Understanding Stuart Hall

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Helen Davis

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    Acknowledgements

    I am extremely grateful to Willie Thompson for lending me his vintage copies of Universities and New Left Review, and for helping me to understand some of the contexts of British communism in the post-war era. Any misunderstandings are mine alone. I am indebted to Anthony Purvis and Elaine Jones for their insightful comments on the early chapters, and to Bob Ferguson and Martin Conboy for not laughing (out loud) at the idea in the first place.

    Grateful thanks go to the University of Sunderland for granting me research leave in which to write the book, and to colleagues, family and friends who provided much-valued support and encouragement whenever necessary. I am indebted to Julia Hall at Sage for her critical understanding and lightness of touch, and to Chris Fanthome for her encouragement and wisdom. I want to say a special thank you to all those people who had faith in what I was trying to do, and to doff my cap to the nay-sayers who also helped by drawing attention to the problems and pitfalls.

    I am particularly grateful to Stuart Hall for consenting to be interviewed for this book. His candid responses and good humour helped to make this a most enjoyable project. Special thanks go to Ceri for her understanding, to Keith for helping me to see the bigger picture, and to Max for keeping it all in perspective.

  • Endnotes

    Encountering the Mother Country

    1 ‘Raphael was its engine, its political motor, its moving spirit. His political will, determination and energy were limitless’. Hall writing on the occasion of Samuel's death, New Left Review January/February 1997 no. 221 p. 121.

    2 The editors of Universities and New Left Review (UNLR) organised a public debate in Oxford between Hoggart and Williams. See UNLR vol. no. 5.

    3 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    4 Like most of his Caribbean peers at Oxford, Hall would have been expected to return home in order to take up a bureaucratic post within the colonial administration.

    5 Antony Crosland MP was a leading intellectual in the Labour Party, intent on revising the party's socialist agenda.

    6 Labour Party Leader from 1955–63

    7 Society for Education in Film and Television.

    8 The Crowther Report was published in 1959.

    9 Ultimately the new Labour Government under Harold Wilson rejected the recommendations of the Pilkington Report but the public debate had already been fuelled by the release of the Report.

    A Deadly Serious Matter

    1 Women Take Issue is an important collection of essays that ploughs a new furrow across the terrain of cultural studies. The importance of this intervention is discussed further in Chapter 5.

    2 The study of election results and their trends.

    The Media in Question

    1 Structuralism, as the term suggests, is concerned with the analysis of deep underlying structures in texts and the relationships between different elements that govern meaning. See Hawkes (1992), which is a useful text with a very good bibliography. Stam et al. (1994) give excellent summaries plus a very useful bibliography.

    2 Anne Showstack Sassoon (1980) and Roger Simon (1982) give excellent accounts of Gramsci's ideas and his political formation in Sardinia.

    3 UNESCO stands for the United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organisation.

    4 Marshall McLuhan, a Canadian critic wrote a popular treatise entitled The Medium is the Message.

    5 Walter Benjamin wrote a seminal essay entitled “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” in which he discussed the “aura” associated with works of art. Benjamin argued that the mass reproduction of art diluted and diminished the original. According to Benjamin, as an image becomes increasingly commonplace, so the power of the original work of art is diminished.

    6 InIVA stands for the Institute for International Visual Arts. Stuart Hall was appointed as Director in 1996. InIVA can be found at http://www.iniva.org.uk

    7 London School of Economics.

    8 The Irish Republican Army is a major paramilitary republican organisation in Ireland.

    9 On the morning of 30 January 1972, a civil rights demonstration in Derry, Northern Ireland, ended in the massacre of thirteen civilians and the injury of another twenty two when members of the Parachute regiment of the British Army opened fire on the demonstrators. The subsequent government enquiry was deemed to be a ‘whitewash’ and no members of the army were ever brought to trial for murder. The army maintained that it had only returned fire when fired upon. Many civilian witness accounts disputed that testimony. A second public enquiry is currently underway.

    Wrestling with the Angels

    1 Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in 1973. The ‘seven day war’, as it became known, led to the oil-producing Arab nations cutting their supply to the West in order to prevent them giving support to Israel. This pushed up the price of oil and led to national shortages, a reduction in the number of days that industry could function and power cuts.

    2 This is often referred to as the ‘rivers of blood’ speech.

    3 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    4 The ‘Enlightenment’ refers to the period roughly corresponding from the French Revolution through the nineteenth century, when enormous ‘advances’ were made in science, medicine, law and philosophy.

    5 Reification refers to the process whereby a person is discussed or treated as if s/he were an object. Capitalism reifies individuals by using labour as a commodity that is valued according to its exchange value.

    The Politics of Representation

    1 References in this chapter refer to the full text of this public talk, which was published by the BBC/CRE in Five Views of Multiracial Britain in August 1978. The talk was broadcast on Radio 3 in July of the same year. Extracts from the broadcast were reprinted in The Listener magazine on 20th July 1978.

    2 A detailed discussion of this work is contained later in this chapter.

    3 One of a series of noon-time lectures organised by Thomas Blair and subsequently published in a collection entitled The Inner Cities. A Condition of England Question (1978b).

    4 Race Today was a highly influential journal based in Brixton that led the campaign against police harassment of blacks during the 1970s. The journal was the production of a group of black activists known as the Race Today collective. The journal's editorial espoused the rights of blacks to ‘refuse to work’ under the present climate of racist capitalist labour relations.

    5 Darcus Howe, editor of the journal Race Today was a key figure in the debate around black youth and crime, which was pursued in the pages of Race Today and the Black Liberator.

    6 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    7 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    8 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    9 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    10 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    11 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    12 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    13 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    14 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.

    1 In conversation with Stuart Hall.

    2 This article and many others published by Hall in Marxism Today were reprinted in a single volume called The Hard Road to Renewal in 1988. I will reference this collection throughout this chapter.

    3 ‘The problem of ideology; Marxism without guarantees’ in Matthews (ed) (1983) Marx: 100 Years On. Lawrence and Wishart: London.

    4 Stuart Hall in Conversation with the author, November 2002.

    In the Belly of the Beast

    1 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002

    2 ‘Manichean’ refers to the dualistic philosophy underpinning religions which recognise the co-existence of good and evil.

    3 Stephen Lawrence, a black teenager, was murdered on the evening of 22 April 1993 in Eltham, South London, by a gang of six white men. Despite the eye witness testimony of his friend Duwayne Brooks and others at the scene, the police were unable to build an effective case for prosecution although the suspects were well known to the police for racist violence, and quickly identified. Despite a criminal case, a private prosecution brought by the family, an inquest and a public inquiry, no-one has ever been convicted of the murder.

    4 Perry Anderson criticised what he regarded as an over-emphasis on Gramsci on the basis that it had little relevance for the investigation of developing world or non-European economies. When Perry Anderson took over the editorialship of New Left Review, the journal underwent a profound shift towards a focus on international Marxism and its relationship to global economics.

    5 Benedict Anderson's Imaginary Communities is premised on the idea that our relationship to questions of society and nationalism are profoundly influenced and shaped by determining ideological and symbolic structures and beliefs.

    6 The BNP, British National Party is an extremely rightwing political organisation which espouses racist views. It has recently tried to shake off its Neo-nazi image.

    7 ‘Dirty Washing.’ Time Out (London) 14–20 November 1985.

    8 See Mulvey L. (1975) ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ in Screen 16/3 pp 6–18.

    9 See Bakhtin's theory of dialogic voices within novelistic discourse in Morris, P. (ed) (1994) The Bakhtin Reader. Edward Arnold: London.

    10 See Bakhtin's theory of the carnivalesque, Morris (1994).

    11 This was the ship that brought West Indian families to Britain in 1956, an historic staging point in the history of British post-war multi-culturalism.

    12 The Commission on the Future of Multi-ethnic Britain was set up by the Runnymede Trust, an independent organisation which is committed to analysing and monitoring racial justice in the UK.

    1 Soundings is edited by Martin Rustin and Doreen Massey published by Lawrence and Wishart.

    2 Autograph can be found at http://www.autograph-abp.co.uk

    3 InIVA stands for the Institute for International Visual Arts. Their website is at http://www.iniva.org.uk

    4 Hall recently gave an opening address entitled ‘Democracy unrealised’, a critique of the ‘third way’ in Vienna for Documenta, which is available to download at http://www.documenta.de/data/english/platform1/index.html and is currently revising a talk recently given to the Prince Claus Foundation. Please see and http://www.princeclausfund.n1

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