Values, Ethics and Health Care

Values, Ethics and Health Care


Peter Duncan


This book examines key ethical frameworks and debates within the field of healthcare, locating them firmly in their social and occupational contexts. Guiding students through a range of dilemmas and difficulties encountered in health care practice with case studies and real-life examples, this lively text illustrates how to apply knowledge to professional practice and decision-making. Key FeaturesOffers a critical and reflective understanding of health care ethics and valuesPresents an interprofessional approachRelates theory to ‘everyday’ ethicsIncludes student-friendly features such as real-life examples, ‘thinking about’ points, and links to further reading  

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    I would like to thank my colleagues in the Department of Education and Professional Studies, King's College London, for their continued support. Once more I am especially grateful to Alan Cribb and Margaret Sills for helping me to organise a period of study leave during which I was able to think a lot about the subject matter of this book, and ultimately to write a significant part of it.

    Zoe Elliott-Fawcett and her colleagues at Sage have been a great help, right from the stage where the initial ideas for this project developed.

    I am grateful to the anonymous reviewers of both the original proposal and the draft manuscript for their very useful advice and comments.

    The students with whom I have worked over the last few years at King's College London have helped me greatly, not least by constantly reminding me through our discussions of the ambiguity and difficulty that is almost always inherent in the practice of health care. Their experience, and the examples that they have helped to generate, have been central in allowing me to understand what I have come to call ‘ordinary’ health care as in actual fact being quite extraordinary.

    Finally, and most importantly, I would like to thank Jane for all the support she gives me, in all kinds of different ways.


    This book rests on the broad but essential claim that the whole enterprise of health care is fundamentally to do with values and ethics. Unless we have a concern with questions of ethics and values, our conception of health care, and our interest in practice, is incomplete. This claim is not in any sense a new one. Indeed, part of this book's project is to do with charting the history of the claim, and how (as well as why) arguments have been developed to support it.

    In the context of the powerful and exciting history of values and ethics in health care, I am trying in this book to do a number of particular things, which I want briefly to outline at its beginning before actually attempting to do them.

    First, I am trying to explore the nature of values in the health care context. I am particularly interested in two things here. One is the nature of the value of health itself. Given that one of our working assumptions about health care might be that its purpose is to produce more ‘health’, we are often remarkably unclear about what we may mean by this. If the purpose of health care is ‘more health’, yet we are not quite sure of what we understand by that, we lay ourselves open to confusion, dispute (with others who possess alternative understandings) and ultimately dilemmas of ethics in our practice. The history of dispute about the nature of health is probably as good a demonstration as any that we will never be able to reach harmonious agreement about the nature of health as a value. However, if we side-step it altogether, we run the very real risk of being unable to progress very far at all in our explorations of values and ethics in the health care context. So it forms an essential first step in this book, along with my other interest at this point – how and why we develop the health and health care-related values that we actually have. My own view is that they develop in large part through our working, or training to work, in health care, and if this is so, such an idea has major implications for our beliefs and judgements about what we should be doing and why we should be doing it.

    The second thing I am trying to do is to understand these values that develop in and from our health care persona and practice as drivers of work and ethics in the field. My interest here is largely (although not entirely) in what throughout this book I will call ‘ordinary’ health care. This is the everyday practice that those working, or training to work, in health care are most likely to be involved in. It includes things like giving advice, arranging care, supporting people trying to change their health behaviour, and so on. There are two reasons for my focus on the ethics of ‘ordinary’ health care. The first reason, obviously, is that this is the kind of practice most health care workers will be involved with most of the time – and which, at least on occasions, is perhaps thought of as being routine and not worth submitting to ethical examination. Second, against this possible thought, I want to claim that the ‘ordinary’ in health care is very often quite extraordinary. If we think of the apparently simple act of giving advice to a patient, say, there are so many layers to consider: her beliefs, values and attitudes as well as our own; the institutional context in which the advice-giving takes place; the social context framing it all, and so on. This is what makes ‘ordinary’ health care so extraordinary and, in my view, so difficult to deliberate upon. When I talk of ‘ordinary’ health care, then, I am not in any sense doing so pejoratively.

    In this focus on ‘ordinary’ health care, my intention is not to deliberately exclude what many people might actually more often see as ‘extraordinary’ health care situations – ‘life and death’ problems such as abortion, euthanasia, genetic engineering, and so on. Indeed, my argument in support of a fundamental concern for values and ethics in health care begins in part with a study of the particular ‘extraordinary’ health care situation of assisted suicide. Clearly, there is an essential social need to discuss and deliberate on ‘life and death’ in health care. But for the reasons I have given above, this is not my main intention here.

    The third particular thing that this book tries to do is to cast a concern with values and ethics in health care as one that is (or should be) shared across occupations and professions. This is a book about values and ethics in health care, not in nursing or occupational therapy or health-related social work or any other particular health care occupation. Again, there are reasons for this. I want to demonstrate that the values and ethics-related ‘agenda’ in health care is a shared one. It seems especially important to do this at a time when there is much focus on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary learning and political attempts are being made (rightly or wrongly) to break down professional barriers. Of course, throughout the book I will be using examples that draw on particular professional contexts or experiences – those of nursing, say. This is because, for better or worse, we tend to organise and understand the world of health care through professional and occupational divisions of one sort or another. But the claim and argument of this book is that there is much more for us to share (occupationally and professionally) with regard to values and ethics in health care than there is to divide.

    In attempting to do these things, there is also at least one thing that I am trying to avoid. I want to avoid this book becoming a one-sided explication of theory, or of problems in practice. In one sense, I suppose that somebody could argue that it has to be so. After all, I am writing and you are reading. I am deciding on direction and you are following. But in an important way my intention is for the book to be as unlike this as possible. Throughout the text there are questions, points for thought and examples that are my attempt to engage in shared dialogue and thinking with you, albeit within the constraint and limits of the writer-reader divide. But my effort towards establishing a dialogue is a genuine one because I believe that the questions I am posing, the thoughts I am trying to stimulate and the reasoning and reflection I am trying to encourage, is not the writer's responsibility alone. Progress in trying to understand the questions and difficulties that we will discuss has to be shared simply because it cannot be made by oneself.

    What I hope to come up with in this book are some possible ways of starting to think about questions of values and ethics in health care. These might be thought of as frameworks within which debate can take place. My intention is to try to encourage you to work with my frameworks, or to begin to develop your own conceptions of what is required to try to understand problems in this area. What I am doing, if you like, is to supply some scaffolding poles and planks and start to put them up in a particular way so that they fit my understanding of what needs to be built. But you might want to bring along more or different poles and planks, or rearrange the ones that we already have, to fit your own understanding.

    A few final clarifications are needed. First, at certain places in the text I have put words or phrases into bold type to indicate that this is a key term or topic under consideration at that point of the book. Second, as I suggested above, the ‘Q’ (Question) and ‘Thinking About…’ features are both intended to promote shared dialogue and thinking. However, within this broad intention they have different purposes. ‘Q’ features ask you to apply yourself to a particular question raised by the text, which I then generally go on to explore in what follows. ‘Thinking About…’ features are intended to provoke wider reflection, perhaps moving beyond the boundaries of the text itself. Third, the book begins with a series of case studies and continues right the way through with examples that in turn are provided to support thinking, discussion and questioning. The case studies are all taken from ‘real life’. This is also true of most of the examples, as they have been generated through discussions with students and colleagues, with whom I have been involved over a number of years, about their own experiences of working in or studying health care and its practices. (I have anonymised examples as appropriate.) For this particularly, I would like to re-iterate the thanks I offered to all these people in my earlier acknowledgements.

  • References

    Alderson, P (1994). What right to health care?Healthmatters, 20, 18-19.
    Alderson, P (2007). Governance and ethics in health research. In Saks, M and JAllsop (eds), Researching Health. London: Sage, 283-300.
    Armstrong, D (1983). Political Anatomy of the Body. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Armstrong, D (1993). From clinical gaze to regime of total health. In Beattie, A, MGott, LJones and MSidell (eds), Health and Well-Being: A Reader. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 55-67.
    Armstrong, D (2003). Social theorising about health and illness. In Albrecht, GL, RFitzpatrick and SCScrimshaw (eds), The Handbook of Social Studies in Health and Medicine. London: Sage, 24-35.
    Asthana, A (2006). Leading head attacks ‘size zero’ culture. Observer, 19 November.
    Audi, R (2004). The Good in the Right: A Theory of Intrinsic Value. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    BBC News (2007). Trust overturns its obesity policy. (last accessed 28 April 2008).
    BBC News (2008). Anti-depressant advice ‘misleading’. (last accessed 28 April 2008).
    Baird-Callicott, J (2005). The intrinsic value of nature in public policy: the case of the Endangered Species Act. In Cohen, AI and CHeath-Wellman (eds), Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 279-97.
    Beauchamp, TL and JFChildress (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics (Fifth Edition). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Becker, HS, BGeer, ECHughes and ALStrauss (1977). Boys in White: Student Culture in Medical School. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
    Benatar, S and PSinger (2000). A new look at international research ethics. British Medical Journal, 321, 824-6.
    Berlin, I (2002). Two concepts of liberty. In HHardy (ed.), Isaiah Berlin: Liberty. New York: Oxford University Press, 166-217.
    Blastland, M (2006). Essay. New Statesman, 17 April, 32-5.
    Blastland, M (2007). Joe: The Only Boy in the World. London: Profile.
    Boden, R (2004). Sed quis custodiet ipsos custodies? Governmentality, corporate governance and ethics. Paper presented to the Corporate Governance and Ethics Conference, Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Sydney, Australia, 28–30 June.
    Bogdanor, V et al. (2007). In search of British values. Prospect, October, 22-6.
    Bonnett, A (2001). How to Argue. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    Bower, P, SGilbody, DRichards, JFletcher and ASutton (2006). Collaborative care for depression in primary care: making sense of a complex intervention: systematic review and meta-regression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 189, 6, 484-93.
    Bowles, W, MCollingridge, SCurry and BValentine (2006). Ethical Practice in Social Work. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Bradshaw, PL and GBradshaw (2004). Health Policy for Health Care Professionals. London: Sage.
    British Association of Social Workers (BASW) (2002). The Code of Ethics for Social Work. (last accessed 5 May 2008).
    Broom, A and EWillis (2007). Competing paradigms and health research. In Saks, M and JAllsop (eds), Researching Health. London: Sage, 16-31.
    Buchanan, AE (1984). The right to a decent minimum of health care. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 13, 1,55-78.
    Burleigh, M (2001). The Third Reich: A New History. London: Pan Macmillan.
    Buruma, I (2007). Murder in Amsterdam: The Death of Theo Van Gogh and the Limits of Tolerance. London: Atlantic Books.
    Campbell, AV (1990). Education or indoctrination: the issue of autonomy in health education. In Doxiadis, S (ed.), Ethics in Health Education. Chichester: Wiley, 15-28.
    Campbell, D (2006). Junk food ads face ban in youth magazines. Observer, 19 November.
    Carr, D (2003). Making Sense of Education. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Central Office for Research Ethics Committees (COREC) (2001). Governance Arrangements for NHS Research Ethics Committees. London: COREC.
    Clouder, L (2003). Becoming professional: exploring the complexities of professional socialisation in health and social care. Learning in Health and Social Care, 2, 4, 213-22.
    Cohen, P (2006). Instant expert: genetics. New Scientist, 4 September. (last accessed 25 May 2008).
    College of Occupational Therapy (2001). Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct for Occupational Therapists. London: College of Occupational Therapy.
    Cookson, R and PDonlan (2000). Principles of justice in health care rationing. Journal of Medical Ethics, 26, 323-29.
    Cooter, R (2000). The ethical body. In Cooter, R and JPickstone (eds), Medicine in the 20th Century. London: Harwood Academic Publishers, 451-68.
    Cottingham, J (ed.) (2008). Western Philosophy: An Anthology. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Cox, BD et al. (1987). The Health and Lifestyle Survey: Preliminary Report. Cambridge: The Health Promotion Research Trust.
    Cribb, A (2005). Health and the Good Society: Setting Bioethics in its Social Context. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Cribb, A and SBignold (1999). Towards the reflexive medical school: the hidden curriculum and medical education research. Studies in Higher Education24, 2, 195-209.
    Cribb, A and PDuncan (2002). Health Promotion and Professional Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
    Dawson, AJ (1994). Professional codes of practice and ethical conduct. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 11, 2, 145-53.
    Deacon, A (2002). Perspectives on Welfare. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Department of Health (1997). The Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors Act 1997. London: HMSO.
    Department of Health (2004). Choosing Health. London: HMSO.
    Department of Health (2006). Health Act 2006. London: HMSO.
    Department of Health and Social Services (1977). The National Health Service Act 1977. London: HMSO.
    Dougherty, CJ (1993). Bad faith and victim-blaming: the limits of health promotion. Health Care Analysis, 1, 111-19.
    Douglas, J, SEarle, SHandsley, CLloyd, and SSpurr (eds) (2007). A Reader in Promoting Public Health: Challenge and Controversy. Milton Keynes/London: The Open University/Sage.
    Downie, RS, CTannahill and ATannahill (1996). Health Promotion: Models and Values (Second Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Duncan, P (2004). Dispute, dissent and the place of health promotion in a ‘disrupted tradition’ of health improvement. Public Understanding of Science, 13, 2, 177-90.
    Duncan, P (2007). Critical Perspectives on Health. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Duncan, P (2008). Ethics and law and health. In Naidoo, J and JWills (eds), Health Studies: An Introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 345-71.
    Duncan, P and ACribb (1996). Helping people change: an ethical approach?Health Education Research, 11, 3, 339-48.
    Dworkin, R (1995). Life's Dominion: An Argument about Abortion and Euthanasia. London: HarperCollins.
    Dyer, C (2006). GP questioned over journey to suicide clinic. Guardian, 31 January.
    Earle, S (2007). Exploring health. In Earle, S, CELloyd, MSidel and SSpurr (eds), Theory and Research in Promoting Public Health. London: Sage, 37-65.
    Earle, S, CELloyd, MSidell and SSpurr (eds) (2007). Theory and Research in Promoting Public Health. London: Sage.
    Easton, D (1953). The Political System. New York: Alfred A Knopf.
    Edgar, A (1994). The value of codes of conduct. In Hunt, G (ed.), Ethical Issues in Nursing. London: Routledge, 148-63.
    Edwards, SD (2001). Philosophy of Nursing: An Introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Englehardt Jr, HT and KWWildes (1994). The four principles of health care ethics: why a libertarian interpretation is unavoidable. In Gillon, R and ALloyd (eds), Principles of Health Care Ethics. Chichester: Wiley, 135-47.
    Family Heart Study Group (1994). Randomised controlled trial evaluating cardiovascular screening and intervention in general practice: principal results of the British Family Heart Study. British Medical Journal, 308, 313-20.
    Fitzpatrick, M (2001). The Tyranny of Health: Doctors and the Regulation of Lifestyle. London: Routledge.
    Freedom to Care (2008). Charge Nurse Graham Pink blows whistle on nurse under-staffing. (last accessed 16 July 2008).
    Gillon, R (1990). Philosophical Medical Ethics. Chichester: Wiley.
    Gillon, R (1994). Medical ethics: four principles plus attention to scope. British Medical Journal, 309, 184-8.
    Gillon, R and ALloyd (eds) (1994). Principles of Health care Ethics. Chichester: Wiley.
    Glover, J (1977). Causing Death and Saving Lives. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Glover, J (2006). Choosing Children: The Ethical Dilemmas of Genetic Intervention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gorovitz, S (1985). Doctors’ Dilemmas: Moral Conflict and Medical Care. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Grayling, AC (2003). What is Good? The Search for the Right Way to Live. London: Wiedenfeld and Nicolson.
    Guardian (2002). Dianne Pretty loses right to die case. Guardian, 29 April.
    Haldane, JJ (1986). ‘Medical ethics’ – an alternative approach. Journal of Medical Ethics, 12, 145-50.
    Halper, E (2003). Ethics in film. APA Newsletter, 3, 1, 191-5.
    Halstead, JM and MJReiss (2003). Values in Sex Education: From Principles to Practice. London: Routledge Falmer.
    Ham, C (2004). Health Policy in Britain (Fifth Edition). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Harding, L (2005). Swiss hospital will be the first to allow assisted suicide. Guardian Weekly, 23 December.
    Hardy, A (2001). Health and Medicine in Britain since 1860. Basinsgstoke: Palgrave.
    Hare, RM (1994). Utilitarianism and deontological principles. In Gillon, R and ALloyd (eds), Principles of Health Care Ethics. Chichester: Wiley, 149-57.
    Hart, C (2004). Nurses and Politics: The Impact of Power and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Herzlich, C (1973). Health and Illness. New York: Academic Press.
    Holliday, A (2002). Doing and Writing Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
    House of Commons Health Committee (2006). Smoking in Public Places: First Report of Session 2005–6 (Vol. 1). London: The Stationery Office.
    Hoyle, E (1980). Professionalisation and deprofessionalisation in education. In Hoyle, E and JMegarry (eds), World Yearbook of Education 1980. London: Kogan Page, 42-56.
    Illich, I (1977). Limits to Medicine. London: Pelican.
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Oxcheck Study Group (1995). Effectiveness of health checks conducted by nurses in primary care: final results of the Oxcheck study. British Medical Journal, 310, 1099-1104.
    Jackson, J (2006). Ethics in Medicine. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Jonsen, AR (1998). The Birth of Bioethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Kennedy, I (1981). The Unmasking of Medicine. London: George Allen and Unwin.
    Kennedy, I (2001). Inquiry into the Management and Care of Children Receiving Complex Heart Surgery at the Bristol Royal Infirmary (The Kennedy Inquiry Report). Norwich: The Stationery Office.
    Kitcher, P (1997). The Lives to Come: The Genetic Revolution and Human Possibilities. London: Penguin.
    Koehn, D (1994). The Ground of Professional Ethics. London: Routledge.
    Lacey, AR (1976). A Dictionary of Philosophy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Leith, P (2007). Interview. Today, 13 December. (last accessed 25 July 2008).
    Lucas, K and BLloyd (2005). Health Promotion: Evidence and Experience. London: Sage.
    Macdonald, TH (2006). Health, Trade and Human Rights. Oxford: Radcliffe.
    Macintyre, A (1985). After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (Second Edition). London: Duckworth.
    Mackie, JL (1977). Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Macnaughton, J (2007). Literature and the ‘good doctor’ in Ian McEwan's ‘Saturday’. Medical Humanities, 33, 70-4.
    Marshall, L and FRowland (1998). A Guide to Learning Independently (Third Edition). Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Marteau, TM (1989). Psychological costs of screening. British Medical Journal, 299, 527 (26 August).
    MarteauTM (1990) Screening in practice: reducing the psychological costs. British Medical Journal, 301, 26-8.
    McKeown, T (1976). The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage or Nemesis. London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust.
    Meikle, J (2004). Doctors helping patients to die. Guardian Unlimited. (last accessed 30 November 2006).
    Mill, JS (1962). Utilitarianism and Other Writings (edited by MaryWarnock). Glasgow: Fontana.
    Mittlemark, MB (2007). Setting an ethical agenda for health promotion. Health Promotion International, 23, 1, 78-85.
    National Health Service/Home Office (2008). Alcohol: Know Your Limits. (last accessed 21 January 2008).
    Neuberger, J (2005). The Moral State We're In. London: HarperCollins.
    NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (NHSCRD) (2002). Effective Health Care Bulletin: The Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity. York: NHSCRD.
    Nixon, J and PSikes (2003). Introduction: reconceptualising the debate. In Sikes, P, JNixon and WCarr (eds), The Moral Foundations of Educational Research. Maidenhead: Open University Press, 1-5.
    Nixon, J, MWalker and PClough (2003). Research as thoughtful practice. In Sikes, P, JNixon and WCarr (eds), The Moral Foundations of Educational Research. Maidenhead: Open Uiversity Press, 86-104.
    Nordenfelt, L (1993). On the nature and ethics of health promotion: an attempt at a systematic analysis. Health Care Analysis, 1, 121-30.
    Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2005). The Ethics of Research Related to Health Care in Developing Countries. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics.
    Nursing and Midwifery Council (2004). The NMC Code of Professional Conduct, Standards for Conduct, Performance and Ethics. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council.
    Oliver, P (2003). The Student's Guide to Research Ethics. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Oxford University Press (1983). The Oxford Paperback Dictionary (Second Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Palmer, GR and MTHo (2008). Health Economics: A Critical and Global Analysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Paton, HJ (1948). The Moral Law. London: Hutchinson.
    Peters, RS (1973). Aims of education: a conceptual enquiry. In Peters, RS (ed.), The Philosophy of Education. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 11-29.
    Plant, R (1989). Can There Be a Right to Health Care?Southampton: Institute for Health Policy Studies.
    Plant, R (2002). Can there be a right to a basic income? Paper presented to the BIEN Ninth International Congress, Geneva, Switzerland, 12–14 September.
    Porter, R (1999). The Greatest Benefit to Mankind. London: HarperCollins.
    Porter, S (1995). Nursing's Relationship with Medicine: A Critical Realist Ethnography. Aldershot: Avebury.
    Randall, F and RSDownie (2006). The Philosophy of Palliative Care: Critique and Reconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Rawson, D (1994). Willpower and authentic choice in stopping smoking. Health Care Analysis, 2, 201-5.
    Reich, WT (1995). The Encyclopaedia of Bioethics. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Revill, J (2006a). Patients’ lives being left at mercy of abusive nurses. Observer, 25 June.
    Revill, J (2006b). NHS must pay for fat children to get surgery. Observer, 19 November.
    Royal College of Nursing (2007). Blowing the Whistle: Information for Nurses. London: Royal College of Nursing.
    Russell, B (1979). A History of Western Philosophy. London: Unwin Paperbacks.
    Ryan, C (2006). IVF ‘good for British economy’. (last accessed 12 May 2008).
    Saks, M and JAllsop (eds) (2007). Researching Health: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods. London: Sage.
    Scadding, JG (1988). Health and disease: what can medicine do for philosophy?Journal of Medical Ethics, 14, 118-24.
    Seedhouse, D (1998). Ethics: The Heart of Health Care (Second Edition). Chichester: Wiley.
    Seedhouse, D (2001). Health: The Foundations for Achievement (Second Edition). Chichester: Wiley.
    Skrabanek, P and JMcCormick (1989). Follies and Fallacies in Medicine. Glasgow: The Tarragon Press.
    Smart, JJC (1967). Extreme and restricted utilitarianism. In Foot, P (ed.), Theories of Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 171-83.
    Smith, J (2002). First Report: Death Disguised (The Shipman Inquiry Report). London: The Stationery Office.
    Smith, J (2003). Second Report: The Police Investigation (The Shipman Inquiry Report). London: The Stationery Office.
    Sprague, E (1978). Metaphysical Thinking. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Stanley, N and JManthorpe (2004). The inquiry as Janus. In Stanley, N and JManthorpe (eds), The Age of the Inquiry: Learning and Blaming in Health and Social Care. London: Routledge, 1-16.
    Stohr, K (2006). Contemporary virtue ethics. Philosophy Compass, 1, 1, 22-7.
    Sweney, M (2007). MPs seek tougher junk food ad ban. Guardian, 6 February.
    Tate, S (2004). Using critical reflection as a teaching tool. In Tate, S and MSills (eds), The Development of Critical Reflection in the Health Professions. London: Higher Education Academy Health Sciences and Practice Subject Centre, 8-17.
    Tate, S and MSills (eds) (2004). The Development of Critical Reflection in the Health Professions. London: Higher Education Academy Health Sciences and Practice Subject Centre.
    Thomas, K (1997). Health and morality in early modern England. In Brandt, AM and PRozin (eds), Morality and Health. New York: Routledge, 15-34.
    Tomes, N (1997). Moralizing the microbe: the germ theory and the moral construction of behaviour in the late nineteenth-century antituberculosis movement. In Brandt, AM and PRozin (eds), Morality and Health. New York: Routledge, 271-96.
    Tones, K and JGreen (2004). Health Promotion: Planning and Strategies. London: Sage.
    Townsend, P, NDavidson and MWhitehead (1988). Inequalities in Health. London: Penguin.
    Tudor Hart, J (1971). The inverse care law. Lancet, 27 February, 405-12.
    Turner, BS (2003). The history of the changing concepts of health and illness: outline of a general model of illness categories. In Albrecht, GL, RFitzpatrick and SCScrimshaw (eds), The Handbook of Social Studies in Health and Medicine. London: Sage, 9-23.
    Warburton, N (1999). Philosophy: The Basics (Third Edition). London: Routledge.
    Warburton, N (2007). Thinking from A to Z (Third Edition). Abingdon: Routledge.
    Wheelwright, S and SBaron-Cohen (2001). The link between autism and skills such as engineering, math, physics and computing: a reply to Jarrold and Routh. Autism, 5, 223-7.
    Wikler, DI (1978). Persuasion and coercion for health: ethical issues in government efforts to change lifestyles. Millbank Memorial Fund Quarterly/Health and Society, 56, 3, 303-8.
    Wikler, DI (1987). Who should be blamed for being sick?Health Education Quarterly, 14, 1, 11-25.
    Wilkinson, RG (1996). Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. London: Routledge.
    Wilkinson, RG (2005). The Impact of Inequality. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Williams, B (2002). Truth and Truthfulness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Williams, R (1983). Concepts of health: an analysis of lay logic. Sociology, 17, 2, 185-204.
    Wilson, M (1975). Health is for People. London: Darton, Longman and Todd.
    Woodward, W (2006). Lords vote to block assisted suicide bill for terminally ill. Guardian Unlimited. (last accessed 30 November 2006).
    Worrall, J (2007). Evidence in medicine and evidence-based medicine. Philosophy Compass, November.
    Wright, K (2007). Human rights in primary care. In Baruma, D and JSpicer (eds), Primary Care Ethics. Oxford: Radcliffe, 55-69.

    • Loading...
Back to Top