Urban Politics: Critical Approaches
Offers a much needed update on urban politics in a globalized world… Davidson and Martin, as well as contributors, chart new territory and produce thought-provoking research that move the field in a more critical direction
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Thinking Critically about Urban Politics
- Section 1: : City as Setting
- Chapter 2: The Neighbourhood as a Place for (Urban) Politics
- Chapter 3: Splintered Governance: Urban Politics in the Twenty-First Century
- Chapter 4: Ruthless: The Foreclosure of American Urban Politics
- Section 2: : City as Medium
- Chapter 5: Policing the City
- Chapter 6: Mayors and the Representation of Urban Politics
- Chapter 7: Making Urban Politics go away: The Role of Legally Mandated Planning Processes in Occluding City Power
- Section 3: : City as Community
- Chapter 8: Queering the City: Sexual Citizenship in Creative City Singapore
- Chapter 9: Making Space in the Multicultural City: Immigrant Settlement, Neighbourhoods and Urban Politics
- Chapter 10: The Embedded Politics of Entrepreneurs
- Chapter 11: Is Class Relevant to Urban Politics?
- Chapter 12: The Urban Imaginary of Nature: Cities in American Environmental Politics
- Chapter 13: Urban Politics as Parallax
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Editorial arrangement and Chapters 1 and 13 © Mark Davidson and Deborah Martin 2014
Chapter 2 © Katherine Hankins and Deborah Martin 2014
Chapter 3 © Kevin Ward 2014
Chapter 4 © Elvin Wyly and Kathe Newman 2014
Chapter 5 © Kurt Iveson 2014
Chapter 6 © Donald McNeill 2014
Chapter 7 © John Carr 2014
Chapter 8 © Natalie Oswin 2014
Chapter 9 © Jamie Winders 2014
Chapter 10 © Susan Hanson 2014
Chapter 11 © Mark Davidson 2014
Chapter 12 © Matthew Huber 2014
First published 2014
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013936854
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-0-85702-398-8 (pbk)
Editor: Robert Rojek
Editorial assistant: Keri Dickens
Production editor: Katherine Haw
Copyeditor: Neil Dowden
Proofreader: Rosemary Morlin
Indexer: Mark Davidson and Deborah Martin
Marketing manager: Michael Ainsley
Cover design: Francis Kenney
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed by: Replika Press Pvt. Ltd, India
- 2.1Thanksgiving Day on Cheryl's front porch, Booker T. Washington neighbourhood, 11 November 2010. Cheryl has been a strategic neighbour for four years in Atlanta 33
- 2.2Community garden in English Avenue, west Atlanta, 11 October 2009. This community garden was developed by residents and strategic neighbours 35
- 2.3Historic home in South Atlanta, two doors down from a strategic neighbour's residence. South Atlanta, a neighbourhood of approximately 550 homes, has over two dozen strategic neighbours 36
- 4.1LISA indices for 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008: 4.1a Rapid defaults, surrounded by rapid defaults 64
- 4.1bRapid defaults, surrounded by long survivors 64
- 4.1cLong survivors, surrounded by long survivors 64
- 4.1dLong survivors, surrounded by rapid defaults 65
- 4.1eNo significant spatial correlation 65
- 5.1A sign prohibiting graffiti, covered in and surrounded by graffiti, Sydney 89
- 5.2The infamous Banksy piece which partially covered a 25-year-old piece by Robbo in London 95
- 7.1Ballard Commons Park with the New Ballard Skatepark 117
- 7.2Seattle's 2007 Master Plan for Skateparks 121
- 7.3Opening day for Ballard Commons Park, with the skatepark in the background 124
- 8.1Pink Dot formation, Singapore 145
- 10.1Density of woman-owned businesses/area per census tract, Worcester City and metro area 185
- 10.2A virtuous circle? How place rootedness can lead to change 186
- 11.1Bank Junction, City of London: a key site of global financial networks 196
- 4.1Default speeds in Essex County, New Jersey 61
- 4.2Model fit for borrower credit history instrument 66
- 4.3Countywide subprime segmentation models 68
- 4.4Contrasts between quick-default and long-survivor clusters 71
- 9.1The multicultural city 165
- 10.1Volunteer activities linked specifically to business: Worcester entrepreneurs 182
- 10.2Volunteer activities linked specifically to business: Colorado Springs entrepreneurs 183
- 11.1Operational categories of the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC) linked to socio-economic groups 200
- 12.1The changing nature of American environmental politics 207
- 1.1Geography and politics 4
- S1The urban citizen in historical perspective 19
- 2.1Strategic neighbour Crissy Brooks describes goals 30
- 2.2Strategic neighbour Scott Dewey describes dialogue as a goal of strategic neighbouring 30
- 2.3Strategic neighbour Ashlee Starr describes her Atlanta neighbourhood 30
- S2Foucault and the mediums of social control 81
- 6.1Mayors and social media 104
- 7.1Critical legal studies and urban geography 114
- 8.1Richard Florida's creative class thesis 145
- 11.1Commentary on London's energy policy 196
- 12.1The changing nature of American environmental politics 211
- 12.2Urban political ecology and the metabolic city 212
- 13.1Dilemmas of citizen–state engagements in urban politics 227
Notes on Contributors
John Carr is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies at the University of New Mexico. He received his PhD in Geography at the University of Washington, and his JD at the University of Texas School of Law. His research focuses on the politics of urban public space, with a focus on law and urban planning processes.
Mark Davidson is an Assistant Professor in the Graduate School of Geography at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts. He is an urban geographer whose research interests lie in three core areas: ‘gentrification’, ‘urban policy, society and community’ and ‘metropolitan development, planning and architecture’. His research is international in scope, including work in Europe, North America and Australia. He has authored and co-authored papers in journals such as Environment and Planning A, Ethics, Place and Environment, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers and Urban Studies. His current research includes a continued examination of new-build gentrification, a theoretical exploration of gentrification-related displacement and the empirically informed consideration of sustainability as a key policy concept. He has held fellowships at the Nelson A. Rockefeller Centre for Public Policy and Social Science, Dartmouth College, and the Urban Research Centre, University of Western Sydney. He holds a BA (Hons) and PhD in Geography from King's College London.
Katherine Hankins is an Associate Professor of Geography in the Department of Geosciences at Georgia State University. She is an urban geographer, whose expertise is in urban politics, neighbourhood activism and community development. Her current research examines the conceptions of social and spatial justice in the discourses and practices of individuals and organizations, whose work is motivated by principles of Christian community development. In particular, she is interested in the politics of ‘strategic neighbouring’ in inner-city neighbourhoods, and the subjectivities and spaces produced by efforts associated with ‘gentrification with justice.’ This work builds on her recent research on the social and political dynamics of charter-school activism. Her work has been published in Urban Studies, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Antipode, Urban Geography, Journal of Urban History and Social [Page xi]and Cultural Geography, among others. She is currently collaborating with an interdisciplinary team of scholars and community partners to address social and environmental disparities in Atlanta neighbourhoods. She holds a Master's in geography from the University of Arizona and a PhD in geography from the University of Georgia.
Susan Hanson is a Professor of Geography (Emerita) at Clark University. She is an urban geographer with interests in gender and economy, transportation, local labour markets and sustainability. Her research has focused on the relationship between the urban built environment and people's everyday mobility within cities; within this context, questions of access to opportunity, and how gender affects access, have been paramount. Her chapter in this book grew out of a larger study focused on understanding how gender, geographic opportunity structures and geographic rootedness shape entrepreneurship in cities. She has been the editor of several academic journals including The Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Urban Geography and Economic Geography. Her publications include the books Ten Geographic Ideas that Changed the World (Rutgers University Press 1997), Gender, Work, and Space (with Geraldine Pratt) (Routledge 1995), The Geography of Urban Transportation (Guilford Press 1986), and numerous journal articles and book chapters. A past president of the Association of American Geographers, Hanson has served on many national and international committees in geography, transportation and the social sciences. Her BA is from Middlebury College, and before earning her PhD at Northwestern University she was a Peace Corps Volunteer in Kenya.
Matthew Huber is an Assistant Professor of Geography at Syracuse University. He earned his PhD in Geography from Clark University in 2009. Professor Huber's research focuses on energy, oil, mining and the political economy of capitalism. His recently published book from the University of Minnesota Press is entitled Lifeblood: Oil, Freedom, and the Forces of Capital. His work cuts across human geography in examining the economic, political and urban aspects of nature– society relationships. He has published articles in Urban Geography, The Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Antipode and Geoforum.
Kurt Iveson is Senior Lecturer in Urban Geography and teaches at the University of Sydney. His research is guided by a desire for social and spatial justice, and focuses especially on the relationship between cities, publics and politics. He is the author of Publics and the City (Wiley-Blackwell, 2007) and co-author of Planning and Diversity in the City: Redistribution, Recognition and Encounter (Palgrave, 2008). He also maintains the blog Cities and Citizenship (http://cities-andcitizenship.blogspot.com).[Page xii]
Deborah Martin is Associate Professor in the Graduate School of Geography at Clark University. She is an urban geographer with interests in urban politics, law, place identity, place-making and qualitative methods. Her current research projects include investigation of the legal dynamics of group home siting in Massachusetts and New York; the place-identity and policy impacts of the Asian Longhorned Beetle infestation in Worcester, Massachusetts; and dynamics and implications of ‘local’ governance in urban policy. She has published in journals such as Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Antipode, Gender Place and Culture, Environment and Planning A, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Progress in Human Geography, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers and Urban Geography. She holds a PhD in Geography from the University of Minnesota.
Donald McNeill is Professor of Urban and Cultural Geography, joining the Institute for Culture and Society at the University of Western Sydney in 2011, having previously held positions at the Urban Research Centre at UWS, King's College London, Southampton and Strathclyde. He is a recipient of an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship, in the field of ‘Governing Digital Cities’, running from 2012 to 2016. His work is located at the intersection of human geography, economic sociology, spatial planning, and urban design and architecture, with a particular interest in the political and cultural economy of globalization and cities. He is currently working with colleagues on Australian Research Council grants about the future of Sydney's Chinatown, and on the social history of air-conditioning in Southeast Asia, and has recently completed an ARC Discovery project, ‘The production and contestation of airport territory’ (2008–2010). He has published widely in human geography and urban studies, and his books include The Global Architect: Firms, Fame and Urban Form (Routledge, 2008), New Europe: Imagined Spaces (Arnold, 2004), and Urban Change and the European Left: Tales from the New Barcelona (Routledge, 1999).
Kathe Newman is an Associate Professor in the Urban Planning and Policy Development Program at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy and Director of the Ralph W. Voorhees Center for Civic Engagement. She holds a PhD in Political Science from the Graduate School and University Center at the City University of New York. Her research explores urban change, what it is, why it happens and what it means. Her research has explored gentrification, foreclosure, urban redevelopment and community participation. Dr Newman has published articles in Urban Studies, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Urban Affairs Review, Shelterforce, Progress in Human Geography, Housing Studies, GeoJournal and Environment and Planning A.[Page xiii]
Natalie Oswin is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography at McGill University. She has published articles on South Africa's post-apartheid gay and lesbian movement, the cultural politics of heteronormativity in Singapore and conceptual pieces on queer geographies in such journals as Gender, Place and Culture, Environment and Planning A, Progress in Human Geography, Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Social and Cultural Geography and Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. She has also co-edited special issues of the journals Environment and Planning D: Society and Space and Mobilities on the themes ‘Governing Intimacy’ and ‘Mobile City Singapore’, respectively, and is co-editor of the journal Environment and Planning D: Society and Space.
Kevin Ward is Professor of Human Geography and Director of cities@manchester, University of Manchester (www.cities.manchester.ac.uk). His research interests are in comparative urbanism, state restructuring, policy mobilities, and urban and regional development. His current work explores urban policies to see where they have come from, the paths they have travelled and the processes of translation they have undergone. This programme of work speaks to the various financial models currently circulating to fund infrastructure in the context of the ongoing financial crisis. It is interested in the various actors and intermediaries that play a role in constructing and constituting the circuits, networks and webs in and through which ‘models’ are assembled, circulated, deemed to have failed, redirected, resisted and so on. He has edited and written numerous books and his work has been published in journals such as the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Antipode, Area, Environment & Planning A, Environment & Planning C, Geoforum, IJURR, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Urban Geography and Urban Studies.
Jamie Winders is Associate Professor of Geography at Syracuse University. Her research focuses on immigration, racial politics and formations, and urban and social geography. Much of her work has examined the emergence of new immigrant destinations in the United States and the changing racial and cultural politics associated with this new geography of immigrant settlement. She is the author of Nashville in the New Millennium: Immigrant Settlement, Urban Transformation, and Social Belonging (Russell Sage, 2013). Her work is largely ethnographic and spans geography and other disciplines including Latino studies, southern studies and sociology. Her research has also examined the social movements, political discourses and legislative trends associated with immigrant settlement in new destinations, as well as the role of social reproduction and place-making in the politics of immigration in publications with Barbara Ellen Smith. Beyond her work on immigration, Winders has published on postcolonial theory, critical pedagogy, travel writing, civil society and critical race theory. She [Page xiv]is also co-editor of the New Companion to Cultural Geography (Blackwell, 2013), with Nuala Johnson and Richard Schein.
Elvin Wyly is Associate Professor of Geography and Chair of the Urban Studies Coordinating Committee at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver (www.geog.ubc.ca/~ewyly). His teaching and research focus on the spatial constitution of urban social inequality, housing markets and neighbourhood change, public policy, and the history and present condition of strategic positivism.
We would like to thank the contributors to this volume, all of whom generously devoted their valuable time in writing the chapters and responding to our feedback and criticisms, as well as that of the blind referees. We would also like to thank our editor at SAGE, Robert Rojek, for his encouragement of the project and his faith that we would get it finished. Alana Clogan and Sarah-Jayne Boyd at SAGE also provided much need support in making the project happen. The advice of our close friends and colleagues throughout the process of putting the collection together has been crucial, including Kate Boyer, Ben Gallan, Chris Gibson, Kal Gulson, Jennie Middleton, Jim Murphy, Joe Pierce and Tom Slater. We also need to thank all those friends and colleagues whom we asked to referee the chapters. Their feedback was absolutely critical in improving the collection and pushing us to bring together our diversity of contributors. Finally, we'd like to thank our respective families for providing the love and encouragement that makes these undertakings possible.
Deborah Martin and Mark Davidson[Page xvi]