Violent Betrayal: Partner Abuse in Lesbian Relationships

Books

Claire M. Renzetti

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    The project that forms the foundation of this book began in the spring of 1985. Then, as during most spring semesters, I was teaching a course in the sociology of gender. I had reached the point in the course at which I discuss intimate relationships. My students—mostly heterosexual, Catholic undergraduates—were listening to me highlight some of the similarities and differences between gay and lesbian relationships and straight relationships. “One difference,” I emphasized, “is that gay, and especially lesbian, relationships are not characterized by the power struggles that plague heterosexual relationships.” At the end of class, a young woman approached me. “I think you might like to read this,” she said, handing me a copy of the Philadelphia Gay News as we left the lecture hall.

    Over lunch at my desk that day, I perused PGN and, although I've never been certain if this is why the student suggested I read the paper, I came across an advertisement announcing a community forum on lesbian battering. At that time, I had been doing research on violence against women for almost 10 years, but lesbian battering was a problem with which I was totally unfamiliar. (Later I would discover that I was hardly alone in my ignorance.) I decided to get more information.

    Shawn Towey, who was then at Women Against Abuse in Philadelphia, was listed as the contact person for the community forum. She and I communicated by mail a couple of times, with me indicating my interest in learning more about the problem of lesbian battering and she relaying the little information that was available on the subject. Eventually, Shawn arranged for me to meet with several other women, some of whom were themselves survivors of lesbian partner abuse. Collectively, they had formed the Working Group on Lesbian Battering.

    At our first meeting, I presented my ideas for conducting a study of lesbian battering. Much questioning and discussion followed. It appeared obvious that the research would be difficult to do, but it was also clear that the problem is a serious one. Battered lesbians, we agreed, are isolated and stigmatized, not only because they are battering victims, but also because they are lesbians. It was suggested that maybe if “scientific” data were available, lesbian battering would be given the attention it deserves within both the lesbian and professional communities, and lesbian victims would be offered the assistance they need. In fact, one of the major goals of the project became determining what services victims themselves wished to have available. (These findings are discussed in Chapter 4.)

    The methodology that informed the research is discussed in detail in Chapter 1. Suffice it to say here, however, that this book belongs as much to the Working Group on Lesbian Battering as it does to me individually. At various times, the group included Rosemary McAndrew, Sue Miletta, Wendy Rustay, Judith Lyons, and Char Wilkins. I am indebted to them for their assistance in developing the research instruments and for their lively and often provocative discussions of the findings. But my deepest gratitude is reserved for Shawn Towey and Marie Hegerty, who have been involved with the research since its inception and with whom I continue to meet periodically to mull over new ideas. They have been my educators, advisors, collaborators, and most constructive critics. Perhaps more important, they are good friends. Their contributions to the success of this project are incalculable.

    During the course of the research, some members of the lesbian community expressed several concerns regarding the project. There were those who were understandably suspicious of the motivations underlying a heterosexual sociologist's interest in lesbian battering. Others questioned the timing of the study, given increasing anti-gay and anti-lesbian sentiment in the United States, and wondered whether it was wise to draw attention to a problem that could fuel societal homophobia.

    Such concerns are undoubtedly legitimate, but the women who volunteered to participate in the study raised other issues that, in my judgment, are of overriding significance. For example, during the interviews, when I informed them that I am not a lesbian, study participants uniformly indicated that my sexual orientation was not a problem for them. More important to them was the opportunity to tell their stories. Without exception, study participants wanted attention drawn to the problem of lesbian battering. In addition, many wrote on their questionnaires that participating in the research had helped them deal with the trauma of having been abused. For a few, it was the first time they had told anyone about their victimization.

    I want to take this opportunity to thank the women who volunteered to participate in this study. Their participation involved for each of them a recounting of painful experiences. I applaud their courage to speak out. It is primarily for them, and for all victims of lesbian partner abuse, that this book was written.

    I also wrote this book to educate my professional colleagues. Having studied violence against women for almost a decade when I undertook this research, I was somewhat used to answering what I considered naive questions about victims from trained professionals: e.g., Couldn't she have done something to stop it? Why didn't she just leave? Nevertheless, I was unprepared for a number of my colleagues' reactions to this particular project. Some implied that my reputation might be sullied; after all, why would anyone who is not a lesbian care about problems in lesbian relationships? Others expressed an interest in a voyeuristic sort of way; they apparently classified lesbians and lesbian relationships as “exotic.” Still others regarded the research as silly; in their opinion, lesbian battering was not a topic worthy of scientific study. Why was I “wasting” my time on this project, they wanted to know. I think the data and analysis presented in this book constitute in themselves a response to each of these views.

    Fortunately most of my colleagues, heterosexual and homosexual, responded positively to my work. I especially want to thank the Board on Faculty Research at St. Joseph's University for providing the initial funding for the project and, when I ran out of money, for awarding me a second grant that made it possible for me to complete the data collection. Thanks, too, to Hal Bertilson, currently the Dean of Natural and Social Sciences at the University of Nebraska, Kearney, Nebraska. Hal, a social psychologist specializing in the study of human aggression, exposed me to a body of research with which I was largely unfamiliar. In addition, he cheered me on during the research process, emphasizing the importance of my work for understanding intimate violence in general. Susan Miller at the University of Maryland put me in touch with other researchers and critically reviewed my written work. Special thanks also to Barbara Hart, Esq., of the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Barbara has written extensively on the problem of lesbian battering and is a victims' advocate. She shared research with me, read my written work, and raised questions that helped me think through the intricacies of some of the research findings. I am indebted as well to Kevin Berrill and members of the staff at the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. They shared their media list with me, which facilitated advertising the study. They also allowed me to purchase (for a nominal fee) a set of mailing labels for gay and lesbian organizations throughout the United States to which I sent announcements of the study. Their cooperation and support contributed in large part to the successful recruitment of study participants. Thanks also to Lynn Thompson-Haas of the Austin Rape Crisis Center for sharing her questionnaire on services for marital rape victims. That instrument, along with material provided by Mary Allan and Pam Elliott of the Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women, essentially formed the framework for the questionnaire I utilized to compile the resource guide that appears in Appendix B. And, as in every book I have written, I extend my thanks to librarians Deborah Thomas, Barbara Lang, and Chris Dixon.

    Without a publisher, of course, there really is no book. Consequently, I wish to take this opportunity to thank Sara Miller McCune and Charles (Terry) Hendrix of Sage Publications, Inc. Sara initially reviewed the prospectus for this book and passed it along to Terry, who subsequently nurtured the project (and me, at times). I am grateful for both their expertise and their friendship.

    I am well aware from previous experience that when one member of a family writes a book, the entire family gets drawn into the project one way or another. I want to thank my husband and colleague, Dan Curran, for his unfailing support and encouragement. And thanks to my sons, Sean and Aidan, who (usually) were patient and understanding when my work came before their play.

    Finally, I want to thank the student who gave me that copy of PGN back in the spring of 1985. Because I could not get in touch with her to ask permission to print her name, I must thank her anonymously. But should she ever read this, I want her to know that I appreciate what she did. And I want her to know that I've revised my lectures.

  • References

    Asherah, K. L. (1990). The myth of mutual abuse. In P.Elliott (Ed.), Confronting lesbian battering (pp. 56–58). St. Paul: Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women.
    Bahr, S., Chappell, C. B., & Marcos, A. (1987, Winter). An evaluation of a trial mediation programme. Mediation Quarterly, 37–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/crq.39019871805
    Barnett, O. W., & Lopez-Real, D. I. (1985, November). Women's reactions to battering and why women stay. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Diego, CA.
    Bernard, J. (1972). The future of marriage. New York: Bantam.
    Berzon, B. (1989). Permanent partners: Building gay and lesbian relationships that last. New York: Plume.
    Blood, R. O., & Wolfe, D. M. (1960). Husbands and wives. New York: Free Press.
    Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. (1983). American couples. New York: William Morrow.
    Bologna, M. J., Waterman, C. K., & Dawson, L. J. (1987, July). Violence in gay male and lesbian relationships: Implications for practitioners and policy makers. Paper presented at the Third National Conference for Family Violence Researchers, Durham, NH.
    Bose, C. E., & Rossi, P. H. (1983). Prestige standings of occupations as affected by gender. American Sociological Review, 48, 316–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095225
    Bowker, L. H. (1986). Ending the violence. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.
    Brand, P. A., & Kidd, A. H. (1986). Frequency of physical aggression in heterosexual and female homosexual dyads. Psychological Reports, 59, 1307–1313. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1986.59.3.1307
    Brown, S., Goldman, M. S., Inn, A., & Anderson, L. R. (1980). Expectations of reinforcement from alcohol: Their domain and relation to drinking problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 419–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.48.4.419
    Buikhuisen, W., Van Der Plas-Korenhoff, C., & Bontekoe, E. H. M. (1988). Alcohol and violence. In T. E.Moffit & S. A.Mednick (Eds.), Biological contributions to crime causation (pp. 261–276). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2768-1_15
    Bunch, C. (1978). Lesbians in revolt. In A. M.Jaggar & P. R.Struhl (Eds.), Feminist frameworks (pp. 135–139). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Burch, B. (1987). Barriers to intimacy: Conflicts over power, dependency, and nurturing in lesbian relationships. In Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Eds.), Lesbian psychologies (pp. 126–141). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Caldwell, M. A., & Peplau, L. A. (1984). The balance of power in lesbian relationships. Sex Roles, 10, 587–599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287267
    Cardell, M., Finn, S., & Marecek, J. (1981). Sex-role identity, sex-role behavior, and satisfaction in heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5, 488–494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1981.tb00588.x
    Ceasar, P. L. (1988). Exposure to violence in the families of origin among wife-abusers and maritally nonviolent men. Violence and Victims, 3, 49–63.
    Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Coleman, M. T., & Waters, J. M. (1989, August). Beyond gender role explanations: The division of household labor in gay and lesbian households. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, San Francisco, CA.
    Coleman, V. E. (1990). Violence between lesbian couples: A between groups comparison. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University Microfilms International, 9109022.
    Cotton, W. L. (1975). Social and sexual relationships of lesbians. The Journal of Sex Research, 11, 139–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224497509550887
    Dailey, D. N. (1979). Adjustment of homosexual and heterosexual couples in pairing relationships: An exploratory study. Journal of Sex Research, 11, 143–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224497909551032
    De Cecco, J. P., & Shively, M. G. (1978). A study of perceptions of rights and needs in interpersonal conflicts in homosexual relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 205–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v03n03_02
    Diamond, D. L., & Wilsnack, S. C. (1978). Alcohol abuse among lesbians: A descriptive study. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 123–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v04n02_01
    Dobash, R. E., & Dobash, R. P. (1984). The nature and antecedents of violent events. The British Journal of Criminology, 24, 269–288.
    Edwards, S. S. M. (1989). Policing ‘domestic’ violence. London: Sage.
    Elise, D. (1986). Lesbian couples: The implications of sex differences in separation and individuation. Psychotherapy, 23, 305–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085614
    Elliott, D. S. (1989). Criminal justice procedures in family violence crimes. In L.Ohlin & M.Tonry (Eds.), Family violence (pp. 427–480). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Elliott, P. (1990). Introduction. In P.Elliott (Ed.), Confronting Lesbian Battering. St. Paul: Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women.
    Elliott, P. (1991, Spring). How should battered lesbians seek help and justice?Lesbian Battering Intervention Project Report, p.3.
    Ellis, D. (1988, November). Marital conflict mediation and post-separation wife-abuse. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago, IL.
    Fagan, J. (1989). Cessation of family violence: Deterrence and dissuasion. In L.Ohlin & M.Tonry (Eds.), Family violence (pp. 377–425). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Felson, R. B., & Ribner, S. A. (1981). An attributional approach to accounts and sanctions for criminal violence. Social Psychology Quarterly, 44, 137–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033710
    Felstiner, W., & Williams, L. (1978). Mediation as an alternative to criminal prosecution: Ideology and limitations. Law and Human Behavior, 2, 221–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01039081
    Fifield, L. (1975). On my way to nowhere: Alienated, isolated, drunk. Los Angeles: Gay Community Services Center.
    Finkelhor, D., Gelles, R. J., Hotaling, G. T., & Straus, M. A. (Eds.). (1983). The dark side of families. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Folberg, J., & Taylor, A. (1984). Mediation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Follingstad, D. R., Rutledge, L. L., Berg, B. J., Hause, E. S., & Polek, D. S. (1990). The role of emotional abuse in physically abusive relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 5, 107–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00978514
    Freeza, H., Padova, C. D., Pozzato, G., Terpin, M., Baraona, E., & Lieber, C. S. (1990). High blood alcohol levels in women: The role of decreased gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity and first-pass metabolism. The New England Journal of Medicine, 322, 95–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199001113220205
    Frieze, I. H., & Schafer, P. C. (1984). Alcohol use and marital violence: Female and male differences in reactions to alcohol. In S. C.Wilsnack & L. J.Beckman (Eds.), Alcohol problems in women (pp. 260–279). New York: Guildford.
    Garcia, J. (1991, May 6). The cost of escaping domestic violence. Los Angeles Times, p. E2.
    Gelles, R. J., & Cornell, C. P. (1990). Intimate violence in families. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Geraci, L. (1986). Making shelters safe for lesbians. In K.Lobel (Ed.), Naming the violence (pp. 77–79). Seattle: Seal.
    Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Glaser, B., & Straus, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine.
    Gravdal, B. W. (1982). A study of locus of control and sex-role typology in two groups of battered women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University Microfilms International, 8215143.
    Grover, J. (1990). Children from violent lesbian homes. In P.Elliott (Ed.), Confronting lesbian battering (pp. 42–43). St. Paul: Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women.
    Guth, J., & Elliott, P. (Eds.). (1991). Confronting Homophobia. St. Paul: Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women.
    Hammond, N. (1989). Lesbian victims of relationship violence. Women and Therapy, 8, 89–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v08n01_08
    Hart, B. (1986). Lesbian battering: An examination. In K.Lobel (Ed.), Naming the violence (pp. 173–189). Seattle: Seal.
    Harway, M., Hansen, M., & Cervantes, N. (1991). Therapist awareness of appropriate intervention in treatment of domestic violence. Unpublished manuscript.
    Herzberger, S. D. (1990). The cyclical pattern of child abuse. American Behavioral Scientist, 33, 529–545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764290033005003
    Hiller, D. V., & Philliber, W. W. (1986). The division of labor in contemporary marriage: Expectations, perceptions, and performance. Social Problems, 33, 191–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800704
    Hochschild, A. R. (1989). The second shift. New York: Viking.
    Hornstein, S. J. (1985). Domestic violence by and against women: An interview about lesbian violence. Western Center on Domestic Violence Review, 10, 3–11.
    Irvine, J. (1990). Lesbian battering: The search for shelter. In P.Elliott (Ed.), Confronting lesbian battering (pp. 25–30). St. Paul: Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women.
    Island, D., & Letellier, P. (1991). Men who beat the men who love them. New York: Harrington Park.
    Johnston, J. (1973). Lesbian nation: The feminist solution. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Kalmuss, D. S. (1984). The intergenerational transmission of marital aggression. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 11–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351858
    Kanuha, V. (1990). Compounding the triple jeopardy: Battering in lesbian of color relationships. Women and Therapy, 9, 169–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v09n01_10
    Kaufman, P., Harrison, E., & Hyde, M. (1984). Distancing for intimacy in lesbian relationships. Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 419–421.
    Kaufman Kantor, G., & Straus, M. A. (1987). The “drunken bum” theory of wife beating. Social Problems, 34, 213–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800763
    Kelly, E. E., & Warshafsky, L. (1987, July). Partner abuse in gay male and lesbian couples. Paper presented at the Third National Conference for Family Violence Researchers, Durham, NH.
    Kitzinger, C. (1987). The social construction of lesbianism. London: Sage.
    Koss, M. P. (1990). The women's mental health research agenda: Violence against women. American Psychologist, 45, 374–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.3.374
    Krestan, J., & Bepko, C. S. (1980). The problem of fusion in the lesbian relationship. Family Process, 19, 277–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1980.00277.x
    Krieger, S. (1982). Lesbian identity and community: Recent social science literature. Signs, 8, 91–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/493944
    Krieger, S. (1983). The mirror dance. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Kurdek, L. A., & Schmitt, J. P. (1986). Relationship quality of partners in heterosexual married, heterosexual cohabiting, and gay and lesbian relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 711–720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.4.711
    Kurz, D. (1987). Emergency department responses to battered women: Resistance to medicalization. Social Problems, 34, 69–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800730
    Laner, M. R. (1977). Permanent partner priorities: Gay and straight. Journal of Homosexuality, 3, 21–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v03n01_03
    LBIP Report (Summer, 1991, p. 1). Legal rights for battered lesbians increases in OH, ID. St. Paul: Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women.
    Lee, R. M., & Renzetti, C. M. (1990). The problems of researching sensitive topics. American Behavioral Scientist, 33, 510–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764290033005002
    Leeder, E. (1988). Enmeshed in pain: Counseling the lesbian battering couple. Women and Therapy, 7, 81–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015V07N01_07
    Lesser, B. Z. (1981). Factors influencing battered women's return to their mates following a shelter program: Attachment and situational variables. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University Microfilms International, 8114754.
    Lewis, R. A., Kozac, E. B., Milardo, R. M., & Grosnick, W. A. (1981). Commitment in same-sex love relationships. Alternative Lifestyles, 4, 22–42.
    Lie, G. & Gentlewainer, S. (1991). Intimate violence in lesbian relationships: Discussion of survey findings and practice implications. Journal of Social Service Research, 15, 41–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J079v15n01_03
    Lie, G., Schlitt, R., Bush, J., Montagne, M., & Reyes, L. (1991). Lesbians in currently aggressive relationships: How frequently do they report aggressive past relationships?Violence and Victims, 6, 121–135.
    Lindenbaum, J. P. (1985). The shattering of an illusion: The problem of competition in lesbian relationships. Feminist Studies, 11, 85–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3180134
    Lipps, H. (1988). Sex and gender. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
    Loseke, D. R., & Cahill, S. E. (1984). The social construction of deviance: Experts on battered women. Social Problems, 31, 296–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800443
    Loulan, J. (1987). Lesbian passion. San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute.
    Maguire, P. (1987). Doing participatory research: A feminist approach. Amherst: The Center for International Education, School of Education, University of Massachusetts.
    Manzano, T. A. (1989, April). Domestic violence and chemical dependency: A dual-track program design (The Tulsa model). Paper presented at the Second National Working with Batterers Conference, Baltimore, MD.
    Margolies, L., Becker, M., & Jackson-Brewer, K. (1987). Internalized homophobia: Identifying and treating the oppressor within. In Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Eds.), Lesbian psychologies (pp. 229–241). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    McAndrew, R. (1985, April). Battering in lesbian relationships. Labyrinth, p. 5.
    McCandlish, B. M. (1982). Therapeutic issues with lesbian couples. Journal of Homosexuality, 7, 71–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v07n02_09
    McNeely, R. L., & Robinson-Simpson, G. (1987). The truth about domestic violence: A falsely framed issue. Social Work, 32, 485–490.
    Morrow, S. L., & Hawxhurst, D. M. (1989). Lesbian partner abuse: Implications for therapists. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68, 58–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1989.tb02494.x
    Muldary, P. S. (1983). Attributions of causality of spouse assault. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University Microfilms International, 8318576.
    Nicoloff, L. K., & Stiglitz, E. A. (1987). Lesbian alcoholism: Etiology, treatment, and recovery. In Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Eds.), Lesbian psychologies (pp. 283–293). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Ojeda-Zapata, J. (1990, October 21). Battering No. 1 lesbian problem. St. Paul Pioneer Press-Dispatch. Located in Newsbank [microform], Social relations, 1990, 72:D3–5, fiche.
    O'Leary, K. D. (1988). Physical aggression between spouses: A social learning perspective. In V. B.Van Hasselt, R. L.Morrison, A. S.Bellack, & M.Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of family violence (pp. 31–55). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-5360-8_3
    Pagelow, M. (1981). Women-battering: Victims and their experiences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Pearlman, S. F. (1987). The saga of continuing clash in the lesbian community, or will an army of ex-lovers fail? In Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Eds.), Lesbian psychologies, (pp. 313–326). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Pearlman, S. F. (1989). Distancing and connectedness: Impact on couple formation in lesbian relationships. Women and Therapy, 8, 77–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v08n01_07
    Peplau, L. A., Cochran, S., Rook, K., & Padesky, C. (1978). Loving women: Attachment and autonomy in lesbian relationships. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 7–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1978.tb02611.x
    Peplau, L. A., Padesky, C., & Hamilton, M. (1983). Satisfaction in lesbian relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 8, 23–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v08n02_04
    Pharr, S. (1986). Two workshops on homophobia. In K.Lobel (Ed.), Naming the violence (pp. 202–222). Seattle: Seal.
    Piantra, R., Egeland, B., & Erikson, M. F. (1989). The antecedents of maltreatment: Results of the Mother-Child Interaction Project. In D.Cicchetti & V.Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 203–253). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511665707.008
    Pillemer, K. (1985). The dangers of dependency: New findings on domestic violence against the elderly. Social Problems, 33, 146–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800558
    Porat, N. (1986). Support groups for battered lesbians. In K.Lobel (Ed.), Naming the violence (pp. 80–87). Seattle: Seal.
    Ptacek, J. (1988). Why do men batter their wives? In K.Yllö & M.Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 133–157). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Randall, S. C., & V. M.Rose (1981). Barriers to becoming a “successful” rape victim. In L. H.Bowker (Ed.), Women and crime in America (pp. 336–354). New York: Macmillan.
    Reed, D., Fischer, S., Kantor, G. K., & Karales, K. (1983). All they can do: Police responses to battered women's complaints. Chicago: Law Enforcement Study Group.
    Reid, C. (1978). Comin’ out. In A. M.Jaggar & P. R.Struhl (Eds.), Feminist frameworks (pp. 303–310). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Renzetti, C. M. (1988). Violence in lesbian relationships: A preliminary analysis of causal factors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 381–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626088003004003
    Rich, A. (1980). Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence. Signs, 5, 631–660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/493756
    Risman, B., & Schwartz, P. (1988). Sociological research on male and female homosexuality. Annual Review of Sociology, 14, 125–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.14.080188.001013
    Rosenbaum, A., & O'Leary, K. D. (1981). Marital violence: Characteristics of abusive couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 63–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.49.1.63
    Rowland, D., Arkkelin, D., & Crisler, L. (1991). Computer-based data analysis. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Saunders, D. G. (1980). The police response to battered women: Predictors of officers' use of arrest, counseling and minimal action. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University Microfilms International, 8008840.
    Saunders, D. G. (1988). Wife abuse, husband abuse, or mutual combat? A feminist perspective on the empirical findings. In K.Yllö and M.Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 90–113). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Saunders, D. G. (1989, November). Who hits first and who hurts most? Evidence for greater victimization of women in intimate relationships. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Reno, NV.
    Saunders, D. G., & Size, P. B. (1986). Attitudes about woman abuse among police officers, victims, and victim advocates. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1, 25–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626086001001003
    Schullo, S. A., & Alperson, B. L. (1984). Interpersonal phenomenology as a function of sexual orientation, sex, sentiment, and trait categories in long-term dyadic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 983–1002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.47.5.983
    Schur, E. M. (1984). Labeling women deviant. New York: Random House.
    Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Steinmetz, S. K. (1978). The battered husband syndrome. Victimology, 2, 499–509.
    Straus, M. A. (1974). Cultural and social organizational influences on violence between family members. In R.Prince & D.Barrier (Eds.), Configurations: Biological and cultural factors in sexuality and family life (pp. 53–69). Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
    Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The conflict tactics (CT) scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351733
    Straus, M. A. (1989). The Conflict Tactics Scales and its critics: An evaluation and new data on validity and reliability. In M. A.Straus & R. J.Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 49–74). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. K. (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. New York: Anchor/Doubleday.
    Sudman, S., Sirken, M. G., & Curran, C. D. (1988). Sampling rare and elusive populations. Science, 240, 991–996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.240.4855.991
    Tanner, D. (1978). The lesbian couple. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
    Thompson, L., & Walker, A. J. (1989). Women and men in marriage: Work and parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 845–872. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353201
    Vargo, S. (1987). The effects of women's socialization on lesbian couples. In Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Eds.), Lesbian psychologies (pp. 161–174). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Walker, L. (1986). Battered women's shelters and work with battered lesbians. In K.Lobel (Ed.), Naming the violence (pp. 73–76). Seattle: Seal.
    Walker, L. E. (1979). The battered woman. New York: Harper and Row.
    Walker, L. E. (1989). Terrifying love. New York: Harper Perennial.
    Weathers, B. (1980). Alcoholism and the lesbian community. In N.Gottlieb (Ed.), Alternative services for women, (pp. 158–169). New York: Columbia University Press.
    White, G. L., & Mullen, P. E. (1989). Jealousy: Theory, research, and clinical strategies. New York: Guildford.
    Wilson, G. T., & Lawson, D. M. (1976). Expectancies, alcohol, and sexual arousal in male social drinkers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 587–594. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.85.6.587
    Wolfgang, M. E. (1982). Basic concepts in victimological theory: Individualization of the victim. In H. J.Schneider (Ed.), The victim in international perspective (pp. 47–58). New York: deGruyter.

    Appendix A: Research Instruments

    5600 City Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19131

    Dear Participant:

    Thank you for requesting a questionnaire to participate in this study on lesbian battering. Lesbian battering is a serious, but little-understood problem. By participating in this study, you are also helping all your sisters in the lesbian community.

    This study was developed with the assistance of the Working Group on Lesbian Battering. The Working Group on Lesbian Battering is a support group of Philadelphia-area lesbians whose goals are to educate the lesbian community on the problem of lesbian battering and to provide safe space for battered lesbians. Last spring, the Working Group also sponsored a community forum on violence in lesbian relationships. With regard to the present study, the Working Group has been involved in the development of the attached questionnaire and serves as an advisory group for the project.

    The study asks you to answer a series of questions about you, your batterer, and the nature of your relationship with one another, as well as about the battering itself. The questionnaire should take no more than one hour to complete. It assumes that you have been involved in only one abusive lesbian relationship. If you have had more than one such relationship, answer the questions in the context of your most recent abusive relationship. (If you have been victimized in more than one

    abusive lesbian relationship, please check here:_____.)

    Once you have completed the questionnaire, simply put it in the enclosed postage-paid envelope and drop it in the mail. Please return the completed questionnaire as soon as possible, but no later than _____.

    Be assured that all of your answers to these questions will be completely confidential; I will be the only one to see the actual questionnaires when they are returned. In addition, all identifying information will be deleted for analysis and in reporting the findings.

    A preliminary analysis of the findings of this study should be completed by mid-October. You may obtain a free copy of these findings by requesting one from me at the address printed above. It is important, however, that you wait until October to make the request if you anticipate that your address may change between now and then.

    Once again, on behalf of myself and the Working Group on Lesbian Battering, I thank you for your participation.

    Sincerely,

    Claire M. Renzetti, Ph.D.

    Survey on Lesbian Battering

    The initial questions in this survey are general ones about you, your batterer, and your relationship to one another. Some of these questions concern your personal attributes and those of your batterer, while others deal with how you and your batterer typically interact(ed) with one another.

    First, try to describe yourself using the scale and the list of characteristics that follow below on the left. In the box next to each characteristic, write the number from the scale that best indicates how true the characteristic is of you. Be sure to use only the list on the left side of the page.

    Now repeat the process to describe your batterer, but this time, write the numbers from the scale in the boxes next to the list of characteristics on the right side of the page.

    The next section of this questionnaire deals with general aspects of your relationship with the partner who battered you. All intimate relationships are characterized by many different feelings and patterns of interaction. Lesbian relationships are no different in this regard. Below are two scales, each with several statements which reflect various feelings and patterns of interaction that may characterize intimate relationships. For each statement, circle the number corresponding to the response on the scale which best indicates how true each statement is of your relationship with the partner who battered you.

    Just as all intimate relationships experience a variety of problems and strains, couples tend to resolve their conflicts in a wide variety of ways. Again, this is as true of lesbian couples as it is of others. The next section of this questionnaire explores some of the ways you and the partner who battered you may have routinely tried to resolve your common disagreements and conflicts.

    Below is a list of things you and your partner might have done to try to resolve a conflict or disagreement between you. For each item on the list, circle the number corresponding to the response on the scale that best indicates how often YOU TYPICALLY used the technique to resolve a conflict or disagreement with the partner who battered you.

    Now, using the same list that appears again below, circle the number corresponding to the response on the scale that best indicates how often YOUR PARTNER TYPICALLY used each technique to help resolve a conflict or argument with you.

    All intimate relationships experience strains and problems at some time or another, and the extent to which these problems negatively affect a relationship varies from couple to couple. Lesbian relationships are not exempt from this. The section of the questionnaire that follows asks about general problems and conflicts you and your batterer may have had during the course of your relationship.

    Below is a list of common problems and sources of strain in lesbian relationships. For each item, circle the number on the scale that best indicates the extent to which it was a problem in your relationship with the partner who battered you.

    Now the questionnaire will turn from your relationship with your batterer in general to the actual battering experience itself.

    For each of the following questions, circle the letter corresponding to the response that best reflects your situation or your feelings in the abusive relationship.

    • What is (was) the length of your relationship with your batterer?
      • less than 6 months
      • 6–11 months
      • more than 1 year, but less than 2 years
      • more than 2 years, but less than 5 years
      • more than 5 years
    • Has the relationship ended?
      • yes
      • no
    • If the relationship has ended, who ended the relationship?
      • I ended the relationship
      • My batterer ended the relationship
      • My batterer and I mutually agreed to end the relationship
    • At what point in the relationship did your batterer first abuse you?
      • less than 6 months into the relationship
      • 6–11 months after the relationship began
      • more than 1 year, but less than 2 years into the relationship
      • more than 2 years, but less than 5 years into the relationship
      • more than 5 years after the relationship began

    Please describe this first incidence of battering and how you reacted to it. (Please feel free to attach additional sheets if necessary.)

    • Did the battering grow progressively worse over time?
      • yes
      • no
      • uncertain
    • Did you notice any pattern to the battering? For example, did it usually occur at a particular time or at a specific location?
      • yes
      • no
      • uncertain
    • If yes, please describe the pattern you noticed.

    • Below is a list of various forms of physical abuse. Please indicate how often, if ever, your batterer used each form against you.

    • Violent behavior can also be psychological in nature in that while you are not physically in danger, the behavior frightens or intimidates you, or it harms others who are important to you. Below is a list of various forms of this type of violent behavior. Please indicate how often, if ever, your batterer used any of these against you.

    • Did you ever defend yourself against the battering or retaliate against your batterer?
      • yes
      • no
      • uncertain
    • If yes, please describe how you fought back or retaliated.

    • Were you or your abuser ever under the influence of drugs or alcohol at the time of a battering incident?
      • yes, my partner was
      • yes, I was
      • yes, we both were
      • no, neither of us was
    • How many incidents of battering did you experience in this relationship?
      • 1–2
      • 3–5
      • 6–10
      • more than 10
    • The reasons for remaining in an abusive relationship are varied. Below is a list of some of those reasons. If you experienced more than 2 battering incidents but remained in the relationship, indicate your reason(s) for staying using this list. For each reason on the list, circle the number that corresponds to the response that best describes the extent to which that reason played a part in your remaining in the abusive relationship.

    • Did you ever seek help to deal with or to end the battering?
      • yes
      • no
    • If you sought help, use the list below to indicate to whom you went for help; check all that apply. Then, using the scale to the right of the list, indicate how helpful each individual or agency was to you by circling the response that best describes your experience with them.

    • Whether or not you sought help, please describe what response from others would have been most helpful to you.

      Finally, would you provide some background information about you and your batterer so that your experiences can be compared with those of others? For each of the following questions, circle the response that best describes you or your batterer.

    • How old are you?
      • under 18
      • 18–25
      • 26–35
      • 36–50
      • over 50
    • How old is your batterer?
      • under 18
      • 18–25
      • 26–35
      • 36–50
      • over 50
    • What is your racial identification?_____
    • What is the racial identification of your batterer?_____
    • What is the highest level of education you have completed?
      • elementary school
      • some high school
      • high school diploma
      • some college
      • a bachelor's degree
      • some graduate or professional school
      • a graduate or professional degree
    • What is the highest level of education your batterer has completed?
      • elementary school
      • some high school
      • high school diploma
      • some college
      • a bachelor's degree
      • some graduate or professional school
      • a graduate or professional degree h. I don't know
    • Are you currently employed?
      • yes
      • no
    • If you are currently employed, what is your occupation?_______
    • Is your batterer currently employed?
      • yes
      • no
      • I don't know
    • If your batterer is currently employed, what is her occupation?_______
    • Approximately what is your current yearly income?
      • less than $10,000
      • $10,000-$15,000
      • $15,001-$25,000
      • $25,001-$35,000
      • $35,001-$50,000
      • over $50,000
    • Approximately what is the yearly income of your batterer?
      • less than $10,000
      • $10,000-$15,000
      • $15,001-$25,000
      • $25,001-$35,000
      • $35,001-$50,000
      • over $50,000
      • I don't know
    • What is your current living arrangement?
      • I live alone
      • I live with a lover (not my batterer)
      • I live with my batterer
      • I live with relatives
      • I live with others (roommates)
      • I am presently staying in a women's shelter
    • What is the current living arrangement of your batterer?
      • She lives alone
      • She lives with a lover (not me)
      • She lives with me
      • She lives with relatives
      • She lives with others (roommates)
      • I don't know

    Often questionnaires do not allow for telling the full story or for adequately expressing feelings. Because this may be the case with this questionnaire, I would welcome the opportunity to discuss your experiences with you further. If you would be willing to be interviewed, simply provide the information requested below. I will then contact you as soon as possible to arrange for a mutually convenient time and place for the interview. All interviews will be private, and they will be conducted in a safe place. The interview should last about an hour. You will be reimbursed for the cost of your transportation to and from the site of the interview.

    Yes, I would be willing to share my experiences further in an interview. I may be contacted at:

    Address:

    and/or phone number:

    The best time to reach me is:

    My name is: (a first name only or a pseudonym is fine)

    THIS CONCLUDES THE QUESTIONNAIRE ON LESBIAN BATTERING. WE APPRECIATE THE TIME AND ENERGY YOU HAVE GIVEN FOR THIS SURVEY. WE UNDERSTAND THAT WRITING ABOUT YOUR ABUSE MAY BE DIFFICULT. KNOW THAT WE CARE ABOUT YOUR STRUGGLE AND WE SUPPORT YOU.

    Lesbian Violence Project Interview Schedule

    The questionnaire covered a lot of ground, but like all questionnaires, it probably didn't give you the opportunity to say all you wanted about your battering experiences.

    The main purpose of this interview is to give you the opportunity to do just that—to tell your story in as much detail as you like, and to fill in anything you left out on the questionnaire.

    • To begin, then, I want to ask you if there's anything you didn't get to say in the questionnaire. What would you like to add to your questionnaire responses?
    • Whenever anyone has the kind of experience you've had, they naturally want to explain it. We all ask, “Why did this happen to me? How could this have happened to me?” How did you explain the battering incidents to yourself?
      • PROBE: Did your explanations change over time—as the relationship continued, after it ended?
      • PROBE: Apart from why you think this happened to you, why do you think a woman would batter another woman?
      • PROBE: Do you think women batter for the same reasons men batter?
    • During your abusive relationship, did you know anyone else who was battered?
      • PROBE: (if so), Did you share your experiences with her?
    • What were some of your reactions to the battering?
      • PROBE: How did your reactions change over time? As the battering got worse? As the relationship progressed? After the relationship ended?
      • PROBE: Why do you think you reacted the way you did? Was there anything in your past experiences that could have contributed to your reactions? Anything in your family background perhaps, or in your other relationships, either with friends or lovers?
      • PROBE: Did the violence take you completely off guard in that you had never witnessed this kind of violence before?
      • PROBE: Was there anything in your partner's background that you think may have contributed to her battering?
    • What is lesbianism to you? Did the battering change your perceptions of lesbian relationships in any way?
      • PROBE: Did it change your feelings about being a lesbian? Are you glad you're a lesbian?
      • PROBE: Did it change your feelings about women at all?
    • Getting out of a battering relationship, freeing yourself of the violence, is often difficult because of pressures you feel from outside the relationship. One of those pressures can come from living under the label “ideal couple.” Friends don't believe this could be happening to you because you and your lover are the “perfect couple.” Did you experience any of that kind of pressure?
      • PROBE: (if so), What sorts of problems did that pose for you in terms of the relationship, and in freeing yourself from the battering?
      • PROBE: Did your partner ever appear to you to be two different people in a sense—one person in public and another in private?
      • PROBE: (if so), What impact did this have on you in terms of getting free of the violence?
    • Another difficulty in getting out of an abusive relationship comes, of course, from the batterer herself. The conflict and power dynamics that have been established in the relationship put you, the victim, at a disadvantage, and the batterer in almost complete control. Did you experience any of this pressure from your batterer? How did she exercise her power over you, apart from the actual physical abuse?
      • PROBE: Did she seem to become threatened if you exercised any independence, or pursued outside interests?
      • PROBE: How did she control you, or try to control you, through emotional abuse?
      • PROBE: Did she ever threaten or try to kill or harm herself as a means to control you?
      • PROBE: Did alcohol or drugs figure prominently in this effort to control you or in the battering incidents in any way?
    • Another problem in getting free of an abusive relationship is accepting the fact that one is battered. What made you come to identify yourself as a battered lesbian?
      • PROBE: How do you feel connecting those two words: battered and lesbian?
      • PROBE: Were you aware of the problem of lesbian battering before you had your own experiences?
    • I have just one more question for you: How did you find out about the study?
      • PROBE: Did you see our pamphlet? (if so): Were you aware of the problem before you saw the pamphlet or was that the first time you really identified yourself as battered?
      • PROBE: (if she read the pamphlet): Did you find it helpful? What did you think about it?

    Appendix B: Resources for Battered Lesbians

    A questionnaire (which appears at the end of this appendix) was sent to 1,505 service providers listed in the 1991 National Directory of Domestic Violence Programs compiled by the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Of the questionnaires distributed, 557 were completed and returned, a response rate of about 37%. Some of the findings of this survey are discussed in Chapter 5. On the final page of the questionnaire, however, service providers were asked specifically if they would like to be included in this resource guide; 395 (70.9%) responded affirmatively. The service providers are grouped alphabetically by state. Within each state grouping, service providers are listed alphabetically by the city or town in which they are located. For most, a mailing address and phone number(s) are provided; a few, however, did not include phone numbers. An asterisk (*) after the service provider's name indicates that that specific service provider also offers services to lesbian batterers. All others offer services to victims only.

    It must be emphasized here that this guide was compiled for the purpose of referral only. The sole criterion for inclusion was the request and consent of the service providers. Consequently it is not intended as an evaluation of the type or quality of the services offered. However, I welcome such evaluations from battered lesbians who do utilize the services. In this way, service providers may eventually be given feedback on ways they can improve their services to lesbians who have been battered.

    Alaska

    • Alaska Women's
    • Resource Center*
    • 111 West 9th
    • Anchorage, AK 99501
    • 907-276-0528 (8:30-5:30, Monday-Friday at other times an answering machine provides crisis numbers)
    • Abused Women's Aid in Crisis
    • 100 W. 13th Ave.
    • Anchorage, AK 99501 907-272-0100 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 907-279-9581 (business)
    • A.W.A.R.E.
    • P.O. Box 020809
    • Juneau, AK
    • 907-586-1090 (crisis line)
    • 907-586-6623 (office)
    • Women in Safe Homes
    • P.O. Box 6552
    • Ketchikan, AK 99901
    • 907-225-9474 800-478-9474 (in state only)
    • Valley Women's Resource Center
    • 403 South Alaska St.
    • Palmer, AK 99645
    • 907-746-4980
    • Sitkans Against Family Violence
    • P.O. Box 6136
    • Sitka, AK 99835
    • 907-747-6511 (crisis line)
    • 800-478-6511 (in state only)
    • 907-747-3370 (office)
    • Advocates for Victims
    • of Violence*
    • P.O. Box 524
    • Valdez, AK 99686
    • 907-835-2999 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 907-835-2980

    Arizona

    • Prehab's Autumn House
    • P.O. Drawer 5860
    • Mesa, AZ 85211
    • 602-835-5555 (hotline)
    • 602-962-0570 (out client)
    • Chrysalis Shelter*
    • P.O. Box 9956
    • Phoenix, AZ 85068
    • 602-944-4999 (Phoenix)
    • 602-481-0402 (Scottsdale)
    • 602-870-7779/7780 (outpatient)
    • Brewster Center*
    • 2711 E. Broadway
    • Tucson, AZ 85716
    • 602-622-6347 (crisis line)
    • 602-881-7701 (counseling for victims or batterers)
    • Safe House*
    • 1700 S. 1st Ave., #100
    • Yuma, AZ 85364
    • 602-782-0077

    California

    • Battered Women's Services of San Mateo
    • 604 Mountain View Ave.
    • Belmont, CA 94002
    • 415-342-0850
    • Interface Family Services*
    • 1305 Del Norte Rd., Suite 130
    • Camarillo, CA 93010
    • 800-339-9597
    • Catalyst Women's
    • Advocates, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 4184
    • Chico, CA95927
    • 916-895-8476 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 916-343-7711 (business)
    • House of Ruth
    • P.O. Box 457
    • Claremont, CA 91711
    • 714-988-5559 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 714-623-4364 (office)
    • Battered Women's Alternatives*
    • P.O. Box 6406
    • Concord, CA 94524
    • 415-676-2845 (victims and batterers)
    • Orange County Community
    • Development Council*
    • 1695 W. MacArthur Blvd.
    • Costa Mesa, CA 92626
    • 800-660-4232
    • Humboldt Women for Shelter
    • P.O. Box 969
    • Eureka, CA 95502
    • 707-443-6042
    • 707-444-9255 (business)
    • Shelter Against Violent
    • Environments*
    • P.O. Box 8283
    • Fremont, CA 94537
    • 415-794-6055
    • Domestic Violence Coalition*
    • P.O. Box 484
    • Grass Valley, CA 95945
    • 916-272-3467 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 916-272-2046 (business)
    • Antelope Valley Domestic
    • Violence Council
    • P.O. Box 4226
    • Lancaster, CA 93539
    • 805-945-6736 (24-hour hotline)
    • 805-945-5509 (business)
    • A Woman's Place
    • P.O. Box 822
    • Merced, CA 95341
    • 209-722-HELP (hotline)
    • 209-725-7900 (office)
    • Mid-Peninsula Support
    • Network for Battered Women
    • 200 Blossom Lane, 3rd Floor
    • Mountain View, CA 94041
    • 415-940-7855 (crisis line)
    • 415-940-7850 (office)
    • Napa Emergency
    • Women's Service
    • P.O. Box 427
    • Napa, CA 94559
    • 707-255-6397
    • Association to Aid Victims of
    • Domestic Violence*
    • P.O. Box 186
    • Newhall, CA 91322
    • 805-259-4357
    • 805-259-8175 (office)
    • A Safe Place
    • P.O. Box 275
    • Oakland, CA 94604
    • 415-536-7233
    • El Dorado Women's Center
    • 3133 Gilmore
    • Placerville, CA 95667
    • 916-626-1131 (crisis line)
    • 916-626-1450 (office)
    • Haven House, Inc.*
    • P.O. Box 50007
    • Pasadena, CA 91115
    • 213-681-2626 (hotline)
    • 818-564-8880 (all other calls)
    • Shasta County Women's
    • Refuge P.O. Box 4211
    • Redding, CA 96099
    • 916-244-0117
    • W.E.A.V.E.*
    • P.O. Box 161356
    • Sacramento, CA 95816
    • 916-920-2952
    • Center for Women's Studies
    • and Services*
    • 2467 E Street
    • San Diego, CA 92102
    • 619-233-3088 (24-hour victims' hotline)
    • 619-233-8984 (business)
    • La Casa de Las Madres
    • 965 Mission St., #218
    • San Francisco, CA 94103
    • 415-333-1515 (crisis line)
    • 415-777-1808 (office)
    • The Riley Center
    • 1745 Folsom St.
    • San Francisco, CA 94103
    • 415-255-0165 (crisis line)
    • WOMAN, Inc.
    • 333 Valencia St., #251
    • San Francisco, CA 94103
    • 415-864-4722
    • Shelter Services for Women
    • P.O. Box 3782
    • Santa Barbara, CA 93105
    • 805-964-5245 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 805-964-0500 (office)
    • 805-963-4458 (administration)
    • Shelter Services for Women
    • P.O. Box 314
    • Santa Maria, CA 93456
    • 805-925-2160
    • Sojourn Services for Battered
    • Women
    • P.O. Box 5597
    • Santa Monica, CA 90405
    • 213-392-9896 (hotline)
    • 213-399-9232 (business)
    • YWCA Women's
    • Emergency Shelter
    • P.O. Box 7164
    • Santa Rosa, CA 95407
    • 707-546-1234
    • Mother Lode Women's Center
    • P.O. Box 663
    • Sonora, CA 95370
    • 209-532-4707
    • Lassen Family Services, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 787
    • Susanville, CA 96130
    • 916-257-5004 (crisis line)
    • 916-257-4599 (business)
    • Project Sanctuary, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 995
    • Ukiah, CA 95482
    • 707-62-HELP
    • Family Violence Project of Jewish Family Service
    • 6851 Lennox Ave.
    • Van Nuys, CA 91405
    • 818-908-5007
    • YWCA Wings Program for Battered Women and Their Children
    • P.O. Box 1464
    • West Covina, CA 91793
    • 818-967-0658 (helpline)
    • 818-915-5191 (office)

    Colorado

    • Tu Casa, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 473
    • Alamosa, CO 81101
    • 719-589-2465 (24-hour crisis line)
    • Women in Crisis
    • P.O. Box 1586
    • Arvada, CO 80001 303-420-6752
    • Response*
    • P.O. Box 1340
    • Aspen, CO 81612
    • 303-925-SAFE (crisis line)
    • 303-920-5357 (administration)
    • Gateway Battered Women's Shelter
    • P.O. Box 914
    • Aurora, CO 80040
    • 303-343-1851
    • Boulder County Safehouse
    • P.O. Box 4157
    • Boulder, CO 80306
    • 303-449-8623
    • Alternatives to Family Violence*
    • P.O. Box 385
    • Commerce City, CO 80037
    • 303-289-4441 (victims)
    • 303-280-0111 (perpetrators)
    • Safe House for Battered Women
    • P.O. Box 18014
    • Denver, CO 80218
    • 303-830-6800
    • Alternative Horizons, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 503
    • Durango, CO 81301
    • 303-247-9619 (hotline)
    • 303-247-4374 (administration)
    • Volunteers of America Southwest Safehouse
    • P.O. Box 2107
    • Durango, CO 81302
    • 303-259-5443
    • Crossroads Safehouse*
    • P.O. Box 993
    • Fort Collins, CO 80522
    • 303-482-3502
    • Advocates for Victims of Assault
    • Box 1859
    • Frisco, CO 80443
    • 303-668-3906
    • The Resource Center Domestic Violence Program
    • 1129 Colorado Ave.
    • Grand Junction, CO 81501
    • 303-241-6704 (crisis line)
    • 303-243-0190 (resource center)
    • ADVOCATES: Victim Assistance Team
    • P.O. Box 155
    • Hot Sulphur Springs, CO 80451
    • 303-725-3393 (crisis line)
    • 303-725-3442 (administration)
    • Alliance Against Domestic Abuse
    • P.O. Box 173
    • Salida, CO 81201
    • 719-539-7347 (office)
    • (dial 911 for emergencies)
    • The Resource Center of Eagle County
    • P.O. Box 3414
    • Vail, CO 81658
    • 303-476-7384

    Connecticut

    • Umbrella Program
    • 435 East Main St.
    • Ansonia, CT 06484
    • 203-736-9944
    • YWCA Domestic Violence Services
    • 753 Fairfield Ave.
    • Bridgeport, CT 06604
    • 203-334-6154
    • Women's Center of Greater Danbury*
    • 2 West St.
    • Danbury, CT 06810
    • 203-731-5206 (battery hotline)
    • 203-731-5204 (rape, sexual assault, incest hotline)
    • 203-731-5200 (office)
    • Domestic Violence Program United Service, Inc.
    • Box 251
    • Dayville, CT 06241
    • 203-456-9476 (hotline)
    • 203-774-2020 (office)
    • Hartford Internal House, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 6207
    • Hartford, CT 06106
    • 203-527-0550 (hotline)
    • 203-246-9149 (business)
    • Meriden/Wallingford Battered Women's Shelter
    • P.O. Box 663
    • Meriden, CT 06450
    • 203-238-1501
    • Prudence Crandell Center for Women
    • P.O. Box 895
    • New Britain, CT 06050
    • 203-225-6357
    • Women's Crisis Center*
    • 5 Eversley Ave.
    • Norwalk, CT 06851
    • 203-853-1980
    • Women's Emergency Services
    • P.O. Box 1029
    • Sharon, CT 06069
    • 203-364-0844 (24-hour hotline)

    District of Columbia

    • DC Hotline
    • P.O. Box 57194
    • Washington, DC 20037
    • 202-223-2255
    • House of Ruth
    • 501 M St., NE
    • Washington, DC 20002
    • 202-347-2777
    • Lesbian Task Force National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
    • P.O. Box 34103
    • Washington, DC 20043
    • My Sister's Place
    • P.O. Box 29596
    • Washington, DC 20017
    • 202-529-5991 (24-hour hotline)

    Florida

    • Spouse Abuse Shelter Religious Community Services, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 37
    • Clearwater, FL 34617
    • 813-441-2375 813-442-4128
    • Domestic Abuse Council, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 142
    • Daytona Beach, FL 32115
    • 904-255-2102 (24-hour hotline)
    • Aid to Victims of Domestic Assault, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 667
    • Delray Beach, FL 33447
    • 407-265-2900 800-649-4878 (Palm Beach County only)
    • Abuse Counseling and Treatment, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 06401
    • Ft. Myers, FL 33906
    • 813-939-3112
    • Help Now of Osceola, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 1302
    • Kissimmee, FL 34742
    • 407-847-8811 (24-hour hotline)
    • Safespace
    • 7831 NE Miami Court
    • Miami, FL 33138
    • 305-758-2546 (24-hour hotline)
    • Spouse Abuse, Inc.*
    • P.O. Box 536276
    • Orlando, FL 32853
    • 407-886-2856 (hotline)
    • 407-423-4519 (referral for lesbian batterers)
    • Mary and Martha House, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 1251
    • Ruskin, FL 33570
    • 813-645-7874
    • CASA
    • P.O. Box 414
    • St. Petersburg, FL 33731
    • 813-898-3671
    • Victim Services*
    • 301 N. Olive, 10th Floor
    • Governmental Center
    • West Palm Beach, FL 33401
    • 407-355-2383

    Georgia

    • Safe Homes of Augusta, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 3187
    • Augusta, GA 30914
    • 404-736-2499
    • S.A.F.E., Inc.
    • P.O. Box 11
    • Blairsville, GA 30512
    • 912-745-8900
    • 912-745-4832
    • North Georgia Mountain Crisis Network
    • P.O. Box 1249
    • Blue Ridge, GA 30513
    • 404-632-8400
    • Women's Resource Center of DeKalb County, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 171
    • Decatur, GA 30031
    • 404-688-9436 (24-hour crisis line)
    • YWCA of Cobb County
    • 48 Henderson St.
    • Marietta, GA 30064
    • 404-427-3390 (24-hour hotline)
    • Association on Battered Women of Clayton County
    • P.O. Box 870386
    • Morrow, GA 30287
    • 404-961-7233

    Hawaii

    • Family Peace Center*
    • 1370 Kapiolani Blvd.
    • Suite 201
    • Honolulu, HI 96814
    • 808-944-0900
    • YWCA Family Violence Shelter*
    • 3094 Elua St.
    • Lihue, HI 96766
    • 808-245-6362 (crisis hotline)
    • 808-245-5959 (Alternatives to Violence program for batterers)
    • 808-245-8404 (business)
    • Women Helping Women
    • P.O. Box 760
    • Paia, HI 96779
    • 808-579-9581
    • Alternatives to Violence*
    • P.O. Box 909
    • Wailuku, HI 96793
    • 808-242-9559

    Idaho

    • YWCA Women's and Children's Crisis Center
    • 720 W. Washington
    • Boise, ID 83702
    • YWCA of Lewiston-Clarkston
    • 300 Main St.
    • Lewiston, ID 83501
    • 208-746-9655
    • Mercy House, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 558
    • Nampa, ID 83653
    • 208-467-4130
    • 208-465-5011
    • Bonner County Crisis Line*
    • P.O. Box 1213
    • Sandpoint, ID 83869
    • 208-263-1241
    • 208-263-7273

    Illinois

    • Women's Center
    • 408 W. Freeman
    • Carbondale, IL 62832
    • 618-529-2324
    • People Against Violent Environments
    • P.O. Box 342
    • Centralia, IL 62801
    • 618-533-7233 (Centralia)
    • 618-242-7233 (Mt. Vernon outreach)
    • 800-924-8444 (Marion, Jefferson, Clinton, Fayette, & Washington counties only)
    • CADV
    • P.O. Box 732
    • Charleston, IL 61920
    • 217-345-4300
    • Family Options, United Charities*
    • Midway Center 3214 W. 63rd St.
    • Chicago, IL 60629
    • 312-436-2400
    • Dove Domestic Violence Program*
    • 788 E. Clay
    • Decatur, IL 62521
    • 213-423-2238 (hotline)
    • Life Span
    • P.O. Box 445
    • Des Plaines, IL 60016
    • 708-824-4454 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 708-824-0382 (office)
    • Community Crisis Center
    • P.O. Box 1390
    • Elgin, IL 60121
    • 708-697-2380
    • Evanston Shelter for Battered Women
    • P.O. Box 5164
    • Evanston, IL 60201
    • 312-864-8780
    • Knox County Coalition Against Domestic Violence
    • 1188 W. Main St.
    • Galesburg, IL 61401
    • 309-343-SAFE
    • 309-582-SAFE
    • Anna Bixby Women's Center
    • RR 2, Box 788
    • Harrisburg, IL 62946
    • 800-421-8456
    • 618-252-8389
    • Sarah's Inn
    • 212 S. Marion
    • Oak Park, IL 60302
    • 312-472-6469 312-871-CARE (Horizons)
    • Swan, Inc.
    • Box 176
    • Olney, IL 62450
    • 618-392-3556
    • Freedom House
    • P.O. Box 544
    • Princeton, IL 61356
    • 815-875-8233
    • Quanada 2707 Maine
    • Quincey, IL 62301
    • 217-222-2873 (local)
    • 800-369-2287 (national)
    • A Safe Place*
    • P.O. Box 1067
    • Waukegan, IL 60079
    • 708-249-4450

    Indiana

    • Women's Alternatives, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 1302
    • Anderson, IN 46012
    • 317-643-0200
    • Middle Way House
    • P.O. Box 95
    • Bloomington, IN 47402
    • 812-336-0846
    • YWCA Battered Women's Shelter*
    • 118 Vine St.
    • Evansville, IN 47708
    • 812-422-1191 (victims)
    • 812-423-4418 (batterers)
    • YWCA Women's Shelter
    • P.O. Box 11242
    • Fort Wayne, IN 46856
    • 219-447-7233 (victims only)
    • 800-441-4073 (victims only; in-state only)
    • 219-422-8082 (batterers)
    • The Caring Place, Inc.
    • Brickyard Plaza
    • 426 1/2 Center St., Suite D
    • Hobart, IN 46393
    • 219-464-2128
    • 219-942-8027
    • 800-933-0466
    • YWCA Family
    • Intervention Center*
    • 406 E. Sycamore
    • Kokomo, IN 46901
    • 317-459-0314
    • YWCA Women's Shelter
    • YWCA of St. Joseph County
    • 802 N. Lafayette Blvd.
    • South Bend, IN 46601
    • 219-233-9491
    • The Beaman Home
    • P.O. Box 12
    • Warsaw, IN 46581
    • 219-269-1767

    Iowa

    • Family Crisis Support Network
    • P.O. Box 11
    • Atlantic, IA 50022
    • 712-243-5123 (crisis line)
    • 800-696-5123 (regional)
    • 712-243-6615 (office)
    • YWCA Domestic Violence Program*
    • 318 5th St.
    • Cedar Rapids, IA 52401
    • 319-363-2093 (victims; collect calls accepted)
    • 319-365-1458 (batterers)
    • Council Against Domestic Abuse
    • Box 963
    • Cherokee, IA 51012
    • 800-225-SAFE
    • 712-225-5003
    • 712-225-4861
    • Women's Resource Center
    • 317 7th Avenue South
    • Clinton, IA 52732
    • 319-243-7867 (crisis line)
    • 319-242-2118 (office)
    • Family Violence Center
    • 1111 University Ave.
    • Des Moines, IA 50314
    • 515-243-6147 (local)
    • 800-942-0333 (in-state only)
    • YWCA Battered
    • Women Program
    • 35 N. Booth
    • Dubuque, IA 52001
    • 319-588-4016 (crisis line)
    • 319-556-3371 (program)
    • Domestic Violence Alternatives, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 1507
    • Marshalltown, IA 50158
    • 515-753-3513 (24-hour crisis line)
    • Adult Life/Family
    • Crisis Associates
    • P.O. Box 446
    • Ottumwa, IA 52501
    • 515-683-3122 (24-hour crisis line; collect calls accepted)
    • Crisis Services*
    • 2530 University Ave.
    • Waterloo, IA 50701
    • 319-233-8484

    Kansas

    • Sexual Assault/Domestic
    • Violence Center
    • 1 East 9th
    • Hutchinson, KS 67501
    • 316-663-2522 (crisis line)
    • 316-665-3630 (office)
    • Lawrence Women's Transitional Care Services, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 633
    • Lawrence, KS 66044
    • Safehome, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 4469
    • Overland Park, KS 66204
    • 913-262-2868 (domestic violence)
    • 913-262-7273 (sexual assault)
    • Safehouse, Inc.*
    • 101 E. 4th, Suite 214, #10
    • Pittsburgh, KS 66762
    • 316-231-8251
    • YWCA Women's Crisis Center
    • 350 N. Market
    • Wichita, KS 67202
    • 316-267-SAFE
    • Cowley County Safe Homes
    • P.O. Box 181
    • Winfield, KS 67156
    • 800-794-7672 316-221-HELP

    Kentucky

    • Women's Crisis Center
    • 207 Garrard St.
    • Covington, KY 41001
    • 606-491-3335 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 800-928-3335
    • Purchase Area Spouse Abuse Center*
    • P.O. Box 98
    • Paducah, KY 42002
    • 502-443-6001

    Louisiana

    • Southeast Spouse Abuse Program
    • P.O. Box 1946
    • Hammond, LA 70404
    • 800-256-1143 (in-state only)
    • 504-542-8384 (hotline and business)
    • Faith House, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 93145
    • Lafayette, LA 70503
    • 318-232-8954
    • Calcasieu Women's Shelter
    • P.O. Box 276
    • Lake Charles, LA 70602
    • 318-436-4552
    • 800-223-8066 (in-state only)
    • Safety Net for Abused Persons
    • P.O. Box 10207
    • New Iberia, LA 70560
    • 318-367-7627

    Maine

    • Abused Women's Advocacy Project
    • P.O. Box 713
    • Auburn, ME 04212
    • 207-795-4020 (hotline)
    • Family Violence Project
    • P.O. Box 304
    • Augusta, ME 04332
    • 207-623-3569 (crisis line)
    • Spruce Run Association
    • P.O. Box 653
    • Bangor, ME 04402
    • 207-947-0496
    • 207-667-9489
    • 207-723-5664 (all 3 numbers are hotlines; collect calls accepted)
    • Womancare/Aegis Association
    • P.O. Box 192
    • Dover-Foxcroft, ME 04406
    • 207-504-8165
    • 207-564-8401 (after hours and on weekends)
    • The Family Crisis Shelter
    • P.O. Box 704
    • Portland, ME 04104
    • 800-537-6066 (in state only)
    • 207-874-1973 (hotline)
    • 207-874-8512 (outreach)
    • 207-874-1197 (office)
    • New Hope for Women
    • P.O. Box 642
    • Rockland, ME 04841
    • 207-594-2128

    Maryland

    • YWCA Woman's Center*
    • 167 Duke of Gloucester St.
    • Annapolis, MD 21401
    • 301-268-4393
    • Family Crisis Center*
    • P.O. Box 3909
    • Baltimore, MD 21222
    • 301-285-7496 (shelter)
    • 301-285-4357 (counseling and administration)

    Massachusetts

    • The Network for Battered Lesbians
    • P.O. Box 6011
    • Boston, MA 02114
    • 617-424-8611 (answering machine)
    • Womansplace
    • P.O. Box 4206
    • Brockton, MA 02403
    • 508-588-2041 (crisis line)
    • Transition House, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 530
    • Harvard Square Station Cambridge, MA 02238
    • 617-661-7203 (24-hour hotline)
    • New England Learning Center for Women in Transition (NELCWIT)
    • 25 Forest Ave. Greenfield, MA 01301
    • 413-772-0871 (business)
    • 413-772-0806 (24-hour hotline)
    • Women's Resource Center 26 White St.
    • Haverhill, MA 01830
    • 508-373-4041
    • Women's Resource Center
    • 454 N. Canal St.
    • Lawrence, MA 01842
    • 508-685-2480
    • Services Against
    • Family Violence (SAFV)
    • 110 Pleasant St.
    • Maiden, MA 02148
    • 617-324-2221 (office and 24-hour hotline)
    • Women's Crisis Center of Greater Newburyport
    • 8 Prince Place
    • Newburyport, MA 01950
    • 508-465-2155
    • Renewal House
    • P.O. Box 919
    • Roxbury Crossing, MA 02120
    • 617-566-6881
    • Help for Abused Women and Their Children
    • 9 Crombie St.
    • Salem, MA 01970
    • 508-744-6841
    • The Support Committee for Battered Women
    • P.O. Box 24
    • Waltham, MA 02254
    • 617-899-8676

    Michigan

    • Domestic Violence Project/Safe House
    • P.O. Box 7052
    • Ann Arbor, MI 48107
    • 313-995-5444
    • BKG Shelter Home
    • P.O. Box 8
    • Calumet, MI 49913
    • 906-337-5623
    • La Casa, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 72
    • Howell, MI 48844
    • 313-227-7100
    • Domestic Violence Escape (DOVE), Inc.
    • P.O. Box 366
    • Ironwood, MI 49938
    • 906-932-0310 (crisis line)
    • 906-932-4990 (office)
    • Council Against Domestic Assault
    • P.O. Box 14149
    • Lansing, MI 48901
    • 517-372-5572 (crisis line)
    • 517-372-5976 (business)
    • Region Four Community Services
    • 210 North Harrison St.
    • Ludington, MI 49431
    • 616-845-5808
    • 800-950-5808
    • Women's Aid Service, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 743
    • Mt. Pleasant, MI 48804
    • 517-772-9168
    • Women's Resource Center
    • 1515 Howard St.
    • Petrosky, MI 49770
    • 616-347-0082
    • H.A.V.E.N.*
    • 92 Whittmore St.
    • Pontiac, MI 48342
    • 313-334-1274 (24-hour crisis line)
    • Relief After Violent Encounter (RAVE)
    • P.O. Box 472
    • St. Johns, MI 48879
    • 517-224-RAVE (collect calls accepted)

    Minnesota

    • Southern Valley Alliance for Battered Women
    • P.O. Box 102
    • Belle Plaine, MN 56011
    • 612-873-4214
    • Northwoods Coalition for Battered Women
    • P.O. Box 563
    • Bemidji, MN 56601
    • 218-751-6346
    • 218-751-0211
    • 218-751-0216
    • 218-751-5604
    • Cornerstone Advocacy Services*
    • 9730 Irving Avenue South Bloomington, MN 55431
    • 612-884-0330 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 612-884-0376 (business)
    • Women's Center of Mid-Minnesota
    • Box 602
    • Brainerd, MN 56401
    • 218-828-1216
    • Houston County Women's Resources
    • 424 North Pine, Room 104
    • Caledonia, MN 55921
    • 507-724-2676
    • 507-724-3802
    • Alexandra House, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 424
    • Circle Pines, MN 55014
    • Lakes Crisis Center
    • P.O. Box 394
    • Detroit Lakes, MN 218-847-7446 (24-hour crisis line; collect calls accepted)
    • Women's Crisis Center
    • P.O. Box 815
    • Fergus Falls, MN 56538
    • 218-739-3359
    • Sojourner Shelter
    • P.O. Box 272
    • Hopkins, MN 55343
    • 612-933-7422
    • Friends Against Abuse
    • P.O. Box 1271
    • International Falls, MN 56649
    • 218-285-7220
    • Committee Against Domestic Abuse (CADA)
    • P.O. Box 466
    • Mankato, MN 56002
    • 507-625-SAFE (crisis line)
    • 800-477-0466 (crisis line)
    • 507-625-3966 (shelter)
    • 507-625-8688 (business)
    • Domestic Abuse Project
    • 204 West Franklin Ave.
    • Minneapolis, MN 55404
    • 612-874-7063
    • Women's Shelter, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 457
    • Rochester, MN 55903
    • 507-285-1010 (collect calls accepted)
    • Woman House*
    • P.O. Box 195
    • St. Cloud, MN 56302
    • 612-253-6900 (victims)
    • 612-251-7203 (batterers)
    • 800-950-2203
    • Casa de Esperanza
    • P.O. Box 75177
    • St. Paul, MN 55175
    • 612-772-1611 (Casa de Esperanza)
    • 612-645-5679 (Survivors' Network)
    • 612-646-6177 (Lesbian Battering Intervention Project)
    • 612-822-0127/8661 (Gay and Lesbian Community Action Council)
    • Midway Family Service*
    • 425 Aldine St. St.
    • Paul, MN 55104
    • 612-641-5584
    • Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women Hamline Park Plaza
    • 570 Asbury, Suite 201
    • St. Paul, MN 55104
    • 612-646-6177
    • Violence Intervention Project
    • P.O. Box 96
    • Thief River Falls, MN 56701
    • 218-681-5557 (collect calls accepted)
    • Shelter House
    • P.O. Box 787
    • Willmar, MN 56201
    • 612-235-4613, X153-4
    • 800-992-1716 (in-state only)
    • Women's Resource Center of Winona
    • 9 Exchange Building
    • 51 East Fourth
    • St. Winona, MN 55987
    • 507-452-4440

    Mississippi

    • Safe Haven, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 5354
    • Columbus, MS 39704
    • 601-327-6118

    Missouri

    • NEWS
    • P.O. Box 240019
    • Kansas City, MO 64124
    • 816-241-0311 (hotline)
    • Safehaven (formerly Northland Battered Persons Program)
    • P.O. Box 11055
    • Kansas City, MO 64119
    • 816-452-8535
    • Family Violence Center, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 5972
    • Springfield, MO 65801
    • 417-865-1728 (hotline)
    • St. Martha's Hall
    • P.O. Box 4950
    • St. Louis, MO 63108
    • 314-533-1313
    • Survival Adult Abuse, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 344
    • Warrensburg, MO 64093
    • 816-429-2847

    Montana

    • Friendship Center
    • 1503 Gallatin
    • Helena, MT 59601
    • 406-442-6800 (24-hour crisis line)
    • Violence Free Crisis Line*
    • P.O. Box 1385
    • Kalispell, MT 59903
    • 406-752-7273
    • 406-862-1802 (collect calls accepted)
    • Women's Place
    • 521 North Orange
    • Missoula, MT 59802
    • 406-543-7606

    Nebraska

    • Spouse Abuse/Sexual Assault Crisis Center*
    • 422 N. Hastings, Suite B-2
    • Hastings, NE 68901
    • 402-463-4677 (hotline)
    • 402-463-5810 (office)
    • Rape/Spouse Abuse Crisis Center
    • 129 N. 10th St., Box 9
    • Lincoln, NE 68508
    • 402-475-7273 (crisis line)
    • 402-476-2110 (office)
    • UCSS/The Shelter
    • Box 4346 Omaha, NE 68104
    • 402-558-5700
    • YWCA 222 South 29th St.
    • Omaha, NE 68131
    • 402-345-7273 (crisis line)
    • 402-345-6555 (office)

    Nevada

    • Support, Inc.*
    • P.O. Box 583
    • Ely, NV 89301
    • 702-289-2270
    • 702-289-8808 (after hours and weekends; this is the Sheriff's office—ask to have a support volunteer paged)
    • Temporary Assistance for Domestic Crisis
    • P.O. Box 43264
    • Las Vegas, NV 89116
    • 702-646-4981 (24-hour hotline)
    • Family Tree Resource Center*
    • P.O. Box 891
    • Tonopah, NV 89049
    • 702-482-3891
    • 800-322-2220 (in-state only)

    New Hampshire

    • RESPONSE to Sexual and Domestic Violence
    • 54 Willow St. Berlin, NH 03570
    • 800-336-6289 (crisis line; in-state only)
    • 603-752-2040 (office)
    • Lesbian Services Committee of the New Hampshire Coalition Against Domestic/Sexual Violence
    • P.O. Box 353
    • Concord, NH 03302
    • 603-224-8893
    • 800-852-3388
    • Carroll County Against Domestic Violence and Rape*
    • P.O. Box 1972
    • Conway, NH 03818
    • 603-356-6849 (crisis line)
    • Women's Crisis Services of the Monadnock Region*
    • 69 Z Island St.
    • Keene, NH 03431
    • 603-352-3782
    • YWCA Women's Crisis Service
    • 72 Concord St.
    • Manchester, NH 03101
    • 603-668-2299 (24-hour hotline)
    • 603-625-5785 (office)
    • Task Force Against Domestic and Sexual Violence
    • P.O. Box 53
    • Plymouth, NH 03264
    • 603-536-1659 (crisis line)
    • 603-536-3423 (office)

    New Jersey

    • Alternatives to Domestic Violence*
    • 21 Main St.
    • Hackensack, NJ 07601
    • 201-487-8484
    • Women's Center of Monmouth County
    • 1 Bethany Road
    • Suite 42, Bldg. 3
    • Hazlet, NJ 07730
    • 908-264-4111
    • Essex County Family Violence Project c/o Babyland Nursery, Inc.
    • 755 South Orange
    • Ave. Newark, NJ 07106
    • 201-484-4446
    • Women Aware, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 312
    • New Brunswick, NJ 08904
    • 908-249-4504
    • Passaic County Women's Center
    • P.O. Box 244
    • Patterson, NJ 07513
    • 201-881-1450
    • Salem County Women's Services
    • P.O. Box 125
    • Salem, NJ 08079
    • 609-935-6655

    New Mexico

    • La Casa, Inc.*
    • P.O. Box 2463
    • Las Cruces, NM 88004
    • 505-526-9513 (crisis line)
    • 505-526-2819 (administration)

    New York

    • YWCA Domestic Violence Project
    • 301 North
    • St. Batavia, NY 14020
    • 716-343-7513
    • ACCORD Corporation
    • 84 Schuyler St.
    • P.O. Box 573
    • Belmont, NY 14813
    • 716-593-5322 (24-hour hotline; Allegheny County; collect calls accepted)
    • 716-786-3300 (24-hour hotline; Wyonig County; collect calls accepted)
    • Aegis Battered Women's Program*
    • P.O. Box 905
    • Morris Heights Station Bronx, NY 10453
    • 212-733-4443 (Aegis hotline)
    • 212-809-0191 (Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project)
    • Haven House
    • P.O. Box 451
    • Ellicott Station Buffalo, NY 14205
    • 716-884-6000
    • The Columbia-Greene Domestic Violence Program
    • 2 Franklin St.
    • Catskill, NY 12414
    • 518-943-3385
    • YWCA's Aid to Women Victims of Violence
    • 14 Clayton Ave.
    • Cortland, NY 13045
    • 607-756-6363 (hotline)
    • Delaware Opportunities, Inc.
    • Safe Against Violence
    • 47 Main St.
    • Delhi, NY 13753
    • 607-746-6278 (24-hour hotline)
    • SOS Shelter/ASAP Advocacy Services
    • P.O. Box 393
    • Endicott, NY 13760
    • 607-754-4340 (shelter)
    • 607-748-5174 (advocacy)
    • Family Counseling Service of the Finger Lakes
    • 671 South Main St.
    • Geneva, NY 14456
    • 315-789-2613
    • Task Force for Battered Women
    • Box 164
    • Ithaca, NY 14851
    • 607-277-5000 (crisis line)
    • 607-277-3203 (office)
    • Orange County Safe Homes Project, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 649
    • Newburgh, NY 12551
    • 914-562-5340 (24-hour hotline)
    • Sanctuary for Families
    • P.O. Box 413
    • Times Square Station New York, NY 10108
    • 212-582-2091
    • Domestic Violence Action Committee Catholic Charities
    • 19 Prospect St.
    • Norwich, NY 13815
    • 607-363-1101 (hotline)
    • 607-336-1528 (office)
    • Aid to Battered Women
    • 32 Main St.
    • Oneonta, NY 13820
    • 607-432-4855
    • Services to Aid Families
    • 101 West Utica St.
    • Oswego, NY 13126
    • 315-342-1600 (24-hour hotline)
    • 315-342-1609 (services and aid to families)
    • 315-342-1544 (crime victims)
    • Victim Assistance Center
    • 77 North Ave.
    • Owego, NY 13827
    • 607-687-6866
    • Stop Domestic Violence/MHA
    • 159 Margaret St.
    • Suite 2 Plattsburgh, NY 12901
    • 518-563-6904
    • YWCA Battered Women's Services
    • 18 Bancroft Rd.
    • Poughkeepsie, NY 12601
    • 914-485-5550
    • Alternatives for Battered Women, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 39601
    • Rochester, NY 14604
    • 716-232-7353
    • Domestic Violence Services
    • 480 Broadway, Suite LL20
    • Saratoga Springs, NY 12866
    • 518-584-8188 (hotline)
    • 518-583-0280 (office)
    • 518-393-6403 (Choices Counseling Associates)
    • Tri-Lakes Community Center*
    • P.O. Box 589
    • Saranac Lake, NY 12983
    • 518-891-3173 (collect calls accepted)
    • YWCA—Families in Violence
    • 44 Washington Ave.
    • Schenectady, NY 12305
    • 518-374-3394
    • Unity House Families in Crisis
    • 3215 6th Ave.
    • Troy, NY 12180
    • 518-272-2370
    • YWCA Hall House and Domestic Violence Program
    • 1000 Cornelia St.
    • Utica, NY 13502
    • 315-797-7740 (24-hour hotline)
    • Jefferson County Women's Center, Inc.
    • 120 Arcade St.
    • Watertown, NY 13601
    • 315-782-1855

    North Carolina

    • Oasis
    • P.O. Box 1591
    • Boone, NC 28607
    • 704-262-5035
    • SAFE
    • P.O. Box 2013
    • Brevard, NC 28712
    • 702-885-7273
    • United Family Service Shelter for Battered Women
    • P.O. Box 220312
    • Charlotte, NC 28222
    • 704-332-2513 (shelter)
    • Orange/Durham Coalition for Battered Women
    • P.O. Box 51848
    • Durham, NC 27717
    • 919-489-1955
    • Cumberland County Family Violence Program (CARE)*
    • 1103 Hay St.
    • Fayetteville, NC 28305
    • 919-323-4187
    • Family and Children's Service*
    • 301 E. Washington St.
    • Greensboro, NC 27401
    • 919-333-6910
    • 919-274-7316
    • New Directions
    • P.O. Box 13
    • Greenville, NC 27835
    • 919-752-3811 (24-hour hotline)
    • Onslow Women's Center
    • P.O. Box 1622
    • Jacksonville, NC 28541
    • 919-347-4000
    • Family Violence and Rape Crisis Services*
    • P.O. Box 1105
    • Pittsboro, NC 27312
    • 919-929-0479 (24-hour crisis line; ask for the Chatham volunteer on call)
    • 919-542-5445 (office)
    • INTERACT
    • P.O. Box 11096
    • Raleigh, NC 27604
    • 919-828-7740 (crisis line)
    • 919-828-7501 (administration)
    • APC
    • P.O. Box 2895
    • Shelby, NC 28151
    • 704-481-0043
    • REACH of Jackson County, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 1828
    • Sylva, NC 28779
    • 704-586-8969
    • REACH of Haywood County, Inc.*
    • P.O. Box 206
    • Waynesville, NC 28786
    • 704-456-7898
    • Domestic Violence Shelter and Services
    • P.O. Box 1555
    • Wilmington, NC 28402
    • 919-343-0703
    • 800-672-2903

    North Dakota

    • Bottineau County Coalition Against Domestic Violence
    • Box 371
    • Bottineau, ND 58318
    • 701-228-3171 (safe line)
    • 701-228-2028 (office)
    • Walsh County Domestic Violence Program
    • 422 Hill Ave.
    • Grafton, ND 58237
    • 701-352-3059 (crisis line)
    • 701-284-1310 (pager)
    • 701-352-0647 (office)

    Ohio

    • Homesafe
    • P.O. Box 702
    • Ashtabula, OH 44004
    • 216-992-2727
    • YWCA House of Peace
    • 55 South 4th St.
    • Batavia, OH 45103
    • 513-753-7281
    • The Center for the Prevention of Domestic Violence
    • 23875 Commerce Park Rd.
    • Beachwood, OH 44122
    • 216-391-HELP (hotline)
    • 216-831-5440 (counseling)
    • Choices for Victims of Domestic Violence
    • P.O. Box
    • 06157 Columbus, OH 43206
    • 614-224-4663
    • Artemis House, Inc.
    • 224 North Wilkinson St.
    • Suite 303
    • Dayton, OH 45402
    • 513-461-HELP
    • YWCA Protective Shelter for Battered Persons*
    • 244 Dayton St.
    • Hamilton, OH 45011
    • 513-863-7099
    • 800-543-1399
    • Crossroads Crisis Center
    • P.O. Box 643
    • Lima, OH 45802
    • 419-228-4357
    • Eve, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 122
    • Marietta, OH 45750
    • 614-374-5819
    • Forbes House
    • P.O. Box 702
    • Painesville, OH 44077
    • 216-357-1018
    • 216-953-9779
    • Women's Tri-County Help Center*
    • P.O. Box 494 St.
    • Clairsville, OH 43950
    • 800-695-1639 (office)
    • 304-234-8161 (24-hour hotline; collect calls accepted)
    • Project Woman
    • 1316 East High St.
    • Springfield, OH 45505
    • 513-325-3707
    • 800-634-9893
    • Transitional House*
    • YWCA Business Office
    • 25 West Rayen Ave.
    • Youngstown, OH 44503
    • 216-746-6361

    Oklahoma

    • ACMI House*
    • P.O. Box 397
    • Altus, OK 73521
    • 405-482-3800
    • Community Crisis Center, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 905
    • Miami, OK 74355
    • 918-540-2432 (office)
    • 918-542-1001 (hotline)
    • Women's Resource Center
    • P.O. Box 5089
    • Norman, OK 73070
    • 405-360-0590
    • Domestic Violence Program of North Central Oklahoma, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 85
    • Ponca City, OK 74602
    • 405-76A-BUSE
    • Stillwater Domestic Violence Services, Inc.*
    • P.O. Box 1059
    • Stillwater, OK 74076
    • 405-624-3020 (crisis line)

    Oregon

    • Crisis Intervention/Dunn House
    • P.O. Box 369
    • Ashland, OR 97520
    • 503-779-HELP
    • Clatsop Co. Women's Crisis Service, Inc.
    • 883 Astor St., Suite
    • 4 Astoria, OR 97103
    • 503-325-5735
    • Womenspace
    • P.O. Box 5485
    • Eugene, OR 97405
    • 503-485-6513 (crisis line)
    • 503-485-8232 (business)
    • Crisis Intervention Center
    • 513 Center St.
    • Lakeview, OR 97630
    • 503-947-2449
    • 800-338-7590 (in-state only)
    • Lincoln Shelter and Services*
    • P.O. Box 426
    • Lincoln City, OR 97367
    • 503-994-5959 (hotline)
    • 503-994-3365 (business)
    • Domestic Violence Services*
    • P.O. Box 152
    • Pendleton, OR 97807
    • 503-276-3322
    • 800-833-1161
    • Bradley-Angle House
    • P.O. Box 14694
    • Portland, OR 97214
    • 503-281-2442 (crisis line)
    • 503-232-1528 (support group)
    • Portland Women's Crisis Line
    • P.O. Box 42610
    • Portland, OR 97242
    • 503-235-5333
    • Columbia County Women's Resource Center
    • P.O. Box 22
    • St. Helens, OR 97051
    • 503-397-6161

    Pennsylvania

    • Turning Point of Lehigh Valley
    • Box 1705
    • Allentown, PA 18105
    • 215-437-3369
    • D.A.P. of Blair County c/o Family and Children's Service
    • 2022 Broad Ave.
    • Altoona, PA 16601
    • 814-944-3585 (hotline)
    • 814-944-3583 (office)
    • Women's Center of Beaver County
    • P.O. Box 397
    • Beaver, PA 15009
    • 412-775-0131 (hotline)
    • 412-775-2032 (business)
    • Turning Point of Lehigh Valley
    • Box 5355
    • Bethlehem, PA 18105
    • 215-437-3369
    • YWCA Victims' Resource Center
    • 24 West Corydon St.
    • Bradford, PA 16701
    • 814-368-6325 (hoüine)
    • 814-368-4235 (office)
    • Stop Abuse for Everyone
    • P.O. Box 108
    • Clarion, PA 16214
    • 814-226-8481
    • HOPE for Victims of Violence
    • P.O. Box 896
    • DuBois, PA 15801
    • 814-371-1223
    • Women's Help Center, Inc.
    • 809 Napoleon St.
    • Johnstown, PA 15901
    • 814-536-5361 (Cambria County)
    • 814-443-2824 (Somerset)
    • 800-999-7406 (in state only)
    • Lancaster Shelter for Abused Women
    • P.O. Box 359
    • Lancaster, PA 17603
    • 717-299-1249
    • Womansplace
    • P.O. Box 144
    • McKeesport, PA 15134
    • 412-678-4616
    • 412-835-2330
    • 412-373-8718
    • Women's Services, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 637
    • Meadville, PA 16335
    • 814-333-9766 (24-hour hotline)
    • 814-724-2399 (domestic violence services)
    • Women's Resource Center
    • Box 202
    • Montrose, PA 18801
    • 717-278-1800
    • Women's Shelter/Rape Crisis Center
    • P.O. Box 1422
    • New Castle, PA 16103
    • JCCEOA, Inc.
    • Crossroads Project
    • 105 Grace Way Punxsutawney, PA 15767
    • 814-938-3580
    • Berks Women in Crisis
    • P.O. Box 803
    • Reading, PA 19603
    • 215-372-9540 (24-hour hotline)
    • 215-373-2053 (office)
    • Women's Resources of Monroe County, Inc.
    • 112 Park Ave.
    • Stroudsburg, PA 18360
    • 717-421-4200 (day)
    • 717-421-4000 (night)
    • Alle-Kiski Area Hope Center
    • P.O. Box 67
    • Tarentum, PA 15084
    • 412-224-HOPE
    • 412-339-HOPE
    • Abuse and Rape Crisis Center
    • P.O. Box 186
    • Towanda, PA 18848
    • 717-265-9101 (hotline)
    • 717-265-5333 (office)
    • Victims Resource Center
    • 86 East Tioga St.
    • Tunkhannock, PA 18657
    • 717-836-5544
    • Family Abuse Council
    • P.O. Box 995
    • Uniontown, PA 15401
    • 412-439-9500
    • 412-966-2200
    • Wise Options
    • 815 West Fourth St.
    • Wiliamsport, PA 17701
    • 717-323-8167

    Rhode Island

    • Newport County Women's Resource Center
    • 114 Touro St.
    • Newport, RI 02840
    • 401-847-2533 (24-hour hotline)
    • Women's Center of Rhode Island
    • 45 East Transit St.
    • Providence, RI 02906
    • 401-861-2760
    • Women's Resource Center of South County
    • 61 Main St.
    • Wakefield, RI 02879
    • 401-782-3990
    • EBC House
    • Box 9476
    • Warwick, RI 02889
    • 401-738-1700

    South Carolina

    • Sistercare
    • P.O. Box 1029
    • Columbia, SC 29202
    • 803-765-9428 (crisis line)
    • The Women's Shelter of the Family Counseling Center
    • 301 University Ridge Suite 5500
    • Greenville, SC 29601
    • 803-271-8888 (crisis line)
    • My Sister's House
    • P.O. Box 5341
    • N. Charleston, SC 29406
    • 803-744-3242 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 800-273-HOPE (24-hour crisis line)
    • Spartanburg County Safehomes
    • 163 Union St.
    • Spartanburg, SC 29302
    • 803-583-9803

    South Dakota

    • White Buffalo Calf Women's Society
    • Box 227
    • Mission, SD 57555
    • 605-856-2317
    • Victims of Violence Intervention Program
    • P.O. Box 486
    • Spearfish, SD 57783
    • 605-642-7825 (24-hour crisis line)

    Tennessee

    • YWCA of Greater Memphis
    • 766 South Highland Memphis, TN 38111
    • 901-458-1661
    • Community Effort Against Spouse Abuse (CEASE)
    • P.O. Box 3359
    • Morristown, TN 37815
    • 615-581-2220 (crisis line; collect calls accepted)
    • 615-581-7029 (administration)
    • Domestic Violence Program
    • P.O. Box 2652
    • Murfreesboro, TN 37133
    • Safe Space*
    • Box 831
    • Newport, TN 37821
    • 615-623-3125
    • 800-244-5968

    Texas

    • Center for Battered Women
    • P.O. Box 19454
    • Austin, TX 78760
    • 512-928-9070 (hotline, shelter)
    • 512-385-5181 (outreach)
    • Women and Children's Shelter*
    • P.O. Box 6606
    • Beaumont, TX 77707
    • 409-832-7575
    • 800-621-8882 (in state only)
    • Johnson County Family Crisis Center*
    • P.O. Box 43
    • Cleburne, TX 76033
    • 800-848-3206 (hotline)
    • 817-641-2343 (office)
    • Tralee Crisis Center
    • P.O. Box 2880
    • Pampa, TX 79065
    • 806-669-1131
    • 800-658-2796
    • Women's Shelter of the Corpus Christi Area, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 3368
    • Corpus Christi, TX 78463
    • 512-881-8888
    • New Beginning Center
    • 218 North Tenth St.
    • Garland, TX 75040
    • 214-276-0057
    • Noah Project—North*
    • P.O. Box 52
    • Haskell, TX 79521
    • 800-444-3551 (answered in Abilene and transferred to Haskell)
    • 817-864-2551 (Tuesdays and Thursdays)
    • Family Service Center*
    • 4625 Lillian Houston, TX 77007
    • 713-867-7776
    • Houston Area Women's Center
    • 3101 Richmond, #150 Houston, TX 77098
    • 713-528-5785
    • 713-528-2121
    • Kilgore Community Crisis Center
    • 905 Broadway Kilgore, TX 75662
    • 800-333-9148 (hotline)
    • 903-984-2377
    • 903-984-3019
    • Comal County Women's Center
    • P.O. Box 310344
    • New Braunfels, TX 78131
    • 512-620-HELP (crisis line)
    • 512-620-7520 (office)
    • Williamson County Crisis Center
    • 211 Commerce Blvd., Suite 103
    • Round Rock, TX 78664
    • 800-460-SAFE
    • 512-255-1212
    • Hays County Women's Center
    • P.O. Box 234
    • San Marcos, TX 78667
    • 512-396-4357
    • East Texas Crisis Center
    • 3027 SSE Loop 323
    • Tyler, TX 75701
    • 800-333-0358 (hotline)
    • First Step, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 773
    • Wichita Falls, TX 76307

    Vermont

    • Project Against Violent Encounters (PAVE)*
    • P.O. Box 227
    • Bennington, VT 05201
    • 802-442-2111 (hotline)
    • 802-442-2370 (office)
    • 802-362-5169
    • Women's Crisis Center*
    • P.O. Box 933
    • Brattleboro, VT 05302
    • 802-254-6954 (24-hour hotline)
    • 802-257-7364 (business)
    • Addison County Women in Crisis
    • 6 Main St. Bristol, VT 05443
    • 802-453-4754 (24-hour hotline)
    • Women Helping Battered Women
    • P.O. Box 1535
    • Burlington, VT 05402
    • 802-658-1996
    • 802-658-3131
    • Clarina Howard Nichols Center
    • P.O. Box 517
    • Morrisville, VT 05651
    • 802-888-5256
    • Step O.N.E.
    • 63 Main St. Newport, VT 05855
    • New Beginnings Women's Support Network
    • 100 River St.
    • Springfield, VT 05156
    • 802-885-2050

    Virginia

    • The Arlington Community Temporary Shelter, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 1285
    • Arlington, VA 22210
    • 703-237-0881 (24-hour crisis line)
    • Services to Abused Families, Inc.*
    • P.O. Box 402
    • Culpepper, VA 22701
    • 703-825-8876 (hotline)
    • Domestic Violence Emergency Services (DOVES, Inc.)
    • P.O. Box 2381
    • Danville, VA 24541
    • 804-791-1400
    • COPE*
    • P.O. Box 427
    • Gloucester, VA 23061
    • 804-693-2673
    • 800-542-2673
    • YWCA Family Violence Prevention Program
    • 626 Church St.
    • Lynchburg, VA 24504
    • 804-928-1041
    • Eastern Shore Coalition Against Domestic Violence*
    • P.O. Box 3O
    • nancock, VA 23417
    • 804-787-1329
    • Loudoun Abused Women's Shelter
    • 17 Royal St., SWLeesburg, VA 22075
    • (or P.O. Box 875, Purcellville, VA 22132)
    • 703-777-6552
    • Women's Resource Center of the New River Valley
    • P.O. Box 306
    • Radford, VA 24141
    • 703-639-1123
    • YWCA Women's Advocacy Program
    • 6 North 5th St.
    • Richmond, VA 23219
    • 804-643-0888
    • Total Action Against Poverty Women's Resource Center
    • P.O. Box 2868
    • Roanoke, VA 24001
    • 703-345-6781
    • Franklin County Family Resource Center*
    • 127 East Court St.
    • P.O. Box 4
    • Rocky Mount, VA 24151
    • 703-483-5088
    • Henrico Mental Health and Retardation Services*
    • Domestic Violence Treatment Program
    • 31 East Williamsburg Rd. Sandston, VA 23150
    • 804-261-8500 (intake)
    • Alternatives for Abused Adults
    • P.O. Box 1414
    • Staunton, VA 24401
    • 703-886-6800
    • 703-942-HELP
    • The Haven
    • P.O. Box 713
    • Warsaw, VA 22572
    • 804-333-5370

    Washington

    • Womancare Shelter
    • 2505 Cedarwood, Suite 5 Bellingham, WA 98225
    • 206-734-3438 (domestic violence helpline)
    • 206-671-8539 (office)
    • Domestic Violence Center of Grays Harbor*
    • 2306 Sumner Hoquiam, WA 98550
    • 800-562-6025 (WA state domestic violence hotline)
    • 206-538-0733 (office)
    • 206-532-8641 (Gay Resource Association of Grays Harbor)
    • Skagit Rape Relief and Battered Women's Services
    • P.O. Box 301
    • 103 Broadway Mount Vernon, WA 98273
    • 206-336-2162 (crisis line)
    • 206-336-9591 (office)
    • Family Crisis Network*
    • P.O. Box 944
    • Newport, WA 99156
    • 509-447-LIVE (hotline)
    • 509-447-2274
    • Safeplace Rape Relief/Women's Shelter Services
    • P.O. Box 1605
    • 01ympia, WA 98503
    • 206-754-6300 (hotline)
    • 206-328-3442 (Advocates for Abused and Battered Lesbians—AABL)
    • 206-282-9314 (Seattle Counseling Services for Sexual Minorities)
    • The Support Center
    • P.O. Box 3639
    • Omak, WA 98841
    • 509-826-3221
    • DV/SA Program of Jefferson County
    • P.O. Box 743
    • Port Townsend, WA 98368
    • 206-385-5291
    • New Beginnings Shelter for Battered Women and Their Children
    • P.O. Box 75125
    • Seattle, WA 98125
    • 206-522-9472 (shelter/crisis)
    • 206-783-2848 (community advocacy)
    • YWCA 1118 5th Ave.
    • Seattle, WA 98101
    • 206-461-4882 (shelter)
    • Alternatives to Domestic Violence*
    • YWCA 829 West Broadway Spokane, WA 99201
    • 509-327-9534
    • Skamania County Domestic Violence/Sexual Assault
    • P.O. Box 477
    • Stevenson, WA 98648
    • 509-427-4210
    • 800-562-6025
    • Wenatchee Rape Crisis and Domestic Violence Center
    • P.O. Box 2704
    • Wenatchee, WA 98807
    • 509-663-7446
    • 800-356-4533 (24-hour hotline)

    West Virginia

    • Women's Aid in Crisis
    • P.O. Box 2062
    • Elkins, WV 26241
    • 304-636-8433
    • Branches Domestic Violence Shelter, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 403
    • Huntington, WV 25708
    • 304-529-2382
    • Family Crisis Intervention Center*
    • Box 695
    • Parkersburg, WV 26102
    • 304-428-2333

    Wisconsin

    • Sauk County Task Force on Domestic Abuse Hope House
    • P.O. Box 432
    • Baraboo, WI 53913
    • 608-356-7500 (crisis line; collect calls accepted)
    • 608-356-9123 (administration)
    • P.A.V.E.*
    • Box 561
    • Beaver Dam, WI 53916
    • 414-887-3785 (if there's no answer, call 414-386-3500)
    • YWCA Shelter
    • 246 West Grand Beloit, WI 53511
    • Family Violence Center*
    • P.O. Box 13536
    • Green Bay, WI 54307
    • 414-432-4244 (helpline)
    • 414-498-8282 (office)
    • Women's Horizons, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 792
    • Kenosha, WI 53141
    • 414-652-1846
    • Manitowoe County Domestic Violence Center
    • P.O. Box 1142
    • Manitowoe, WI 54221
    • 414-684-5770
    • HAVEN, Inc.*
    • P.O. Box 32
    • Merrill, WI 54452
    • 715-536-1300
    • Green Haven Family Advocates
    • P.O. Box 181
    • Monroe, WI 53566
    • 608-325-7711 (crisis line)
    • 608-325-6489 (office)
    • Regional Domestic Abuse Services*
    • P.O. Box 99
    • Neenah, WI 54956
    • 414-729-6395
    • 414-235-5998
    • Women's Resource Center of Racine, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 1764
    • Racine, WI 53401
    • 414-633-3274
    • Tri-County Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 233
    • Rhinelander, WI 54501
    • 800-236-1222 (24-hour hotline)
    • 715-362-6841 (business)
    • Turning Point for Victims of Domestic Abuse, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 304
    • River Falls, WI 54022
    • 715-425-6751
    • 800-338-2882 (in state only)
    • Family Crisis Center*
    • 1616 West River Drive Stevens Point, WI 715-344-8508
    • HELP of Door County, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 319
    • Sturgeon Bay, WI 54235
    • 414-743-8818 (24-hour hotline)
    • Center Against Sexual and Domestic Abuse
    • 2231 Catlin Ave.
    • Superior, WI 54880
    • 715-398-6114
    • 800-649-2921
    • Sister House
    • 726 North East Ave.
    • Waukesha, WI 53186
    • 414-542-3828

    Wyoming

    • Converse County Coalition Against Family Violence/Sexual Assault
    • P.O. Box 692
    • (or 530 Oak St.) Douglas, WY 82633
    • 307-358-4800 (crisis line)
    • Gillette Abuse Refuge Foundation
    • P.O. Box 3110
    • Gillette, WY 82717
    • 307-686-8070 (crisis line)
    • 307-686-8071 (office)
    • SAFE Project
    • P.O. Box 665
    • Laramie, WY 82070
    • 307-745-3556 (crisis line)
    • 307-742-7273 (office)
    • Focus
    • P.O. Box 818
    • Newcastle, WY 82701
    • 307-746-3630 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 307-746-2748 (office)
    • Carbon County C.O.V.E.
    • P.O. Box 713
    • Rawlins, WY 82301
    • 307-324-7144 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 800-442-8337 (24-hour crisis line)
    • 307-324-7071 (office)
    • YWCA Support and Safe House
    • P.O. Box 1667
    • Rock Springs, WY 82902
    • 307-382-6925 (crisis line)
    • 307-875-7666 (crisis line)
    • 307-362-7674 (office)
    • Women's Center
    • 136 Coffeen Ave.
    • Sheridan, WY 82801
    • 307-672-3222 (crisis line)
    • 307-672-7471 (office)
    • Community Crisis Services, Inc.
    • P.O. Box 872
    • Worland, WY 82401
    • 307-347-4991 (24-hour hotline)
    • 307-347-4992 (8:00-5:00, Monday-Friday)
    Survey of Services for Battered Lesbians and/or Lesbian Batterers

    Please answer each of the following questions by circling the number that corresponds to the response that best identifies your services, or by filling in the blank spaces where appropriate.

    • Which of the following best characterizes your service to battered women?
      • crisis center/hotline (non-resident services only)
      • shelter
      • other (please specify)_____
    • Do you do outreach to battered lesbians?
      • no
      • yes
      • If you do outreach to battered lesbians, please describe your efforts.
    • Does your service welcome lesbians as clients?
      • no
      • yes
      • If yes, please describe specifically how you make it clear that lesbians are welcome_____
    • Do the written materials compiled and distributed by your service use inclusive language (rather than sex-specific pronouns) to refer to battering victims and batterers?
      • no
      • yes
    • Do written materials compiled and distributed by your service explicitly address the issue of lesbian battering?
      • no
      • yes
    • If you have a screening procedure for clients, do you make it clear that you provide services/shelter for lesbians?
      • no
      • yes
      • does not apply/we have no screening procedure
      • does not apply/we do not accept lesbians as clients
    • Does your policy on confidentiality include confidentiality for lesbian clients?
      • no
      • yes
    • Is the definition of “family” explicit in your policy statements inclusive of lesbian families and couples?
      • no
      • yes
    • Do you have brochures or other materials that focus exclusively on lesbian battering?
      • no
      • yes
    • Have you ever done a media campaign or public program exclusively on lesbian battering?
      • no
      • yes
    • What specific services do you provide for lesbian victims of partner abuse?_____
    • Do you offer services to lesbian batterers?
      • no
      • yes
    • If you offer services to lesbian batterers, please describe these services.
    • Does your staff receive antihomophobia training?
      • no
      • yes
    • Does your staff receive training specifically on lesbian battering?
      • no
      • yes
    • Do your volunteers receive antihomophobia training?
      • no
      • yes
    • Do your volunteers receive training specifically on lesbian battering?
      • no
      • yes
    • What percentage of the women who use your services are victims of lesbian partner abuse? (If you are not certain, please provide an estimate and indicate that your answer is an estimate.)

      _____ percent (Is this an estimate? _____ Yes _____No)

    • Do you have plans for expanding your services to lesbian victims and/or lesbian batterers?
      • no
      • yes
    • If yes, please describe these plans.
    • If you would like to receive an advance summary of the results of this survey, please mark an “X” here _____, and complete the identifying information below.
    • If you would like your services included in the resource guide, please mark an “X” here _____, and complete the identifying information below.

    Name of your service/agency:________________________________

    Mailing or business address:________________________________

    Relevant phone numbers for victims/batterers:________________________________

    This concludes the survey. Thank you again for your assistance.

    About the Author

    Claire M. Renzetti is Professor of Sociology at St. Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She is coauthor of Women, Men, and Society; Social Problems: Society in Crisis; and Criminology. In addition, she is co-editing a collection of articles on social problems and a volume on researching sensitive topics. Her research on domestic violence, the women's movement, and women and economic development has appeared in various scholarly journals, including Family Relations, Sex Roles, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, and Contemporary Crises.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website