Using Drama to Teach Personal, Social and Emotional Skills

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Jacqui O'Hanlon & Angie Wootten

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    Acknowledgements

    We are very grateful to the British Association of Teachers of the Deaf which awarded us a scholarship from the Mary Grace Wilkins Travel Fund to trial the materials within this book with teachers of the deaf and deaf children in the UK. We are also grateful for the organisation's support and encouragement with the project, giving opportunities for us to give workshops and promote the materials with teachers of the deaf.

    We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of West Midlands Quaker Peace Education Project (WMQPEP). Some of these materials were first created for their school-based programme. Other exercises are drawn from their existing materials and are used with their kind permission.

    We would like to thank Dr Stephen Powers and Dr Linda Watson who run Birmingham University's course for training teachers of the deaf. They have supported and encouraged us by providing workshop opportunities to promote drama to trainee teachers of the deaf, thereby allowing more materials to be trialled and more interest to be generated.

    For trialling our materials we are indebted to teachers Jo Butler and the children of Peterbrook Primary School Resource Base in Shirley; Jane Bishop and the children of Benton Park Primary School Resource Base in Newcastle-upon-Tyne; and Sarah Miller and the children of the Willingdon Primary School Hearing Support Facility in Eastbourne. Thank you to the teachers who gave us valuable feedback.

    Angie would like to thank the service co-ordinator of the Hearing Advisory Team in Warwickshire, Viv Pierce-Jones, for her support in giving time for the book to be researched and written. Thanks, too, to the wider Warwickshire management team for support given.

    We thank Mike and Ellen Ross at Grove House, Bromesberrow Heath near Ledbury for providing us with a tranquil hideaway to begin and end the writing of this book.

    Overwhelmingly we would like to thank our families and friends for their support and encouragement. In particular, Angie would like to thank her husband David for his encouragement, patience and advice.

    To all of you, we thank you.

    How to Use the CD-ROM

    The CD-ROM contains PDF files, labelled Activity Sheets.pdf which consist of worksheets for each lesson in this resource. You will need Acrobat Reader version 3 or higher to view and print these resources.

    The documents are set up to print to A4 but you can enlarge them to A3 by increasing the output percentage at the point of printing using the page set-up settings for your printer.

    To photocopy the worksheets directly from this book, set your photocopier to enlarge by 125% and align the edge of the page to be copied against the leading edge of the copier glass (usually indicated by an arrow).

    Introduction

    Who is This Book for?

    There is a very good reason why this handbook is useful for teachers involved with a broad range of children. In this book we promote the use of drama, and in so doing draw on and channel the innate sense of play in almost every child. Most children like to play and, consequently, many of them respond positively to taking part in drama.

    In fact this handbook has been written with a certain group of children in mind — deaf children (the term ‘deaf’ is used to denote all children who have a degree of hearing impairment). However, as teachers of the deaf are constantly saying, ‘Good practice with deaf children is good practice for all’. Consequently we envisage that this handbook will be useful for normally hearing children. It will have an application for children with communication difficulties, including children on the autistic spectrum. It will also have relevance for older children with learning difficulties. Finally, it will be useful for mixed groups of children, for example deaf and hearing children in a mainstream setting.

    Clearly all groups of children are different and each teacher will know the needs of a particular group. However, we imagine that the resources will be most applicable to a primary or early secondary environment.

    Children and Personal, Social and Emotional Skills

    All children, including deaf children, have personal, social and emotional needs. Goleman (1996), in his influential book Emotional Intelligence, promotes this stance, and Moseley (1993) states that enhancing self-esteem in children is the most important task that schools have to face.

    The importance of these needs is reflected within the National Curriculum, with its non-statutory guidelines for Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE). In the introductory section, ‘The school curriculum and the National Curriculum: values, aims and purposes’, the development of skills to deal with these needs are advocated. The reasons for this are twofold; these skills form a preparation for life, and have a significant part to play in a youngster's ability to learn and achieve (DfEE/QCA, 1999). The instinct that such skills are paramount for children has crystallised into the Department for Education and Skill' (DfES) initiative: social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL). A quick glance at the main aspects chosen for promotion by the DfES — self-awareness, managing feelings, motivation, empathy and social skills — will show a happy correlation with the skills on which we have chosen to concentrate within this handbook. Consequently, it is hoped that this handbook will give teachers a tool for approaching the delivery of SEAL.

    Deal Children and Personal, Social and Emotional Skills

    Deaf children have a need to develop PSHE skills as much as any other children. Some would say they have a greater need since deafness may create a barrier to developing these crucial life-enhancing skills. There are a number of reasons as to why this need arises. First, there is the possible disruption in the mother-baby bond created by the diagnosis of deafness in the child (Luterman, 1987; Marschark, 1993) with ensuing effects on language and communication (Webster and Wood, 1989). Deaf children may receive less explanation from their parents about feelings than hearing children (Gregory, 1976). Delayed language development in deaf children may mean that their vocabulary does not extend to cover everything they feel. They lack a vocabulary to describe their emotions and could therefore be described as being less ‘emotionally literate’ than other children. Because of the communication barrier, deaf children may not have the same opportunities to know that other people have the same, and different, feelings and aspirations as themselves. Because they are less aware of this range of feelings in others, they may not always respond appropriately. This type of awareness and response is usually summed up in the word ‘empathy’. Deaf children may be less empathetic than others. Because of lack of experience they may find it more difficult to respond to social cues (Moore et al., 1999). Some deaf children may have poorer self-esteem than hearing children (Bat-Chava, 1993). They may have more difficulty making and sustaining friendships and, as a result, experience social isolation (Moore et al., 1999).

    Most practitioners involved with deaf children will recognise how such traits are manifest. It may be the unresolved squabbles on the playground that linger on into lessons, disrupting learning. Perhaps it is a child's apparent inability to accept himself as deaf which in turn disrupts his ability to assert his needs. It may be a child's inability to express how she feels. Thus, in our experience, targets on the Individual Education Plan (IEP) of a deaf child that pinpoint PSHE skills are as common as those relating to language development or any area of the curriculum. Often the question for a practitioner is how to deal with such targets, and in this handbook we hope to offer some answers.

    What is the Background to Using Drama with Children with Special Needs, Including Deaf Children?

    For several decades, drama has been seen as a valuable tool in the education of children with special needs. Dorothy Heathcote, a leading drama practitioner working from the 1950s onwards and widely respected for her contribution of bringing drama into schools, was also well-known for her drama work with ‘handicapped’ children. In 1979 the report of the Warnock Committee endorsed the use of drama as having an important place in the education of children with special needs (Warnock, 1978), and since then there have been many other advocates.

    We have already drawn attention to the fact that drama uses an innate sense that almost all children, including deaf children, naturally have: that of play. Play is the way in which children learn for themselves. The importance of play in education has been very well documented, with Piaget probably being the best known proponent. When play is channelled and structured in the drama lesson it can become a vital tool for learning.

    Drama involves the use of the body, including the face. Children learn by doing rather than, primarily, by listening or communicating. Action rather than speech lies at the heart of drama. In fact, drama can be a virtually non-verbal means of learning, while mime and gesture can be enhanced. Thus, drama can be a crucial and accessible form of self-expression for some deaf children.

    However, conversely, we can also say that drama provides rich opportunities for the development of language. The advantage is that language is generated organically from the drama situation rather than being imposed. Thus language arising is natural and relevant.

    These unique attributes of drama have been recognised by practitioners involved with deaf children for some time now (Cayton, 1981; Seeley and Camus, 1983; Powers et al, 1999). They can also be seen as being wholly relevant to children with language and communication issues, in general.

    Why Then Might Drama be Particularly Useful in the Development of Pshe Skills?

    Of itself, the process of drama is an exercise in social interaction. There is the choice of roles, the entering into a group activity, and the co-operation and engagement with other children. Set up in the way we advocate in this handbook, children are involved in agreeing the ‘rules’ for co-operation in the drama experience before they start.

    In drama a child can try out new roles and therefore have new opportunities to be and to feel. It is a unique chance to ‘put oneself in someone else's shoes’ — to feel as they feel. For deaf children this may be an important opportunity as chances to learn vicariously about the feelings of others may not occur.

    We have already spoken of the non-verbal nature of drama. The accurate reading of non-verbal cues such as gestures, facial expressions and mime are key to understanding each other's feelings. Drama gives an important opportunity to hone these skills of expression and interpretation, the better to recognise these emotions in others.

    In drama children can be invited to respond personally to a range of social scenarios. With these opportunities comes the possibility of responding in different ways with an invitation to consider which, given the consequences, might be more appropriate. Within these situations children can be encouraged to show how they feel and to link these facial and body expressions to the language of emotional literacy.

    Is the Drama We are Proposing Different from That for Hearing Children?

    We have used best and current drama practice as the backbone of the modules in this handbook. Many of the ideas behind the exercises and games are well known and well tried by drama practitioners involved in mainstream practice. They have been used extensively by the authors in working with children with poor self-esteem and are arranged and modified here to suit our aims. Completely new material has also been created to meet our objectives.

    The modules described in the next pages differ from standard programmes for normally hearing children in four key respects:

    • core content
    • amount of content
    • position.
    Core Content

    The content of the programmes has been designed to deal specifically with issues which sometimes affect deaf children but which, as we have said, may well affect other children as well. These are:

    • being able to identify feelings and label them (emotional literacy)
    • being able to recognise these feelings in others (empathy)
    • being able to make friends
    • being able to keep friends (conflict resolution)
    • being happy with who they are (self-esteem)
    • being able to be proactive about needs (assertiveness and confidence).
    Language Content

    It is recognised that the language of deaf children is sometimes delayed. Therefore, the language of games and exercises has been adapted in an attempt to suit need. (See the next section ‘Using this Book’ for further details about this aspect.) Clearly practitioners may be speaking and/or signing with children.

    Amount of Content

    We believe that the best drama lessons are kept pacey and dynamic, with children learning by doing rather than by listening or, in the case of signing children, watching explanation. However, we recognise that sometimes more explanation will be needed, more visual clues will need to be incorporated and more modelling and demonstrating might be needed than for hearing children. Consequently, we have tailored the content of each lesson appropriately, keeping aims clear and simple.

    Positions

    The need that deaf children have to lip-read or watch signs is crucial. Thus, the main speaker must be clearly visible all the time. This has implications for some games and activities. The configuration for seating or standing has been engineered to meet this need, for example games where the main speaker is standing in a circle have been changed to a semicircle shape where the speaker now stands where he or she can be seen by all. Clearly, if you are not involved with deaf children, games that are described as being played ‘in a semicircle’ can be played in a circle.

    Using This Book

    In this section the content and structure of the handbook are described, as well as how to use the book.

    Content

    The personal, social and emotional aspects dealt with are represented by six modules entitled:

    ‘I Can Express How I Feel’

    ‘I Know How You Feel’

    ‘I Can Make Friends’

    ‘I Can Keep Friends’

    ‘I'm Happy Being Me’

    ‘I Can Express What I Need’.

    Each module begins with a description of the aims relating to it.

    Structure

    There are three to five sessions within each module. At the start of the session there is an ‘Objectives’ section outlining the objectives for the particular session. This is followed by a ‘Materials and preparation’ section in which the resources needed for the session are explained. Many of these resources are available on the CD-ROM. Although resources are provided, you may like to create your own resources based on the precise needs of the group of children you teach. For instance this may mean that you want to draw on incidents that have really happened to members of the group to create scenarios for the group drama work. To do this will give the drama work an immediacy and a relevance to the children.

    Within the section, ‘Materials and preparation’, it is made clear for which game or exercise of the session each resource is to be prepared.

    Within the first modules there are ideas within the ‘Materials and preparation’ sections for creating random pairings or groups, for example, cutting up birthday cards into fours, giving each child a piece and asking all the children to find children with the corresponding pieces of their cards. These are suggestions that may be followed to create variety and interest.

    Each session follows a shape made up of the following elements:

    • games
    • core activities
    • reflection on the drama
    • closing games.

    Here are some notes on each of these elements.

    Games (Including Closing Games)

    We have used a number of different types of drama games within the structure of the programmes. Apart from being fun, these different types of games have different purposes. The different types of games and a short description of their purpose follows. It will be noted that the purpose behind some of the games is actually to build social skills. It will also be noticed that within the modules some games come under more than one category of game.

    Introductory Name Games

    These games are designed to give children the chance to acknowledge each other and, in some cases, to learn new names. Through their content they may also reinforce a skill explored in the previous session. Alternatively they may introduce a new skill to be developed within the session.

    Mixing-Up Games

    Children often like to sit next to other children they know. However, we want to encourage children to work with children they don't know so well. This is a way of moving children out of their ‘comfort zones’.

    Affirmation Games

    These games are designed to encourage children to show that they value each other. In the games they show this by repeating back what another member of the group has said or done. These games are also often known as ‘name games’.

    Co-Operative Group Games

    These are games based on developing cooperative skills and a sense of group achievement among the children.

    End Activities and End Games

    These activities are designed to ‘finish off’ the sessions. They may reinforce what the children have been learning in the sessions, they may affirm the group — or just be pure fun!

    We are mindful that it may take more time and more modelling to teach deaf children new games than it takes for normally hearing children. However, we would encourage you to persevere as the results are often well worth it!

    Core Activities

    These activities involve the children in drama exercises designed to form the centre of the learning experience for each session. They are key to the progression of the module.

    Reflection on the Drama

    After some exercises, especially after the core activities, there is a section called ‘Process’. This is an opportunity for the pupils to reflect. In some instances they are encouraged to reflect on the skills they have needed to play the games effectively. By talking about these skills, the rules of successful co-operation in drama are drawn out from the children themselves. In other instances it may be that the children enter into a reflective discussion about what the drama exercise they have been engaged in has shown them about the particular theme being dealt with in the module. This in turn will help them to advance their understanding and experience of the skills being developed.

    Adaptations to the Materials

    We are conscious of the fact that the children you teach, whether deaf or not, are individuals, with individual needs. Consequently, you will want to tailor your lessons to the needs of individual pupils. You may also have constraints within the environment in which you are working, for example, space or time.

    We have taken into consideration that you may wish to make changes in the games that you use. In some cases it is possible to interchange one game for another. We have included a ‘Compendium of Games’ at the end of this book so that, if you feel that a certain game is unsuitable for the children you teach, you may choose another from the corresponding category of game. This may be particularly necessary if children are deaf and signing.

    Exercises are less interchangeable, although within some modules suggestions have been made for possible alternatives.

    Communication Modes

    Whilst writing this book we have been mindful of a possible range of different communication modes used by both teacher and child within the drama sessions we have described. Depending on the child — whether deaf or, for a variety of reasons, having communication difficulties — he or she may be employing speech or some type of sign language, or indeed using both. In turn you as teachers may be using a range of communication modes. In many instances within this book we have been able to reflect and honour this range, employed by both children and teachers, by using words such as ‘communicate’ and ‘express’. However, in some instances we have needed to use the phrase ‘sign or say’ or variations of it. We acknowledge that the most correct form is ‘sign and/or say’ but, for ease of reading, have chosen the form ‘sign or say’. Therefore it should be assumed that the phrase ‘sign or say’ denotes using any appropriate mode of communication.

    Assessment and Evaluation

    We recognise that it is vital to establish the efficacy of the modules as far as the children's development is concerned. To do this one must be clear about the achievements of the children before the modules are embarked upon. From there it will be possible to mark success for each child. We have included an ‘Assessment and Evaluation’ sheet on the accompanying CD-ROM which teachers may find helpful in assessing ‘where individual children are’ before a module is embarked upon, and again after the module is completed.

    We suggest that, in the first instance, progression for a child will relate to how he or she responds to exercises within the module. For example, in a particular exercise a child may respond to a scenario in such a way as to suggest that he or she understands another child's feeling and is able to react appropriately to it within the drama. This is where an assistant may be extremely valuable in noting down observations of the children that may afterwards be used to form a judgement as to the child's progress.

    Clearly, teachers will also be interested in the more long-term effect of the modules on the children's skills. To facilitate this we have included pointers for teachers to encourage the transfer of new skills from the drama sessions into wider environments. Thus, for example, in Module Six, ‘I Can Express What I Need’, we suggest a collaboration with mainstream teachers in praising and encouraging children who, after the module, are able to be more proactive about their needs in a mainstream class.

    Other Practical Issues
    Progression between Modules

    Ideally the modules in this book should be used on a regular basis and as a continuous curriculum. We also suggest that they are used in the sequence given in the book. There is a direct progression between some of the modules — for instance, between the first module, ‘I Can Express How I Feel’, and the second module, ‘I Know How You Feel’. The third module, ‘I Can Make Friends’, follows on directly to the fourth module, ‘I Can Keep Friends’. Similarly the fifth module, ‘I'm Happy Being Me’, leads into ‘I Can Express What I Need’. Research has shown that a continuing, developing curriculum is more effective over time than short programmes (Goleman, 1996).

    Groupings

    We offer a few suggestion: regarding the composition of groups. We have designed the modules in this handbook for use with groups of children. Ideally, the group size should be six or more children. In a unit or specialised school such a group, with similar needs, might be feasible. Where children with a special need are being educated individually in mainstream schools, outreach teachers may like to consider gathering youngsters together across a region for a series of sessions. Such a suggestion will have logistic implications but the potential benefits to pupils are obvious.

    Using the programmes with a mixed group of children — children with a special need together with peers in the mainstream class — may be another worthwhile option. In a unit situation each child may be encouraged to bring a friend from mainstream to join them for the sessions. In this case, thought should be given as to the composition of the mainstream children in the group. One of the aims of the programmes is to build self-esteem and confidence in children. Therefore, children joining the group should be either supportive of their unit peers or have similar needs themselves, for example emotional literacy needs. Careful thought and liaison with mainstream colleagues needs to be given to the make-up of the group so that it is beneficial to all.

    It is also possible to use these modules with whole classes of pupils.

    The Role of Teaching Assistants

    Teaching assistants perform very important roles within these sessions. Teachers will do well to consider the most effective ways in which their teaching assistants' time may be used. These are the possible range of roles they may perform:

    • modelling games and exercises with the teacher
    • signing to individual children
    • scribing on flipcharts
    • providing additional explanation to individual children
    • helping children with writing
    • working with small groups helping children to create drama scenes
    • observing individual children
    • photographing, videoing
    • taking notes based on the achievements of individual children
    • sharing observations after the sessions with the teachers
    • discussing 1EP targets relating to the aims of the modules with the children
    • facilitating the transfer of skills into other environments, for example, the mainstream class, the playground.
    Two Important Final Notes

    We believe that it is important for children to be praised and for their work to be affirmed and celebrated. This creates a positive role model for the very personal and social skills we are trying to enhance in them.

    Last but by no means least, it is our aim for each session that both children and staff should have fun! We hope you do!

    Assessment and Evaluation

    Use the following rating system to assess the impact of the programme on individual pupils.

  • Compendium of Games

    This compendium of games includes all the games that are described in the book. The idea is that games may be ‘swapped’ for others if they are deemed to be unsuitable for the group you teach. The games are organised under the same headings, for example ‘co-operative games’, as they appear in the book so that a similar type of game may be substituted. It will be noticed that some games appear under more than one category. This is because those games fulfil more than one description, for example affirmation game and name game. In some cases a little preparation is needed to play the game. Details of preparation are included within the description of the game.

    Introductory Name Games
    Middle, Left, Right

    The children should be sitting in a circle. Introduce a ‘talking object’ (when the child holds it they may talk or sign). The idea is to pass the object around the circle and each person to first of all introduce themselves and then the person on their left and right. Model this for the children by saying/signing, for example, ‘I'm Mr Phillips, and this is Charlie and this is Ayesha’. [This game is based on an original idea by WMQPER]

    Module One: Session 1
    Name and Something I Like Doing

    Make sure that everyone is seated in a circle. Explain to the children that they will each say or sign their name and then do an action for something they like doing. Model this by saying/signing, for example, ‘I'm Miss Butler and I like singing’. Make an action for ‘singing’, but don't say the word. The group will then say out loud what the action is. Then the next person in the circle will say, ‘I'm Mrs Best and I like (mime/sign for walking)’. This will continue around the circle, with the group naming the action each time.

    Process Ask the group whether they noticed anything in that game? It might be that they mention how people like different things or how hard they need to concentrate to remember other people's contributions. Module One: Session 2

    Name and Feeling

    Make sure the children are in a circle. In this game the idea is that each child will show how they are currently feeling. Model this by saying/signing, for example, ‘I'm Mr Cunningham and I'm feeling (mime action)’. Continue around the circle in the same way. At the end of the round, ask the group what feelings they saw. There will probably be a range of feelings including sleepy, sad, happy and angry. Module One: Session 3

    Name and Action

    Ask the children to sit in a circle. In this game each person in the circle says/signs their name and completes an action with hands, arms, legs or feet. Start off the game by saying/signing, for example, ‘I'm Mrs Hickman’ and then touching your head with both hands. The rest of the group repeats the person's name and action. Carry on around the circle in this way.

    Process

    Ask the group what they noticed during the game. Perhaps they noticed that everyone had very different actions, showing their individuality, or perhaps they chose similar actions, showing how much we are like each other. Module Two: Session 1

    How are You Feeling?

    Pairs of children sit together around the circle. Label one member of the pair ‘A’, and the other ‘B’. Model what the children are to do, with a learning assistant. Member ‘A’, the assistant, adopts a facial expression and upper body posture suggestive of a feeling. You, as ‘B’, introduce your partner, identifying their feeling, for example, ‘This is Mrs X and she's feeling moody’. Ask the children to continue this pattern around the circle. (The pairs do not need to discuss beforehand what feeling they will be modelling.) Now swap over.‘A’ partners become ‘B’ and vice versa. Module Two: Session 2

    Sharks

    Ask the children to form a standing circle. A player enters the circle and is the shark. She says aloud (or signs) the name of another member of the circle. As she swims towards them, that person becomes the shark and their place in the circle is taken by the old shark. The new shark says/signs the name of another member of the circle and swims towards them, etc. Gradually, introduce two or even three sharks into the ‘pool’ at the same time. Module Two: Session 3

    Hobbies

    First, get the children to think about their own hobby and what mime they will use to represent it. (Deaf signing children will use signs.)

    Sit in a circle, ideally with an assistant to your left. Start off, for example with, ‘I'm Miss Smith and I like … (do the mime/sign for swimming)’. The assistant to the left then says/signs, ‘This is Miss Smith and she likes …(mime/sign). I'm Mrs Jackson and I like …(mime/sign)’. The next child to the left around the circle has to remember Mrs Jackson's hobby before she/he says or signs her own. Go all around the circle. [This game is based on an original idea by WMQPER] Module Three: Session 1

    Remembering Something about Someone

    Sit in a circle. Tell the children that you are going to go round the circle and that everyone is going to try to remember one thing about someone else which they learnt in the previous session. Start off: ‘I'm Mrs Wright and I remember that Rachel had the same favourite colour as me which is green’. Continue around the circle. Note the smiles of children who have had something remembered about them and mention this to the children. Praise children who have remembered something about someone else. Module Three: Session 2

    Sharing

    Sit in a circle, ideally with an assistant to your left. Ask the children to try to remember something that they have shared with another person in the time since the last session. Tell them that they are going to find out what other children have been sharing by asking around the circle. Start off the process by saying/signing, for example: ‘My name is Mr Lilley and yesterday I shared my crisps at playtime with another teacher’. The assistant in the circle says/signs, ‘This is Mr Lilley. He shared his crisps with another teacher. I'm Mrs Peterson and I lent my pen to my daughter Daisy’. Go all around the circle and praise the children for sharing. Module Three: Session 3

    ‘I'm a Good Friend’

    Sit in a circle. Ask the group to think about all the work they have done so far on friendship. Encourage them to remember the skill practised in each session. Now ask each person to think of one thing that makes them a good friend. Tell them that you are going to go round the circle and the children are to say or sign one thing that makes them a good friend. Start by saying/signing, for example: ‘My name is Miss Hickey and I'm a good friend because I remember things people tell me’. And so on around the circle. If a child cannot express anything about themselves encourage the child by pointing out a skill that you've noticed they possess, for example, ‘You waited for Arran while he did up his coat in the cloakroom’. Module Three: Session 4

    Affirming Someone's Friendship Skills

    Sit in a circle. Ask everyone to think about the child sitting on their left. They should think of some quality in this person that makes them a good friend. Each child should then start and complete the following statement around the circle. For example, say or sign, ‘My name is Miss Johnson and this is Dimos. He is a good friend because he helped Marsha on the playground’. After this initial example, withdraw from the circle yourself so that the children are just concentrating on each other. Prompt them as necessary and ask for suggestions from other children if a child ‘gets stuck’. Try to ensure that each child has had something positive attributed to them.

    Process

    Come back into the circle yourself. Ask the children how it felt to have positive things said about them. Refer to specific examples.

    Tell the children that they should enjoy being paid compliments (use vocabulary here to suit the children's language level). It helps us to feel good about ourselves and about the person who expressed it! Tell the children that taking care of other people's feelings is what the session is about. Module Three: Session 5

    My Best Friend

    Seat the children in a circle. Start by modelling a statement about your best friend, for example: ‘I'm Mr Wright and my best friend is Paul’. The child to your left then says or signs, ‘This is Mr Wright and his best friend is Paul. I'm Mandy and my best friend is Holly’. Continue around the circle, with each new child having to remember and make a statement about the friend of the person before them, before making a statement about themselves. Module Four: Session 1

    Compliments

    Get the children to sit in a circle. Tell them that they are going to play a game now where they think of one compliment about the person sitting on their left. Give some examples. Then start with yourself, for example, ‘I'm Mrs Bates and I'm good at making marmalade. This is Ahmed and he's good at swimming’. Ahmed will say or sign, ‘I'm Ahmed. I'm good at swimming. This is Sarah and she's good at taking the register to the office’. Go all around the circle, with each child repeating the information about themselves and adding a compliment about the person to their left. Module Four: Session 2

    ‘What Makes Me Angry’

    Get the children to sit in a circle. Ask them to think about things which really make them cross/angry. This time tell the children that they can have their go in any order (because some children may need more thinking time than others). Start the children off with, for example ‘I'm Mr Taylor. I get angry when the traffic light goes red when I am in a hurry’. Whoever is next tells the group, ‘I'm Sunita. I get mad when my friend won't let me have a go on the computer’. Ask an assistant to ‘scribe’ these different ways everyone gets angry on the flipchart. Ask the children ‘who said/signed what’ afterwards (to make sure they are attending to each other). Module Four: Session 3

    ‘I Feel Calm When…’

    Get the children to sit in a circle. Ask them to think about things which make them feel calm. This time tell the children that they can have their go in any order (because some children may need more thinking time than others). Start the children off with, for example: ‘I'm Mrs Singh. I feel calm when I watch the fish in my pond at home’. Whoever is next might tell the group, ‘I'm Gary. I feel calm when I paint a picture’ or ‘watch TV’ or ‘stroke my dog’. Ask an assistant to ‘scribe’ these different aids to feeling calm on the flipchart. Ask the children ‘who said/signed what’ afterwards (to make sure they were paying attention to each other). Module Four: Session 4

    ‘Something I'm Happy about’

    Have the children sit in a circle. Encourage them to start thinking positively by focusing on one thing they are happy about. It might be the weather, a forthcoming birthday, a good piece of work they have done. Start off around the circle by telling the group, for example, ‘I'm Mrs White and I'm happy because my cat has had kittens’. The next child tells the group, ‘This is Mrs White. She's happy because her cat has had kittens. I'm Charlie. I'm happy because …’ and so on around the circle. Module Five: Session 1

    ‘Things I'm Good at’

    Have the children sit in a circle. Encourage them to start thinking positively about the things that are their strengths. It might be maths or PE but equally it might be tidying up, taking messages or looking after the hamster. Start off around the circle by telling the group, for example, ‘I'm Miss Parry and I'm good at remembering to send birthday cards to my friends’. The next child tells the group ‘I'm Raveena and I'm good at…’ and so on around the circle. (Unlike some of the other introductory name games, it is advised that you don't ask the children to remember the contribution of the person who has preceded them. It will be enough for them to concentrate on their own honest contribution.) Module Five: Session 2

    ‘My Favourite Part of the School Day’

    Have the children sit round in a circle. Refer them to the flipchart sheet with stages of Jake's day written on it. Tell them you are going to start off around the circle by telling the group what your favourite stage of the day is and why you like it. They are going to do the same. Ask the children to be as honest as they can. They may choose a stage from the flipchart or one of their own, for example the PE lesson. If you are in a mainstream school you may like to encourage them to consider whether their favourite times in school are in the unit/resource base or in the integrated situation. Within the rules of the game, they are not allowed to choose a stage of the day outside the beginning and end of the school day. For example you may start with, ‘I'm Miss Franklin. My favourite part of the day is science because I love doing experiments’. Continue around the circle. Again, children are not required to repeat the contribution of the person preceding them. Module Five: Session 3

    ‘Something I've Done Well This Week’

    Have the children sit in a circle. This game builds further on last session's name game by encouraging the children to think about achievements that contribute to them having a positive image of themselves. Tell the children that you would like them to think about something they have done well this week and start off with, for example, ‘I'm Mrs Bright and something I've done well this week is to clean my house’. Continue around the circle. Again, children are not required to repeat the contribution of the person preceding them. Module Five: Session 4

    ‘One Good Thing about Today’

    Have the children sitting in a circle. Tell them that you would like them to think of one good thing about the day — it might be the weather, it might be something they're going to do later, it might be something about their lessons or about lunchtime or playtime. Start off with your own example, for instance, ‘I'm Mr Hart. One good thing about today is that Tejni made a lovely pot in art’.

    This might be a good time to record the children's contributions on a flipchart. By the end of the round you will have a number of positive statements that hopefully will make everyone feel positive about the day. Module Five: Session 5

    ‘Something I Need…’
    Materials and Preparation

    Make a set of flashcards (one for each member of the group) representing different activities in which the children are commonly engaged, for example, swimming, painting, eating lunch (see the details of the game below for more details). Use symbols or writing depending on the children's needs.

    Ask the children to seat themselves in a circle around a table. Spread the flashcards out standing. Tell the children that they are going to choose one card and they are going to say or sign their name and then express what they need to do the activity represented on the card. Model this, for example, ‘I'm Mr James and I need trunks and a towel to go swimming’. Continue around the circle in this way. Encourage the other children to think whether the child whose turn it is has forgotten anything that they need to complete the activity. Module Six: Session 1

    ‘Who I Would Like to be’

    Have everyone seated in a circle. In this game the idea is to think who they know from the TV and history lessons that they would like to be! For instance would they like to be another Florence Nightingale or a famous footballer? The children need to think about their response and why they would like to be the person they have chosen. Start off with yourself telling the group, for example, ‘I am Mrs Wilson and I would like to be Lord Nelson because I love being on the sea and never get seasick and I am a good leader’. Carry on around the circle with each child expressing who they would like to be. Module Six: Session 2

    Something Brave I'd Like to Do

    Seat the children in a circle. In this game they are going to challenge themselves to tell the group something brave they would like to try and do. The ‘brave thing’ might be something they need to do to solve a situation in class or it might be something quite different. Start off with, for example, ‘I am Mrs Jones and I would like to go up in a hot air balloon’. The next child tells the group, ‘This is Mrs Jones. She would like to go up in a hot air balloon. I am Tejni and I would like to tell my teacher I would like to sit next to my friend in class’. Continue around the circle. Make a list as you are going along of all the brave things the children want to achieve and tell them that you would like them to tell you when they have achieved it so that the whole group can celebrate, perhaps even by the next session. Module Six: Session 3

    Something Brave That I've Done

    Have the children seated in a circle. If possible make sure that you are sitting to the left of an assistant. Tell the children that being brave is often a good thing and in this game you want them to think of brave things that they have done. They might have done brave things at school, at home or on holiday. Ask the assistant to lead off with an example, for instance, ‘I am Miss Mistry and I rescued a spider from the bath and put it outside even though I don't like spiders’. As you are the next person, give the assistant a short round of applause and say or sign ‘Well done, Miss Mistry’ and then continue with your own example of bravery. Continue all around the circle. Encourage the children to applaud each other's expressions of bravery to affirm the idea that bravery is to be encouraged (usually!). Module Six: Session 4

    Mixing-Up Games
    Walking Name Call

    Explain that in a moment you will turn your chair out of the circle, say/sign someone's name and walk towards him or her. They will then get up so you can sit in their chair. Then they will say/sign someone else's name and walk towards them and sit in their chair and so on around the circle until everyone's name has been called and everyone has moved seats. Each person can only be called once. Ask the group what signal they could use to show that someone has been called? (Arms folded, for example.) The last person calls the leader. Once a pattern has been established, repeat the identical pattern again, so everyone has to remember whose name they called and sit again in their seat. Repeat the same pattern two or three times each time speeding up the game. [This game is based on an original idea by WMQPER] Module One: Session 1

    ‘The Sun Shines On…’

    For this game the circle of chairs needs to widened to create a semicircle. Turn your chair out of the semicircle and stand in a position in front of the semicircle so that everyone can see you. The idea of this game is that everyone moves who falls into the category that you present. For example, say or sign, ‘The sun shines on everyone who can ride a bike’.

    All the children who can ride a bike then change places with one another and you find a place as well. The new person standing has to carry on the game with their own phrase starting with ‘The sun shines on …’. Module One: Session 1

    ‘How Do You Like Your Neighbour?’

    Have the children sit in a semicircle. One child stands where he or she can be seen by all in the space. This child says/signs to someone sitting in the semicircle, for example, ‘Rachel, how do you like your neighbour?’ She says/signs ‘Fine, but I'd like to change them for X and X’. She names two other people in the group. The two named people swap places with the two children sitting either side of Rachel, and the child standing up in the space tries to sit in one of the chairs as the children swap places thus leaving a different person in the space. The game starts again with the new standing person going to another child in the semicircle and saying/signing ‘How do you like your neighbour?’ and so on. Module Two: Session 1; Module Three: Session 5

    Circle Mayhem

    This is a game about making eye contact with someone else across the circle. In this game, eye contact is very important because once you've made eye contact with a person you swap places with them. You, as leader, take your chair out of the circle, once you have explained the game so there will always be one person without a seat. That person can try to sit down when other people get up to swap places. Remind the group they can only swap places with one person when they have made eye contact with them. Module Two: Session 3; Module Four: Session 4

    Spin the Plate

    A player comes into the middle of the circle and spins a plate on the floor. He or she calls out or signs a name of another member of the group who has to get to the plate and pick it up before it drops to the floor. If this new player succeeds then he or she spins the plate and calls out/signs another name … and so the game continues. To make it more complex, the player can call out two names and both players called have to try to beat each other to get to the plate first. [This game is based on an original idea by WMQPER] Module One: Session 2; Module Four: Session 1

    All Change

    The children are in a semicircle. Call out/sign, for example, ‘All change anyone who likes football’. At this all the children who like football must change places. Choose elements that are either hobbies/favourites/likes or dislikes for future elements of this lesson. During one of the changes sit down yourself, therefore leaving a child as caller. Encourage the child to choose similar types of commonalities.

    Make sure you are at last the ‘caller’ and shout/sign ‘All change’, allowing all the children to get up and change seats. Module Three: Session 1

    ‘All Change if You Need …’

    The children are in a semicircle. You, without a chair, go to the head of it. Tell them you are going to say or sign something they might need and, if they need it, they are to stand up and change places with someone else. Tell the children to be careful because they might not actually need the thing you are going to say or sign. Practise with an example such as ‘All change if you need water’ and ‘All change if you need a new pair of shoes’. Module Six: Session 1

    ‘I Sit in the Woods’

    A circle of chairs is needed with one extra chair. Everyone sits in the circle. There will be two children on either side of the empty chair. On a prearranged signal from you, both children will try to sit on the empty chair. The first person to get there sits on the chair and says/signs ‘I sit …’. The person who now has the empty chair next to them moves into it and says/signs ‘in the woods’. A third person moves into the empty chair and tells the group ‘and I choose X (name) to sit next to me’. The named person now moves into the seat next to their friend. At this the whole process begins again. The two children on either side of the empty chair try to sit on it first. The first one to succeed says/signs ‘I sit’ and so on as before. No leader is needed after the first signal from the teacher as the game leads itself — an empty chair is an invitation to move. The children will enjoy racing to get into the chair and need to be warned to be careful that no one is hurt. [This game is based on an original idea by WMQPEP] Module One: Session 3; Module Three: Session 2

    Co-Operative Games
    Follow the Leader (Detective)

    (Preface this game by playing ‘Follow the leader’, with yourself as the leader, and modelling different kinds of actions. Then ask the group how they could disguise who was leading the actions.)

    Keep in a circle but in this game one child (the detective) leaves the room. In their absence a leader of movements is chosen. This leader starts doing actions that everyone else in the room copies, for example, tapping knees, clapping hands, stamping feet. The leader should change actions as often as possible to maintain interest. The child who has left the room is the detective and their task, on being invited back into the centre of the circle, is to identify who is leading all the actions. The group need to make it difficult for the detective to guess, for example, by choosing to look at someone else rather than the leader. Module One: Session 2; Module Two: Session 2

    ‘I Sit in the Woods’

    A circle of chairs is needed with one extra chair. Everyone sits in the circle. There will be two children on either side of the empty chair. On a prearranged signal from you both children will try to sit on the empty chair. The first person to get there sits on the chair and says/signs ‘I sit …’. The person who now has the empty chair next to them moves into it and says/signs ‘in the woods’. A third person moves into the empty chair and tells the group ‘and I choose X (name) to sit next to me’. The named person now moves into the seat next to their friend. At this the whole process begins again. The two children on either side of the empty chair try to race to try to sit on it first. The first one to succeed says/signs ‘I sit’ and so on as before. No leader is needed after the first signal from the teacher as the game leads itself — an empty chair is an invitation to move. The children will enjoy racing to get into the chair and need to be warned to be careful that no one is hurt. This game is based on an original idea by WMQPEP. Module One: Session 3

    Fmitbowl

    Arrange the circle into a semicircle. Give everyone the name of a fruit, for example apple, orange, pear and banana. Sit at the head of the semicircle so that everyone can see you. Tell the group that you are going to call out a fruit and everyone who is that fruit must move and must swap places with another person who is that fruit. Practise this. Then turn your chair out of the semicircle. This time the person standing will call out a fruit and will try and sit on a chair as the others move, so leaving a new person standing to call out another fruit. If the person standing calls out ‘Fruitbowl’, everyone swaps seats. Module Two: Session 2

    Pass the Can

    Get the children to form a seated circle. Use a large, empty baked beans can. (These can often be found in the school kitchen.) Explain that you are all going to help pass the tin can around the circle. However, no one can use their hands or arms to do this, only their feet and legs. Place the can on your foot and send it to the person on your left or right. The aim is for 137 it to get back to you without being dropped on the floor. Module Two: Session 3; Module Three: Session 1

    Pass the Cans!

    Have the children sit in a circle. Tell the children that they have to pass the two tin cans around the circle using only their feet. Set one can off in one direction and the other in the other direction. There will be an interesting moment when the two cans meet! Module Three: Session 4; Module Five: Session 3

    Fives

    This time the players stand in a circle. The teacher starts and explains that they will count from one to five around the circle and the person who says/signs five has to sit down and is out of the game. Players can say or sign one or two numbers at a time. The game continues until there is only one person left standing. This person is declared the winner.

    Note: If you have a very small group, including assistants, it may be necessary to increase the number from five to six, for example. This way the game lasts longer! [This game is based on an original idea by WMQPEP.] Module Three: Session 2

    Co-Operative Fives

    This is an advanced version of ‘Fives’. Have the children stand in a circle. With the group, elect two children that the group are now going to ‘save’. These two children will be the final ones left standing at the end of the game. In order to do this, other children will have to ‘sacrifice themselves’ and say or sign ‘five’ on purpose to get themselves out in order to save the appropriate two. Remember that the children can say or sign one or two numbers.

    Note: Again, adjust these numbers to suit the size of the group. The smaller the group the higher the number should be adjusted up from five. Also if it is a small group you may only wish to save one person. [This game is based on an original idea by WMQPEP.] Module Three: Session 3

    Feelings and Facial Expressions

    Keep the children sitting in a circle. Ask each child to think of a feeling. Encourage them to be very specific about the feeling and use the flipchart sheet/s from Session 2 to extend the range of possible feelings chosen. Child X will start by modelling their feeling using facial expression and upper body language to the child on their left. This child names the feeling they are seeing and then models a new one to the person on their left and so one around the circle. Module Three: Session 4

    Affirmation Games
    Name and Something I Like Doing

    Make sure that everyone is seated in a circle. Explain to the children that they will each say or sign their name and then do an action for something they like doing. Model this by saying, for example, ‘I'm Miss Butler and I like singing’. Make an action for ‘singing’, but don't say the word. The group will then say out loud what the action is. Then the next person in the circle will say, ‘I'm Mrs Best and I like (mime/sign for walking)’. This will continue around the circle, with the group naming the action each time.

    Process

    Ask the group whether they noticed anything in that game? It might be that they mention how people like different things or how hard they need to concentrate to remember other people's contributions. Module One: Session 1

    Name and Action

    Ask the children to sit in a circle. In this game each person in the circle says/signs their name and completes an action with hands, arms, legs or feet. Start off the game by telling the group, for example, ‘I'm Mrs Hickman’ and then touching your head with both hands. The rest of the group repeats the person's name and action. Carry on around the circle in this way. Module One: Session 1

    Hobbies

    The aim of this game is to encourage children to think about their hobbies, or things that they like doing, and to remember one hobby of someone else.

    Have the children sit in a circle, ideally with an assistant to your left. Start off, for example with, ‘I'm Miss Smith and I like … (do the mime/sign for swimming)’. The assistant to the left then says/signs ‘This is Miss Smith and she likes … (mime/sign). I'm Mrs Jackson and I like … (mime/sign)’. The next child to the left around the circle has to remember Mrs Jackson's hobby before she or he says/signs her or his own. Go all around the circle. [This game is based on an original idea by WMQPEP.] Module Three: Session 1

    Remembering Something about Someone

    Have the children sit in a circle. Tell the children that you are going to go round the circle and that everyone is going to try to remember one thing about someone else which they learnt in the previous session. Start off: ‘I'm Mrs Wright and I remember that Rachel had the same favourite colour as me which is green’. Continue around the circle. Note the smiles of children who have had something remembered about them and mention this to the children. Praise children who have remembered something about someone else. Module Three: Session 2

    Sharing

    Have the children sit in a circle, ideally with an assistant to your left. Ask the children to try to remember something that they have shared with another person in the time since the last session. Tell the group that they are going to find out what other children have been sharing by asking around the circle. Start off the process by saying/signing, for example: ‘My name is Mr Lilley and yesterday I shared my crisps at playtime with another teacher’. The assistant in the circle says/signs, ‘This is Mr Lilley. He shared his crisps with another teacher. I'm Mrs Peterson and I lent my pen to my daughter Daisy’. Go all around the circle and praise the children for sharing. Module Three: Session 3

    Affirming Someone's Friendship Skills

    Sit in a circle. Ask everyone to think about the child sitting on their left. They should think of some quality in this person that makes them a good friend. Each child should then voice and complete the following statement around the circle. For example, say or sign, ‘My name is Miss Johnson and this is Dimos. He is a good friend because he helped Marsha on the playground’. After this initial example, withdraw from the circle yourself so that the children are just concentrating on each other. Prompt them as necessary and ask for suggestions from other children if a child ‘gets stuck’. Try to ensure that each child has had something positive attributed to them. Module Three: Session 5

    My Best Friend

    Sit in a circle. Start by modelling a statement about your best friend, for example: ‘I'm Mr Wright and my best friend is Paul’. The child to your left then tells the group, ‘This is Mr Wright and his best friend is Paul. I'm Mandy and my best friend is Holly’. Continue around the circle, with each new child having to remember and make a statement about the friend of the person before them, before making a statement about themselves. Module Four: Session 1

    Compliments

    Get the children to sit in a circle. Tell them that they are going to play a game now where they think of one compliment about the person sitting on their left. Give some examples. Then start with yourself, for example, ‘I'm Mrs Bates. This is Ahmed and he's good at swimming’. Ahmed will tell the group, ‘I'm Ahmed. I'm good at swimming. This is Sarah and she's good at taking the registers to the office’. Go all around the circle, with each child repeating the information about themselves and adding a compliment about the person to their left. Module Four: Session 2

    ‘Something I'm Happy about’

    Sit in a circle. Encourage everyone to start thinking positively by focusing on one thing they are happy about. It might be the weather, a forthcoming birthday, a good piece of work they have done. Start off around the circle by saying/signing, for example, ‘I'm Mrs White and I'm happy because my cat has had kittens’. The next child says/signs, ‘This is Mrs White. She's happy because her cat has had kittens. I'm Charlie. I'm happy because …’, and so on around the circle. Module Five: Session 1

    Hot-Seating

    Tell the children that you are going to choose someone from the group to come and sit so that everyone can see them. That person will be someone who has done something really well recently (preferably during the session). Choose the person who takes their place as described.

    Tell that person the thing that you have seen them do well and ask anyone else from the group to express something else they have seen this person do well. Write down all the comments that the children make. Tell them that you will be typing these comments into a certificate for the person to have next session. [This game is based on an original idea by WMQPEP.] Module Five: Session 1

    Handprints

    Give a piece of paper and a pen or pencil to each child. Ask each child to draw their own hand on a piece of paper. Ensure that each child writes their name at the top of the paper so it can be clearly seen. Tell the children that they will be leaving their paper with the handprints on their chairs. Everyone will have a pen and will walk around the room writing positive statements about each other in the fingers of each hand. So everyone will have five positive things written about them. Module Five: Session 4

    Something Brave that I've Done

    Have the children seated in a circle. If possible make sure that you are sitting to the left of an assistant. Tell the children that being brave is often a good thing and in this game you want them to think of brave things that they have done. They might have done brave things at school, at home or on holiday. Ask the assistant to lead off with an example, for instance, ‘I am Miss Mistry and I rescued a spider from the bath and put it outside even though I don't like spiders’. As you are the next person, give the assistant a short round of applause and say or sign, ‘Well done, Miss Mistry’ and then continue with your own example of bravery. Continue all around the circle. Encourage the children to applaud each other's expressions of bravery to affirm the idea that bravery is to be encouraged (usually!). Module Six: Session 4

    Something Brave I'd Like to Do

    Seat the children in a circle. In this game they are going to challenge themselves to tell the group something brave they would like to try and do. The ‘brave thing’ might be something they need to do to solve a situation in class or it might be something quite different. Start off with, for example, ‘I am Mrs Jones and I would like to go up in a hot air balloon’. The next child says/signs, ‘This is Mrs Jones. She would like to go up in a hot air balloon. I am Tejni and I would like to tell my teacher I would like to sit next to my friend in class’. Continue around the circle. Make a list as you are going along of all the brave things the children want to achieve and tell them that you would like them to tell you when they have achieved it so that the whole group can celebrate. Module Six: Session 3

    End Games and Activities…
    ‘Something I've Enjoyed Today…

    Sit in a circle. Each person completes this sentence and passes around a talking object as they do so. Module One: Session 1

    Group Whoop

    Explain that everyone will put the tips of their fingers on the floor and from that position will begin to rise up until they are standing with their hands stretched up high. As they rise up they will make a corresponding sound that grows as they grow until ending with a big whoop when they are standing with hands stretched up. It should go very quickly and only take a few seconds to do. Module Two: Session 1; Module Three: Session 5

    Feelings and Events

    Sit in a circle. Choose a feeling that you can identify as one that the children experience on a regular basis. Ask them to communicate in the final round about what situations trigger that feeling in them. For example, ‘I feel angry when …’ or ‘I feel jealous when …’. Module One: Session 3

    Pass the Smile

    Sit in a circle. Explain that everyone needs to have a very serious face to start playing this game! You the leader will then turn to the person next to you and smile at them, they then turn and pass the smile on to the person sitting next to them, and so on around the circle until everyone has smiled. Module One: Session 3

    Mexican Wave

    The group is all seated in a circle. One person stands up with their hands in the air and quickly sits down. As soon as they sit down the person next to them stands up with their hands in the air … this is repeated all round the circle as quickly as possible. Module One: Session 2; Module Four: Session 3

    Pass the Squeeze

    All the children need to sit close to each other in a circle and link hands. The leader sends a squeeze to his left or right and the squeeze is passed around the circle until it returns to the leader. Module Two: Session 2

    Circle Mayhem

    This is a game about making eye contact with someone else across the circle. In this game, eye contact is very important because once you've made eye contact with a person, you swap places with them. You, as leader, take your chair out of the circle, once you have explained the game, so there will always be one person without a seat. That person can try to sit down when other people get up to swap places. Remind the group they can only swap places with one person when they have made eye contact with them. Module Two: Session 3; Module Four: Session 4

    ‘Something I Like about Being in this Group is…’

    Invite each child to express something that they have enjoyed about being in the group and doing this drama. Module Two: Session 3

    Pass the Can

    Get the children to form a seated circle. Use a large, empty baked beans can. Explain that you are all going to help pass the tin can around the circle. However, no one can use their hands or arms to do this, only their feet and legs. Place the can on your foot and send it to the person on your left or right. The aim is for it to get back to you without being dropped on the floor. Module Two: Session 3; Module Three: Session 1

    Pass the Cans!

    Have the children sit in a circle. Tell the children that they have to pass the two tin cans around the circle using only their feet. Set one can off in one direction and the other in the other direction. There will be an interesting moment when the two cans meet! Module Three: Session 4; Module Five: Session 3

    Wink Murder
    Materials and Preparation

    A set of small cards for the game ‘Wink murder’. Cut enough for one for each child, plus one more, (and cards for the staff). They should all be blank except two: one should have the word ‘murderer’ on it and the other the word ‘detective’.

    Sit in a circle. Practise winking first! Hold the cards face down (keep the detective card out at first) and invite each child to take a card at random and not to reveal what is on their card. Tell the children that someone is the murderer and is going to try to ‘kill’ everyone in the group by winking at them. The children must look around at everyone and if they are ‘winked at’ they have to fold their arms and bow their heads because they are ‘dead’.

    Have one complete game and let the murderer ‘kill’ everyone if she can. Then play the game again, this time introducing the detective card. The child who gets this card is required to work out who the murderer is as soon as possible and stop that person ‘killing’ any more people. Module Three: Session 3; Module Five: Session 2

    Spin the Plate

    A player comes into the middle of the circle and spins a plate on the floor. He or she calls out or signs a name of another member of the group who has to get to the plate and pick it up before it drops to the floor. If this new player succeeds then he or she spins the plate and calls or signs out another name …and so the game continues. To make it more complex, the player can call out two names and both players called have to try to beat each other to get to the plate first. Module One: Session 2; Module Four: Session 1

    Human Knot

    Everyone stands in a circle and raises their right hand in the air. Each player takes the hand of someone opposite them in the circle, not next to themselves. Everyone raises their left hand in the air. They take the hand of someone further away from them in the circle. Now the idea is to unravel themselves! it may take a couple of goes. Module Four: Session 2

    Stand, Sit, Wiggle, Clap

    Explain to the group that you are going to give them four instructions, to either: stand, sit, wiggle or clap. Whichever word you say or sign, they must do the corresponding action. When the group is working well at this, explain that you are now going to change the rules! Now, all the words mean one of the other words — so when you say or sign stand, the group will sit; when you say or sign sit the group will stand; when you say or sign wiggle the group will clap; when you say or sign the clap, the group will wiggle. Module Five: Session 1

    Alphabetical Order Line

    Tell the children that they are going to make a line based on the alphabetical order of their first names. Establish which way the line will go. The challenge is to make the line without speaking or signing. See how fast the children can assemble their line. Module Five: Session 4

    ‘What I Have Learnt from these Sessions about Being Happy’

    Round off the work by inviting each child to express one thing they have learnt from the sessions about how to be happy. Module Five: Session 5

    Pass a Balloon Around

    Form a standing circle. You are going to pass the first child a balloon and the aim is to move the balloon all around the circle without using their hands. Discuss with the children the different parts of their body that they could use. Tell the children that if anyone drops the balloon they have to start again! Module Six: Session 1

    House Numbers

    Tell the children that you would like them to stand up and to get into a line in the order of their house numbers as quickly as possible. Nearest to you should be the lowest number and furthest away will be the highest house number. (If a child has not got a house number give that child an arbitrary number.) The children will need to communicate with each other. Challenge them to complete this game as fast as possible. Module Six: Session 2

    Clap Together

    For this game the children need to be in a semicircle in front of you. Explain that you are going to clap your hands, but that as a whole group, they must clap with you at exactly the same time. Play with the time it takes you to bring your hands together — perhaps have a couple of false starts. You can then increase the speed of your clapping, turning it into a round of applause, and then decrease it suddenly to ensure the children stay focused. Module Six: Session 3

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    Johnson, L. and O'Neill, C. (eds) (1984) Dorothy Heathcote Collected Writings on Education and Drama. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Luterman, D. (1987) Deafness in the Family. Boston, MA: College Hill Press.
    Marschark, M. (1993) Psychological Development of Deaf Children. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Moore, M., Dash, J. and Bristow, L. (1999) ‘A social skills programme with primary-aged isolated hearing-aid users’, Deafness and Education International, 1 (1): 10–24.
    Moseley, J. (1993) Turn your School Around. Wisbech: Learning Development Aids.
    Powers, S., Gregory, S., Lynas, W., McCracken, W., Watson, L, Boulton, A. and Harris, D. (1999) A Review of Good Practice in Deaf Education. London: RNID.
    Seeley, A. and Camus, J. (1983) ‘Developing an approach to drama with hearing impaired children’, Journal of British Association of Teachers of the Deaf, 7 (2): 30–4.
    Warnock, M. (1978) Special Educational Needs: Report of the Warnock Committee Enquiry into the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People. London: HMSO.
    Webster, A. and Wood, D. (1989) Children with Hearing Difficulties. London: Cassell.

    Further Resources

    If you would like to develop the work relating to conflict resolution, please contact:

    • WMQPEP (West Midlands Quaker Peace Education Project)
    • 46 Parkway Road
    • Dudley
    • West Midlands
    • DY1 2QA
    • Tel: 01384 234113
    • Email: wmqpep@peacemakers.freeserve.co.uk
    • Website: http://www.peacemakers.org.uk

    CD-ROM Contents

    Assessment and evaluation sheets

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