disabled People's International2005). Vulnerable groups and access to health care: a critical interpretive review. London: NCCSDO, , , and (Donnellan, C. (ed.) (2004). Dealing with homelessness. Cambridge: Independence2006). ‘Freedom can sometimes mean that you have nowhere to stop.’ The Observer, 19 November, 4(1995). Nutrition and diet in lone parent families in London. London: Family Policy Studies Centre (Social Policy Research 71-January 1995)and (1995). What makes women sick?Basingstoke: Macmillanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1071/PY98027(2002). ‘New Labour, work and the family.’ Social Policy and Administration, 36 (1) 46–61http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00269and (1968). Suicide: a study in sociology. London: Routledgehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10406-003(2004). ‘Illness experiences of homeless youth.’ Qualitative Health Research, 14 (9) 1239–1254http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732304268795and (2000). ‘The increasing complexity of family relationships: lifetime experience of lone motherhood and stepfamilies in Great Britain.’ European Journal of Population, 16 (3) 235–249http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026589722060and (European Commission (2007). The European Uunion disability strategy. http://ec.europa.eu2005). A secure retirement for all? Older people, and New Labour’ in Hills, J. and Stewart, K. (eds) A more equal society for all? New Labour, poverty, inequality and exclusion. Bristol: Policy Pressand (2006). Can current policy end child poverty in Britain by 2020?York: Joseph Rowntree Foundationand (2000). Feminist perspectives on disablity. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited([Page 180]2005). ‘Children's lifestyles’ in Bradshaw, J. and Mayhew, E. (eds.) The well-being of children in the UK,and (2nd edn.London: Save the Children Fund1981). ‘Disability and the helper/helped relationship: an historical view’ in Brechin, A., Liddiard, P. and Swain, J. (eds) Handicap in a social world. London: Hodder and Stoughton(2007a). Teen pregnancy and lone parents. Cambridge: Independence Educational Publishers(Firth, L. (ed.) (2007b). Homelessness. Cambridge: Independence2005). ‘Pursuing social justice or social cohesion?: Coercion in street homelessness policies in England.’ Journal of Social Policy, 34 (3) 389–406http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047279405008834and (Foresight (2007). Trends and drivers of obesity: a literature review for the Foresight Project on Obesity. London: Government Office for Science2008). ‘Children as rights holders: awareness and scepticism’ in Invernizzi, A. and Williams, J. (eds) Children and citizenship. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446214756(2006). Personalised social care for adults with disabilities: problematic concept for frontline practice.’ Health and Social Care in the Community, 14 (2) 125–135http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2006.00602.x, , , and (1961). Madness and civilisation: a history of insanity in the age of reason. New York:Vintage Books, (1995) Health, illness and the social body: a critical sociology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Incand (2007). ‘The impact of disability transitions on social inclusion.’ Social Science and Medicine, 64 (7) 1425–1447and (1992). Children in danger: coping with the consequences of community violence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, , and (2006). ‘How low-paid employees avoid poverty: an analysis by family type and household structure.’ Journal of Social Policy, 35 (3), 351–369http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047279406009822and (2007). ‘Protean times?: Exploring the relationships between policing, community and “race” in rural England.’ Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7 (4) 347–365http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1748895807082060and (2004). ‘Bridging the language barrier: the use of interpreters in primary care nursing.’ Health and social care in the community, 12 (5) 407–413http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2004.00510.x, and (2004). Information dissemination to potential asylum seekers in countries of origin and/or transit. London: Home Officeand (2007). No fear:growing up in a risk averse society. London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation(1963). Stigma: some notes on the management of spoiled identity. Harmondsworth: Penguin(2002). Vulnerable inside: children in secure and penal settings. London: Children's Society(2005). ‘The psychosocial benefits of work for people with severe and enduring mental health problems.’ Community, Work and Family, 8 (1) 23–35http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1366880052000323986and (2005). Sexuality, sexual health and ageing. Buckingham: Open University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afj050(2003). ‘Sex and aging: a gendered Issue’ in Arber, S., Davidson, S. and Ginn, J. (eds) Gender and Ageing. Changing Roles and Relationships. Buckingham: OUPand ([Page 181]2005). ‘Disabled people, the reserve army of labour and welfare reform’. Disability and Society, 20 (7) 705–717http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590500335683and (2002). ‘“Doing motherhood”: some experiences of mothers with physical disabilities.’ Disability and Society, 17 (6) 671–683http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0968759022000010443and (2006). ‘Ageing and vulnerable elderly people: European perspectives.’ Ageing and Society, 26 (1) 105–134http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X05004484(2006). ‘Failed asylum seekers and health care.’ British Medical Journal, 333 (7559) 109–110http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.333.7559.109(2005). Social capital. London: Routledgehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.01.019(2007). ‘Retirement age caregivers and deprivation of area of residence in England and Wales.’ European Journal of Ageing, 4 (1) 35–43http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10433-007-0044-6, , and (1995). ‘Changing images of aging and the social construction of the life course’ in Featherstone, M. and Wernick, A. (eds) Images of aging: cultural representations of later life. London: Routledgehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203397442_chapter_8(2002). ‘“It won't change the world but it turned my life around”: participant's views on the Personal Advisor Scheme in the New Deal for disabled people.’ Disability and Society, 17 (4) 383–401http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590220140331(2001). Money well spent: the effectiveness and value of housing adaptations. Bristol: Policy Press(2006). ‘Battered to desperation.’ The Observer, 19 November, 4(2007). ‘Inside the violent chaotic world of our mental wards.’ The Observer, 8 April, 24–25(1999). Informal care-giving in the life course. York: SPRU(2003). Social identities across the life course. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillanand (2005). ‘Television characterizations of the homeless in the United Kingdom.’ Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 5 (1) 29–48http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-2415.2005.00054.x, and (2006). Life in the shadow of the media: imaging street homelessness in London.’European Journal of Cultural Studies, 9 (4) 497–516http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367549406063166, and (2007). Liaison psychiatry services for older people project. Leeds: NHS SDO (in progress)(2000). Constructing the life course. New York: General Hall, Incand (Home Office (2003). Home Office Citizenship Survey: people, families and communities. London: HMSOHome Office (2005). Integration matters. London: HMSOHome Office (2006a). A guide to anti-social behaviour orders. London: HMSOHome Office (2006b). Policy bulletin 72: Employment and voluntary activity. London: HMSOHome Office (2007). Guidance on the use of acceptable behaviour contracts and agreements. London: HMSOHome Office (2008). Asylum Statistics: 4th quarter 2007 United Kingdom. London: HMSOHome Office, Department for Constitutional Affairs, Youth Justice Board (2004). Parenting contracts and orders guidance. London: HMSO2002). ‘Maltreatment of children’ in Bradshaw, J. (ed.) The well-being of children in the UK. London: Save the Children Fund([Page 182]2005). ‘Child maltreatment’ in Bradshaw, J. and Mayhew, E. (eds.) The well-being of children in the UK,(2nd edn.London: Save the Children Fund.House of Commons (2006). Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Bill (HL) (2006). Research Paper 06/35. (http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp2006/rp06-035.pdf)1999). Enabling government:joined up policies for a national disability strategy. London: Fabian Society(2005). ‘Nothing to be had “off the peg”: consumption, identity and the immobilization of young disabled people.’ Disability and Society, 20 (1) 3–17http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0968759042000283601, and (1998). ‘A suitable case for treatment? Constructions of disability’ in Saraga, E. (ed.) Embodying the social: constructions of difference. London: Routledge(2006). ‘Primary care for refugees and asylum seekers.’ British Medical Journal, 332, 62–63http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.332.7533.62and (2000). Researching disability politics, or, some problems with the social model in practice.’ Disability and Society, 15 (1) 63–85http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590025775(1992). Out of sight: experiences of disability 1900–50. Plymouth: Northcoteand (2005). The life course: a sociological introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781848607965.n30(2007). ‘Lone parents move’, The Guardian, 30 January(2007). You're never too old to rock and roll - or work. The Observer, 17 June(2003). ‘Social inclusion, social quality and mental illness.’ British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 289–290http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.182.4.289and (2000a). ‘Disability’ in Payne, G. (ed.) Social divisions. Basingstoke: Macmillan(2000b). ‘From welfare-to-work? Social policy for disabled people of working age in the United Kingdom in the 1990s.’ Disability and Society, 15 (2) 327–341http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590025702(2006). ‘Independent lives and the relevance of lifetime homes.’ Disability and Society, 21 (4) 359–374http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590600680152(Independent Asylum Commission (2008). Fit for purpose yet? The Independent Asylum Commission's interim findings. London: Independent Asylum CommissionInvernizzi, A. and Williams, J. (eds) (2008). Children and citizenship. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462147562002). ‘A preliminary investigation of the importance of site accessibility factors for disabled tourists.’ Journal of Travel Research, 41 (1) 101–104(2006). ‘Childhood’ in Payne, G. (ed.) Social divisions. Basingstoke: Macmillanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08111149308551554and (2003). Asylum seekers in dispersal - healthcare issues. London: Home Officehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e635022007-001(2005). ‘Gay and lesbian perceptions of discrimination in retirement care facilities.’ Journal of Homosexuality, 49 (2) 83–102http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v49n02_05, , and (2000). ‘The personal social services and community care’ in Powell, M. (ed.) New Labour, new welfare state?Bristol: Policy Press(2005). ‘New Labour: choice and values.’ Critical Social Policy, 25 (4) 427–446http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018305057023(2006). ‘The power gap: freedom, power and mental illness.’ Social Science and Medicine, 63 (8) 2118–2128(2002). ‘Why are some people's needs unmet?’ Disability and Society, 17 (2) 205–218http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590120122341(2006). ‘Educational issues for children and young people in familes living in emergency accommodation - an Irish perspective.’ Children and Society, 20 (5) 360–375http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2006.00015.x, and ([Page 183]2004). ‘Including young mothers: Limitations to New Labour's strategy for supporting teenage mothers.’ Critical Social Policy, 24 (3) 291–311http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018304044361(2002). The social networks of asylum seekers and the dissemination of information about countries of asylum. London: Home Officehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e634192007-001and (2008). ‘Effects of housing circumstances on health, quality of life and healthcare use for people with severe mental illness.’ Health and Social Care in the Community, 16 (1) 1–15http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2007.00723.xand (2006). ‘Are public care and services and services for older people targeted according to need? Applying the behavioural model on longitudinal data of a Swedish urban older population.’ European Journal of Ageing, 3 (1) 22–33http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10433-006-0017-1, and (2004). ‘Revisiting the contact hypothesis: the case of public exposure to homelessness.’ American Sociological Review, 69 (1) 40–63http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000312240406900104, and (2007) ‘An investigation of mental health care delivery from customers’ perspectives.’ Journal of Human Behaviour in the Social Environment, 15 (1) 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J137v15n01_01(2006). Mental health policy and practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillanand (2007). ‘Met and unmet needs, and satisfaction among social HMO members.’ Journal of Ageing and Social Policy, 19 (1) 1–19http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J031v19n01_01and (2003). Auditing age discrimination: a practical guide to promoting age equality in health and social care. London: Kings Fund(2006). ‘The concept and measurement of social exclusion’ in Pantazis, C., Gordon, D. and Levitas, R. (eds) Poverty and social exclusion in Britain: the millennium survey. Bristol: Policy Press(2006). ‘Lone parents, poverty and social exclusion’ in Pantazis, C., Gordon, D. and Levitas, R. (eds) Poverty and social exclusion in Britain: the millennium survey. Bristol: Policy Press, and (2007). The multidimensional analysis of social exclusion. London: Cabinet Office, , , , and (2007). ‘Workplace bullying in the public sector: understanding the racial dimension.’ Public Administration, 85 (3) 641–665http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.2007.00665.xand (Lewis, G. (ed.) (2004). Citizenship: personal lives and social policy. Bristol: Policy Press in association with the Open UniversityLewis, J. (ed.) (1997). Lone mothers in European welfare regimes: shifting policy logics. London: Jessica Kingsley1988). Daughters who care. London: Routledgehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X00006504and (1997). ‘Citizenship: towards a feminist synthesis.’ Feminist Review, 57, 28–48http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014177897339641(1998). ‘Vocabularies of citizenship and gender: the UK.’ Critical Social Policy, 18 (3) 309–331http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026101839801805603(2002). ‘The dilemmas of pendulum politics: balancing paid work, care and citizenship.’ Economy and Society, 31 (4) 520–532http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0308514022000020661(2003). ‘Investing in the citizen-workers of the future: transformation in citizenship and the state under New Labour.’ Social Policy and Administration, 37 (5) 427–443http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00350(2008). ‘Unpacking children's citizenship’ in Invernizzi, A. and Williams, J. (eds) Children and citizenship. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446214756(2006). ‘Children, poverty and social exclusion’ in Pantazis, C., Gordon, D. and Levitas, R. (eds) Poverty and social exclusion in Britain: the millennium survey. Bristol: Policy Press([Page 184]2006). ‘Employability and New Zealand welfare restructuring.’ Policy and Politics, 34 (3) 473–494(2005). ‘Some are more equal than others: definitions of disability in social policy and discrimination law in Europe.’ Journal of Social Policy, 34 (2) 215–233http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047279404008554(2004). Home alone: combating isolation with older housebound people. London: Demoshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keh188and (2006). ‘Does depression in older medical inpatients predict mortality?’ Journals of Gerontology, 61 (9) 975–981, , , , and (1994). ‘Legacies of caring: the experiences and circumstances of ex-carers’. Health and Social Care, 2 (4) 241–253http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.1994.tb00170.xand (2005). Britain's poorest children revisited: Evidence from the BHPS (1994–2002). Loughborough University: Centre for Research in Social Policyand (2000). ‘Psychiatric diagnosis under conditions of uncertainty: personality disorder, science and professional legitimacy.’ Sociology of Health and Illness, 22 (5) 621–639http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00223(2006). ‘Psychiatric hospital capacity, homelessness and crime and arrest rates.’ Criminology, 44 (1) 45–72http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2006.00042.x(2001). ‘Relative contribution of early life and adult socio-economic factors to adult morbidity in the Whitehall II study.’ Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55 (5) 301–307http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.55.5.301, , and (1992). ‘Citizenship and social class’ in Marshall, T.H. and Bottomore, T. (eds) Citizenship and social class. London: Pluto Press(2007). ‘Feeling better? Trends in general health status.’ The Journals of Gerontology. Series B., psychological sciences and social sciences, 62 (1) 11–21http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/62.1.S11, , and (2006). ‘Ethnicity’ in Payne, G. (ed.) Social divisions. Basingstoke: Macmillan(Matthewman, S., West-Newman, C.L. and Curtis, B. (eds) (2007). Being sociological. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan2004). ‘Reducing burglary and fear amongst older people: An evaluation of a Help the Aged and Homesafe initiative in Plymouth.’ Social Policy and Administration, 38 (1) 1–20http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2004.00373.x(2006). ‘Shelter at the margins: New Labour and the changing state of emergency accommodation for single homeless people in Britain.’ Policy and Politics, 34 (4) 711–729, and (2005). ‘Active ageing in the UK - issues, barriers, policy, directions.’ Innovation: the European Journal of Social Science Research, 18 (4) 455–477http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13511610500384202(2005). ‘Social and psychological exclusion: the value of community interventions for lone mothers.’ Community, Work and Family, 8 (1) 5–21http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1366880052000323977and (2007). ‘Safe as houses? Ageing in place and vulnerable older people in the UK.’ Social Policy and Administration, 41 (1) 65–85http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2007.00539.x(2002). The social and economic circumstances of adults with mental disorders. London: Office for National Statisticshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e623732007-001, , and (2005). ‘Discrimination and health inequalities experienced by disabled people.’ Medical Education, 39 (2) 124–126http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.02061.x(2008). ‘A new plague facing women.’ The Observer, 6 January 26–27([Page 185]Millar, J. and Rowlingson, K. (eds) (2001). Lone parents, employment and social policy. Bristol: Policy Press2003). ‘Link no longer missing.’ Community Care, 4–10 December, 38(1997). ‘Culture and identity’ in Modood, T., Berthoud, R., Lakey, J. and Nazroo, J. (eds) Ethnic minorities in Britain. London: Policy Studies Institute(2005). Britain's poorest children revisited: evidence from the BHPS (1994–2002). Loughborough: Centre for Research in Social Policyand (2001). Asylum: the truth behind the headlines. Oxford: Oxfam(2004). Independent living and community care: a disempowering framework’. Disability and Society, 19 (5) 427–442http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0968759042000235280(1998). ‘Legitimate membership of the welfare community’ in Langan, M. (ed.) Welfare: needs and rights. London: Routledgehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e640292011-001(2008). ‘Dilemmas in children's participation in England’ in Invernizzi, A. and Williams, J. (eds) Children and citizenship. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446214756(National Social Inclusion Programme (2007). Third annual update. London: Department of HealthNational Statistics (2002) Labour Market Trends. London: Stationary Office.National Statistics (2004). Focus on social inequalities. London: Stationery OfficeNational Statistics (2005). Focus on older people. London: Stationery OfficeNational Statistics (2006a). Population estimates. National Statistics website: http://www.statistics.gov.ukNational Statistics (2006b). Focus on health. National Statistics website: http://www.statistics.gov.ukNational Statistics (2006c). Focus on ethnicity and identity. National Statistics website: http://www.statistics.gov.ukNational Statistics (2007a). Focus on families. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacmillanNational Statistics (2007b). Social trends 37. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacmillanNational Statistics (2008). Population trends 131. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan2006). The new countryside? Ethnicity, nation and exclusion in contemporary rural Britain. Bristol: Policy Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861347961.001.0001and (2005). Children, crime and illegal drug use’ in Bradshaw, J. and Mayhew, E. (eds) (2005) The well-being of children in the UK,(2nd edn.London: Save the Children Fund New Policy Institute (2007). About homelessness. London: Crisis2004). ‘The effect of work on mental health: does occupation matter?’ Health Economics, 12 (10) 1045–1062, and (2007). ‘“They think they're ok and we know they're not.” A qualitative study of asylum seekers’ access, knowledge and views to healthcare in the UK.’ BMC Health Services Research, 7 (75) 1–11, , and (2004). ‘Disability, social exclusion and the consequential experience of justiciable problems.’ Disability and Society, 19 (4) 259–271http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0968759042000204158, , , and (Office for National Statistics (2000). Psychiatric morbidity survey. London: HMSOOffice for National Statistics (2003). General household survey 2003. London: HMSOOffice for National Statistics (2004). Focus on social inequalities. London: HMSO[Page 186]Office for National Statistics (2007). Labour force survey. London: HMSOOffice of the Deputy Prime Minister (2005). Sustainable communities: settled homes; changing lives. London: HMSO1990). The politics of disablement: Basingstoke: Macmillan(1996). Understanding disability: from theory to practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan(1998). Disabled people and social policy: from exclusion to inclusion. London: Longmanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026101839101103309(2004). ‘If I had a hammer; the social model in action’ in Swain, J., French, S., Barnes, C. and Thomas, C. (eds) Disabling barriers, enabling environments. London: Sage in association with the Open University(2006). ‘“Heating is more important than food”: older women's perceptions of fuel poverty.’ Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 20 (3) 95–108http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J081v20n03_07, and (2005). ‘Men who work at 70 and over.’ Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45 (4) 41–63http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J083v45n04_04and (2007). Poverty rates amongst ethnic groups in Great Britain. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundationand (2006). ‘Elevated cancer incidence among adults with serious mental illness.’ Psychiatric Services, 57 (7) 1032–1034http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.57.7.1032, , and (1998). Citizenship, work and welfare. Basingstoke: Macmillan (cited in Lister, 2002) http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230504721(Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2007). Ethnicity and health. London: HMSO1997). ‘Women and the family in the British welfare state: the Thatcher/Major legacy.’ Social Policy and Administration, 31 (3) 290–305http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00057(2006). ‘Pensioners, poverty and social exclusion’ in Pantazis, C., Gordon, D. and Levitas, R. (eds) Poverty and social exclusion in Britain: the millennium survey. Bristol: Policy Press(Payne, G. (ed.) (2006) Social divisions. Basingstoke: Macmillanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00380385070804442006). Mental health, poverty and social exclusion’ in Pantazis, C., Gordon, D. and Levitas, R. (eds) Poverty and social exclusion in Britain: the millennium survey. Bristol: Policy Press(1996). ‘Effects on asylum seekers of illtreatment in Zaire.’ British Medical Journal, 312, 293–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7026.293(2006). ‘The sexual partnerships of people with serious mental illness.’ Journal of Sex Research, 43 (2) 174–181http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224490609552312and (2008). ‘Neo-corporatist governance of homeless services in Dublin: reconceptualization, incorporation and exclusion.’ Critical Social Policy, 28 (1) 51–73http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018307085507and (2008). New migrants in the UK: education, training, employment, policy and practice. Stoke-on-Trent: Trenthamand (2007). They do not understand the problem I have: refugee well being and mental health. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, , and (1998). Reconstructing old age: new agendas in social theory and practice. London: Sage(2007). Key concepts in mental health. London: Sage(2007a). Poverty and ethnicity in the UK. Abingdon: Policy Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616690701217809([Page 187]2007b). ‘Child poverty, employment and ethnicity in the UK: the role and limitations of policy.’ European Societies, 9 (2) 175–199http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616690701217809(1990) ‘Patterns of Health and Illness Among Lone Parents’, Journal of Social Policy, 19(4) 499–534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047279400018274and (1983). The disappearance of childhood. London: W.H. Allen.(Powell, M. (ed.) (2000). New Labour, new welfare state?Bristol: Policy Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018300020001032006). “The poverty of older people in the UK.’ Journal of Social Work Practice, 20 (3) 251–266http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02650530600931724(2001). Good practice with vulnerable adults. London: Jessica Kingsley(2006). Putting a stop to the abuse of older people. London: Help the Aged(2000). Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster(2005). ‘The contribution of lone parenthood and economic difficulties to smoking.’ Social Science and Medicine, 61 (1) 211–216, and (2003). ‘Changes in family structure and child outcomes: the roles of economic and familial resources.’ Policy Studies Journal, 31 (3) 309–330and (2007). Like any other child? Children and families in the asylum process. London: Barnardos(Refugee Council (2007). The truth about asylum. London: British Refugee Council2007). ‘No one is left without care if they are poor’. The Observer, 24 June, 16(2006). ‘40 years after Cathy Come Home.’ The Observer, 10 November, 1(2007). ‘But not everyone can grow old gracefully.’ The Observer, 10 June, 35(2000). Age discrimination in health and social care. London: Kings Fund(2002). Understanding the decision making of asylum seekers. London: Home Officehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e649752007-001and (2004). ‘Complicated problems, complicated solutions? Homelessness and joined-up policy responses.’ Social Policy and Administration, 38 (7) 758–774http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2004.00417.x(1997). ‘Vulnerability, health and healthcare.’ Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26, 65–72http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1997.1997026065.x(2003). Mental health and inequality. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillanand (2005). A sociology of mental health and illness,and (3rd edn.Maidenhead: Open University Press.2004). ‘The lonely and homeless causes and consequences.’ Social Indicators Research, 69 (1) 37–50http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:SOCI.0000032659.93625.91(2005). ‘Private lives in public places: loneliness of the homeless.’ Social Indicators Research, 72 (2) 99–114http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-004-4590-4(2001). ‘Homelessness, mental illness and citizenship.’ Social Policy and Administration, 35 (10) 14–31http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00217, , , and (2006). ‘Disabled citizens and social exclusion: the role of direct payments.’ Policy and Politics, 34 (4) 633–650(2002). ‘The deserving and the undeserving? Refugees, asylum seekers and welfare in Britain.’ Critical Social Policy, 22 (3) 456–478(2002). ‘Poverty, social exclusion and health in Portugal.’ Social Science and Medicine, 55 (1) 33–35(2004). ‘Disability and social exclusion in the information society’ in Swain, J., French, S., Barnes, C. and Thomas, C. (eds) Disabling barriers, enabling environments. London: Sage in association with the Open University([Page 188]1988). ‘Social characteristics, the diagnosis of mental disorders and the change from DSMII to DSMIII’. Sociology of Health and Illness, 10, (4) 543–560http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10837190and (Shelter (2006). Street homelessness. London: ShelterShelter (2007a). Vulnerable groups. London: ShelterShelter (2007b). Older people and housing. London: ShelterShelter (2008). About us. London: Shelter2007). ‘International homelessness: policy, socio-cultural and individual perspectives.’ Journal of Social Issues, 63 (3) 657–677http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00529.x(2007). Organisations’ responses to the Disability Discrimination Act. DWP Research Report DWPRR 210, , , , and (2006). ‘Promoting the health of looked-after children.’ Community Practitioner, 79 (7) 217–220(1999). ‘Problems of the future? Drug use amongst vulnerable groups of young people.’ Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 6 (2) 195–210http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687639997142(2002). ‘Mortality’ in Bradshaw, J. (ed.) The well-being of children in the UK. London: Save the Children Fundand (2007). Reporting asylum: The UK press and the effectiveness of PCC guidelines. London: Information Centre about Asylum and Refugees in the UK, , and (2002). ‘Labour market experiences of people with disabilities.’ Labour Market Trends, 415–427and (2007). Youth justice: ideas, policy and practice,(2nd edn.Devon:Willan PublishingSocial Exclusion Taskforce (2007). Reaching out: an action plan on social exclusion. London: Cabinet OfficeSocial Exclusion Unit (1999). Teenage pregnancy. London: SEUSocial Exclusion Unit (2002). (http://www.socialexclusionunit.gov.uk) accessed 3/03/03Social Exclusion Unit (2004a). Breaking the cycle: taking stock of progress and priorities for the future. London: Office of the Deputy Prime MinisterSocial Exclusion Unit (2004b). Tackling social exclusion: taking stock and looking to the future - emerging findings. London: Office of the Deputy Prime MinisterSocial Exclusion Unit (2004c). Mental health and social exclusion. London: Office of the Deputy Prime MinisterSocial Exclusion Unit (2004d). Action on mental health. London: Office of the Deputy Prime MinisterSocial Exclusion Unit (2005). Excluded older people: Social Exclusion Unit interim report. London: Office of the Deputy Prime MinisterSocial Exclusion Unit (2006). A sure start to later life: ending inequalities for older people. London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister2008). ‘Places of exclusion and inclusion: asylum-seeker and refugee experience of neighbourhoods in the UK.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34 (3) 491–510http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691830701880350(2002). ‘Sex between people with “mental retardation”: an ethical evaluation.’ Journal of Moral Education, 31 (2) 155–169http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057240220143269and (2000). ‘New perspectives on vulnerability using emic and etic approaches.’ Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31 (3) 715–721http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01328.x([Page 189]2007). ‘Living with dementia from the perspective of older people: is it a positive story?’ Aging and Mental Health, 11 (2) 119–130http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860600963364, , , and (1995). ‘Children and the politics of culture in “Late Capitalism”’ in StephensS. (ed.) Children and the politics of culture. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press(2004). ‘Closer to home: a critique of British Government policy towards accommodating learning disabled people in their own homes.’ Critical Social Policy, 24, (2) 233–254http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018304041952(2007). ‘The victimization of dependent drug users; findings from a European study, UK.’ European Journal of Criminology, 4 (4) 385–408http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1477370807080719, , , , , , and (2007). ‘The aspiration and access to higher education of teenage refugees in the UK.’ Compare, 37 (5) 671–687and (2004). Seven ages of man and woman: a look at life in Britain in the second Elizabethan era: Swindon: ERSCand (2007). A child's-eye view of social difference. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation., , and (Swain, J., French, S., Barnes, C. and Thomas, C. (eds) (2004). Disabling barriers, enabling environments. London: Sage in association with the Open University1961). The myth of mental illness: Foundations of a theory of person conduct. New York: Harper and Row(2005). ‘Uncertainty, trust and pensions: the case of the current UK reforms.’ Social Policy and Administration, 39 (3) 217–232http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2005.00436.x(2006). ‘Parents “powerless to bring up their own children”’. The Observer, 12 November, 4and (2004). ‘The experience of disabled people as customers in the owner occupation market.’ Housing Studies, 19 (5) 781–794http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267303042000249206(2005). ‘The ethnic minority achievement grant: a critical analysis.’ J ournal of Education Policy, 20 (3) 283–312http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930500108619, and (2004). ‘Rethinking childhood depression.’ British Medical Journal, 329, 1394–1396http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.329.7479.1394(2004). ‘Policy provision for disabled students in higher education in Scotland and England: the current state of play.’ Studies in Higher Education, 29 (5) 637–657http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0307507042000261599, and (2004). ‘Living arrangements amongst older people: an overview of older people in Europe and the USA.’ Population Trends, 115, 24–34, , and (2002). ‘Social model theory: the story so far…’ Disability and Society, 17 (4) 457–470http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590220140377(2006). The body in health and social care. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2010.01323.x(UNHCR (2007). Protection, emergencies, returning home, building a new life. London: UN Refugee AgencyUnion of Physically Impaired against Segregation (1976). Fundamental principles of disability. London: Union of Physically Impaired against Segregation[Page 190]2005). ‘It takes two to tango: the inegration of people with disabilities into society.’ Disability and Society, 20 (3) 311–329http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590500060778, , and (2007). ‘Involuntary isolation: ethnic preferences and residential segregation.’ Journal of Urban Affairs, 29 (3) 289–309http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.2007.00344.x(2002). ‘Equal citizenship for all. disability policies in the Netherlands: empowerment of marginals.’ Disability and Society, 17 (2) 171–185http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590120122323and (2006). ‘Experiences in old age: a South Indian example of how functional age is socially structured.’ Oxford Development Studies, 34 (4) 457–472http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600810601045817(2006). ‘Age and old age’ in Payne, G. (ed.) Social divisions. Basingstoke: Macmillanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X02238969(1992). ‘The social construction of dependency in old age’ in Loney, M., Bocock, R., Clarker, J., Cochrane, A., Graham, P. and Wilson, M. (eds) The state of the market. London:Sage/Open University(2006). Securing good care for older people: taking a long-term view. London: Kings Fund(2004). ‘Righting the family picture: disability and family life’ in Swain, J., French, S., Barnes, C. and Thomas, C. (eds) Disabling barriers, enabling environments. London: Sage in association with the Open University(2007). ‘Language, education and ethnicity: whose rights will prevail in an age of globalisation?’ International Journal of Educational Development, 27 (3) 252–265http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2006.10.015(2002). ‘Well, I know this is going to sound very strange to you, but I don't see myself as a disabled person: identity and disability.’ Disability and Society, 17 (5) 509–527http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590220148496(2004). ‘Premature mortality among lone fathers and childless men.’ Social Science and Medicine, 59 (7) 1449–1459, and (2002). An introduction to the sociology of health and illness. London: Sage(2000). ‘Social policies and the pathways to inequalities in health: a comparative analysis of lone mothers in Britain and Sweden.’ Social Science and Medicine, 50 (2) 255–270, and (2006). ‘Changes in family financial circumstances and the physical health of married and recently divorced mothers.’ Social Science and Medicine, 63 (1) 123–136, , , , and (2007). ‘Selling the “Elixir of Life’: images of the elderly in an Olivio advertising campaign.’ Journal of Aging Studies, 21 (1) 1–21http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2006.09.001, and (2007). ‘Employment support agencies in the UK: current operation and future development needs.’ Health and Social Care in the Community, 15 (2) 128–135and (2007). ‘Trends in rates of onset of and recovery from disability at older ages: 1982–1994.’ Journal of Gerontology. Series B., psychological sciences and social sciences, 62 (1) 3–10http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/62.1.S3, and (2006). ‘Neighborhood experiences and community integration: perspectives from mental health providers and consumers.’ Social Work in Mental Health, 4 (3) 45–59http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J200v04n03_03, and (World Health Organization (2001). Declaration on young people and alcohol. Geneva: WHO[Page 191]2007). ‘Stigma and the sexual isolation of people with serious mental illness.’ Social Problems, 54 (1) 78–98http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.2007.54.1.78, , and (2007). ‘Income mobility among the elderly in Sweden during the 1990s.’ International Journal of Social Welfare, 16 (1) 84–93and (2005). ‘Social capital or social inclusion? The impact of asylum seeker dispersal on UK refugee community organisations.’ Community Development Journal, 40 (2) 169–181http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsi025, and (