Using RTI to Teach Literacy to Diverse Learners, K–8: Strategies for the Inclusive Classroom

Books

Sheila Alber-Morgan

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals:

    • Emma Barnes, K–2 Literacy Facilitator
    • Hawk Ridge Elementary School
    • Charlotte, NC
    • John Celletti, Adjunct Professor and Behavior Specialist
    • University of Detroit Mercy and Lincoln Park School District
    • Detroit, MI
    • Jeanne Danneker, Professor of Special Education
    • Winona State University
    • Winona, MN
    • Stacey Ferguson, First-, Second-, and Third-Grade Teacher
    • North Bay Elementary School
    • Bay Saint Louis, MS
    • Mari Gates, Special Education Teacher/Fifth-Grade General Education Inclusion Teacher
    • Henry B. Burkland Intermediate School
    • Middleboro, MA
    • Cathy Hooper, Literacy Coordinator
    • Henderson Independent School District
    • Henderson, TX
    • Sharon Judge, Associate Dean
    • Graduate Studies and Assessment
    • University Norfolk
    • Norfolk, VA
    • Shelly Kelly, Literacy Teacher
    • Chief Joseph Elementary
    • Great Falls Public Schools
    • Great Falls, MT
    • Kay Kuenzl-Stenerson, Literacy Coach
    • Merrill Middle School
    • Oshkosh, WI
    • Laura Linde, K–5 Literacy Coach
    • Hoover Elementary
    • North Mankato, MN
    • Wanda Mangum, Language Arts Instructional Coach
    • Gwinnett County Public Schools, District Office
    • Suwanee, GA
    • Stephanie Malin, K–2 Literacy Coach
    • Nancy Ryles Elementary School
    • Beaverton, OR
    • Natalie Marston, Vice Principal
    • Charles County Public School
    • Crofton, MD
    • Ganna Maymind, First-Grade Teacher
    • Asher Holmes Elementary School
    • Morganville, NJ
    • Vicki Seeger, Literacy Coach
    • Elmont Elementary School
    • Indian Creek Elementary School
    • Rochester Elementary School
    • Topeka, KS

    About the Author

    Sheila Alber-Morgan has been an associate professor of special education at The Ohio State University since 2005. She was also a faculty member at The University of Southern Mississippi for eight years. After teaching for several years in inclusive classrooms in both urban and rural South Carolina, Dr. Alber-Morgan began doctoral training at The Ohio State University and earned her PhD in 1997. For the past 15 years, Dr. Alber-Morgan's research has focused on examining the effects of various literacy interventions on the learning outcomes of elementary and secondary students with and without disabilities. Additionally, her research incorporates strategies for programming for generalization and maintenance of academic and social skills. Almost all of Dr. Alber-Morgan's research has been designed and implemented in collaboration with classroom teachers, and she has over 50 research and practitioner publications including peer-reviewed journal articles, textbook ancillaries, and book chapters.

    Dedication

    For David

  • References

    Abbott, R. D., Berninger, V. W. (1993). Structural equation modeling of relationships among developmental skills and writing skills in primary and intermediate grade writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 478–508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.85.3.478
    Alber, S. R., Foil, C. R. (2003). Drama activities that promote and extend your students’ vocabulary proficiency. Intervention in School and Clinic, 39, 22–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10534512030390010301
    Alber, S. R., Heward, W. L. (1997). Recruit it or lose it! Training students to recruit positive teacher attention. Intervention in School and Clinic, 32, 275–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105345129703200504
    Alber, S. R., Heward, W. L., Hippler, B. J. (1999). Teaching middle school students with learning disabilities to recruit positive teacher attention. Exceptional Children, 65, 253–270.
    Alber, S. R., Martin, C. M., Gammill, D. M. (2005). Using the literary masters to inspire gifted students’ writing. Gifted Child Today, 28, 50–59.
    Alber, S. R., Nelson, J. S. (2002). Putting research in the collaborative hands of teachers and researchers: An alternative to traditional staff development. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 21, 24–32.
    Alber, S. R., Nelson, J. S. (2005). Collaborating with student and mentor teachers to design and implement classroom research. In W. L.Heward, T. E.Heron, N. A.Neef, S. M.Peterson, D. M.Sainato, G.Cartledge, et al. (Eds.), Focus on Behavior Analysis in Education: Achievements, Challenges, & Opportunities (pp. 173–187). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Alber, S. R., Nelson, J. S., Brennan, K. B. (2002). A comparative analysis of two homework study methods on elementary and secondary students’ acquisition and maintenance of social studies content. Education and Treatment of Children, 25, 172–196.
    Alber-Morgan, S. R., Hessler, T., Konrad, M. (2007). Teaching writing for keeps. Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 107–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/etc.2007.0012
    Alber-Morgan, S. R., Ramp, E. M., Anderson, L. L., Martin, C. M. (2007). The effects of repeated readings, error correction, and performance feedback on the fluency and comprehension of middle school students with behavior problems. Journal of Special Education, 41, 17–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00224669070410010201
    Allison, B. N., Rhem, M. L. (2007). Effective teaching strategies for middle school learners in multicultural, multilingual classrooms. Middle School Journal, 39, 12–18.
    Amato-Zech, N., Hoff, K., Doepke, K. (2006). Increasing on-task behavior in the classroom: Extension of self-monitoring strategies. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 211–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pits.20137
    Anders, P. L., Bos, C. S. (1986). Semantic feature analysis: An interactive strategy for vocabulary development text comprehension. Journal of Reading, 29, 610–617.
    Anderson, C. L., Anderson, K. M. (2006). Applying backward design principles to planning an inclusive thematic unit on China. Special Education Technology Practice, 9, 18–25.
    Anderson, P. L.Corbet, L. (2008). Literature circles for students with learning disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 4, 25–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1053451208318681
    Aronson, E., Blaney, N., Stephin, C., Sikes, J.,. Snapp, M. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Atkinson, R. C. (1975). Mnemotechnics in second-language learning. American Psychologist, 30, 821–828. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0077029
    Atwell, N. (1987). In the middle: Writing, reading, and learning with adolescents. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Baer, D. M. (1999). How to plan for generalization. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
    Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M. (1970). The entry into natural communities of reinforcement. In R.Ulrich, T.Stachnik, J.Mabry (Eds.), Control of human behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 319–324). Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.
    Baker, S., Gersten, R., Graham, S. (2003). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: Research-based applications and examples. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36, 109–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221940303600204
    Barrentine, S. J. (1999). Facilitating preservice students’ development of thematic units. The Teacher Educator, 34, 276–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08878739909555207
    Blume, J. (1972). Tales of a fourth grade nothing. New York: Puffin Books.
    Bolak, K., Bialach, D., Dunphy, M. (2005). Standards-based, thematic units integrate the arts and energize students and teachers. Middle School Journal, 36, 9–19.
    Bondy, E., Brownell, M. T. (2004). Getting beyond the research to practice gap: Researching against the grain. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27, 47–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088840640402700105
    Brown-Chidsey, R., Steege, M. W. (2005). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. New York: Guilford.
    Bursuck, W. D., Damer, M. (2007). Reading instruction for students who are at risk or who have disabilities. Boston: Pearson.
    Busch, T. W., Espin, C. A. (2003). Using curriculum-based measurement to prevent failure and assess learning in the content areas. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 28, 49–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/073724770302800306
    Carle, E. (2004). Mister Seahorse. New York: Philomel Books.
    Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kame'enui, E. J., Tarver, S. (2004). Direct instruction reading (
    4th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Casserly, M. (2006). Beating the odds: A city-by-city analysis of student performance and achievement gaps on state assessments: Results from the 2004–2005 school year. Washington, DC: Council of Great City Schools.
    Center for Applied Special Technology. (2007, November 8). Summary of 2007 national summit on universal design for learning working groups. (Report prepared for summit participants). Wakefield, MA.
    Coker, D. (2006). Impact of first-grade factors on the growth and outcomes of urban schoolchildren's primary-grade writing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 471–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.98.3.471
    Cole, C. M., Waldron, N., Majd, M. (2004). Academic progress of students across inclusive and traditional settings. Mental Retardation, 42, 136–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765%282004%2942%3C136:APOSAI%3E2.0.CO;2
    Conner, D. J., Ferri, B. A. (2007). The conflict within: Resistance to inclusion and other paradoxes in special education. Disability and Society, 22, 63–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590601056717
    Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., Heward, W. L. (2007) Applied behavior analysis (
    2nd ed.
    ) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Cooter, R. B., Jr., Flynt, E. S., Cooter, K. S. (2007). Comprehensive reading inventory: Measuring reading development in regular and special education classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
    Craft, M. A., Alber, S. R., Heward, W. L. (1998). Training elementary students with developmental disabilities to recruit teacher attention in a general education classroom: Effects on teacher praise and academic productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 399–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1998.31-399
    Craig, J., Butler, A., Cairo, L., III, Wood, C., Gilchrist, C., Holloway, J., Williams, S., Moats, S. (2005). A case study of six high-performing schools in Tennessee. Charleston, WV: Edvantia.
    Crandall, J. A., Jaramillo, A., Olsen, L., Peyton, J. K. (2001). Diverse teaching strategies for immigrant children. In R. W.Cole (Ed.), More strategies for educating everybody's children (pp. 33–71). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Cuban, L. (1993). The lure of curricular reform and its pitiful history. Phi Delta Kappan, 75, 182–185.
    Cusumono, D. L. (2007). Is it working?: An overview of curriculum-based measurement and its uses for assessing instructional, intervention, or program effectiveness. The Behavior Analyst Today, 8, 24–34.
    Dalton, B., Sable, J., Hoffman, L. (2006). Characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States: 2003–2004. Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Statistics.
    De La Paz, S., Graham, S. (1997). Strategy instruction in planning: Effects on the writing performance and behavior of students with learning difficulties. Exceptional Children, 63, 167–181.
    Deno, S. L. (2003). Developments in curriculum-based measurement. Journal of Special Education, 37, 184–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00224669030370030801
    DiSpirt, D. (2008). Strategies to summarize a narrative: Teaching the main ideas or events in a story. Suite http://101.com. Retrieved December 17, 2009, from http://primary-school-lesson-plans.suite101.com/
    Edelen-Smith, P. J. (1997). How now brown cow: Phoneme awareness activities for collaborative classrooms. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33, 103–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105345129703300206
    Ellis, E. S., Friend, P. (1991). Adolescents with learning disabilities. In B. Y. L.Wong (Ed.), Learning about learning disabilities (pp. 505–561). San Diego: Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-762530-0.50024-2
    Engelmann, S., Carnine, D. W. (1982). Theory of instruction: Principles and applications. New York: Irvington.
    Engelmann, S., Silbert, J. (1983). Expressive writing1. Chicago: Science Research Associates
    Espin, C. A., De La Paz, S., Scierka, B. J., Roelofs, L. (2005). The relationship between curriculum-based measures in written expression and quality and completeness of expository writing for middle school students. Journal of Special Education, 38, 208–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00224669050380040201
    Espin, C. A., Scierka, B. J., Skare, S., Halverson, N. (1999). Curriculum-based measures in writing for secondary students. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 15, 5–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/105735699278279
    Espin, C. A., Shin, J., Deno, S. L., Skare, S., Robinson, S., Benner, B. (2000). Identifying indicators of written expression proficiency for middle school students. Journal of Special Education, 34, 140–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002246690003400303
    Espin, C. A., Wallace, T., Campbell, H., Lembke, E. S., Long, J. D., Ticha, R. (2008). Curriculum-based measurement in writing: Predicting the success of high-school students on state standards tests. Exceptional Children, 74, 174–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001440290807400203
    Fairfax County Public Schools. (2004). PALS: Performance assessment for language students. Retrieved December 17, 2009, from http://www.fcps.edu/DIS/OHSICS/forlang/PALS/rubrics/
    Fass, S., Cauthen, N. K. (2008). Who are America's poor children?New York: National Center for Children in Poverty.
    Ferguson, C. (2002). Using the revised taxonomy to plan and deliver team-taught, integrated, thematic units. Theory to Practice, 41, 238–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_6
    Flynt, E. S., Cooter, R. B. (1999). English-Español reading inventory for the classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
    Foil, C. R., Alber, S. R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students’ vocabulary. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37, 131–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105345120203700301
    Foorman, B. R., Schatschneider, C., Eakin, M. N., Fletcher, J. M., Moats, L. C., Francis, D. J. (2006). The impact of instructional practices in grades 1 and 2 on reading and spelling achievement in high-poverty schools. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31, 1–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.11.003
    Friend, M., Bursuck, W. D. (2009). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers (
    5th ed
    .). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S. (2001). One blueprint for bridging the gap: Project PROMISE. Teacher Education and Special Education, 24, 304–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088840640102400405
    Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S. (2004). Determining adequate yearly progress from kindergarten through grade 6 with curriculum-based measurement. Assessment for Effective Instruction, 29, 25–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/073724770402900405
    Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S. (2006). New directions in research: Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it?Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 93–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.41.1.4
    Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D. (2007). Progress monitoring within a multi-tiered prevention system. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 33, 43–47.
    Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlet, C. L., Waltz, L., Gernmann, G. (1993). Formative evaluation of academic progress: How much growth can we expect?School Psychology Review, 22, 27–49.
    Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Vaughn, S. (2008). Response to intervention. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Gersten, R., Baker, S. K., Shanahan, T., Linan-Thompson, S., Collins, P., Scarcella, R. (2007). Effective literacy and English language instruction for English learners in the elementary grades: A practice guide (NCEE 2007–4011). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.
    Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C. M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S. et al. (2009). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to intervention and multitier intervention for reading in the primary grades. A practice guide. (NCEE 2009–4045) Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.
    Gersten, R., Morvant, M., Brengelman, S. (1995). Close to the classroom is close to the bone: Coaching as a means to translate research into practice. Exceptional Children, 62, 56–67.
    Gillingham, A., Stillman, B. W. (1970). Remedial training for children with specific disability in reading, spelling, and penmanship. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
    Goldberg, A., Russell, M., Cook, A. (2003). The effect of computers on student writing: A meta-analysis of studies from 1992–2002. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 2, 1–51.
    Good, R. H., III, Simmons, D. C., Kame'enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532799XSSR0503_4
    Graham, S. (1983). The effect of self-instructional procedures on LD students’ handwriting performance, Learning Disability Quarterly, 6, 231–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1510802
    Graham, S. (1997). Executive control in the revising of students with learning and writing difficulties. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 223–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.89.2.223
    Graham, S., Harris, K. R. (1989). Improving learning disabled students’ skills at composing essays: Self-instructional strategy training. Exceptional Children, 56, 201–214.
    Graham, S., Harris, K. R. (1992). Cognitive strategy instruction in written language for learning disabled students. In S.Vogel (Ed.), Educational alternatives for students with learning disabilities (pp. 95–115). New York: Springer Verlag.
    Graham, S., Harris, K. R. (2003). Students with learning disabilities and the process of writing: A meta-analysis of SRSD studies. In L.Swanson, K. R.Harris
    S.Graham (Eds.), Handbook of research on learning disabilities (pp. 323–344). New York: Guilford.
    Graham, S., Harris, K. R. (2005). Writing better: Teaching writing processes and self-regulation to students with learning difficulties. Baltimore: Brookes.
    Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Fink, B. (2000). Extra handwriting instruction: Prevent writing difficulties right from the start. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33, 88–91.
    Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Loynachan, C. (1993). The basic spelling vocabulary list. Journal of Educational Research, 86, 363–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1993.9941230
    Graham, S., Miller, L. (1979). Spelling research and practice: A unified approach. Focus on Exceptional Children, 12, 1–6.
    Graham, S., Olinghouse, N. G., Harris, K. R. (2009). Teaching composing to students with learning disabilities: Scientifically supported recommendations. In G. A.Troia (Ed.), Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices (pp. 165–186). New York: Guildford.
    Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high school. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellence in Education.
    Graves, D. H. (1994). A fresh look at writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Graves, D. H., Rueda, R. (2009). Teaching written expression to culturally and linguistically diverse learners. In G. A.Troia (Ed.), Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices (pp. 213–242). New York: Guildford Press.
    Greenwood, C. R., Delquadri, J. D., Hou, S., Terry, B., Arreaga-Mayer, C., Abbott, M. (2001). Together we can! Classwide peer tutoring learning management system teacher's manual. University of Kansas: Sopris West.
    Hagin, R. A. (1983). Write right—or left: A practical approach to handwriting. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 266–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221948301600505
    Hand, B., Hohenshell, L., Prain, V. (2004). Exploring students’ responses to conceptual questions when engaged with planned writing experiences: A study with year ten science students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41, 186–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.10128
    Hanover, S. (1983). Handwriting comes naturally?Academic Therapy, 18, 407–412.
    Heron, T. E., Okyere, B. A., Miller, A. D. (1991). A taxonomy of approaches to teach spelling. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 117–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00956757
    Hessler, T., Konrad, M. (2008). Using curriculum-based measurement to drive IEPs and instruction in written expression. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41, 28–37.
    Heward, W. L. (1994). Three “low-tech” strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction. In R.Gardner, D.Sainato, J.Cooper, T.Heron, W.Heward, J.Eshleman, et al. Behavior Analysis in Education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp. 283–320). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Hopstock, P., Stephenson, S., (2003). Native languages of limited English proficient students. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.
    Horn, E. (1954). Phonics and spelling. Journal of Education, 136, 233–246.
    Hosp, M. K., Hosp, J. L., Howell, K. W. (2007). The ABCs of CBM: A practical guide to curriculum-based measurement. New York: Guilford Press.
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. (2004). Public Law No. 108–446. Retrieved December 11, 2009, from http://www.copyright.gov/legislation/pl108-446.pdf
    Idol, L. (2006). Toward the inclusion of special education students in general education: A program of evaluation in eight schools. Remedial and Special Education, 27, 77–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325060270020601
    Jochum, J., Curran, C., Reetz, L. (1998). Creating individual educational portfolios in written language. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 14, 283–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1057356980140304
    Johns, J. L. (2005). Basic reading inventory (
    9th ed.
    ). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
    Joyce, B., Showers, B. (1995). Student achievement through staff development (
    2nd ed.
    ). White Plains, NY: Longman.
    Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide (NCEE #2008–4027). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.
    Kamps, D. M., Greenwood, C. R. (2005). Formulating secondary-level reading interventions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 500–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00222194050380060501
    King-Sears, M. E., Mercer, C. D., Sindelar, P. (1992). Toward independence with keyword mnemonics: A strategy for science vocabulary instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 13, 22–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193259201300505
    Korinek, L., Bulls, J. A. (1996). SCORE A: A student research paper writing strategy. Teaching Exceptional Children, 28, 60–63.
    Kozloff, M. A. (2002) Fad, Fraud, and Folly in Education, Watson School of Education, University of North Carolina at Wilmington. Retrieved December 18, 2009, from http://people.uncw.edu/kozloffm/fads.html
    Leaf, M. (1936). Ferdinand. New York: Viking Press.
    Lenz, B. K., Schumaker, J. B., Deshler, D. D., Beals, V. L. (1984). Learning strategies curriculum: The word-identification strategy. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.
    Levin, J. R. (1988). Elaboration-based learning strategies: Powerful theory—powerful application. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13, 191–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0361-476X%2888%2990020-3
    MacArthur, C. A. (1996). Using technology to enhance the writing processes of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 344–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949602900403
    MacArthur, C. A. (2009). Using technology to teach composing to struggling writers. In G. A.Troia (Ed.), Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices (pp. 243–268). New York: Guilford.
    MacArthur, C. A., Graham, S., Schwartz, S. S., Schafer, W. D. (1995). Evaluation of a writing instruction model that integrated a process approach, strategy instruction, and word processing. Learning Disability Quarterly, 18, 278–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1511234
    Maheady, L., Harper, G. F., Mallette, B. (2001). Peer-mediated instruction and interventions and students with mild disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 22, 4–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193250102200102
    Marchisan, M., Alber, S. R. (2001). The write way: Tips for teaching the writing process to resistant writers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36, 154–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105345120103600304
    Mason, L. H.Graham, S. (2008). Writing instruction for adolescents with learning disabilities: Programs of intervention research. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23, 103–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2008.00268.x
    Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E. (1998). Enhancing school success with mnemonic strategies. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33, 201–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105345129803300402
    Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., Fulk, B. J. M. (1990). Teaching abstract vocabulary with the keyword method: Effects on recall and comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 293–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949002300203
    McGlinchey, M. T., Hixson, M. D. (2004). Using curriculum based measurement to predict performance on state assessments in reading. School Psychology Review, 33, 193–203.
    McKenna, M. C., Labbo, L. D., Reinking, D., Zucker, T. A. (2007). Effective use of technology in literacy instruction. In L. B.Gambrell, L. M.Morrow, M.Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (pp. 334–372). New York: Guilford.
    McKenna, M. C., Stahl, K. A. D. (2009). Assessment for reading instruction (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Guildford.
    McLesky, J. (2004). Classic articles in special education. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 79–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325040250020201
    McLesky, J., Waldron, N. L. (2007). Comprehensive school reform and inclusive schools, Theory Into Practice, 45, 269–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4503_9
    McMaster, K. L., Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Research on peer-assisted learning strategies: The promise and limitations of peer-mediated instruction. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 22, 5–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10573560500203491
    McQuiston, K., O'Shea, D., McCollin, M. (2008). Improving phonological awareness and decoding skills of high school students from diverse backgrounds. Preventing School Failure, 52, 67–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/PSFL.52.2.67-72
    Meinbach, A. M., Fredericks, A., Rothlein, L. (2000). The complete guide to thematic units: Creating the integrated curriculum (
    2nd ed.
    ). Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gorden.
    Morrow, L. M., Pressley, M., Smith, J. K., Smith, M. S. (1997). The effects of a literature-based program integrated into literacy and science instruction with children from diverse backgrounds. Reading Research Quarterly, 32, 54–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.32.1.4
    Mueller, J. (2008). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved December 18, 2009, from http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/howstep4.htm
    National Association for Gifted Children. (2008). Frequently asked questions. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from http://www.nagc.org/index2.aspx?id=548
    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth. (2009). Funding for the education for homeless children and youth program(FY2010 appropriations). Retrieved August 22, 2009, from http://www.naehcy.org/update.html
    National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). 2007Reading Assessment. Washington, DC: US Department of Education
    National Center for Education Statistics. (2007a). Contexts of elementary and secondary education. Retrieved June 12, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2007/section4/table.asp?tableID=717
    National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction(National Institute of Health Pub. No. 00–4769). Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
    National Symposium on Learning Disabilities in English Language Learners. (2004). Symposium Summary. Washington, DC: US Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services.
    North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. (2005). Implementing the No Child Left Behind Act: Teacher quality improves student achievement. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates.
    Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (2008). Biennial report to congress on the implementation of the Title III state formula grant program, school years 2004–06. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
    Ohio Department of Education. (2009) Academic Content Standards. Retrieved December 20, 2009, from http://ims.ode.state.oh.us/ODE/IMS/ACS
    Okyere, B. A., Heron, T. E., Goddard, Y. (1997). Effects of self-correction on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of the written spelling of elementary school children. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 51–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022889303810
    Osnes, P. G.Lieblein, T. (2003). An explicit technology of generalization, The Behavior Analyst Today, 3, 364–374.
    Persky, H. R., Daane, M. C., Jin, Y. (2003). The nation's report card: Writing 2002, NCES 2003–529, Institute of Education Sciences. National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.
    Pierce, L. V.O'Malley, J. M. (1992). Performance and portfolio assessment for language minority students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
    Powell-Smith, K. A., Shinn, M. R. (2004). Administration and scoring of written expression curriculum-based measurement for use in general outcome measurement. Eden Prairie, MN: Edformation.
    Ramirez, R. D., Shapiro, D. S. (2007). Cross-language relationship between Spanish and English language learners in bilingual education classrooms. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 795–806. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pits.20266
    Randolph, J. J. (2007). Meta-analysis of the research on response cards: Effects on test achievement, quiz achievement, participation, and off-task behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 9, 113–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10983007070090020201
    Reis, E. M. (1989). Activities for improving the handwriting skills of learning-disabled students. The Clearing House, 62, 217–219.
    Rhoder, C. (2002). Mindful reading: Strategy training that facilitates transfer. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45, 498–512.
    Robinson, F. R. (1970) Effective study (
    4th ed.
    ). New York: Harper & Row.
    Santangelo, T., Quint, W. (2008). Planning and text production difficulties commonly experienced by students with learning disabilities: A synthesis of research to inform instruction. Insights on Learning Disabilities5, 1–10.
    Schirmer, B. R.Bailey, J. (2000). Writing assessment rubric. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33 (1), 52–58.
    Schlagel, B. (2007). Best practices in spelling and handwriting. In S.Graham, C. A.MacArthur, J.Fitzgerald (Eds.), Best practices in writing instruction. New York: Guilford.
    Schoolfield, L. D., Timberlake, J. B. (1960). The phonovisual method. Washington, DC: Phonovisual Products.
    Schumaker, J. B. (2003). The theme writing strategy: Instructor's manual. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities.
    Schumaker, J. B., Nolan, S. N., Deschler, D. D. (1985). Learning strategies curriculum: The error monitoring strategy. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.
    Shanahan, T. (2009). Connecting reading and writing instruction for struggling learners. In G. A.Troia (Ed.), Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices (pp. 113–131). New York: Guildford.
    Shinn, M. M., Shinn, N. R. (2002). AIMSweb® training workbook. Eden Prairie, MN: Edformation.
    Silverstein, S. (1974). Where the sidewalk ends. New York: Harper and Row.
    Snowman, J., Biehler, R. (2003). Psychology applied to teaching (
    10th ed.
    ). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Spinelli, C. G. (2008). Addressing the issue of cultural and linguistic diversity and assessment: Informal evaluation measures for English language learners. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24, 101–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10573560701753195
    Stevens, R. J. (2006). Integrated reading and language arts instruction. Research in Middle Level Education Online, 30, 1–12. Retrieved December 20, 2009, from http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/RMLEOnline/tabid/426/Default.aspx.
    Stokes, T. F., Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1977.10-349
    Sturm, J. M., Rankin, J. L., Beukelman, D. R., Schultz-Muehling, L. (1997). How to select appropriate software for computer-assisted writing. Intervention in School and Clinic, 32, 148–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105345129703200305
    Swicegood, P. (1994). Portfolio-based assessment practices. Intervention in School and Clinic, 30, 6–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105345129403000103
    Taba, H. (1967). Teacher's handbook for elementary social studies. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Taylor, L. K., Alber, S. R., Walker, D. W. (2002). A comparative analysis of a modified self-questioning strategy and story mapping on the reading comprehension of elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 69–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015409508939
    Thames, D. G., Reeves, C., Kazelskis, R., York, K.Boling, C., Newell, K., et al. (2008). Reading comprehension: Effects of individualized, integrated language arts as a reading approach with struggling readers. Reading Psychology, 29, 86–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02702710701853625
    Troia, G. A., Lin, S. C., Monroe, B. W., Cohen, S. (2009). The effects of writing workshop instruction on the performance and motivation of good and poor writers In G. A.Troia (Ed.), Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices (pp. 77–112). New York: Guilford.
    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. (2004). The plurality of literacy and its implications for policies and programs. (Position Paper). Paris: United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
    US Department of Education. (2007). Individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA) data. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
    US Department of Education. (2002). No Child Left Behind: A desktop reference. Washington, DC: Education Publications Center.
    Vaughn, S., Bos, C. S., Schumm, J. S. (2006). Teaching exceptional, diverse, and at-risk students in the general education classroom (
    3rd ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    Vaughn, S., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Denton, C. A., Wanzek, J., Wexler, J, et al. (2008). Response to intervention with older students with reading difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 338–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2008.05.001
    Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S. (2004). Research-based methods of reading instruction: Grades K–3. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Vaughn, S., Roberts, G. (2007). Secondary interventions in reading: Providing additional instruction for students at risk. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39, 40–46.
    Videen, J., Deno, S. L., Marston, D. (1982). Correct word sequences: A valid indicator of writing proficiency in written expression (Research Rep. No. 84). Minneapolis: Institute for Research on Learning Disabilities.
    Welch, M. (1992). The PLEASE strategy: A metacognitive learning strategy for improving the paragraph writing of students with mild learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15, 119–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1511013
    Wheelock, W. H., Campbell, C., Silvaroli, N. J. (2008). Classroom reading inventory. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill.
    Wiig, E. H. (2000). Authentic and other assessments of language disabilities: When is fair fair?Reading and Writing Quarterly, 16, 179–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/105735600406715
    Wiley, H. I., Deno, S. L. (2005). Oral reading and maze measures as predictors of success for English learners on a state standards assessment. Remedial and Special Education, 26, 207–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325050260040301
    Wolford, T. L., Heward, W. L., Alber, S. R. (2001). Teaching middle school students with learning disabilities to recruit peer assistance during cooperative learning group activities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16, 161–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0938-8982.00017
    Wong, Y. L., Butler, D. L., Ficzere, S. A., Kuperis, S. (1996). Teaching low achievers and students with learning disabilities to plan, write, and revise opinion essays. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 197–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949602900209
    Wong, Y. L., Butler, D. L., Ficzere, S. A., Kuperis, S. (1997). Teaching adolescents with learning disabilities and low achievers to plan, write, and revise compare-and-contrast essays. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 12, 2–15.
    Wood, F. H., Thompson, S. R. (1993). Assumptions about staff development based on research and best coaching. Journal of Staff Development, 14, 52–57.
    Woods, M. L., Moe, A. J. (2003). Analytical reading inventory. (
    7th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
    Workforce Investment Act. (1998). Public Law105–220. Retrieved December 11, 2009, from http://www.doleta.gov/regs/statutes/wialaw.txt
    Wright, J. (2001). The savvy teacher's guide: Reading interventions that work. Retrieved December 20, 2009, from http://www.asec.net/Archives/SLD/ReadingIntervenMan.pdf
    Yopp, H. K. (1992). Developing phonemic awareness in young children. The Reading Teacher, 45, 696–703.
    Yopp, H. K., Yopp, R. H. (2000). Supporting phonemic awareness development in the classroom. The Reading Teacher, 54, 130–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RT.54.2.2

    Corwin: A SAGE Company

    The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK-12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do TheirWork Better.”


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website