Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell


Edited by: Joel A.C. Baum & Bill McKelvey

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Blind-Variation-Selection-and-Retention

    Part II: Multilevel Coevolution

    Part III: Process-Level Analysis and Modeling

    Part IV: Methodology and Epistemology

  • Copyright

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    During Don Campbell's lifetime, I never used the name of Campbell. Instead, after our 1983 marriage, I continued using the name acquired after my first marriage, long before one's surname became a feminist issue. I did this chiefly because Frankel had been my professional name for a number of years by the time we met. Moreover, Don often spoke of his longtime custom of advising his female graduate students to keep their maiden names when they married. (“Given the high rate of divorce among psychologists, I warned them that they could find themselves saddled professionally with the surname of a person they no longer even liked,” he would say, then he'd add, with a twinkle: “None of them took my advice, and all of those to whom I gave that advice have stayed married!”) But, the strongest reason for eschewing the Campbell name was, I must now confess, a perverse pride: I didn't want to trade on his renown in any way. All this points to the fact that it was not simple marrying a man whose fame was so great.

    But what a joy it was! He was not merely a famous man, but a great one, a true original whose value and role in the intellectual world were unique and irreplaceable. (I can say that, because I had nothing to do with his success, which was achieved long before we met.) One reason, at least, was not hard to discern: Donald T. Campbell was, quite simply, the best academic I have ever encountered—and I have encountered quite a few.

    During the 15 years we were together, I had ample opportunity to contemplate the qualities that made him that. It was not sheer brilliance, though he was indeed, as one admirer said, “the last of the polymaths.” Nor was it drive and ambition, though he certainly had plenty of those qualities, as well. It was not his creativity or his enormous capacity for work, though he was well above the norms in those regards (even though he complained of needing more sleep than most people and insisted he had never been able to work long hours). It was not even his immense talent for collaboration with other scholars. It was all these things in magical combination with special qualities of personality and character that made Don one of the few major figures in any field—perhaps the only one—who seems to have had no enemies, even among longtime intellectual adversaries.

    Intellectual disagreements were never rancorous, but always friendly, treated as opportunities to learn from another's work. Indeed, sometimes Don was said to “suffer fools gladly”—and, oddly, this was consistent not only with his kindly disposition but also with his fallibilist epistemology, which taught him that all of us are fools, and that you never know where a good idea might come from. Thus, in his teaching, he gave only three grades: A, B, or Incomplete, for his faith in everyone's capacity to learn and contribute was limitless.

    Chip Reichard wrote (in one of Don's many obituaries) that he wondered whether there was anyone Don ever met that he did not encourage. I, having seen him in action more times than I can count, have wondered the same thing. He had a great gift for finding what was positive and original in the work of others, and letting them know how much he valued it. More than one discouraged scholar carried on through years of adversity because of Don's help and support, and if they faltered at last and abandoned the struggle, he mourned the loss to the intellectual world. He wanted everyone to love that world as he did, and his influence on students was nothing short of seductive in many cases.

    Early in his life, Don Campbell decided to be a scientist and an intellectual, though what sort of intellectual he did not discover until later. To him, no other life could possibly have been as rewarding or as noble as the life of the mind. He used to joke wryly that he was lucky to have stumbled into academe, because he surely would have been a failure had he tried to earn a living at anything else. I doubted that proposition the first time I heard it, and my subsequent years of watching assured me that his talents as a diplomat and a salesman would have earned him a living anywhere. Still, he believed it, and his generosity was such that he wished everyone in the world could share his pleasure in the intellectual enterprise.

    Since Don's death in 1996, I have had letters and messages from many people whose lives he had touched in some way. Each of them is special, a touching tribute to the love people felt for Don in return for the love he gave. That is not so very surprising: What really astounded me was to learn of the enormous variety of intellectual projects and interests my husband had engaged in over his 50-year career, many of which I learned of only after his death. Now, after 15 years as both colleague and wife, after the innumerable meetings we attended together the world over, and after reading substantial portions (though not nearly all) of his immense scholarly output, I am still learning about interests he shared, even projects he had undertaken, often with people whose names were unfamiliar.

    I cannot say that I had no idea that Don had contact with specialists in studies of organizations. It seemed to me peripheral to what I knew he was actively involved in, but I do remember a meeting in New York City several years ago, one that was organized by Joel Baum. (I went to New York with Don, but not to the meeting, I confess. Don had told me it was about management, a field in which I regard myself as a hopeless case.) What I didn't suspect, though, was that Donald T. Campbell's influence on the field of organization science merited a volume in his memory. I am sure he would be grateful, and as always a little surprised, to learn that so distinguished a group of colleagues has accorded him this honor.

    On occasions such as this one, Don used to elaborate his thesis that the more honors one has received, the more of them one is likely to receive in the future. With each honorary degree or award, he would say, with the self-deprecating twinkle he showed on such occasions, that here was another case of “autocorrelated error.” On the other hand, his was the only C.V. I've ever seen that had a section titled “Books Dedicated to Me,” and despite the many other honors he received, that list was the achievement of which he was proudest. I know, therefore, that the present volume would please and gratify him, and I thank the editors, and whoever else is responsible, for honoring his memory in the way he valued most.

    Barbara FrankelCampbell


    Shortly after his death in 1996, we confessed to each other the great influence Don Campbell had had on each of us.

    Bill first met Don—in print—in 1965 when Don's “Variation and Selective Retention in Socio-Cultural Evolution” appeared in a book titled Social Change in Developing Areas. At this time, Bill was a PhD student at MIT studying personal, group, organizational, and social change and Third World industrial development. Bill's first draft of anything evolutionary appeared in 1970 and led more than a decade later to an enthusiastic selectionist theory application to organizational growth and survival, competition grouping, and dominant competence as elements in the creation of organizational species—all summarized in Bill's book, Organizational Systematics (1982). Although the book ostensibly was about organizational taxonomy, the required development of a theory of speciation based on selectionist evolutionary theory brought Bill, accompanied by Howard Aldrich, face to face with Don in 1980, not long after he had moved to the Maxwell School at Syracuse University. Their conversation dwelt mainly on the “evolution of evolution” in the study of organizations and in teasing out the genetic algorithm connecting Amos Hawley, Armen Alchian, and Don to early contributors and to students of organizational evolution such as Sid Winter, Herbert Kaufman, Jack Hirshleifer, Karl Weick, Howard Aldrich, Jerry Salancik, Mike Hannan, John Freeman, Marion Blute, and, eventually, Bill.

    Joel first encountered Don in 1988 while a PhD student at the University of Toronto. Don quickly became excited about Joel's dissertation (itself inspired by Bill's Organizational Systematics), and they began to correspond, keeping each other informed about their ideas on organizational evolution. When Joel began plans with Jitendra Singh for their 1992 conference on organizational evolution in New York City, Don was the first invited, along with Jim March, as a “pioneer” in the field of organizational evolution. After writing his organizational whole-part competition essay for that conference, Don encouraged Joel to work with him on fleshing out the significance of that phenomenon. Although they never did work together on it, Joel's chapter in this volume pursues that question directly.

    We also lamented the failure in organization science to acknowledge its intellectual debt to Don and wondered what we could do to begin a correction. We quickly decided that, whatever we did, we should not do it alone. We decided to organize a conference and to publish its proceedings to celebrate, examine, and build Don's legacy. We were thrilled by the enthusiasm of everyone we approached about our plans. One of our earliest supporters was Jerry Salancik—a Campbell student himself—who quickly committed himself to the project a short time before his death. Three others who supported and influenced the volume you are holding, but, for one good reason or another, are not represented directly in it are Rebecca Henderson, Anjali Sastri, and Karl Weick. Barbara Frankel Campbell, at a difficult time in her own life, promptly compiled and provided us with a detailed record of Don's publications and achievements, enabling us all to explore his intellectual legacy more thoroughly. We also owe a debt of gratitude to all the conference and volume participants, who carefully read, debated, and commented on one another's work, completed thoughtful revisions (often several), and generally met (and kept quiet about) the fast-paced deadlines we set.

    The conference itself, held November 7–9, 1997, at the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, was made possible by generous grants from Paul Halpern, Interim Dean of the Rotman School, and John Mamer, Interim Dean of UCLA's Anderson Graduate School of Management. We are most grateful to them for their financial support of the conference, and also to the universities that sponsored their faculty members' travel to the conference. Finally, thanks to Harry Briggs and Sage Publications for supporting our vision and allowing us to present it to you.

    JB, Toronto

    BM, Los Angeles

  • Appendix: Donald T. Campbell's Curriculum Vitae

    Born: November 20, 1916, Grass Lake, Michigan

    Died: May 6, 1996, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania


    1937A.A.San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College
    1939A.B.(Psychology) University of California, Berkeley
    1947Ph.D.(Psychology) University of California, Berkeley

    Past Employment:

    1941–1943Psychologist, Research and Analysis Branch, Coordinator of Information/Office of Strategic Services, Washington, DC
    1943–1946Ensign and Lieutenant, J.G., U.S. Navy (Reserve)
    1947–1950Assistant Professor, Psychology, Ohio State University
    1950–1953Assistant Professor, Psychology, University of Chicago
    1953–1979Associate Professor of Psychology, Northwestern University 1953–1958; Professor 1958–1973; Morrison Professor 1973–1979
    1954Visiting Associate Professor, Yale University
    1965–1966Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA
    1968–1969Fulbright Lecturer and Visiting Professor in Social Psychology, University of Oxford
    1977Visiting Professor, Psychology and Social Relations, Harvard University
    1979–1982New York State Board of Regents Albert Schweitzer Professor, The Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University
    1983–1996University Professor of Sociology-Anthropology, Psychology and Education, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA

    Elected Offices:

    1966–1967President, Midwestern Psychological Association
    1968–1969President, Division of Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychological Association
    1968–1969President, Division of Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychological Association
    1975President, American Psychological Association

    Honors and Awards:

    1965–1966Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences
    1969Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, American Psychological Association
    1973Member, National Academy of Sciences
    1974Kurt Lewin Memorial Award, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
    1977William James Lecturer, Harvard University
    1977Hovland Memorial Lecturer, Yale University
    1977Myrdal Prize in Science, The Evaluation Research Society
    1977Illinois Psychological Association Distinguished Psychologist Award
    1981Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Education, American Educational Research Association
    1985Career Achievement Award, Eastern Evaluation Research Society
    1988Distinguished Scientist Award, Society of Experimental Social Psychology
    1988Award for Distinguished Service to Measurement, Educational Testing Service
    1989Award for Outstanding Methodological Innovator in Public Policy Studies, Policy Studies Organization
    1989William James Fellow Award, American Psychological Society
    1990Honorary Fellow, International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology
    1991Sage Anniversary Lectureship, American Evaluation Association
    1992Member, American Philosophical Society
    1992Award for Outstanding Service to the Field of Education, College of Education, Lehigh University

    Honorary Degrees:

    1974Doctor of Law, University of Michigan
    1975Doctor of Science, University of Florida
    1978Doctor of Social Sciences, Claremont Graduate School
    1978Doctor of Humane Letters, University of Chicago
    1979Doctor of Science, University of Southern California
    1983Doctor of Science, Northwestern University
    1985Doctor of Philosophy, University of Oslo

    Books and Other Dedications:

    Kiesler, C. A., Collins, B. E., & Miller, N. (1969). Attitude change: A critical analysis of theoretical approaches. New York: Wiley.
    Crano, W. D., & Brewer, M. B. (1973). Principles of research in social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Powers, W. T. (1973). Behavior: The control of perception. Chicago: Aldine.
    Glass, G. V., Wilson, V. L., & Gottman, J. M. (1975). Design and analysis of time-series experiments. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press.
    Kidder, L. H., & Stewart, V. M. (1974). The psychology of intergroup relations: Conflict and consciousness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Cook, T. D., Del Rosario, M., Hennigan, K. M., Mark, M. M., & Trochim, W.M.K. (Eds.). (1978). Evaluation studies review annual. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    McCleary, R., & Hay, R. A., Jr. (1978). Applied time series for the social sciences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Tucker, R. K., Weaver, R. L. II, & Fink, C. B. (1981). Research in speech communication. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Rossi, P. H., & Freeman, H. E. (1982). Evaluation: A systematic approach (
    2nd ed.
    ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Agnew, N. M., & Pyke, S. W. (1982). The science game: An introduction to research in the behavioral sciences (
    3rd ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    McMillan, J. H., & Schumacher, S. (1984). Research in education. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Kenny, D. A. (1985). Quantitative methods for social psychology. Chapter 9 in G.Lindzey & E.Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 487–508). New York: Random House.
    Crano, W. D., & Brewer, M. B. (1986). Principles and methods of social research. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Levinton, L. C. (1991). Foundations of program evaluation: Theories of practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Caporael, L. R., & Brewer, M. B. (Eds.). (1991). Issues in evolutionary psychology (special issue of the Journal of Social Sciences), 47(3).


    Brewer, M. B., & Collins, B. E. (Eds.). (1981). Scientific inquiry in the social sciences: A volume in honor of Donald T. Campbell. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Award names:

    As of 1982, the Division of Personality and Social Psychology of the American Psychological Association has named its annual award “The Donald T. Campbell Award for Significant Research in Social Psychology.”

    As of 1983, the Policy Studies Organization initiated “The Donald Campbell Award” to be given annually to an outstanding methodological innovator in public policy studies.


    1. The generality of a social attitude. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1947.
    2. The indirect assessment of social attitudes. Psychological Bulletin, 47(1), 15–38, 1950.
    3. Hites, R. W., & Campbell, D. T.A test of the ability of fraternity leaders to estimate group opinion. Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 95–100, 1950.
    4. Wyatt, D. F., & Campbell, D. T.A study of the interviewer bias as related to interviewers' expectations and own opinions. International Journal of Opinion and Attitude Research, 4(1), 77–83, 1950.
    5. Campbell, D. T., & Mohr, P. J.The effect of ordinal position upon responses to items in a check list. Journal of Applied Psychology, 34(1), 62–67, 1950.
    6. Campbell, D. T., & McCandless, B. R.Ethnocentrism, xenophobia and personality. Human Relations, 4(2), 185–192, 1951.
    7. Wyatt, D. F., & Campbell, D. T.On the liability of stereotype or hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 46(4), 496–500, 1951.
    8. On the possibility of experimenting with the “bandwagon” effect. International Journal of Opinion and Attitude Research, 5(2), 251–260, 1951.
    9. Rinder, I. D., & Campbell, D. T.Varieties of inauthenticity. Phylon, 3, 270–275, 1952.
    10. The Bogardus social distance scale. Sociology and Social Research, 36(5), 322–326, 1952.
    11. Parish, J. A., & Campbell, D. T.Measuring propaganda effects with direct and indirect attitude tests. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 48(1), 3–9, 1953.
    12. Operational delineation of “what is learned” via the transposition experiment. Psychological Review, 61(3), 167–174, 1954.
    13. A rationale for weighting first, second, and third sociometric choices. Sociometry, 17, 242–243, 1954.
    14. The informant in quantitative research. American Journal of Sociology, 60(4), 339–342, 1955.
    15. Rankin, R. E., & Campbell, D. T.Galvanic skin response to Negro and white experimenters. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(1), 30–33, 1955.
    16. Kidd, J. S., & Campbell, D. T.Conformity to groups as a function of group success. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(3), 390–393, 1955.
    17. Clarke, R. B., & Campbell, D. T.A demonstration of bias in estimates of Negro ability. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(3), 585–588, 1955.
    18. An error in some demonstrations of the superior social perceptiveness of leaders. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(3), 694–695, 1955.
    19. Adaptive behavior from random response. Behavioral Science, 1(2), 105–110, 1956.
    20. Campbell, D. T., & Burwen, L. S.Trait judgments from photographs as a projective device. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 12(3), 215–221, 1956.;2-X
    21. Burwen, L. S., Campbell, D. T., & Kidd, J.The use of a sentence completion test in measuring attitudes towards superiors and subordinates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 40(4), 248–250, 1956.
    22. Review of F. A.Logan et al., Behavior theory and social science. Contemporary Psychology, 1(9), 264–266, 1956.
    23. Perception as a substitute trial and error. Psychological Review, 63(5), 330–342, 1956.
    24. Enhancement of contrast as composite habit. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 53(3), 350–355, 1956.
    25. Leadership and its effects upon the group (Ohio Studies in Personnel, Bureau of Business Research Monograph No. 83). Columbus: Ohio State University, 1956.
    26. Burwen, L. S., & Campbell, D. T.The generality of attitudes towards authority and nonauthority figures. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 54(1), 24–31, 1957.
    27. Chapman, L. J., & Campbell, D. T.Response set in the F scale. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 54(1), 129–132, 1957.
    28. Campbell, D. T., & McCormack, T. H.Military experience and attitudes toward authority. American Journal of Sociology, 62(5), 482–490, 1957.
    29. Campbell, D. T., & Tyler, B. B.The construct validity of work-group morale measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 41(2), 91–92, 1957.
    30. Campbell, D. T., & Chapman, J. P.Testing for stimulus equivalence among authority figures by similarity in trait description. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(3), 253–256, 1957.
    31. A typology of tests, projective and otherwise. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(3), 207–210, 1957.
    32. Factors relevant to the validity of experiments in social settings. Psychological Bulletin, 54(4), 297–312, 1957.
    33. Burwen, L. S., & Campbell, D. T.A comparison of test scores and role-playing behavior in assessing superior vs. subordinate orientation. Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 49–56, 1957.
    34. Chapman, L. J., & Campbell, D. T.An attempt to predict the performance of three-man teams from attitude measures. Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 277–286, 1957.
    35. Westfall, R. L., Boyd, H. W., & Campbell, D. T.The use of structured techniques in motivation research. Journal of Marketing, 22, 134–139, 1957.
    36. Campbell, D. T., Hunt, W. A., & Lewis, N. A.The effects of assimilation and contrast in judgments of clinical materials. American Journal of Psychology, 70(3), 347–360, 1957.
    37. Interrelationships among leadership criteria measures for a population of Air Force pilot cadets (Research Report, AFPTRC-TN-57–70, ASTIA Document 131421), June 1957.
    38. Intercorrelations among leadership criteria for a population of Air Force instructors (Research Report, AFPTRC-TN-57–90, ASTIA Document 134233), June 1957.
    39. Cotton, J. W., Campbell, D. T., & Malone, R. D.The relationship between factorial composition of test items and measures of test reliability. Psychometrika, 22(4), 347–357, 1957.
    40. Common fate, similarity, and other indices of the status of aggregates of person of social entities. Behavioral Science, 3(1), 14–25, 1958.
    41. Campbell, D. T., Lewis, N. A., & Hunt, W. A.Context effects with judgmental language that is absolute, extensive and extra-experimentally anchored. Journal of Social Psychology, 55(3), 220–228, 1958.
    42. Campbell, D. T., & Mehra, K.Individual differences in evaluations of group discussions as a projective measure of attitudes toward leadership. Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 101–106, 1958.
    43. Campbell, D. T., & Shanan, J.Semantic idiosyncrasy as a method in the study of attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 107–110, 1958.
    44. Campbell, D. T., Hunt, W. A., & Lewis, N. A.The relative susceptibility of two rating scales to disturbances resulting from shifts in stimulus context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 42(4), 213–217, 1958.
    45. Campbell, D. T., & Gruen, W.Progression from simple to complex as a molar law of learning. Journal of General Psychology, 59, 237–244, 1958.
    46. Campbell, D. T., & Kral, T. P.Transposition away from a rewarded stimulus card to a nonrewarded one as a function of a shift in background. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 51(5), 592–595, 1958.
    47. Systematic error on the part of human links in communication systems. Information and Control, 1(4), 334–369, 1959.
    48. Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W.Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56(2), 81–105, 1959.
    49. Chapman, L. J., & Campbell, D. T.The effect of acquiescence response-set upon relationships among the F scale, ethnocentrism, and intelligence. Sociometry, 22(2), 153–161, 1959.
    50. Miller, N., & Campbell, D. T.Recency and primacy in persuasion as a function of the timing of speeches and measurements. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59(1), 1–9, 1959.
    51. Methodological suggestions from a comparative psychology of knowledge processes. Inquiry, 2, 152–182, 1959.
    52. Chapman, L. J., & Campbell, D. T.Absence of acquiescence response set in the Taylor manifest anxiety scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 23(5), 465–466, 1959.
    53. Small, D. O., & Campbell, D. T.The effect of acquiescence response-set upon the relationship of the F scale and conformity. Sociometry, 23(1), 69–71, 1960.
    54. Campbell, D. T., Miller, N., & Diamond, A. L.Predisposition to identify instigating and guiding stimulus as revealed in transfer. Journal of General Psychology, 63, 69–74, 1960.
    55. Blind variation and selective survival as a general strategy in knowledge processes. In M. C.Yovits & S. H.Cameron (Eds.), Self-organizing systems (pp. 205–231). Oxford, UK: Pergamon, 1960.
    56. Maher, B. A., Watt, N., & Campbell, D. T.Comparative validity of two projective and two structured attitude tests in a prison population. Journal of Applied Psychology, 44(4), 284–288, 1960.
    57. Recommendations for APA test standards regarding construct, trait, or discriminant validity. American Psychologist, 15, 546–553, 1960.
    58. Blind variation and selective retention in creative thought as in other knowledge processes. Psychological Review, 67(6), 380–400, 1960.
    59. Thistlethwaite, D. L., & Campbell, D. T.Regression-discontinuity analysis: An alternative to the ex post facto experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51(6), 309–317, 1960.
    60. Campbell, D. T., & Clayton, K. N.Avoiding regression effects in panel studies of communication impact. Studies in Public Communication, 3, 99–118, 1961.
    61. Campbell, D. T., & LeVine, R. A.A proposal for cooperative cross-cultural research on ethnocentrism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 5(1), 82–108, 1961.
    62. Jacobs, R. C., & Campbell, D. T.The perpetuation of an arbitrary tradition through several generations of a laboratory microculture. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62(3), 649–658, 1961.
    63. Krantz, D. L., & Campbell, D. T.Separating perceptual and linguistic effects of context shifts upon absolute judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(1), 35–42, 1961.
    64. Conformity in psychology's theories of acquired behavioral dispositions. In I. A.Berg & B. M.Bass (Eds.), Conformity and deviation (pp. 101–142). New York: Harper, 1961.
    65. The mutual methodological relevance of anthropology and psychology. In F.L.K.Hsu (Ed.), Psychological anthropology: Approaches to culture and personality (pp. 333–352). Homewood, IL: Dorsey, 1961.
    66. Campbell, D. T., & Damarin, F. L.Measuring leadership attitudes through an information test. Journal of Social Psychology, 55, 159–175, 1961.
    67. Renner, K. E., Maher, B. A., & Campbell, D. T.The validity of a method for scoring sentence-completion responses for anxiety, dependency and hostility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 46, 285–290, 1962.
    68. Harvey, O. J., & Campbell, D. T.Judgments of weight as affected by adaptation range, adaptation duration, magnitude of unlabeled anchor, and judgmental language. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(1), 12–21, 1963.
    69. Segall, M. H., Campbell, D. T., & Herskovits, M. J.Cultural differences in the perception of geometric illusions. Science, 139, 769–771, 1963.
    70. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C.Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research on teaching. In N. L.Gage (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 171–246). Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963. (Reprinted as Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research, Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966)
    71. Social attitudes and other acquired behavioral dispositions. In S.Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science: Vol. 6. Investigations of man as socius (pp. 94–172). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.
    72. Watson, R. I., & Campbell, D. T. (Eds.). E. G. Boring: History, psychology, and science: Selected papers. New York: Wiley, 1963.
    73. Lubetsky, J., & Campbell, D. T.Age and sex as sources of stimulus equivalence in judgments of photos and peers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19(4), 502–505, 1963.;2-I
    74. From description to experimentation: Interpreting trends as quasi-experiments. In C. W.Harris (Ed.), Problems in measuring change (pp. 212–242). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963.
    75. Distinguishing differences of perception from failures of communication in cross-cultural studies. In F.S.C.Northrop & H. H.Livingston (Eds.), Cross-cultural understanding: Epistemology in anthropology (pp. 308–336). New York: Harper & Row, 1964.
    76. Campbell, D. T., Miller, N., Lubeteky, J., & O'Connell, E. J.Varieties of projection in trait attribution. Psychological Monographs, 78(592), 1–33, 1964.
    77. Spear, N. E., Hill, W. F., & Campbell, D. T.Effect of unconsumed reward on subsequent alternation of choice. Psychological Reports, 15, 407–411, 1964.
    78. Ethnocentric and other altruistic motives. In D.Levine (Ed.), The Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1965 (pp. 283–311). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965.
    79. Hicks, J. M., & Campbell, D. T.Zero-point scaling as affected by social object, scaling method, and context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2(6), 793–808, 1965.
    80. Variation and selective retention in socio-cultural evolution. In H. R.Barringer, G. I.Blanksten, & R. W.Mack (Eds.), Social change in developing areas: A reinterpretation of evolutionary theory (pp. 19–48). Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1965.
    81. Experimental design: Quasi-experimental design. In D. L.Sills (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences (Vol. 5, pp. 259–263). New York: Macmillan & Free Press, 1968.
    82. Miller, N., Campbell, D. T., Twedt, H., & O'Connell, E. J.Similarity, contrast, and complementarity in friendship choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(1), 3–12, 1966.
    83. Campbell, D. T., & Tauscher, H.Schopenhauer, Sequin, Lubinoff, and Zehender as anticipators of Emmert's Law: With comments on the uses of eponymy. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 2(1), 58–63, 1966.;2-M
    84. Pattern matching as an essential in distal knowing. In K. R.Hammond (Ed.), The psychology of Egon Brunswik (pp. 81–106). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966.
    85. Campbell, D. T., Kruskal, W. H., & Wallace, W. P.Seating aggregation as an index of attitude. Sociometry, 29(1), 1–15, 1966.
    86. Webb, E. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., & Sechrest, L. B.Unobtrusive measures: Nonreactive research in the social sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966.
    87. Segall, M. H., Campbell, D. T., & Herskovits, M. J.The influence of culture on visual perception. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966.
    88. Administrative experimentation, institutional records, and nonreactive measures. In J. C.Stanley & S. M.Elam (Eds.), Improving experimental design and statistical analysis (pp. 257–291). Chicago: Rand McNally, 1967.
    89. Stereotypes and the perception of group differences. American Psychologist, 22(10), 817–829, 1967.
    90. Campbell, D. T., Siegman, C. R., & Rees, M. B.Direction-of-wording effects in the relationships between scales. Psychological Bulletin, 68(5), 293–303, 1967.
    91. Campbell, D. T., & O'Connell, E. J.Methods factors in multitrait-multimethod matrices: Multiplicative rather than additive?Multivariate Behavioral Research, 2(4), 409–426, 1967.
    92. A cooperative multinational opinion sample exchange. Journal of Social Issues, 24(2), 245–258, 1968.
    93. Campbell, D. T., & LeVine, R. A.Ethnocentrism and intergroup relations. In R. P.Abelson, E.Aronson, W. J.McGuire, T. M.Newcomb, M. J.Rosenberg, & P. H.Tannenbaum (Eds.), Theories of cognitive consistency: A sourcebook (pp. 551–564). Chicago: Rand McNally, 1968.
    94. Campbell, D. T., & Ross, H. L.The Connecticut crackdown on speeding: Time-series data in quasi-experimental analysis. Law and Society Review, 5(1), 33–53, 1968.
    95. Ethnocentrism of disciplines and the fish-scale model of omniscience. In M.Sherif & C. W.Sherif (Eds.), Interdisciplinary relationships in the social sciences (pp. 328–348). Chicago: Aldine, 1969.
    96. Rozelle, R. M., & Campbell, D. T.More plausible rival hypotheses in the cross-lagged panel correlation technique. Psychological Bulletin, 71(1), 74–80, 1969.
    97. A phenomenology of the other one: Corrigible, hypothetical and critical. In T.Mischel (Ed.), Human action: Conceptual and empirical issues (pp. 41–69). New York: Academic Press, 1969.
    98a. Reforms as experiments. American Psychologist, 24(4), 409–429, 1969.
    98b. Shaver, P., & Staines, G.Problems facing Campbell's “experimenting society.”Urban Affairs Quarterly, 7(2), 173–186, 1971.
    98c. Comments on the comments by Shaver and Staines. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 7(2), 187–192, 1971.
    98d. Legal reforms and experiments. Journal of Legal Education, 23(1), 217–239, 1971. (Modification of 98a)
    99. Winch, R. F., & Campbell, D. T.Proof? No. Evidence? Yes. The significance of tests of significance. American Sociologist, 4(2), 140–143, 1969.
    100. Herskovits, M. J., Campbell, D. T., & Segall, M. H.A cross-cultural study of perception. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969. (
    Revised edition
    101. Prospective: Artifact and control. In R.Rosenthal & R.Rosnow (Eds.), Artifact in behavior research (pp. 351–382). New York: Academic Press, 1969.
    102. Definitional versus multiple operationalism. Et al., 2(2), 14–17, 1969.
    103. Werner, O., & Campbell, D. T.Translating, working through interpreters, and the problem of decentering. In R.Naroll & R.Cohen (Eds.), A handbook of method in cultural anthropology (pp. 398–420). Garden City, NY: Natural History Press, 1970.
    104. Natural selection as an epistemological model. In R.Naroll & R.Cohen (Eds.), A handbook of method in cultural anthropology (pp. 51–85). Garden City, NY: Natural History Press, 1970.
    105. Campbell, D. T., & LeVine, R. A.Field manual anthropology. In R.Naroll & R.Cohen (Eds.), A handbook of method in cultural anthropology (pp. 366–387). Garden City, NY: Natural History Press, 1970.
    106. Kidder, L., & Campbell, D. T.The indirect testing of social attitudes. In G. F.Summers (Ed.), Attitude measurement (pp. 333–385). Chicago: Rand McNally, 1970.
    107. Brewer, M. B., Campbell, D. T., & Crano, W. D.Testing a single-factor model as an alternative to the misuse of partial correlations in hypothesis-testing research. Sociometry, 33(1), 1–11, 1970.
    108. Ross, H. L., Campbell, D. T., & Glass, G. V.Determining the social effects of a legal reform: The British “Breathalyser” crackdown of 1967. American Behavioral Scientist, 13(4), 493–509, 1970.
    109. Considering the case against experimental evaluations of social innovations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15(1), 110–113, 1970.
    110. Campbell, D. T., & Erlebacher, A.How regression artifacts in quasi-experimental evaluations can mistakenly make compensatory education look harmful. In J.Hellmuth (Ed.), Compensatory education: A national debate: Vol. 3. Disadvantaged child (pp. 185–210). New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1970. (Reply to the replies, 221–225)
    111. Campbell, D. T., & Frey, P. W.The implications of learning theory for the fade-out of gains from compensatory education. In J.Hellmuth (Ed.), Compensatory education: A national debate: Vol. 3. Disadvantaged child (pp. 455–463). New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1970.
    112. Raser, J. R., Campbell, D. T., & Chadwick, R. W.Gaming and simulation for developing theory relevant to international relations. In A.Rapoport (Ed.), General systems: Yearbook of the Society for General Systems Research (Vol. 15, pp. 183–204). Ann Arbor, MI: Society for General Systems Research, 1970.
    113. Brickman, P., & Campbell, D. T.Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In M. H.Appley (Ed.), Adaptation-level theory: A symposium (pp. 287–304). New York: Academic Press, 1971.
    114. Temporal changes in treatment-effect correlations: A quasi-experimental model for institutional records and longitudinal studies. In G. V.Glass (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1970 invitational conference on testing problems (pp. 93–110). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1971.
    115. Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1970 [Award to D. T. Campbell, including citation, biography, and publications]. American Psychologist, 26(1), 77–81, 1971.
    116. Measuring the effects of social innovations by means of time-series. In J. M.Tanur, F.Mosteller, W. H.Kruskal, R. F.Link, R. S.Pieters, & G. R.Rising (Eds.), Statistics: A guide to the unknown (pp. 120–129). San Francisco: Holden-Day, 1972.
    117. LeVine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T.Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes and group behavior. New York: Wiley, 1972.
    118. Crano, W. D., Kenny, D. A., & Campbell, D. T.Does intelligence cause achievement?: A cross-lagged panel analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 63(3), 258–275, 1972.
    119. Herskovits, cultural relativism, and metascience. In M. J.Herskovits. Cultural relativism (pp. v-xxiii). New York: Random House, 1972.
    120. On the genetics of altruism and the counter-hedonic components in human culture. Journal of Social Issues, 28(3), 21–37, 1972.
    121. Webb, E. J., & Campbell, D. T.Experiments on communication effects. In I. de S.Pool, W.Schramm, F. W.Frey, N.Maccoby, & E. B.Parker (Eds.), Handbook of communications (pp. 938–952). Chicago: Rand McNally, 1973.
    122. The social scientist as methodological servant of the experimenting society. Policy Studies Journal, 2(1), 72–75, 1973.
    123. Ostensive instances and entitativity in language learning. In W.Gray & N. D.Rizzo (Eds.), Unity through diversity (Part 2, pp. 1043–1057). New York: Gordon & Breach, 1973.
    124. Salasin, S.Experimentation revisited: A conversation with Donald T. Campbell. Evaluation, 1(1), 7–13, 1973.
    125. Evolutionary epistemology. In P. A.Schilpp (Ed.), The philosophy of Karl R. Popper (The Library of Living Philosophers, Vol. 14, pp. 413–463). La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1974.
    126. Unjustified variation and selective retention in scientific discovery. In F. J.Ayala & T.Dobzhansky (Eds.), Studies in the philosophy of biology (pp. 139–161). London: Macmillan, 1974.
    127. “Downward causation” in hierarchically organized biological systems. In F. J.Ayala & T.Dobzhansky (Eds.), Studies in the philosophy of biology (pp. 179–186). London: Macmillan, 1974.
    128. Riecken, H. W., Boruch, R. F., Campbell, D. T., Caplan, N., Glennan, T. K., Pratt, J., Rees, A., & Williams, W.Social experimentation: A method for planning and evaluating social intervention. New York: Academic Press, 1974.
    129. “Degrees of freedom” and the case study. Comparative Political Studies, 8(2), 178–193, 1975.
    130. Campbell, D. T., Boruch, R. F., Schwartz, R. D., & Steinberg, J.Confidentiality-preserving modes of access to files and to interfile exchange for useful statistical analysis. Appendix A to A. M.Rivim et al., Protecting individual privacy in evaluation research (A report of the Committee on Federal Agency Evaluation Research of the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, DC, A-1-A-25). Washington, DC: National Research Council, 1975.
    131. Assessing the impact of planned social change. In G. M.Lyons (Ed.), Social research and public policies (pp. 3–45). Hanover, NH: The Public Affairs Center, Dartmouth College, 1975.
    132. The conflict between social and biological evolution and the concept of original sin. Zygon, 10, 234–249, 1975.
    133. Campbell, D. T., & Boruch, R. F.Making the case for randomized assignment to treatments by considering the alternatives: Six ways in which quasi-experimental evaluations in compensatory education tend to underestimate effects. In C. A.Bennett & A.Lumsdaine (Eds.), Evaluation and experiments: Some critical issues in assessing social programs (pp. 195–296). New York: Academic Press, 1975.
    134. Reintroducing Konrad Lorenz to psychology. In R. I.Evans (Ed. & interviewer), Konrad Lorenz: The man and his ideas (pp. 88–128). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.
    135. Tavris, C.The experimenting society: To find programs that work, government must measure its failures: A conversation with Donald T. Campbell. Psychology Today, 9(4), 46–56, 1975.
    136. On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. American Psychologist, 30, 1103–1126, 1975.
    137. Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T.The design and conduct of quasi-experiments and true experiments in field settings. In M. D.Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational research (pp. 223–226). Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976.
    138. Brewer, M. B., & Campbell, D. T.Ethnocentrism and intergroup attitudes: East African evidence. New York: John Wiley, 1976.
    139. Focal local indicators for social program evaluation. Social Indicators Research, 3, 237–256, 1976.
    140. Discussion comment on “the natural selection model of conceptual evolution.”Philosophy of Science, 44(3), 502–507, 1977.
    141. Keeping the data honest in the experimenting society. In H. W.Melton & J. H.David (Eds.), Interdisciplinary dimensions of accounting for social goals and social organizations (pp. 37–42). Columbus, OH: Grid, Inc., 1977.
    142. Qualitative knowing in action research. In M.Brenner, P.Marsh, & M.Brenner (Eds.), The social contexts of method (pp. 184–209). London: Croom Helm, 1978. (Reprinted in D. T.Campbell [E. S.Overman, Ed.], Methodology and epistemology for social science [pp. 360–376]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988)
    143a. Comments on the sociobiology of ethics and moralizing. Behavioral Science, 24, 37–45, 1979.
    143b. Social morality norms as evidence of conflict between biological human nature and social system requirements. In G. S.Stent (Ed.), Morality as a biological phenomenon (pp. 75–92). Berlin: Dahlem Konferenzen, 1979.
    144. Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T.Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis for field settings. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1979.
    145. A tribal model of the social system vehicle carrying scientific knowledge. Knowledge, 2, 181–201, 1979.
    146. Darning up the gaps in the seamless web of scholarship. Syracuse Scholar, 1, 73–77, 1979–1980.
    147. Social dispositions of the individual and their group functionality: Evolutionary aspects. In E. V.Shorokhova & M. I.Bobneva (Eds.), Psychological mechanisms for the regulation of social behavior (pp. 76–102). Moscow: Nauka, 1979. (Translated by M. I.Bobneva into Russian)
    148. Models of experiments in social psychology and applied research. Moscow: Progress, 1980s. (Translated by M. I.Bobneva into Russian)
    149. Campbell, D. T., & Wertsch, J. V.Soviet perspectives on American social psychology. Soviet Psychology, 19, 3–11, 1980. (With introduction by guest editors)
    150. Discussion with R. E.Evans. In R. E.Evans (Interviewer and Ed.), The making of social psychology (pp. 73–84). New York: Gardner, 1980.
    151. Webb, E. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., Sechrest, L., & Grove, J. B.Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981. (Revision of item 86)
    152. Epistemologia evoluzionistica. Rome: Editore Armando Armondo, 1981. (Translation and 56-page introduction by Massimo Stanzione)
    153. Levels of organization, selection, and information storage in biological and social evolution. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 236–237, 1981.
    154. Variation and selective retention theories of sociocultural evolution. Comments on R. N. Adams, Natural selection, energetics, and “cultural materialism.”Current Anthropology, 22, 603–608 and 608–609, 1981.
    155. Foreword: Several invitations to several groups of readers. In J.Zeisel, Inquiry by design: Tools for environment-behavior research (pp. vii-x). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1981.
    156. Introduction: Getting ready for the experimenting society. In L.Saxe & M.Fine, Social experiments: Methods for design and evaluation (Sage Library of Social Research Vol. 131, pp. 13–18). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1981.
    157. Another perspective on a scholarly career. In M. B.Brewer & B. E.Collins (Eds.), Scientific inquiry and the social sciences: A volume in honor of Donald T. Campbell (pp. 454–486). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1981.
    158. Experiments as arguments. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, 3, 327–337, 1982.
    159. Campbell, D. T., & O'Connell, E.Methods as diluting trait relationships rather than adding irrelevant systematic variance. In D.Brinberg & L.Kidder (Eds.), New directions for methodology of social and behavioral science: Forms of validity in research (pp. 93–111). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1982.
    160. Campbell, D. T., & Cecil, J. S.A proposed system of regulation for the protection of participants in low-risk areas of applied social research. In J. E.Sieber (Ed.), The ethics of social research (pp. 97–121). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982.
    161. The “blind-variation-and-selective-retention” theme. In J. M.Broughton & D. J.Freeman-Moir (Eds.), The cognitive-developmental psychology of James Mark Baldwin: Current theory and research in genetic epistemology (pp. 87–96). Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1982.
    162. Legal and primary-group social controls. Journal of Social and Biological Structures, 5(4), 431–438, 1982.
    163. The general algorithm for adaptation in learning, evolution, and perception. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6(1), 178–179, 1983. (Commentary on T. D.Johnston,) The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, (125–173)
    164. Two distinct routes beyond kin selection to ultrasociality: Implications for the humanities and social sciences. In D. L.Bridgeman (Ed.), The nature of prosocial development: Theories and strategies (pp. 11–41). New York: Academic Press, 1983.
    165. Foreword: An informal history of the regression discontinuity design. In W.M.K.Trochim, Research design for program evaluation: The regression-discontinuity approach (pp. 15–43). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1984.
    166. Hospital and landsting as continuously monitoring social polygrams: Advocacy and warning. In B.Cronholm & L.von Knorring (Eds.), Evaluation of mental health services programs (pp. 13–39). Stockholm: Forskningsraadet Medicinska, 1984.
    167. Campbell, D. T., & Specht, J. C.Altruism: Biology, culture, and religion. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 5(1), 33–42, 1984.
    168. Can we be scientific in applied social science? In R. F.Conner, D. G.Altman, & C.Jackson (Eds.), Evaluation Studies Review Annual, 9, 26–48, 1984.
    169. Science policy from a naturalistic sociological epistemology. In P. D.Asguith & P.Kitcher (Eds.), PSA 1984, 2, 14–29, 1985.
    170. Foreword. In R. K.Yin, Case study research (pp. 7–9). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1984.
    171. Kenny, D. A., & Campbell, D. T.Methodological considerations in the analysis of temporal data. In K. J.Gergen & M. M.Gergen (Eds.), Historical social psychology (pp. 125–138). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984.
    172. Toward an epistemologically-relevant sociology of science. Science. Technology & Human Values, 10(1), 38–48, 1985.
    173. Holzner, B., Campbell, D. T., & Shahidullah, M.The comparative study of science and the sociology of scientific validity. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, 6(4), 307–328, 1985.
    174. Quasiexperimental approaches in therapeutic research. Muscle & Nerve, 8(6), 483–485, 1985.
    175. The agenda beyond Axelrod's The evolution of cooperation. Political Psychology, 7(4), 793–796, 1986.
    176. Ginsberg, P.Campbells in China: A conversation with the editor. Eastern Evaluation Research Society Newsletter, 8(1), 6–9, 1986.
    177. Rationality and utility from the standpoint of evolutionary biology. Journal of Business, 59(4), S355-S364, 1986. (Reprinted in R. M.Hogarth & M. W.Reder [Eds.], Rational choice: The contrast between economics and psychology [pp. 171–180]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987)
    178. Science's social system of validity-enhancing collective belief change and the problems of the social sciences. In D. W.Fiske & R. A.Shweder (Eds.), Metatheory in social science: Pluralisms and subjectivities (pp. 108–135). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
    179. [Review of W. L.Wallace, Principles of scientific sociology]. Ethology and Sociobiology, 7, 135–137, 1986.
    180. Watson, K. F.Programs, experiments, and other evaluations: An interview with Donald Campbell. The Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 1(1), 83–86, 1986.
    181. Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T.The causal assumptions of quasi-experimental practice. Synthese, 68, 141–180, 1986.
    182. Relabeling internal and external validity for applied social scientists. In W. M.Trochim (Ed.), Advances in quasi-experimental design and analysis: New directions for program evaluation (pp. 67–77). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1986.
    183. Neurological embodiments of belief and the gaps in the fit of phenomena to noumena. In A.Shimony & D.Nails (Eds.), Naturalistic epistemology (pp. 165–192). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel, 1987.
    184. Selection theory and the sociology of scientific validity. In W.Callebaut & R.Pinxten (Eds.), Evolutionary epistemology: A multiparadigm program (pp. 139–158). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel, 1987.
    185. Campbell, D. T., Heyes, C. M., & Callebaut, W. G.Evolutionary epistemology bibliography. In W.Callebaut & R.Pinxten (Eds.), Evolutionary epistemology: A multiparadigm program (pp. 405–431). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel, 1987.
    186. Guidelines for monitoring the scientific competence of preventive intervention research centers: An exercise in the sociology of scientific validity. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, 8(3), 389–430, 1987.
    187. Problems for the experimenting society in the interface between evaluation and service providers. In S. L.Kagan, D. R.Powell, B.Weissbourd, & E. F.Zigler (Eds.), America's family support programs: Perspectives and prospects (pp. 345–351). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987.
    188. Ross, A. O. [Interview with D. T.Campbell]. In Personality: The scientific study of complex human behavior (pp. 184–185). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1987.
    189. Assessing the impact of programs, facilities, policies, and regulations. In He ZhaoFa (Ed.), Uses of sociology: An international conference sponsored by the Sociology Department, Zhonashan University (pp. 184–198). Guangzhou: Zhongshan University Press, 1987.
    190. Foreword. In Philip Brickman et al., Commitment, conflict, and caring (pp. vii-x). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1987.
    191. A general “selection theory” as implemented in biological evolution and in social belief-transmission-with-modification in science. Biology & Philosophy, 3(2), 171–177, 1988.
    192. Preface. In M.Sherif, O. J.Harvey, B. J.White, W. R.Hood, & C. W.Sherif, Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The robber's cave experiment (pp. xiii-xxi). Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1988.
    193. Provocation on reproducing perspectives: Part 5. Social Epistemology, 2(2), 189–192, 1988.
    194. Popper and selection theory: Response. Social Epistemology, 2(4), 371–377, 1988.
    195. Methodology and epistemology for social science: Selected papers (E. S.Overman, Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
    196. Uncritical adaptationism criticized [Review of JohnDupre, (Ed.), The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality]. Contemporary Psychology, 34(2), 128–129, 1989.
    197. Fragments of the fragile history of psychological epistemology and theory of science. In B.Gholson, W. R.Shadish, R. A.Neimeyer, & A. C.Houts (Eds.), Psychology of science: Contributions to metascience (pp. 21–46). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
    198. In memoriam: Milton Rokeach, 1918–1988. Public Opinion Quarterly, 53, 258–261, 1989.
    199. Honoring Nevitt Sanford [Review of Mervin B.Freedman (Ed.), Social change and personality: Essays in honor of Nevitt Sanford]. Contemporary Psychology, 34(10), 944–945, 1989.
    200. Being mechanistic/materialistic/realistic about the process of knowing. Canadian Psychology, 30(2), 184–185, 1989.
    201. Paller, B. T., & Campbell, D. T.Maxwell and van Fraassen on observability, reality, and justification. In M. L.Maxwell & C. W.Savage (Eds.), Science, mind and psychology: Essays in honor of Grover Maxwell (pp. 99–132). Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1989.
    202. Campbell, D. T., & Paller, B. T.Extending evolutionary epistemology to “justifying” scientific beliefs: A sociological rapprochement with a fallibilist perceptual foundationalism? In K.Hahlweg & C. A.Hooker (Eds.), Issues in evolutionary epistemology (pp. 231–257). Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.
    203. Braverman, M. T., & Campbell, D. T.Facilitating the development of health promotion programs: Recommendations for researchers and funders. In M. T.Brayerman (Ed.), Evaluating health promotion programs (pp. 5–18). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989.
    204. Kenny, D. A., & Campbell, D. T.On the measurement of stability in overtime data. Journal of Personality, 57(2), 445–481, 1989.
    205. Models of language learning and their implications for social-constructionist analyses of scientific belief. In S.Fuller, M.De Mey, T.Shinn, & S.Woolgar (Eds.), The cognitive turn: Sociological and psychological perspectives on science (pp. 153–158). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 1989.
    206. Erkenntnistheorie evolutionare. In H.Seiffert & G.Radnitzky (Eds.), Handlexikon zur Wissenschaftstheorie (pp. 61–62). Munchen: Ehrenwirth, 1989.
    207. Levels of organization, downward causation, and the selection-theory approach to evolutionary epistemology. In G.Greenberg & E.Tobach (Eds.), Theories of the evolution of knowing (T. C. Schneirla Conference Series, Vol. 4, pp. 1–17). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990.
    208. Asch's moral epistemology for socially shared knowledge. In I.Rock (Ed.), The legacy of Solomon Asch: Essays in cognition and social psychology (pp. 39–55). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990.
    209. Epistemological roles for selection theory. In N.Rescher (Ed.), Evolution, cognition, realism (pp. 1–19). Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1990.
    210. Toedter, L. J., Lasker, J. N., & Campbell, D. T.The comparison group problem in bereavement studies and the retrospective pretest. Evaluation Review, 14(1), 75–90, 1990.
    211. Cziko, G. A., & Campbell, D. T.Comprehensive evolutionary epistemology bibliography. Journal of Social and Biological Structures, 13(1), 41–82, 1990.
    212. Campbell, D. T., et al. Head Start research and evaluation: Blueprint for the future. Recommendations of the Advisory Panel for the Head Start Evaluation Design Project. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Family Services, 1990.
    213. Methodological supplement. In Final Report of the Head Start Evaluation Design Project (pp. 1–19). Washington, DC: Department of Health and Family Services, 1990.
    214. The Meehlian corroboration-verisimilitude theory of science. Psychological Inquiry, 1(2), 142–147, 1990.
    215. Campbell, D. T., & Reichardt, C. S.Problems in assuming the comparability of pretest and posttest in autoregressive and growth models. In R. E.Snow & D. E.Wiley (Eds.), Improving inquiry in social science: A volume in honor of Lee J. Cronbach (pp. 201–219). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991.
    216. A naturalistic theory of archaic moral orders. Zygon, 26(1), 91–114, 1991.
    217. Cook, T. D., Campbell, D. T., & Peracchio, L.Quasi experimentation. In M. D.Dunnette & L. M.Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 491–576). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1991.
    218. Autopoetic evolutionary epistemology and internal selection. Journal of Social and Biological Structures, 14(2), 166–173, 1991.
    219. Coherentist empiricism, hermeneutics, and the commensurability of paradigms. International Journal of Educational Research, 15(6), 587–597, 1991.
    220. Methods for the experimenting society. Evaluation Practice, 12(3), 223–260, 1991.
    221. Miro, M., & Pelechano, V.Entrevista con Donald T. Campbell. Psicologemas, 5(9), 139–151, 1991.
    222. Fiske, D. W., & Campbell, D. T.Citations do not solve problems. Psychological Bulletin, 112(3), 393–395, 1992.
    223. Rosenwein, R. E., & Campbell, D. T.Mobilization to achieve collective action and democratic majority/plurality amplification. Journal of Social Issues, 48(2), 125–138, 1992.
    224. Plausible coselection of belief by referent: All the “objectivity” that is possible. Perspectives on Science, 1(1), 88–108, 1993.
    225. The social psychology of scientific validity: An epistemological perspective and a personalized history. In W. R.Shadish & S.Fuller (Eds.), The social psychology of science (pp. 124–161). New York: Guilford, 1993.
    226. Systematic errors to be expected of the social scientist on the basis of a general psychology of cognitive bias. In P. D.Blanck (Ed.), Interpersonal expectations: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 25–41). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
    227. Systems theory and social experimentation. In S. A.Umpleby & V. N.Sadovsky (Eds.), Reconstructing knowledge and action: Systems theory in the United States and the Soviet Union. New York: Hemisphere, 1994.
    228. Quasi-experimental research designs in compensatory education. In E. M.Scott (Ed.), Evaluating intervention strategies for children and youth at risk, 1994.
    229. Distinguishing between pattern-in-perception due to the knowing mechanisms and pattern plausibly attributable to the referent. In E.Carvallo (Ed.), Nature, cognition, and system (Vol. 3). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Kluwer. 1994.
    230. How individual and face-to-face-group selection undermine firm selection in organizational evolution. In J.A.C.Baum & J. V.Singh (Eds.), Evolutionary dynamics of organizations (pp. 23–38). New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
    231. The postpositivist, non-foundational, hermeneutic, coherentist epistemology exemplified in the works of Donald W. Fiske. In P. E.Shrout & S. T.Fiske (Eds.), Advances in personality research, methods and theory: A festschrift honoring Donald W. Fiske (pp. 13–27). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1994.
    232. Introduction: Toward a sociology of scientific validity. In K. M.Kim, Explaining scientific consensus (pp. x-xx). New York: Guilford, 1994.
    233. Retrospective and prospective on program impact assessment. Evaluation Practice, 15(3), 291–298, 1994.

    Posthumous Publications (as of 8/19/98):

    234. Wu, P., & Campbell, D. T.Extending latent variable LISREL analyses of the 1969 Westinghouse Head Start evaluation to blacks and full year whites. Evaluation and Program Planning, 19(3), 183, 1996
    235. Can we overcome world-view incommensurability/relativity in trying to understand the other? In R.Jessor, A.Colby, & R. A.Shweder (Eds.), Ethnography and human development (pp. 153–172). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
    236. Regression artifacts in time-series and longitudinal data. Evaluation and Program Planning, 19(4), 377–389, 1996.
    237. Unresolved issues in measurement validity: An autobiographical overview. Psychological Assessment, 8, 1996.
    238. The perceptual constancies as a general epistemological model. In K. R.Fischer & F.Stadler (Eds.), Wahrnehmungund Gegenstandswerk: Zum Lebenswerk von Egon Brunswik (pp. 175–176). Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1997.
    239. From evolutionary epistemology via selection theory to a sociology of scientific validity. Evolution and Cognition, 3(1), 5–38, 1997.
    240. Campbell, D. T., & Russo, J. (Ed.). Social experimentation [collected papers]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.


    Campbell, D. T., & Kenny, D.A primer on regression artifacts. New York: Guilford.
    Russo, J. (Ed.). Social measurement [collected papers]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Posthumous Book Dedications:

    Jessor, R., Colby, A., & Shweder, R. A. (Eds.). Ethnography and human development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
    Chelimsky, E., & Shadish, W. (Eds.). Evaluation for the 21st century: A handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997.
    Dunn, W. (Ed.). Policy Studies Review Annual: Vol. 11. The experimenting society: Essays in memory of Donald T. Campbell. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1998.
    Baum, J.A.C., & McKelvey, B. (Eds.). Variations in organization science: In honor of Donald T. Campbell. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.
    Heyes, C., & Hull, D. (Eds.). Donald T. Campbell's contributions to philosophy of science. In preparation.

    Author Index

    About the Contributors

    Howard E. Aldrich (PhD, University of Michigan) is Kenan Professor of Sociology, Director of the Industrial Relations Curriculum, Director of the Sociology Graduate Studies Program, and Adjunct Professor of Business at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (e-mail: //; He has published more than 100 articles on organizations, entrepreneurship, evolutionary theory, ethnic relations, and organizational strategy. He is the author or coauthor of four books: Organizations and Environments (1979), Population Perspectives on Organizations (1986), Organizations Evolving (forthcoming), and Ethnic Entrepreneurs: Immigrant Business in Industrial Societies (1990; with Roger Waldinger and Robin Ward).

    Philip Anderson (PhD, Columbia University) is Associate Professor of Business Administration at the Amos Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College (e-mail: // His research interests include processes of technical evolution, managing during industrial transformations, venture capital dynamics, and competitive strategy. He is coauthor of Managing Strategic Innovation and Change: A Collection of Readings (with Michael L. Tushman) and Inside the Kaisha: De-Mystifying Japanese Business Behavior (with Noboru Yoshimura), which was named 1997 Booz Allen & Hamilton/Financial Times Global Business Book of the Year for Industry Analysis/Business Context. His articles have appeared in the Harvard Business Review, Research Technology Management, Academy of Management Executive, Administrative Science Quarterly, and Academy of Management Journal.

    Joel A. C. Baum (PhD, Organizational Behavior, University of Toronto) is Professor of Strategy and Organization at the J. L. Rotman School of Management (with a cross-appointment to the Department of Sociology), University of Toronto (e-mail: //; Studying economic phenomena from the point of view of a sociologist, he is concerned with how institutions, interorganizational relations, and managers shape patterns of competition and cooperation among firms, organizational founding and failure, and industry evolution. His recent publications include two series of articles. One, coauthored with Helaine J. Korn, appearing in the Academy of Management Journal and Strategic Management Journal, examines antecedents to and consequences of multimarket competition. The other, with Paul Ingram, appearing in StrategicManagement Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, and Management Science, explores the dynamics of organizational and interorganizational learning. With Jitendra V. Singh, he coedited Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations (1994). He is editor-in-chief of Advances in Strategic Management and a member of the editorial board of Administrative Science Quarterly.

    Martin G. Evans (PhD, Yale University) is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the J. L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto (e-mail: // He has been exploring issues in, around, and about organizations for more than 30 years. His most recent work includes an examination of the structure of IQ, the implications of evolutionary psychology for management, and the career implications of downsizing. Recent publications include articles in Managerial and Decision Economics, Academy of Management Executive, and Academy of Management Journal. He has always been interested in issues of methodology and causal inference and has published in these areas since 1969.

    David N. Grazman is Assistant Professor of Health Administration and Public Administration at the University of Southern California (e-mail: // He has a general interest in organizational change, and his research efforts to date have focused on the privatization of health care systems as well as the development and coordination of service delivery systems whose clients, such as the elderly, have multiple health and social service needs. He holds a PhD in Business Administration (Management and Organization) from the University of Minnesota and a master's degree in Public Policy from Harvard University.

    Margaretha Hendrickx is a doctoral candidate in Strategic Management at the Krannert School of Management, Purdue University (e-mail: // Before joining the Krannert PhD program, she was part of a research group at Purdue dedicated to isolating transposable DNA sequences in maize and using this system to map the maize genome. She has degrees in plant molecular genetics, biochemistry, and agricultural engineering from Purdue University and the State University of Ghent, Belgium. The inconsistencies and contradictions between research approaches in physics, engineering, biology, and social sciences spawned her interest in philosophy and the philosophy of science. Her work will appear in Strategic Management Journal.

    Paul Ingram is Associate Professor of Management at the Columbia Business School, Columbia University (e-mail: //; His current research interests include the role of the state in organizational theory, the influence of ideology on organizations, and the causes and effects of ties between competing organizations. Recent publications include articles in Management Science and Advances in Strategic Management. He received an MS and a PhD in Organizational Theory from Cornell University.

    Amy L. Kenworthy is a doctoral candidate in Organizational Behavior at the Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (e-mail: // Her current dissertation-related research is focused on the longitudinal relationships among entrepreneurs' self-set goals, entrepreneurs' evaluative perceptions of their goals, and performance. Additional research interests include cross-cultural comparisons of entrepreneurs, service learning as a pedagogical tool, and negotiation.

    Erik R. Larsen (PhD, Copenhagen Business School) is Reader in management and systems in the Department of Management Systems and Information, City University Business School, London (e-mail: // His current interests include electricity deregulation, nonlinear dynamics, and computational organizational theory. With D. Bunn, he recently coedited Systems Modeling for Energy Policy. His book Organizations and Strategy: Dynamics and Processes (with Alessandro Lomi) will appear in the Sage Strategy Series in the year 2000.

    Alessandro Lomi (PhD, Cornell University) is Associate Professor of Organization Theory and Behavior at the School of Economics of the University of Bologna, Italy (e-mail: // His current research interests include the analysis of interorganizational networks, ecological models of organizations, and computational organization theory. With Erik Larsen, he recently published articles in the Journal of the Operational Research Society and the Journal of Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory.

    Tammy L. Madsen is Assistant Professor of Strategy and Organization at the Edwin L. Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University (e-mail: // Her current research integrates strategy and evolutionary theory to examine the reciprocal interactions between intrafirm evolutionary processes and firm outcomes and the effects of institutional change (deregulation) on firm evolution and competitive dynamics. She received her MS in Management from the University of Southern California and her PhD in Strategy and Organization from UCLA. Beginning in August, 1999, she will be Assistant Professor in the Management Department at the Leavey School of Business and Administration, Santa Clara University.

    Bill McKelvey (PhD, Sloan School of Management at MIT) is Professor of Strategic Organizing at the Anderson School at UCLA (e-mail: // He has authored one book, Organizational Systematics (1982), and is preparing another, Restructuring the Science of Socio-Economic Systems. Current publications focus on human and social aspects of competitive strategy, organization design, epistemology of organization science, micro/macrocoevolutionary theory and method, organizational process micro-state rate dynamics, knowledge-flow dynamics, complexity theory and emergent structure, and computational methods involving adaptive learning models.

    Danny Miller (PhD, Management, McGill University) is Research Professor at Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Montreal, Canada, and a Visiting Research Scholar at Columbia University (e-mail: // His research focuses on organizational evolution, strategic themes and strategy integration, competitive weaponry, and top management effects. His most recent work appears in the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Social Forces, and Journal of Management.

    Anne S. Miner (PhD, Stanford University) is Associate Professor in the Management and Human Resources Department, Business School, University of Wisconsin-Madison (e-mail: // Her research focuses on population- and organizational-level learning, with an emphasis on strategy. She has published related work in Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science, Research in Organizational Behavior, and the American Sociological Review. She is currently exploring these topics in the context of international technology and technology entrepreneurship. She serves as an Associate Editor at Management Science and teaches the strategic management of technology.

    Elaine Mosakowski received her PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, in Management. Her research interests lie at the nexus of strategic management and organization theory. A general theme in her work involves strategic and organizational choices under high levels of uncertainty. Her recent work has addressed the following questions: How should firms organize in an industry in which most transactions are speculative? If managers do not understand the factors that contribute to their success or failure, how can they make strategic decisions? What is the role of managerial choice in generating firm rents?

    Atul Nerkar is Assistant Professor of Management at the Graduate School of Business, Columbia University (e-mail: // His current research focuses on the determinants of technological competence of firms. He is examining the above in the context of pharmaceutical, chemical, and optical disc industries with specific emphasis on the patent portfolios of firms and the evolutionary process underlying their development. He received his PhD in Strategic Management in 1997 from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.

    Brian T. Pentland (PhD, Organization Studies, Sloan School of Management at MIT) is Assistant Professor in the School of Labor and Industrial Relations at Michigan State University (e-mail: // His primary interest is in the relationship between work and technology, although he also has been developing techniques for business process modeling and the sequential analysis of qualitative data. His publications have appeared in Administrative Science Quarterly, Organization Science, Accounting, Organizations and Society, Technology Studies, and Accounting, Management and Information Technologies. He is a member of the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly and Accounting, Management and Information Technologies.

    Sri Raghavan is a doctoral candidate in the Management Department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. His research interests include interorganizational imitation processes as well as organizational creativity and innovation. His current work focuses on the types and combinations of imitation processes that occur in organizations and their impact on organizational innovation. Prior to his current doctoral education, he obtained graduate degrees in economics and political science.

    Hayagreeva Rao is Associate Professor at Goizueta Business School and the Department of Sociology, Emory University (e-mail: // His research studies the social foundations of economic outcomes, analyzing how institutional and ecological processes lead to the creation, transformation, and extinction of organizational structures. His recent publications include an article in the American Journal of Sociology. He serves on the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Review, and Organization Science.

    Peter W. Roberts is Assistant Professor of Strategy at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration at Carnegie Mellon University (e-mail: // His research, which has appeared in the Academy of Management Review and Strategic Management Journal, focuses on issues related to organizational and competitive dynamics. Before joining the faculty at Carnegie Mellon, he completed a PhD in Organizational Analysis at the University of Alberta and held a faculty position at the Australian Graduate School of Management in Sydney, Australia.

    Elaine Romanelli is Associate Professor of Strategy and Director of the Global Entrepreneurship Studies Program in the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University (e-mail: // Her research focuses on processes of organizational change, as well as the role of new businesses in the development and transformation of industries and regions. She has published articles in Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Annual Review of Sociology, Organization Science, and Research in Organizational Behavior. She received her AB degree in English Literature from the University of California, Berkeley, and her MBA and PhD degrees in Management from Columbia University.

    Lori Rosenkopf (PhD, Management of Organizations, Columbia University) is Assistant Professor of Management at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (e-mail: // Her research focuses on the coevolution of technology and organization. Two current efforts examine how firms' knowledge-building strategies shape technological evolution and how interorganizational linkages facilitate knowledge building between firms. Recent publications include articles in Industrial and Corporate Change and Organization Science.

    Jitendra V. Singh is Professor of Management and Vice Dean–International Academic Affairs at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (e-mail: // His current research concerns organizational evolution and change. He has published numerous articles in leading management journals and currently serves on the editorial boards of Asia Pacific Journal ofManagement, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Business Venturing, and Organization Science. He also has edited two books: Organizational Evolution: New Directions (1990) and Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations (coedited with Joel A. C. Baum, 1994). He received his PhD from Stanford Business School. His earliest education was in natural and mathematical sciences. He earned his BS from Lucknow University, India, and an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India. He is also an avid, albeit occasional, poet.

    Andrew H. Van de Ven (PhD, University of Wisconsin) is Vernon H. Heath Professor of Organizational Innovation and Change in the Carlson School of Management of the University of Minnesota (e-mail: //; en/ahvhome.htm). He is currently conducting a real-time longitudinal study of the changes unfolding in Minnesota's health care physicians, organizations, and industry. He is the coauthor of two forthcoming books: The Innovation Journey and Studying Organizational Change and Development: Theory and Methods. He serves in an editorial capacity for Organization Science, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Business Venturing, and Human Resources Management Journal. He is also series coeditor for Management of Innovation and Change and Foundations of Organizational Science. He is 1999 Vice President and Program Chair of the Academy of Management.

    Srilata Zaheer (PhD, Sloan School of Management, MIT) is Associate Professor of Strategic Management and Organization at the Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota (e-mail: // Her current research interests include the impact of globalization on organizations, firm competitive advantage from networks in time and space, and learning and legitimacy in multinational enterprises. Recent publications include articles in Management Science, and Strategic Management Journal.

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