Publication Year: 2017
Urban Regeneration is widely discussed but less widely understood. Fully revised with important new policy, case studies and international analysis, the Second Edition of Urban Regeneration will correct that. The 16 chapters, written by leading experts, are organised into four sections: • The Context for Urban Regeneration: The history and evolution • Major Themes and Topics: Including Housing, Community, Employment and the Environment • Key Issues in Managing Urban Regeneration: Including Legal and Organisational considerations • Experience Elsewhere and a View of the Future: Expanded section now discussing Australia and the Celtic Fringe as well as Europe and the USA This is the essential handbook for practitioners involved in regeneration, as well as students of planning, urban studies, geography and architecture.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: THE CONTEXT FOR URBAN REGENERATION
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: The Evolution, Definition and Purpose of Urban Regeneration
- Chapter 3: Strategy and Partnership in Urban Regeneration
Part II: MAJOR THEMES AND TOPICS
- Chapter 4: Funding Economic Regeneration
- Chapter 5: Physical and Environmental Aspects
- Chapter 6: Social and Community Issues
- Chapter 7: Employment and Skills
- Chapter 8: Housing Development and Urban Regeneration
Part III: KEY ISSUES IN MANAGING URBAN REGENERATION
- Chapter 9: Regeneration by Land Development: The Legal Issues
- Chapter 10: Monitoring and Evaluation
- Chapter 11: Organisation and Management
Part IV: EXPERIENCE ELSEWHERE AND A VIEW OF THE FUTURE
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Chapter 1, Chapter 16 and Editorial Arrangement © Peter Roberts, Hugh Sykes and Rachel Granger 2017
Chapter 2 © Peter Roberts 2017
Chapter 3 © Andrew Carter and Peter Roberts 2017
Chapter 4 © Nigel Berkeley, David Jarvis and David Noon 2017
Chapter 5 © Paul Jeffrey and Rachel Granger 2017
Chapter 6 © Rachel Granger 2017
Chapter 7 © Trevor Hart 2017
Chapter 8 © Martin McNally and Rachel Granger 2017
Chapter 9 © Amanda Beresford and Richard Fleetwood 2017
Chapter 10 © Rod Spires and Barry Moore 2017
Chapter 11 © Dalia Lichfield 2017
Chapter 12 © Rachel Granger and Martin McNally 2017
Chapter 13 © Deborah Peel and Greg Lloyd 2017
Chapter 14 © Paul Drewe 2017
Chapter 15 © Peter Newton and Giles Thomson 2017
First edition published 1999. Reprinted 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008
This second edition published 2017
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016934455
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4462-5262-8 (pbk)
Editor: Robert Rojek
Assistant editor: Matthew Oldfield
Production editor: Rachel Burrows
Marketing manager: Sally Ransom
Cover design: Stephanie Guyaz
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
In memory of Paul Drewe and Barry Moore. Two excellent friends and colleagues, and major contributors to the theory and practice of regeneration.[Page vi]
List of Figures, Tables and Boxes[Page ix]Figures
- 2.1 The urban regeneration process 23
- 5.1 Integrated decision-making of physical and environmental regeneration 95
- 8.1 UK housing tenure change 1976–2011 134
- 10.1 Market failures and systems in the context of Enterprise Zones 187
- 10.2 A framework for undertaking a SWOT analysis 191
- 10.3 Ex post evaluation framework for urban regeneration policies 198
- 10.4 Distinguishing gross to net additional economic outcomes 200
- 10.5 RDA 2002–07 investments, outputs and outcomes 202
- 10.6 Cost benefit and cost effectiveness 203
- 14.1 The economic impact of a conservation project 276
- 15.1 Population change in inner Melbourne and inner Sydney 289
- 15.2 Gentrification of housing in Melbourne inner suburbs 291
- 15.3 Newcastle renewal initiatives, 2011 296
- 15.4 Melbourne Docklands precinct and CBD adjoining at rear 298
- 15.5 Growth of dwellings in City of Melbourne, 1983–2002 300
- 15.6 Greening Melbourne: A biophilic vision for the Central Business District 300
- 15.7 The Forum, TOD activity centre development, St Leonards, Sydney 302
- 15.8 Transforming transit corridors 304
- 15.9 K2 medium-density public housing redevelopment, Melbourne 306
- 15.10 Innovation arenas and ‘future logic’ for greyfield residential precinct development 308
- 15.11 Green urbanism: The framework for eco-cities 310
- 2.1 The evolution of urban regeneration 19
- 3.1 Outward-looking policies 47
- 3.2 Types of partnership 53
- 4.1 Key characteristics of urban economic development and funding in the UK since the mid-1960s 73
- 5.1 The evolution of physical and environmental regeneration 94
- 8.1 Key national housing legislation and policy in the UK 136
- 10.1 Northampton Waterside EZ. Regeneration targets: Sites/uses 183
- 13.1 Regeneration as re-solution: A wicked lexicon 259
- 15.1 Expenditure on residential alterations and extensions in 2009 in Melbourne according to level of neighbourhood economic advantage/disadvantage 291
- 15.2 Value of new dwelling construction versus upgrade (extensions, alterations) projects, Melbourne, 2009 292
- 15.3 Components of infill housing development, Melbourne, 2004–2010 293
- 3.1 Coventry and Warwickshire Partnerships 46
- 3.2 Models of partnership 54
- 3.3 Managing the partnership process 55
- 3.4 Humber Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) 56
- 3.5 Bristol City Deal 58
- 3.6 Knowsley Strategic Board (KSB) 61
- 4.1 Gunwharf Quays 74
- 4.2 Community Involvement: Coalisland Regeneration Project 75
- 4.3 Cardiff Bay 78
- 4.4 Fort Dunlop 81
- 6.1 Two-tier definition of poverty 101
- 6.2 Case study: The Watch Factory, Prescot, Merseyside 106
- 7.1 Aire Valley Recycling, Shipley, West Yorkshire 127
- 7.2 Carlisle Business Centre, Bradford 127
- 7.3 The Connection at St Martins, Central London 128[Page xi]
- 7.4 Heritage, Culture and Leisure Partnership, Dudley 128
- 9.1 Key differences between corporate and non-corporate structures 157
- 10.1 An example of market failure: The urban land market 186
- 11.1 Dynamic Planning and Community Impact Analysis 210
- 11.2 Epidemiology research into life expectancy 219
- 11.3 Public consultation meetings 220
- 11.4 A systemic outlook 226
- 11.5 The Ashkelon Regeneration project 236
- 14.1 URBACT II areas of expertise 279
- 14.2 Economic development in areas with social problems 282
- 14.3 Environmental action linked to economic goals 283
- 14.4 Revitalisation of historic centres 283
- 14.5 Exploitation of technological assets of cities 284
- 14.6 Urban excellence in products 284
- 14.7 Steps towards Toledo 285
- 16.1 Building community capacity: Genesis Community Foundation 321
- 16.2 A northern powerhouse development corporation 332
- 16.3 Building Successful Communities programme 334
About the Editors and Contributors[Page xii]The Editors
Professor Peter Roberts OBE is Professor Emeritus at the University of Leeds, Vice-Chair of the Northern Ireland Housing Executive and Chair of the First Ark Group. He was previously Chair of the Academy for Sustainable Communities, a Board Member of the Homes and Communities Agency and Chair of the British Urban Regeneration Association’s Best Practice Committee. He has advised governments and held senior academic posts at many universities in the UK and elsewhere. Peter has researched and published on a wide range of topics, including urban and regional planning and regeneration, housing and communities issues, environmental policy and the politics of devolution. His most recent books include Resilient Sustainable Cities (2014) and Environment and the City (2009).
Sir Hugh Sykes DL was Chairman of the Sheffield Development Corporation from its formation in 1988 until it ceased operations in 1997. He was Chairman of Yorkshire Bank from 1997 until 2004 and was a member of the Board of the parent company, National Australia Bank. He is a law graduate and chartered accountant, has had a wide and varied business career spanning large public companies as well as small private ones and has substantial experience in the public and voluntary sectors. He was Master of the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire, Treasurer of the University of Sheffield and has done a great deal of work with Sheffield City Council and other charities.
Dr Rachel Granger is a Reader at Leicester Castle Business School specialising in economic geography and urban economies. Her recent research focuses on the re-gentrification of hi-growth metropolitan regions as a result of mismanaged revitalisation works, and in-depth analysis of creative, digital and consumption economies using a variety of new research methods. International research projects include creative and digital economies, international investment in post-recession cities, the sharing and consumption economies, innovation in cultural heritage and the arts, live-work schemes in global cities and problem-based learning in regeneration studies. Rachel is the South East Policy Chair for the Institute of Economic Development and board member for three regeneration projects in London and the West Midlands.[Page xiii]The Contributors
Amanda Beresford is Partner and Head of Planning Law at Shulmans LLP.
Professor Nigel Berkeley is Professor of Local Economic Development at Coventry University. He has extensive experience in economic development research that is designed to shape, influence and inform policy and debate, completing projects for the European Commission, UK government agencies, Regional Development Agencies, local authorities, third and private sector organisations. Current research is focused on industrial policy and in particular the transport sector, examining the role of electric vehicles (EVs) in stimulating economic growth and critiquing policies designed to support this shift.
Andrew Carter is Director of Research and Deputy Chief Executive at the Centre for Cities. Previously he was Regeneration Strategies Advisor at Greater London Enterprise and prior to that Director of Urban Forum and a staff member at the British Urban Regeneration Association.
Professor Paul Drewe was, until his retirement, Professor of Spatial Planning at Delft University of Technology and Visiting Professor of Urban Management at the University of Ghent. Following his retirement he was an Emeritus Professor at Delft and continued his work as a researcher and consultant, including projects for the European Union and other governments in the Netherlands and elsewhere.
Richard Fleetwood is a partner in Addleshaw Goddard LLP, specialising in corporate matters, including public–private partnerships and joint ventures.
Trevor Hart is currently Visiting Research Fellow at the School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, Newcastle University. Originally an economist, experience in economic development in local government and consultancy fuelled his interest in labour market issues.
Dr David Jarvis is Reader in Local Economic Development and Co-Director of the Centre for Business in Society (CBiS) at Coventry University. David has performed research and evaluation roles in both commercial and higher education settings, and in his current post at Coventry University has responsibility for leading teams of interdisciplinary researchers in delivering impactful projects across the economic and social dimensions of regeneration. Projects typically seek to ‘bridge gaps in knowledge’ and provide research-led intelligence in order to inform policy and practice.
Paul Jeffrey trained as a Chartered Town Planner and has more than 30 years of experience as a researcher and a consultant in public policy. His main interest is urban, regional and economic development but he has directed projects on health, transport, employment and innovation, as an adviser, researcher and an evaluator. His work has ranged from small scale community regeneration schemes through to national (UK) studies and projects for the European Commission. He is based in Birmingham, a city that has seen tremendous change over the past three decades.[Page xiv]
Dalia Lichfield is an architect, urban planner and partner of Professor Nathaniel Lichfield, and has focused on the relationship between physical design and social and economic aspects of life. She has devised the Dynamic Planning method for integrated planning, and by extending the philosophy behind Nathaniel Lichfield’s Community Impact Analysis, she has applied this approach to several regeneration projects at both local and national levels in both developed and developing countries.
Professor Greg Lloyd is Emeritus Professor of Urban Planning at Ulster University. He was Head of the School of the Built Environment at the University of Ulster, 2008–2012. Prior to this, he worked at the Universities of Liverpool (2006–2008), Dundee (1994–2006) and Aberdeen (1978–1994). He is a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. He was Ministerial Adviser to the Northern Ireland Assembly Government on its reform of land use planning.
Dr Martin McNally is a Senior Lecturer in Human Geography and Programme Leader in Housing and Regeneration at the University of Chester. He has substantial practitioner experience of implementing community-based regeneration and neighbourhood revitalisation programmes. He has been an active member of the Housing Studies Association and currently serves as a board member in the social housing sector.
Barry Moore was an Emeritus Fellow in Economics at Downing College, University of Cambridge and had previously been Director of Studies. He held senior posts at the University for almost 50 years in the Department of Applied Economics, the Department of Land Economy and as a research fellow at the Centre for Business Research. He was a specialist in regional policy and the evaluation of government programmes with a focus on regeneration (including Enterprise Zones), business growth, inward investment, innovation and the role of Universities in knowledge exchange. He was a Director of PACEC for 30 years and helped to develop the longstanding relationship and links with the University.
Professor Peter Newton is a Research Professor in Sustainable Urbanism at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne where he leads research on sustainable built environments. He is involved in three Co-Operative Research Centres – Low Carbon Living, Spatial Information and Water Sensitive Cities – and is on the Board of the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network. He is also a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences Australia. Prior to joining Swinburne University in 2007 he held the position of Chief Research Scientist in the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. His most recent books include: Resilient Sustainable Cities (2014), Urban Consumption (2011), Technology, Design and Process Innovation in the Built Environment (2009) and Transitions (2008).[Page xv]
Professor David Noon is Emeritus Professor of Economic Regeneration at Coventry University. David has worked in town planning practice, as a consultant and in senior academic posts most recently as Dean of the Faculty of Business, Environment and Society at Coventry University. His research interests have focused upon local and regional economic development and regeneration.
Professor Deborah Peel holds the Chair of Architecture and Planning at the University of Dundee. Prior to working in Scotland, she was based in Northern Ireland (Ulster University) and England (universities of Liverpool and Westminster). Deborah started her career in planning and regeneration in local government and combines practical insights with her academic work.
Rod Spires has been a Director of PACEC for some 30 years and has an extensive record in evaluating government programmes. These have focused on the regeneration of major sites and areas (including Enterprise Zones and Employment Growth Areas) and policies for enterprise, business growth, inward investment and innovation as well as advice to government on best practice for evaluation. He was a research fellow at the Department for Land Economy at the University of Cambridge and UK advisor to the Regional and Technology Committee at the OECD in Paris.
Giles Thomson is an urban designer with experience on urban regeneration projects in the UK and Australia and more recently was research leader for the South Australian Government’s Integrated Design Strategy (5000plus.net.au). He is currently researching sustainable urbanism at Curtin University as part of the Co-Operative Research Centre for Low Carbon Living.
We wish to thank all those who have helped in the preparation of this book, including the authors of the various chapters and the editorial team at SAGE. In addition, we wish to acknowledge the assistance of the many regeneration practitioners and researchers who have generously given of their time and wisdom. Finally, we owe a particular debt of gratitude to Lyndsay Muschamp who has provided secretarial and organisational support to the editors.
During the course of the preparation of this second edition, two of our authors have passed away. Both Paul Drewe and Barry Moore made many important contributions to the theory and practice of regeneration, and we wish to dedicate this book to them.