Urban People and Places: The Sociology of Cities, Suburbs, and Towns
Publication Year: 2015
Providing a thorough and comprehensive survey of the contemporary urban world that is accessible to students, Urban People and Places: The Sociology of Cities, Suburbs, and Towns will give balanced treatment to both the process by which cities are built (i.e., urbanization) and the ways of life practiced by people that live and work in more urban places (i.e., urbanism) unlike most core texts in this area. Whereas most texts focus on the socio-economic causes of urbanization, this text analyses the cultural component: how the physical construction of places is, in part, a product of cultural beliefs, ideas, and practices and also how the culture of those who live, work, and play in various places is shaped, structured, and controlled by the built environment. Inasmuch ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Urbanization in Western Societies
- Chapter 2: Urban Places and People in Comparative Perspective
- Chapter 3: How the United States Became Urban
- Chapter 4: The Seeds of Urban Theory: Classic Statements About Cities and Communities
- Chapter 5: The Fruits of Urban Theory: Contemporary Perspectives on Cities and Communities
- Chapter 6: Civic Culture and the Politics of Community
- Chapter 7: Among Kin, Friends, and Strangers: Social Control in Cities, Suburbs, and Towns
- Chapter 8: How Social Scientists, Planners, and Reformers Figure Out What's Going On and What Needs Fixing
- Chapter 9: Fixing Places and People: How Policy Makers, Planners, and Social Reformers Try to Make Cities Better
- Chapter 10: Embracing the Cultures of Urban People and Places
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Monti, Daniel J.
Urban places and people: the sociology of cities, suburbs, and towns / Daniel J. Monti, Jr., Saint Louis University, Michael Ian Borer, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Lyn C. Macgregor, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-8742-4 (pbk.: alk. paper)
ISBN 978-1-4833-0990-3 (web pdf)
ISBN 978-1-4833-1533-1 (epub)
1. Sociology, Urban. I. Title.
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To Katrina and Silas. (M.I.B.)
For Caroline, Jillian and Ted. (L.C.M.)
For Danny, Erika, Chris, Jeannine, Evelyn, Gabriel and Susan. (D.J.M.)
It is customary for authors to thank those persons who were instrumental in helping them write their book or assisted them in carrying out the research that went into it. In our case, there are social scientists, historians, reformers, and writers going back at least 200 years upon whose work we relied. There are social philosophers whose writings can be traced back even further in time. But most especially there are the countless millions of men, women, and children from our culture and others who made the stories we tell here and the evidence we assembled here possible to tell and assemble.
To all of them we owe a debt that cannot be repaid other than by having taken their lives and work seriously.
Thank you all.
About the Authors
A condition of being estranged or disassociated from other people, the products of one's work, and one's “self.”
A condition characterized by the absence or confusion of social norms or rules in a society, community, or group.
A process whereby members of ethnic or other minority groups change their practices to conform to the dominant culture.
Power that has been institutionalized and is recognized, though not necessarily accepted, by the people over whom it is exercised.
Individuals who do not know each other on a personal basis or who have never met.
The owners of the means of production and distribution in capitalist societies.
The human constructed physical and material objects that make up the city, such as buildings, streets, and sidewalks.
A formal organization with rules and hierarchical rankings used to achieve and maximize efficiency.
An economic system in which the greater proportion of economic life, particularly ownership of and investment in the production of goods, is carried out by private entities through the process of competition, minimizing costs, and maximizing profit.
Central Business District (CBD)
The commercial, office, transportation, and cultural center of a city; land values are usually among the highest in the city.
Chicago School, The
A collection of scholars from University of Chicago in the early decades of the 20th century whose qualitative and quantitative empirical studies of Chicago and related theoretical contributions helped define urban sociology as a significant subdiscipline.
Full membership in a community in which one lives, works, or was born.
A relatively large, dense, and heteroge-neously populated place or settlement.
A voluntary organization consisting of individuals with common social and cultural interests and concerns
The ways people in a democratic society exercise their rights and fulfill their responsibilities.
The realm of voluntary activity that lies between the state and the market, including the family, community, and other nongovernmental associations and extra-economic institutions.[Page 190]
A large category of people within a system of social stratification who have similar levels of wealth, income, prestige, and life chances.
An approach that replaces limiting notions of cities as being “developed” or “underdeveloped” with one that seeks to identify the commonalities among and across cities of the world.
Refers to a (positive, though not necessarily so) form of sustained social cohesion, interaction, and organization that exists between the larger society and individuals who have similar characteristics or attributes (e.g., ethnicity, geography, beliefs)
A population of individuals with high amounts of “cultural capital” who tend to work in arts and technology fields.
Acts that violate sanctioned laws and rules for which formal penalties are applied by a recognized authority.
Individuals who are from different symbolic worlds or cultures.
The study of the size, composition, growth, and distribution of human populations.
Acts that violate the relative standards of conduct, expectations, or beliefs of a group, community, or society.
The inability to regulate behaviors and activities that are inconsistent with neighborhood or citywide values; ecological factors and structural conditions can lead to variations in crime rates between neighborhoods and cities.
Division of Labor
The delegation and assignment of specialized tasks, jobs, or work to be completed by specified individuals, groups, categories, and classes of people.
Bound to a particular place, like a neighborhood, characterized by the proliferation of commercial establishments and other institutions particularly suited to serving the needs of the resident group.
The carrying out of new ideas or practices or the combining older ideas and practices with newer ones.
A shared way of life reflected in language, religion, and material culture such as clothing and food, and cultural products such as music and art; often a key source of both social cohesion and social conflict
The study of social groups in their natural environment; it relies on participant observation and field research.
A set of people related by blood, marriage, or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of a community or society.
The social system that characterized medieval Europe and other preindustrial societies, based upon mutual obligation between nobility and serfs
A group of individuals that engage in common activities, many of which may violate codified laws and regulations.
A German term that denotes a sense of close-knit community relations based on shared traditions and values.
A process of community and neighborhood change where housing in older neighborhoods is restored, often resulting in higher rents and the displacement of previous tenants who can no longer afford to live there.
A German term that denotes relationships typified by an impersonal bureaucracy and contractual arrangements rather than informal ones based on kinship and family ties.
The often uneven development of extensive worldwide patterns of economic, political, and cultural relationships between nations.
The study of the interrelationships between people and their spatial setting and physical environment.
People who settle in a country in which they were not born.[Page 191]
A process that leads to an significantly increased proportion of a population engaged in specialized factory work and nonagricultural occupations; it increases the number of people living near factories and relying on mechanically produced goods and services.
The difference in access to and accumulation of wealth, educational opportunities, and cultural activities.
The network of social relationships that link individuals through common ancestry, marriage, or adoption.
Social cohesion generated by a minimal division of labor where there is little differentiation in the kinds of labor that individuals engage in.
A continuous stretch of urban settlement that results from cities, suburbs, and towns merging together.
People who move from one country or region to another, often due to the availability of work.
Collections of people who live close to one another with relatively sustained social contact and interaction.
An approach to designing cities, towns, and neighborhoods aimed at reducing traffic and sprawl and increasing social interactions.
Norms of Reciprocity and Mutual Trust
Members of a community share the expectation that when an individual does a favor for someone else, the good they do will be returned at some point in the future.
Social cohesion generated by increased specialization where people necessarily rely on the contributions of others to survive and succeed.
An ecological condition in which a society is unable to support all its members with available technology and natural resources.
A belief that people's lives will improve if they are given a better place to live and work in.
A unique location that takes material form and is endowed with meaning and value.
An approach to studying social life that rejects modernist beliefs in scientific knowledge, progress, and “grand theories”; relies on notions of fragmentation and disorganization.
Governmental engagement and intervention in response to a perceived social problem.
Public –Private Partnerships
Initiatives by city leaders to connect with private investors to undertake projects serve a larger public good.
Workers who sell their labor to those who own the means of production.
Designation of population based on skin color or other physical features; it is often a key source of both social cohesion and social conflict.
t The rebuilding of parts of a city; sometimes large areas are completely demolished before being rebuilt, sometimes older buildings are preserved or updated.
The practice of physically separating the occupants of some social statuses from the occupants of others.
A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor.
The value of social networks and organizations to get things done together that comes from peoples’ relationships with one another.
The struggle over values and meanings or property, income, and power, or both.
The conformity of individuals to explicit and implicit social rules of behavior.
Attempts to change the working and living conditions of citizens and residents.[Page 192]
A nonphysical or material area that exists between places.
A social characteristic that locates individuals in relation to other people.
Settlements located outside the physical and political boundaries of a city that are adjacent to the city or to its other suburbs.
A set of interrelated propositions or ideas intended to explain a phenomenon.
Locations that serve a social need beyond work and home life (e.g., a local coffee shop).
The long-term poor who lack the necessary training and skills to become upwardly mobile.
Urban Culturalist Perspective
An approach to studying cities by uncovering the meanings and values people endow them with in order to understand the ways that people make sense of the city, themselves, and others.
Urban Political Economy
An approach to studying cities by investigating the ways that power relations influence the distribution of scarce resources.
The unplanned and unregulated growth of urban areas into surrounding areas.
The ways of life or cultures of people in cities; the myths, symbols, and rituals of urbanites.
The movement of populations from rural to urban areas; the growth and development, and redevelopment, of cities.
Legal regulations and restrictions that stipulate land use and architectural design of residential, commercial, and industrial developments.
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