Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell
Publication Year: 1999
Variations in Organization Science celebrates Donald T. Campbell's many contributions to organization science, presenting new variations which stem directly from his work. Contributing authors review and extend Campbell's theories in four major areas: blind variation, selection and retention especially inside firms; multilevel co-evolution in organizational parts and wholes; process level analysis and modeling epistemology and methodology. The book includes an unusual appendix, Donald T. Campbell's curriculum vitae.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Blind-Variation-Selection-and-Retention
- Chapter 2: The Accidental Entrepreneur: Campbellian Antinomies and Organizational Foundings
- Chapter 3: Interorganizational Imitation: A Hidden Engine of Selection
- Chapter 4: Types of Variation in Organizational Populations: The Speciation of New Organizational Forms
- Chapter 5: Blind (but Not Unconditioned) Variation: Problems of Copying in Sociocultural Evolution
- Chapter 6: Selection Processes inside Organizations: The Self-Reinforcing Consequences of Success
Part II: Multilevel Coevolution
- Chapter 7: Whole-Part Coevolutionary Competition in Organizations
- Chapter 8: Venture Capital Dynamics and the Creation of Variation Through Entrepreneurship
- Chapter 9: Suborganizational Evolution in the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry
- Chapter 10: On the Complexity of Technological Evolution: Exploring Coevolution within and across Hierarchical Levels in Optical Disc Technology
- Chapter 11: Evolution in a Nested Hierarchy: A Genealogy of Twin Cities Health Care Organizations, 1853–1995
Part III: Process-Level Analysis and Modeling
- Chapter 12: Static & Dynamic Variation and Firm Outcomes
- Chapter 13: Organizations as Networks of Actions
- Chapter 14: Evolutionary Models of Local Interaction: A Computational Perspective
- Chapter 15: Self-Organization, Complexity Catastrophe, and Microstate Models at the Edge of Chaos
Part IV: Methodology and Epistemology
Copyright © 1999 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Variations in organization science: In honor of Donald T. Campbell/edited by Joel A.C. Baum and Bill McKelvey.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-1125-1 (cloth) ISBN 0-7619-1126-X (paper)
1. Organization. 2. Organizational behavior. 3. Organizational sociology.
I. Campbell, Donald Thomas, 1916–1996. II. Baum, Joel A. C. III. McKelvey, Bill.
HD58.7 .V37 1999
99 00 01 02 03 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Harry Briggs
Editorial Assistant: Mary Ann Vail
Production Editor: Astrid Virding
Editorial Assistant: Nevair Kabakian
Typesetter/Designer: Marion Warren
Indexer: Teri Greenberg
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
During Don Campbell's lifetime, I never used the name of Campbell. Instead, after our 1983 marriage, I continued using the name acquired after my first marriage, long before one's surname became a feminist issue. I did this chiefly because Frankel had been my professional name for a number of years by the time we met. Moreover, Don often spoke of his longtime custom of advising his female graduate students to keep their maiden names when they married. (“Given the high rate of divorce among psychologists, I warned them that they could find themselves saddled professionally with the surname of a person they no longer even liked,” he would say, then he'd add, with a twinkle: “None of them took my advice, and all of those to whom I gave that advice have stayed married!”) But, the strongest reason for eschewing the Campbell name was, I must now confess, a perverse pride: I didn't want to trade on his renown in any way. All this points to the fact that it was not simple marrying a man whose fame was so great.
But what a joy it was! He was not merely a famous man, but a great one, a true original whose value and role in the intellectual world were unique and irreplaceable. (I can say that, because I had nothing to do with his success, which was achieved long before we met.) One reason, at least, was not hard to discern: Donald T. Campbell was, quite simply, the best academic I have ever encountered—and I have encountered quite a few.
During the 15 years we were together, I had ample opportunity to contemplate the qualities that made him that. It was not sheer brilliance, though he was indeed, as one admirer said, “the last of the polymaths.” Nor was it drive and ambition, though he certainly had plenty of those qualities, as well. It was not his creativity or his enormous capacity for work, though he was well above the norms in those regards (even though he complained of needing more sleep than most people and insisted he had never been able to work long hours). It was not even his immense talent for collaboration with other scholars. It was all these things in magical combination with special qualities of personality and character that made Don one of the few major figures in any field—perhaps the only one—who seems to have had no enemies, even among longtime intellectual adversaries.
Intellectual disagreements were never rancorous, but always friendly, treated as opportunities to learn from another's work. Indeed, sometimes Don was said to “suffer fools gladly”—and, oddly, this was consistent not only with his kindly disposition but also with his fallibilist epistemology, which taught him that all of us are fools, and that you never know where a good idea might come from. [Page x]Thus, in his teaching, he gave only three grades: A, B, or Incomplete, for his faith in everyone's capacity to learn and contribute was limitless.
Chip Reichard wrote (in one of Don's many obituaries) that he wondered whether there was anyone Don ever met that he did not encourage. I, having seen him in action more times than I can count, have wondered the same thing. He had a great gift for finding what was positive and original in the work of others, and letting them know how much he valued it. More than one discouraged scholar carried on through years of adversity because of Don's help and support, and if they faltered at last and abandoned the struggle, he mourned the loss to the intellectual world. He wanted everyone to love that world as he did, and his influence on students was nothing short of seductive in many cases.
Early in his life, Don Campbell decided to be a scientist and an intellectual, though what sort of intellectual he did not discover until later. To him, no other life could possibly have been as rewarding or as noble as the life of the mind. He used to joke wryly that he was lucky to have stumbled into academe, because he surely would have been a failure had he tried to earn a living at anything else. I doubted that proposition the first time I heard it, and my subsequent years of watching assured me that his talents as a diplomat and a salesman would have earned him a living anywhere. Still, he believed it, and his generosity was such that he wished everyone in the world could share his pleasure in the intellectual enterprise.
Since Don's death in 1996, I have had letters and messages from many people whose lives he had touched in some way. Each of them is special, a touching tribute to the love people felt for Don in return for the love he gave. That is not so very surprising: What really astounded me was to learn of the enormous variety of intellectual projects and interests my husband had engaged in over his 50-year career, many of which I learned of only after his death. Now, after 15 years as both colleague and wife, after the innumerable meetings we attended together the world over, and after reading substantial portions (though not nearly all) of his immense scholarly output, I am still learning about interests he shared, even projects he had undertaken, often with people whose names were unfamiliar.
I cannot say that I had no idea that Don had contact with specialists in studies of organizations. It seemed to me peripheral to what I knew he was actively involved in, but I do remember a meeting in New York City several years ago, one that was organized by Joel Baum. (I went to New York with Don, but not to the meeting, I confess. Don had told me it was about management, a field in which I regard myself as a hopeless case.) What I didn't suspect, though, was that Donald T. Campbell's influence on the field of organization science merited a volume in his memory. I am sure he would be grateful, and as always a little surprised, to learn that so distinguished a group of colleagues has accorded him this honor.
On occasions such as this one, Don used to elaborate his thesis that the more honors one has received, the more of them one is likely to receive in the future. With each honorary degree or award, he would say, with the self-deprecating twinkle he showed on such occasions, that here was another case of “autocorrelated error.” On the other hand, his was the only C.V. I've ever seen that had a section titled “Books Dedicated to Me,” and despite the many other honors he received, that list was the achievement of which he was proudest. I know, therefore, that the present volume would please and gratify him, and I thank the editors, and whoever else is responsible, for honoring his memory in the way he valued most.Barbara FrankelCampbell
Shortly after his death in 1996, we confessed to each other the great influence Don Campbell had had on each of us.
Bill first met Don—in print—in 1965 when Don's “Variation and Selective Retention in Socio-Cultural Evolution” appeared in a book titled Social Change in Developing Areas. At this time, Bill was a PhD student at MIT studying personal, group, organizational, and social change and Third World industrial development. Bill's first draft of anything evolutionary appeared in 1970 and led more than a decade later to an enthusiastic selectionist theory application to organizational growth and survival, competition grouping, and dominant competence as elements in the creation of organizational species—all summarized in Bill's book, Organizational Systematics (1982). Although the book ostensibly was about organizational taxonomy, the required development of a theory of speciation based on selectionist evolutionary theory brought Bill, accompanied by Howard Aldrich, face to face with Don in 1980, not long after he had moved to the Maxwell School at Syracuse University. Their conversation dwelt mainly on the “evolution of evolution” in the study of organizations and in teasing out the genetic algorithm connecting Amos Hawley, Armen Alchian, and Don to early contributors and to students of organizational evolution such as Sid Winter, Herbert Kaufman, Jack Hirshleifer, Karl Weick, Howard Aldrich, Jerry Salancik, Mike Hannan, John Freeman, Marion Blute, and, eventually, Bill.
Joel first encountered Don in 1988 while a PhD student at the University of Toronto. Don quickly became excited about Joel's dissertation (itself inspired by Bill's Organizational Systematics), and they began to correspond, keeping each other informed about their ideas on organizational evolution. When Joel began plans with Jitendra Singh for their 1992 conference on organizational evolution in New York City, Don was the first invited, along with Jim March, as a “pioneer” in the field of organizational evolution. After writing his organizational whole-part competition essay for that conference, Don encouraged Joel to work with him on fleshing out the significance of that phenomenon. Although they never did work together on it, Joel's chapter in this volume pursues that question directly.
We also lamented the failure in organization science to acknowledge its intellectual debt to Don and wondered what we could do to begin a correction. We quickly decided that, whatever we did, we should not do it alone. We decided to organize a conference and to publish its proceedings to celebrate, examine, and build Don's legacy. We were thrilled by the enthusiasm of everyone we approached about our plans. One of our earliest supporters [Page xii]was Jerry Salancik—a Campbell student himself—who quickly committed himself to the project a short time before his death. Three others who supported and influenced the volume you are holding, but, for one good reason or another, are not represented directly in it are Rebecca Henderson, Anjali Sastri, and Karl Weick. Barbara Frankel Campbell, at a difficult time in her own life, promptly compiled and provided us with a detailed record of Don's publications and achievements, enabling us all to explore his intellectual legacy more thoroughly. We also owe a debt of gratitude to all the conference and volume participants, who carefully read, debated, and commented on one another's work, completed thoughtful revisions (often several), and generally met (and kept quiet about) the fast-paced deadlines we set.
The conference itself, held November 7–9, 1997, at the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, was made possible by generous grants from Paul Halpern, Interim Dean of the Rotman School, and John Mamer, Interim Dean of UCLA's Anderson Graduate School of Management. We are most grateful to them for their financial support of the conference, and also to the universities that sponsored their faculty members' travel to the conference. Finally, thanks to Harry Briggs and Sage Publications for supporting our vision and allowing us to present it to you.
—BM, Los Angeles
Appendix: Donald T. Campbell's Curriculum Vitae[Page 413]
Born: November 20, 1916, Grass Lake, Michigan
Died: May 6, 1996, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
1937 A.A. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College 1939 A.B. (Psychology) University of California, Berkeley 1947 Ph.D. (Psychology) University of California, Berkeley
1941–1943 Psychologist, Research and Analysis Branch, Coordinator of Information/Office of Strategic Services, Washington, DC 1943–1946 Ensign and Lieutenant, J.G., U.S. Navy (Reserve) 1947–1950 Assistant Professor, Psychology, Ohio State University 1950–1953 Assistant Professor, Psychology, University of Chicago 1953–1979 Associate Professor of Psychology, Northwestern University 1953–1958; Professor 1958–1973; Morrison Professor 1973–1979 1954 Visiting Associate Professor, Yale University 1965–1966 Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA 1968–1969 Fulbright Lecturer and Visiting Professor in Social Psychology, University of Oxford 1977 Visiting Professor, Psychology and Social Relations, Harvard University 1979–1982 New York State Board of Regents Albert Schweitzer Professor, The Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University 1983–1996 University Professor of Sociology-Anthropology, Psychology and Education, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA
1966–1967 President, Midwestern Psychological Association [Page 414]1968–1969 President, Division of Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychological Association 1968–1969 President, Division of Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychological Association 1975 President, American Psychological Association
Honors and Awards:
1965–1966 Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences 1969 Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, American Psychological Association 1973 Member, National Academy of Sciences 1974 Kurt Lewin Memorial Award, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues 1977 William James Lecturer, Harvard University 1977 Hovland Memorial Lecturer, Yale University 1977 Myrdal Prize in Science, The Evaluation Research Society 1977 Illinois Psychological Association Distinguished Psychologist Award 1981 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Education, American Educational Research Association 1985 Career Achievement Award, Eastern Evaluation Research Society 1988 Distinguished Scientist Award, Society of Experimental Social Psychology 1988 Award for Distinguished Service to Measurement, Educational Testing Service 1989 Award for Outstanding Methodological Innovator in Public Policy Studies, Policy Studies Organization 1989 William James Fellow Award, American Psychological Society 1990 Honorary Fellow, International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology 1991 Sage Anniversary Lectureship, American Evaluation Association 1992 Member, American Philosophical Society 1992 Award for Outstanding Service to the Field of Education, College of Education, Lehigh University
1974 Doctor of Law, University of Michigan 1975 Doctor of Science, University of Florida 1978 Doctor of Social Sciences, Claremont Graduate School 1978 Doctor of Humane Letters, University of Chicago 1979 Doctor of Science, University of Southern California 1983 Doctor of Science, Northwestern University 1985 Doctor of Philosophy, University of Oslo
[Page 415]Books and Other Dedications:1969). Attitude change: A critical analysis of theoretical approaches. New York: Wiley., , & (1973). Principles of research in social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill., & (1973). Behavior: The control of perception. Chicago: Aldine.(1975). Design and analysis of time-series experiments. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press., , & (1974). The psychology of intergroup relations: Conflict and consciousness. New York: McGraw-Hill., & (Cook, T. D., Del Rosario, M., Hennigan, K. M., Mark, M. M., & Trochim, W.M.K. (Eds.). (1978). Evaluation studies review annual. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.1978). Applied time series for the social sciences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & , Jr. (1981). Research in speech communication. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., II, & (1982). Evaluation: A systematic approach (, & (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.1982). The science game: An introduction to research in the behavioral sciences (, & (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.1984). Research in education. Boston: Little, Brown., & (1985). Quantitative methods for social psychology. Chapter 9 in G.Lindzey & E.Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology ((3rd ed., pp. 487–508). New York: Random House.1986). Principles and methods of social research. Boston: Allyn & Bacon., & (1991). Foundations of program evaluation: Theories of practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , & (Caporael, L. R., & Brewer, M. B. (Eds.). (1991). Issues in evolutionary psychology (special issue of the Journal of Social Sciences), 47(3).
Festschrift:Brewer, M. B., & Collins, B. E. (Eds.). (1981). Scientific inquiry in the social sciences: A volume in honor of Donald T. Campbell. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
As of 1982, the Division of Personality and Social Psychology of the American Psychological Association has named its annual award “The Donald T. Campbell Award for Significant Research in Social Psychology.”
As of 1983, the Policy Studies Organization initiated “The Donald Campbell Award” to be given annually to an outstanding methodological innovator in public policy studies.
Publications:1. The generality of a social attitude. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1947.2. The indirect assessment of social attitudes. Psychological Bulletin, 47(1), 15–38, 1950.[Page 416]3. A test of the ability of fraternity leaders to estimate group opinion. Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 95–100, 1950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1950.9919034, &4. A study of the interviewer bias as related to interviewers' expectations and own opinions. International Journal of Opinion and Attitude Research, 4(1), 77–83, 1950., &5. The effect of ordinal position upon responses to items in a check list. Journal of Applied Psychology, 34(1), 62–67, 1950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0061818, &6. Ethnocentrism, xenophobia and personality. Human Relations, 4(2), 185–192, 1951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675100400204, &7. On the liability of stereotype or hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 46(4), 496–500, 1951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0054690, &8. On the possibility of experimenting with the “bandwagon” effect. International Journal of Opinion and Attitude Research, 5(2), 251–260, 1951.9. Varieties of inauthenticity. Phylon, 3, 270–275, 1952., &10. The Bogardus social distance scale. Sociology and Social Research, 36(5), 322–326, 1952.11. Measuring propaganda effects with direct and indirect attitude tests. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 48(1), 3–9, 1953. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0058200, &12. Operational delineation of “what is learned” via the transposition experiment. Psychological Review, 61(3), 167–174, 1954. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h006282013. A rationale for weighting first, second, and third sociometric choices. Sociometry, 17, 242–243, 1954. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/278581814. The informant in quantitative research. American Journal of Sociology, 60(4), 339–342, 1955.15. Galvanic skin response to Negro and white experimenters. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(1), 30–33, 1955. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0041539, &16. Conformity to groups as a function of group success. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(3), 390–393, 1955. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045902, &17. A demonstration of bias in estimates of Negro ability. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(3), 585–588, 1955. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0043443, &18. An error in some demonstrations of the superior social perceptiveness of leaders. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(3), 694–695, 1955. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h004380119. Adaptive behavior from random response. Behavioral Science, 1(2), 105–110, 1956.20. Trait judgments from photographs as a projective device. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 12(3), 215–221, 1956. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28195607%2912:3%3C215::AID-JCLP2270120303%3E3.0.CO;2-X, &21. The use of a sentence completion test in measuring attitudes towards superiors and subordinates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 40(4), 248–250, 1956. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044718, , &22. Review of Behavior theory and social science. Contemporary Psychology, 1(9), 264–266, 1956.et al.,23. Perception as a substitute trial and error. Psychological Review, 63(5), 330–342, 1956. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h004755324. Enhancement of contrast as composite habit. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 53(3), 350–355, 1956. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h004101325. Leadership and its effects upon the group (Ohio Studies in Personnel, Bureau of Business Research Monograph No. 83). Columbus: Ohio State University, 1956.26. The generality of attitudes towards authority and nonauthority figures. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 54(1), 24–31, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0042663, &27. Response set in the F scale. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 54(1), 129–132, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0047345, &28. Military experience and attitudes toward authority. American Journal of Sociology, 62(5), 482–490, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/222078, & [Page 417]29. The construct validity of work-group morale measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 41(2), 91–92, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0047371, &30. Testing for stimulus equivalence among authority figures by similarity in trait description. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(3), 253–256, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040459, &31. A typology of tests, projective and otherwise. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(3), 207–210, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h004244832. Factors relevant to the validity of experiments in social settings. Psychological Bulletin, 54(4), 297–312, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h004095033. A comparison of test scores and role-playing behavior in assessing superior vs. subordinate orientation. Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 49–56, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1957.9921942, &34. An attempt to predict the performance of three-man teams from attitude measures. Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 277–286, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1957.9714327, &35. The use of structured techniques in motivation research. Journal of Marketing, 22, 134–139, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1247209, , &36. The effects of assimilation and contrast in judgments of clinical materials. American Journal of Psychology, 70(3), 347–360, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1419571, , &37. Interrelationships among leadership criteria measures for a population of Air Force pilot cadets (Research Report, AFPTRC-TN-57–70, ASTIA Document 131421), June 1957.38. Intercorrelations among leadership criteria for a population of Air Force instructors (Research Report, AFPTRC-TN-57–90, ASTIA Document 134233), June 1957.39. The relationship between factorial composition of test items and measures of test reliability. Psychometrika, 22(4), 347–357, 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02288968, , &40. Common fate, similarity, and other indices of the status of aggregates of person of social entities. Behavioral Science, 3(1), 14–25, 1958.41. Context effects with judgmental language that is absolute, extensive and extra-experimentally anchored. Journal of Social Psychology, 55(3), 220–228, 1958., , &42. Individual differences in evaluations of group discussions as a projective measure of attitudes toward leadership. Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 101–106, 1958. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1958.9714345, &43. Semantic idiosyncrasy as a method in the study of attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 107–110, 1958. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1958.9714346, &44. The relative susceptibility of two rating scales to disturbances resulting from shifts in stimulus context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 42(4), 213–217, 1958. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044178, , &45. Progression from simple to complex as a molar law of learning. Journal of General Psychology, 59, 237–244, 1958. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1958.9710192, &46. Transposition away from a rewarded stimulus card to a nonrewarded one as a function of a shift in background. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 51(5), 592–595, 1958. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045292, &47. Systematic error on the part of human links in communication systems. Information and Control, 1(4), 334–369, 1959.48. Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56(2), 81–105, 1959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046016, &49. The effect of acquiescence response-set upon relationships among the F scale, ethnocentrism, and intelligence. Sociometry, 22(2), 153–161, 1959. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786019, &50. Recency and primacy in persuasion as a function of the timing of speeches and measurements. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59(1), 1–9, 1959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0049330, & [Page 418]51. Methodological suggestions from a comparative psychology of knowledge processes. Inquiry, 2, 152–182, 1959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0020174590860129352. Absence of acquiescence response set in the Taylor manifest anxiety scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 23(5), 465–466, 1959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0042119, &53. The effect of acquiescence response-set upon the relationship of the F scale and conformity. Sociometry, 23(1), 69–71, 1960. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786139, &54. Predisposition to identify instigating and guiding stimulus as revealed in transfer. Journal of General Psychology, 63, 69–74, 1960. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1960.9711800, , &55. Blind variation and selective survival as a general strategy in knowledge processes. In M. C.Yovits & S. H.Cameron (Eds.), Self-organizing systems (pp. 205–231). Oxford, UK: Pergamon, 1960.56. Comparative validity of two projective and two structured attitude tests in a prison population. Journal of Applied Psychology, 44(4), 284–288, 1960. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0048405, , &57. Recommendations for APA test standards regarding construct, trait, or discriminant validity. American Psychologist, 15, 546–553, 1960. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h004825558. Blind variation and selective retention in creative thought as in other knowledge processes. Psychological Review, 67(6), 380–400, 1960. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h004037359. Regression-discontinuity analysis: An alternative to the ex post facto experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51(6), 309–317, 1960. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044319, &60. Avoiding regression effects in panel studies of communication impact. Studies in Public Communication, 3, 99–118, 1961., &61. A proposal for cooperative cross-cultural research on ethnocentrism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 5(1), 82–108, 1961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002200276100500111, &62. The perpetuation of an arbitrary tradition through several generations of a laboratory microculture. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62(3), 649–658, 1961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044182, &63. Separating perceptual and linguistic effects of context shifts upon absolute judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(1), 35–42, 1961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040386, &64. Conformity in psychology's theories of acquired behavioral dispositions. In I. A.Berg & B. M.Bass (Eds.), Conformity and deviation (pp. 101–142). New York: Harper, 1961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11122-00065. The mutual methodological relevance of anthropology and psychology. In F.L.K.Hsu (Ed.), Psychological anthropology: Approaches to culture and personality (pp. 333–352). Homewood, IL: Dorsey, 1961.66. Measuring leadership attitudes through an information test. Journal of Social Psychology, 55, 159–175, 1961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1961.9922171, &67. The validity of a method for scoring sentence-completion responses for anxiety, dependency and hostility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 46, 285–290, 1962. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0042841, , &68. Judgments of weight as affected by adaptation range, adaptation duration, magnitude of unlabeled anchor, and judgmental language. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(1), 12–21, 1963. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040272, &69. Cultural differences in the perception of geometric illusions. Science, 139, 769–771, 1963. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.139.3556.769, , &70. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research on teaching. In N. L.Gage (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 171–246). Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963. 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M.Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 491–576). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1991., , &218. Autopoetic evolutionary epistemology and internal selection. Journal of Social and Biological Structures, 14(2), 166–173, 1991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-1750%2891%2990137-F219. Coherentist empiricism, hermeneutics, and the commensurability of paradigms. International Journal of Educational Research, 15(6), 587–597, 1991.220. Methods for the experimenting society. Evaluation Practice, 12(3), 223–260, 1991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0886-1633%2891%2990039-Z221. Entrevista con Donald T. Campbell. Psicologemas, 5(9), 139–151, 1991., &222. Citations do not solve problems. Psychological Bulletin, 112(3), 393–395, 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.3.393, &223. Mobilization to achieve collective action and democratic majority/plurality amplification. Journal of Social Issues, 48(2), 125–138, 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1992.tb00888.x, &224. Plausible coselection of belief by referent: All the “objectivity” that is possible. Perspectives on Science, 1(1), 88–108, 1993.225. The social psychology of scientific validity: An epistemological perspective and a personalized history. In W. R.Shadish & S.Fuller (Eds.), The social psychology of science (pp. 124–161). New York: Guilford, 1993.226. Systematic errors to be expected of the social scientist on the basis of a general psychology of cognitive bias. In P. D.Blanck (Ed.), Interpersonal expectations: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 25–41). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527708.003227. Systems theory and social experimentation. In S. A.Umpleby & V. N.Sadovsky (Eds.), Reconstructing knowledge and action: Systems theory in the United States and the Soviet Union. New York: Hemisphere, 1994.228. Quasi-experimental research designs in compensatory education. In E. M.Scott (Ed.), Evaluating intervention strategies for children and youth at risk, 1994.229. Distinguishing between pattern-in-perception due to the knowing mechanisms and pattern plausibly attributable to the referent. In E.Carvallo (Ed.), Nature, cognition, and system (Vol. 3). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Kluwer. 1994.230. How individual and face-to-face-group selection undermine firm selection in organizational evolution. In J.A.C.Baum & J. V.Singh (Eds.), Evolutionary dynamics of organizations (pp. 23–38). New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.[Page 427]231. The postpositivist, non-foundational, hermeneutic, coherentist epistemology exemplified in the works of Donald W. Fiske. In P. E.Shrout & S. T.Fiske (Eds.), Advances in personality research, methods and theory: A festschrift honoring Donald W. Fiske (pp. 13–27). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1994.232. Introduction: Toward a sociology of scientific validity. In K. M.Kim, Explaining scientific consensus (pp. x-xx). New York: Guilford, 1994.233. Retrospective and prospective on program impact assessment. Evaluation Practice, 15(3), 291–298, 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0886-1633%2894%2990024-8
Posthumous Publications (as of 8/19/98):234. Extending latent variable LISREL analyses of the 1969 Westinghouse Head Start evaluation to blacks and full year whites. Evaluation and Program Planning, 19(3), 183, 1996http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0149-7189%2896%2900010-9, &235. Can we overcome world-view incommensurability/relativity in trying to understand the other? In R.Jessor, A.Colby, & R. A.Shweder (Eds.), Ethnography and human development (pp. 153–172). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.236. Regression artifacts in time-series and longitudinal data. Evaluation and Program Planning, 19(4), 377–389, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7189%2896%2900025-0237. Unresolved issues in measurement validity: An autobiographical overview. Psychological Assessment, 8, 1996.238. The perceptual constancies as a general epistemological model. In K. R.Fischer & F.Stadler (Eds.), Wahrnehmungund Gegenstandswerk: Zum Lebenswerk von Egon Brunswik (pp. 175–176). Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1997.239. From evolutionary epistemology via selection theory to a sociology of scientific validity. Evolution and Cognition, 3(1), 5–38, 1997.240. Campbell, D. T., & Russo, J. (Ed.). Social experimentation [collected papers]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.
Forthcoming:A primer on regression artifacts. New York: Guilford., &Russo, J. (Ed.). Social measurement [collected papers]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Posthumous Book Dedications:[Page 428]Jessor, R., Colby, A., & Shweder, R. A. (Eds.). Ethnography and human development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.Chelimsky, E., & Shadish, W. (Eds.). Evaluation for the 21st century: A handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997.Dunn, W. (Ed.). Policy Studies Review Annual: Vol. 11. The experimenting society: Essays in memory of Donald T. Campbell. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1998.Baum, J.A.C., & McKelvey, B. (Eds.). Variations in organization science: In honor of Donald T. Campbell. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204703Heyes, C., & Hull, D. (Eds.). Donald T. Campbell's contributions to philosophy of science. In preparation.
About the Contributors[Page 448]
Howard E. Aldrich (PhD, University of Michigan) is Kenan Professor of Sociology, Director of the Industrial Relations Curriculum, Director of the Sociology Graduate Studies Program, and Adjunct Professor of Business at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (e-mail: //email@example.com; http://www.unc.edu/~healdric/). He has published more than 100 articles on organizations, entrepreneurship, evolutionary theory, ethnic relations, and organizational strategy. He is the author or coauthor of four books: Organizations and Environments (1979), Population Perspectives on Organizations (1986), Organizations Evolving (forthcoming), and Ethnic Entrepreneurs: Immigrant Business in Industrial Societies (1990; with Roger Waldinger and Robin Ward).
Philip Anderson (PhD, Columbia University) is Associate Professor of Business Administration at the Amos Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org). His research interests include processes of technical evolution, managing during industrial transformations, venture capital dynamics, and competitive strategy. He is coauthor of Managing Strategic Innovation and Change: A Collection of Readings (with Michael L. Tushman) and Inside the Kaisha: De-Mystifying Japanese Business Behavior (with Noboru Yoshimura), which was named 1997 Booz Allen & Hamilton/Financial Times Global Business Book of the Year for Industry Analysis/Business Context. His articles have appeared in the Harvard Business Review, Research Technology Management, Academy of Management Executive, Administrative Science Quarterly, and Academy of Management Journal.
Joel A. C. Baum (PhD, Organizational Behavior, University of Toronto) is Professor of Strategy and Organization at the J. L. Rotman School of Management (with a cross-appointment to the Department of Sociology), University of Toronto (e-mail: //email@example.com; http://www.mgmt.utoronto.ca/~baum). Studying economic phenomena from the point of view of a sociologist, he is concerned with how institutions, interorganizational relations, and managers shape patterns of competition and cooperation among firms, organizational founding and failure, and industry evolution. His recent publications include two series of articles. One, coauthored with Helaine J. Korn, appearing in the Academy of Management Journal and Strategic Management Journal, examines antecedents to and consequences of multimarket competition. The other, with Paul Ingram, appearing in Strategic[Page 449]Management Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, and Management Science, explores the dynamics of organizational and interorganizational learning. With Jitendra V. Singh, he coedited Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations (1994). He is editor-in-chief of Advances in Strategic Management and a member of the editorial board of Administrative Science Quarterly.
Martin G. Evans (PhD, Yale University) is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the J. L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org). He has been exploring issues in, around, and about organizations for more than 30 years. His most recent work includes an examination of the structure of IQ, the implications of evolutionary psychology for management, and the career implications of downsizing. Recent publications include articles in Managerial and Decision Economics, Academy of Management Executive, and Academy of Management Journal. He has always been interested in issues of methodology and causal inference and has published in these areas since 1969.
David N. Grazman is Assistant Professor of Health Administration and Public Administration at the University of Southern California (e-mail: //email@example.com). He has a general interest in organizational change, and his research efforts to date have focused on the privatization of health care systems as well as the development and coordination of service delivery systems whose clients, such as the elderly, have multiple health and social service needs. He holds a PhD in Business Administration (Management and Organization) from the University of Minnesota and a master's degree in Public Policy from Harvard University.
Margaretha Hendrickx is a doctoral candidate in Strategic Management at the Krannert School of Management, Purdue University (e-mail: //Margaretha_Hendrickx@mgmt.purdue.edu). Before joining the Krannert PhD program, she was part of a research group at Purdue dedicated to isolating transposable DNA sequences in maize and using this system to map the maize genome. She has degrees in plant molecular genetics, biochemistry, and agricultural engineering from Purdue University and the State University of Ghent, Belgium. The inconsistencies and contradictions between research approaches in physics, engineering, biology, and social sciences spawned her interest in philosophy and the philosophy of science. Her work will appear in Strategic Management Journal.
Paul Ingram is Associate Professor of Management at the Columbia Business School, Columbia University (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.columbia.edu/~pi17). His current research interests include the role of the state in organizational theory, the influence of ideology on organizations, and the causes and effects of ties between competing organizations. Recent publications include articles in Management Science and Advances in Strategic Management. He received an MS and a PhD in Organizational Theory from Cornell University.
Amy L. Kenworthy is a doctoral candidate in Organizational Behavior at the Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (e-mail: //email@example.com). Her current dissertation-related research is focused on the longitudinal relationships among entrepreneurs' self-set goals, entrepreneurs' evaluative perceptions of their goals, and performance. Additional research interests include cross-cultural comparisons of entrepreneurs, service learning as a pedagogical tool, and negotiation.
Erik R. Larsen (PhD, Copenhagen Business School) is Reader in management and systems in the Department of Management Systems and Information, City University Business School, London (e-mail: //E.R.Larsen@city.ac.uk). His current interests include electricity deregulation, nonlinear dynamics, and computational organizational theory. With D. Bunn, he recently coedited Systems Modeling for Energy Policy. His book Organizations and Strategy: Dynamics and Processes (with Alessandro Lomi) will appear in the Sage Strategy Series in the year 2000.
Alessandro Lomi (PhD, Cornell University) is Associate Professor of Organization Theory and Behavior [Page 450]at the School of Economics of the University of Bologna, Italy (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org). His current research interests include the analysis of interorganizational networks, ecological models of organizations, and computational organization theory. With Erik Larsen, he recently published articles in the Journal of the Operational Research Society and the Journal of Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory.
Tammy L. Madsen is Assistant Professor of Strategy and Organization at the Edwin L. Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University (e-mail: //email@example.com). Her current research integrates strategy and evolutionary theory to examine the reciprocal interactions between intrafirm evolutionary processes and firm outcomes and the effects of institutional change (deregulation) on firm evolution and competitive dynamics. She received her MS in Management from the University of Southern California and her PhD in Strategy and Organization from UCLA. Beginning in August, 1999, she will be Assistant Professor in the Management Department at the Leavey School of Business and Administration, Santa Clara University.
Bill McKelvey (PhD, Sloan School of Management at MIT) is Professor of Strategic Organizing at the Anderson School at UCLA (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org). He has authored one book, Organizational Systematics (1982), and is preparing another, Restructuring the Science of Socio-Economic Systems. Current publications focus on human and social aspects of competitive strategy, organization design, epistemology of organization science, micro/macrocoevolutionary theory and method, organizational process micro-state rate dynamics, knowledge-flow dynamics, complexity theory and emergent structure, and computational methods involving adaptive learning models.
Danny Miller (PhD, Management, McGill University) is Research Professor at Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Montreal, Canada, and a Visiting Research Scholar at Columbia University (e-mail: //email@example.com). His research focuses on organizational evolution, strategic themes and strategy integration, competitive weaponry, and top management effects. His most recent work appears in the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Social Forces, and Journal of Management.
Anne S. Miner (PhD, Stanford University) is Associate Professor in the Management and Human Resources Department, Business School, University of Wisconsin-Madison (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org). Her research focuses on population- and organizational-level learning, with an emphasis on strategy. She has published related work in Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science, Research in Organizational Behavior, and the American Sociological Review. She is currently exploring these topics in the context of international technology and technology entrepreneurship. She serves as an Associate Editor at Management Science and teaches the strategic management of technology.
Elaine Mosakowski received her PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, in Management. Her research interests lie at the nexus of strategic management and organization theory. A general theme in her work involves strategic and organizational choices under high levels of uncertainty. Her recent work has addressed the following questions: How should firms organize in an industry in which most transactions are speculative? If managers do not understand the factors that contribute to their success or failure, how can they make strategic decisions? What is the role of managerial choice in generating firm rents?
Atul Nerkar is Assistant Professor of Management at the Graduate School of Business, Columbia University (e-mail: //email@example.com). His current research focuses on the determinants of technological competence of firms. He is examining the above in the context of pharmaceutical, chemical, and optical disc industries with specific emphasis on the patent portfolios of firms and the evolutionary process underlying their development. He received his PhD in Strategic Management [Page 451]in 1997 from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.
Brian T. Pentland (PhD, Organization Studies, Sloan School of Management at MIT) is Assistant Professor in the School of Labor and Industrial Relations at Michigan State University (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org). His primary interest is in the relationship between work and technology, although he also has been developing techniques for business process modeling and the sequential analysis of qualitative data. His publications have appeared in Administrative Science Quarterly, Organization Science, Accounting, Organizations and Society, Technology Studies, and Accounting, Management and Information Technologies. He is a member of the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly and Accounting, Management and Information Technologies.
Sri Raghavan is a doctoral candidate in the Management Department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. His research interests include interorganizational imitation processes as well as organizational creativity and innovation. His current work focuses on the types and combinations of imitation processes that occur in organizations and their impact on organizational innovation. Prior to his current doctoral education, he obtained graduate degrees in economics and political science.
Hayagreeva Rao is Associate Professor at Goizueta Business School and the Department of Sociology, Emory University (e-mail: //email@example.com). His research studies the social foundations of economic outcomes, analyzing how institutional and ecological processes lead to the creation, transformation, and extinction of organizational structures. His recent publications include an article in the American Journal of Sociology. He serves on the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Review, and Organization Science.
Peter W. Roberts is Assistant Professor of Strategy at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration at Carnegie Mellon University (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org). His research, which has appeared in the Academy of Management Review and Strategic Management Journal, focuses on issues related to organizational and competitive dynamics. Before joining the faculty at Carnegie Mellon, he completed a PhD in Organizational Analysis at the University of Alberta and held a faculty position at the Australian Graduate School of Management in Sydney, Australia.
Elaine Romanelli is Associate Professor of Strategy and Director of the Global Entrepreneurship Studies Program in the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University (e-mail: //email@example.com). Her research focuses on processes of organizational change, as well as the role of new businesses in the development and transformation of industries and regions. She has published articles in Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Annual Review of Sociology, Organization Science, and Research in Organizational Behavior. She received her AB degree in English Literature from the University of California, Berkeley, and her MBA and PhD degrees in Management from Columbia University.
Lori Rosenkopf (PhD, Management of Organizations, Columbia University) is Assistant Professor of Management at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org). Her research focuses on the coevolution of technology and organization. Two current efforts examine how firms' knowledge-building strategies shape technological evolution and how interorganizational linkages facilitate knowledge building between firms. Recent publications include articles in Industrial and Corporate Change and Organization Science.
Jitendra V. Singh is Professor of Management and Vice Dean–International Academic Affairs at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (e-mail: //email@example.com). His current research concerns organizational evolution and change. He has published numerous articles in leading management journals and currently serves on the editorial boards of Asia Pacific Journal of[Page 452]Management, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Business Venturing, and Organization Science. He also has edited two books: Organizational Evolution: New Directions (1990) and Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations (coedited with Joel A. C. Baum, 1994). He received his PhD from Stanford Business School. His earliest education was in natural and mathematical sciences. He earned his BS from Lucknow University, India, and an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India. He is also an avid, albeit occasional, poet.
Andrew H. Van de Ven (PhD, University of Wisconsin) is Vernon H. Heath Professor of Organizational Innovation and Change in the Carlson School of Management of the University of Minnesota (e-mail: //firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.csom.umn.edu/wwwpages/faculty/vandev en/ahvhome.htm). He is currently conducting a real-time longitudinal study of the changes unfolding in Minnesota's health care physicians, organizations, and industry. He is the coauthor of two forthcoming books: The Innovation Journey and Studying Organizational Change and Development: Theory and Methods. He serves in an editorial capacity for Organization Science, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Business Venturing, and Human Resources Management Journal. He is also series coeditor for Management of Innovation and Change and Foundations of Organizational Science. He is 1999 Vice President and Program Chair of the Academy of Management.
Srilata Zaheer (PhD, Sloan School of Management, MIT) is Associate Professor of Strategic Management and Organization at the Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota (e-mail: //email@example.com). Her current research interests include the impact of globalization on organizations, firm competitive advantage from networks in time and space, and learning and legitimacy in multinational enterprises. Recent publications include articles in Management Science, and Strategic Management Journal.