Understanding Stuart Hall
Publication Year: 2004
'This is the most lucid and engaged account of Stuart Hall's work. Meticulously, and with an exemplary generosity, Helen Davis patiently unravels the threads of Hall's intellectual history. The result is a most useful and thoughtful book, which could prove to be indispensable for students of cultural studies' - Graeme Turner, University of Queensland Understanding Stuart Hall traces the development of one of the most influential and respected figures within cultural studies. Focusing on Stuart Hall's writings over a period of nearly fifty years, this volume offers students and academics a cogent and exploratory route through complex and overlapping areas of analysis. In her critical assessment of Hall's most important contributions to academic and public debate, Davis shows the extent to which his analyses of ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Encountering the Mother Country
- Chapter 2: A Deadly Serious Matter
- Chapter 3: The Media in Question
- Chapter 4: Wrestling with the Angels
- Chapter 5: The Politics of Representation
- Chapter 6: Taking the Risk of Living Dangerously
- Chapter 7: In the Belly of the Beast
- Chapter 8: ‘Fragmented and Concrete’, in Conversation with Stuart Hall
© Helen Davis, 2004
First published 2004
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B-42, Panchsheel Enclave
Post Box 4109
New Delhi 100 017
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0761947159 (pbk)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2003103981
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall
I am extremely grateful to Willie Thompson for lending me his vintage copies of Universities and New Left Review, and for helping me to understand some of the contexts of British communism in the post-war era. Any misunderstandings are mine alone. I am indebted to Anthony Purvis and Elaine Jones for their insightful comments on the early chapters, and to Bob Ferguson and Martin Conboy for not laughing (out loud) at the idea in the first place.
Grateful thanks go to the University of Sunderland for granting me research leave in which to write the book, and to colleagues, family and friends who provided much-valued support and encouragement whenever necessary. I am indebted to Julia Hall at Sage for her critical understanding and lightness of touch, and to Chris Fanthome for her encouragement and wisdom. I want to say a special thank you to all those people who had faith in what I was trying to do, and to doff my cap to the nay-sayers who also helped by drawing attention to the problems and pitfalls.
I am particularly grateful to Stuart Hall for consenting to be interviewed for this book. His candid responses and good humour helped to make this a most enjoyable project. Special thanks go to Ceri for her understanding, to Keith for helping me to see the bigger picture, and to Max for keeping it all in perspective.[Page x]
Endnotes[Page 206]Encountering the Mother Country
1 ‘Raphael was its engine, its political motor, its moving spirit. His political will, determination and energy were limitless’. Hall writing on the occasion of Samuel's death, New Left Review January/February 1997 no. 221 p. 121.
2 The editors of Universities and New Left Review (UNLR) organised a public debate in Oxford between Hoggart and Williams. See UNLR vol. no. 5.
3 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
4 Like most of his Caribbean peers at Oxford, Hall would have been expected to return home in order to take up a bureaucratic post within the colonial administration.
5 Antony Crosland MP was a leading intellectual in the Labour Party, intent on revising the party's socialist agenda.
6 Labour Party Leader from 1955–63
7 Society for Education in Film and Television.
8 The Crowther Report was published in 1959.
9 Ultimately the new Labour Government under Harold Wilson rejected the recommendations of the Pilkington Report but the public debate had already been fuelled by the release of the Report.The Media in Question
1 Structuralism, as the term suggests, is concerned with the analysis of deep underlying structures in texts and the relationships between different elements that govern meaning. See Hawkes (1992), which is a useful text with a very good bibliography. Stam et al. (1994) give excellent summaries plus a very useful bibliography.
2 Anne Showstack Sassoon (1980) and Roger Simon (1982) give excellent accounts of Gramsci's ideas and his political formation in Sardinia.
3 UNESCO stands for the United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organisation.
4 Marshall McLuhan, a Canadian critic wrote a popular treatise entitled The Medium is the Message.
5 Walter Benjamin wrote a seminal essay entitled “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” in which he discussed the “aura” associated with works of art. Benjamin argued that the mass reproduction of art diluted and diminished the original. According to Benjamin, as an image becomes increasingly commonplace, so the power of the original work of art is diminished.
6 InIVA stands for the Institute for International Visual Arts. Stuart Hall was appointed as Director in 1996. InIVA can be found at http://www.iniva.org.uk
7 London School of Economics.
8 The Irish Republican Army is a major paramilitary republican organisation in Ireland.
9 On the morning of 30 January 1972, a civil rights demonstration in Derry, Northern Ireland, ended in the massacre of thirteen civilians and the injury of another twenty two when members of the Parachute regiment of the British Army opened fire on the demonstrators. The subsequent government enquiry was deemed to be a ‘whitewash’ and no members of the army were ever brought [Page 208]to trial for murder. The army maintained that it had only returned fire when fired upon. Many civilian witness accounts disputed that testimony. A second public enquiry is currently underway.Wrestling with the Angels
1 Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in 1973. The ‘seven day war’, as it became known, led to the oil-producing Arab nations cutting their supply to the West in order to prevent them giving support to Israel. This pushed up the price of oil and led to national shortages, a reduction in the number of days that industry could function and power cuts.
2 This is often referred to as the ‘rivers of blood’ speech.
3 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
4 The ‘Enlightenment’ refers to the period roughly corresponding from the French Revolution through the nineteenth century, when enormous ‘advances’ were made in science, medicine, law and philosophy.
5 Reification refers to the process whereby a person is discussed or treated as if s/he were an object. Capitalism reifies individuals by using labour as a commodity that is valued according to its exchange value.The Politics of Representation
1 References in this chapter refer to the full text of this public talk, which was published by the BBC/CRE in Five Views of Multiracial Britain in August 1978. The talk was broadcast on Radio 3 in July of the same year. Extracts from the broadcast were reprinted in The Listener magazine on 20th July 1978.
2 A detailed discussion of this work is contained later in this chapter.
3 One of a series of noon-time lectures organised by Thomas Blair and subsequently published in a collection entitled The Inner Cities. A Condition of England Question (1978b).
4 Race Today was a highly influential journal based in Brixton that led the campaign against police harassment of blacks during the 1970s. The journal was the production of a group of black activists known as the Race Today collective. The journal's editorial espoused the rights of blacks to ‘refuse to work’ under the present climate of racist capitalist labour relations.
[Page 209]5 Darcus Howe, editor of the journal Race Today was a key figure in the debate around black youth and crime, which was pursued in the pages of Race Today and the Black Liberator.
6 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
7 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
8 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
9 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
10 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
11 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
12 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
13 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
14 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002.
1 In conversation with Stuart Hall.
2 This article and many others published by Hall in Marxism Today were reprinted in a single volume called The Hard Road to Renewal in 1988. I will reference this collection throughout this chapter.
3 ‘The problem of ideology; Marxism without guarantees’ in Matthews (ed) (1983) Marx: 100 Years On. Lawrence and Wishart: London.
4 Stuart Hall in Conversation with the author, November 2002.In the Belly of the Beast
1 Stuart Hall in conversation with the author, November 2002
2 ‘Manichean’ refers to the dualistic philosophy underpinning religions which recognise the co-existence of good and evil.
3 Stephen Lawrence, a black teenager, was murdered on the evening of 22 April 1993 in Eltham, South London, by a gang of six white men. Despite the eye witness testimony of his friend Duwayne Brooks and others at the scene, the police were unable to build an effective case for prosecution although the suspects were well known to the police for racist violence, and quickly identified. Despite a criminal case, a private prosecution brought by the family, an inquest and a public inquiry, no-one has ever been convicted of the murder.
4 Perry Anderson criticised what he regarded as an over-emphasis on Gramsci on the basis that it had little relevance for the investigation of [Page 210]developing world or non-European economies. When Perry Anderson took over the editorialship of New Left Review, the journal underwent a profound shift towards a focus on international Marxism and its relationship to global economics.
5 Benedict Anderson's Imaginary Communities is premised on the idea that our relationship to questions of society and nationalism are profoundly influenced and shaped by determining ideological and symbolic structures and beliefs.
6 The BNP, British National Party is an extremely rightwing political organisation which espouses racist views. It has recently tried to shake off its Neo-nazi image.
7 ‘Dirty Washing.’ Time Out (London) 14–20 November 1985.
8 See Mulvey L. (1975) ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ in Screen 16/3 pp 6–18.
9 See Bakhtin's theory of dialogic voices within novelistic discourse in Morris, P. (ed) (1994) The Bakhtin Reader. Edward Arnold: London.
10 See Bakhtin's theory of the carnivalesque, Morris (1994).
11 This was the ship that brought West Indian families to Britain in 1956, an historic staging point in the history of British post-war multi-culturalism.
12 The Commission on the Future of Multi-ethnic Britain was set up by the Runnymede Trust, an independent organisation which is committed to analysing and monitoring racial justice in the UK.
1 Soundings is edited by Martin Rustin and Doreen Massey published by Lawrence and Wishart.
2 Autograph can be found at http://www.autograph-abp.co.uk
3 InIVA stands for the Institute for International Visual Arts. Their website is at http://www.iniva.org.uk
4 Hall recently gave an opening address entitled ‘Democracy unrealised’, a critique of the ‘third way’ in Vienna for Documenta, which is available to download at http://www.documenta.de/data/english/platform1/index.html and is currently revising a talk recently given to the Prince Claus Foundation. Please see and http://www.princeclausfund.n1
Bibliography[Page 211]1992) The Culture Industry. Routledge: London.(1970) For Marx. Vintage: New York.(1971) Lenin and Philosophy. New Left Books: London.(1990) The Media Reader. BFI: London.and (1991) Imagined Communities. Verso: London.(Arts Council of England/DCMS (2000) Whose Heritage? The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Britain's Living Heritage. Sage: London.1981) The Dialogic Imagination. Translated and edited by Holquist, M.University of Texas Press: Austin.(1996) Black British Cultural Studies. Chicago University Press: Chicago., , and (Barker, F. et al. (1977) (eds) Literature Society and the Sociology of Literature. University of Essex: Colchester.1992) Reading into Cultural Studies. Routledge: London.and (1999) The Pleasure of the Text. Hill and Wang: New York.(1992) Risk Society. Sage: London.(Benyon, J. and Solomos, I. (1987) (eds) The Roots of Urban Unrest. Pergamon Press: Oxford.Berker, T. (1974) (ed.) The Long March of Everyman. Andre Deutch: London.1994) The Location of Culture. Routledge: London.(1977) Class, Hegemony and Party. Lawrence and Wishart: London.(1999) ‘Poetry and polemic’, in Race and Class vol. 41 no. 1/2 July-Dec pp. 23–34.(1994) Beyond Thatcherism. Oxford University Press: Buckingham.and (1990) ‘Television, aesthetics and audiences’, in P.Mellenkamp (ed.) Logics of Television. BFI: London.([Page 212]1997) Feminist Television Criticism: A Reader. Oxford University Press: Oxford., and (1987) Public Secrets: Eastenders and its Audiences. British Film Institute: London.(1994) ‘Intervening in culture: media studies, English and the response to “mass” culture’, in Buckingham, D. and Sefton-Green, J.Cultural Studies Goes to School. Taylor & Francis: London. pp. 123–144.and (Butterworth, E. and Weir, D. (eds) (1972) Social Problems of Modern Britain. Fontana: London.1997) Nationalism. Oxford University Press: Buckingham.(2000) Class. Penguin: London.(1990) What is History?Peguin: London.(2000) The Case of Stephen Lawrence. Penguin: London.(2000) British Television Drama. Blackwells: Oxford. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742197.001.0001(CCCS (1982) The Empire Strikes Back, Race and Racism in 70s Britain. Routledge: London.1996) ‘The formation of a diasporic intellectual’, an interview with Stuart Hall in Kuan-Hsing in MorleyD. and Hsing, K. (eds) Stuart Hall, Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. Routledge: London. pp. 484–502.(1973) The Manufacture of News. Constable: London.and (Commission on Racial Equality (1978) Five Views of Multi-racial Britain. Commission for Racial Equality: London.1994) Viewing, Reading, Listening, Audiences and Cultural Reception. Westview Press: Oxford.and (Curran, J., Gurevitch, M. and WollacottJ. (1977) (eds) Mass Communication and SocietyEdward Arnold: London.2000) Understanding Foucault. Sage: London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220221, and (Department for Culture, Media and Sport (1999) Whose Heritage?Her Majesty's Stationers Office: London.1978) Writing and Difference. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.(Donald, J. and Rattansi, A. (eds) (1992) Race, Culture and Difference. Sage: London.1988) ‘White’ Screen vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 44–65.(1991) Ideology, an Introduction. Verso: London.(2002) Race Critical Theories. Blackwell: Oxford.and (1999) Visual Culture: A Reader. Sage: London.and (1998) Representing Race. Edward Arnold: London.(1995) Reading the Popular. Unwin Hyman: Boston.(1972) The Archeology of knowledge. Partheon Books: New York.(1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and the Writings. (ed.) Gordon, C. PartheonBooks: New York.(1991) Women and Soap Opera. Polity: London.([Page 213]1998) The Third Way, the Renewal of Social Democracy. Polity: London.(1987) There ain't no Black in the Union Jack: The Cultural Politics of Race and Nation. Hutchinson: London.(1993) The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Verso: London.(2000) Without Guarantees, in Honour of Stuart Hall. Verso: London., and (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Lawrence and Wishart: London.(Grossberg, L., NelsonC. and TreichlerP. (eds) (1992) Cultural Studies. Routledge: New York.1958) A Sense of Classlessness. Universities and Left Review Vol. 5, pp. 26–32.(1960a) ‘The supply of demand’, in Thompson, E. (ed.) Out of Apathy. New Left Books: London.(1960b) ‘Crosland territory’, in New Left Review2 (24) pp. 2–3.(1964) The Popular Arts. Hutchinson: London.and (1966) ‘The formation of political consciousness’, in Clements, S. and Bright, L. (eds) The Committed Church. Darton, Longman and Todd: London.(1967a) ‘The world of the gossip column’, in Hoggart, R. (ed.) Your Sunday Paper. London University Press: London.(1967b) ‘Class and the media’, in R.Maby (ed.) Class. Anthony Blond Ltd: London. pp. 93–114.(1967c) ‘Cultural Analysis’Cambridge Review. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. vol. 89, pp. 154–7.(1967d) Young Englanders. National Committee of Commonwealth Immigrants: London.(1969) ‘The Hippies: an American “moment”’, in J.Nagel (ed.) Student Power. Merlin Press: London. pp. 170–202.(1970a) ‘A world at one with itself’, New Society no. 403.(1970b) ‘Black Britons’, Community vol. 1, pp. 3–5.(1971a) ‘Deviancy politics and the media’, CCCS Stencilled paper no. 11.(1971b) ‘Innovation and decline in the treatment of culture on British television’, UNESCO: Paris.(1972a) ‘The limitations of broadcasting’, The Listener. pp. 328–329 16 March. vol. 87.(1972b) ‘The determination of news photographs’, Working Papers in Cultural Studies3. CCCS: University of Birmingham.(1973a) ‘The determination of news photographs’, republished in S.Cohen and J.Young (1973) The Manufacture of News. Constable: London.(1973b) ‘Encoding and decoding in the media discourse’, CCCS stencilled paper: University of Birmingham.([Page 214]Hall, S. and Walton, P. (eds) (1973) Situating Marx. Human Context Books: London.1974) ‘Marx's notes on method: a “reading” of the “1857 introduction to theGrundrisse”’, Working Papers in Cultural Studies. no. 6. University of Birmingham: Birmingham.(1974) ‘Media power: the double bind’, Journal of Communication. 24 (4) pp. 19–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1974.tb00404.x(1975) Mugging and Law n Order. Stencilled papers no 36: University of Birmingham., and (Hall, S., and Jefferson, T. (eds) (1976) Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Postwar Britain. Hutchinson: London.1976) ‘The unity of current affairs television’, Working Papers in Cultural Studies 9CCCS: University of Birmingham., , and (1977a) ‘Culture, the media and the ideological effect’, in Curran, J.Gurevitch, M. and Wollacott, J. (eds) (1977) Mass Communication and Society. Edward Arnold: London. pp. 315–348.(1977b) ‘Rethinking the base and superstructure metaphor’, in Bloomfield, J. et al. Class, Hegemony and Party. Lawrence and Wishart: London.(1977) ‘Marxism and culture: a reply to Ros Coward’, Screen vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 109–111., , , and (1978a) ‘Pluralism, race and class in Caribbean society’, inRace and Class in Post-colonial Society. Unesco: Paris.(1978b) ‘Race and poverty’, in Blair, T. (ed) The Inner Cities. Central London polytechnic papers on the environment: London.(1978c) ‘The racist within’The Listener, pp. 66–68.(1978a) Policing the Crisis. Macmillan Press Ltd: London., , , , and (1978b) On Ideology. Hutchinson: London., and (1980a) ‘Race, articulation and societies structured in dominance’, in Baker, M., Diawara, M. and Lindeborg, R. (eds) (1996) Black British Cultural Studies. Chicago University Press: Chicago. pp. 16–60.(1980b) ‘Encoding and decoding’ in Hall, S., Hobson, D., Lowe, A. and Willis, P. (eds) Culture, Media, Language. Hutchinson: London.(1981) ‘The whites of their eyes: racist ideologies and the media’, in Bridges, G. and Brunt, R. (eds) Silver Linings. Lawrence and Wishart: London. pp. 28–52.(1985b) ‘Realignment for what?’Marxism Today. December pp. 12–17.(1987a) ‘Minimal selves’ in Appignanesi, L.Identity. ICA: London.(1987b) ‘New ethnicities’, in Baker, H, Diawara, M. and Lindeborg, R. (1996) Black British Cultural Studies. Chicago University Press: Chicago.(1987c) ‘Gramsci and us’Marxism Today. June pp. 16–21.(Hall, S., and Jacques, M. (1987) (eds) The Politics of Thatcherism. Lawrence and Wishart: London.[Page 215]1988a) The Hard Road to Renewal. Verso: London.(1988b) ‘The toad in the garden. Thatcherism amongst the theorists’, in Nelson, C. and Grossberg, L. (eds) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. University of Illinois Press: Urbana. pp. 35–73.(Hall, S., and Jacques, M. (eds) (1989) New Times. Lawrence and Wishart: London.1991) ‘Reading Gramsci’, in Simon, R.Gramsci's Political Thought. Lawrence and Wishart: London. pp. 7–10.(1992) ‘Cultural studies and its theoretical legacies’, reprinted in Morley, D. and Chen, K. (eds) (1996) Stuart Hall, Critical Dialogues. Routledge: London.(1994) ‘Whose English’ in Bazalgette, C. (ed.) Report of the Commission into English. BFI: London.(1995a) ‘Authoritarian populism: a reply to Jessop et al.’, New Left Review no. 151, pp. 115–24.(1995b) ‘Negotiating Caribbean Identities’, New Left Review no. 209, pp. 3–14.(1996a) ‘What is this black in black popular culture?’, in Morley, D. and Chen, K. (eds) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues. Routledge: London.(1996b) ‘Who needs identity?’ in Hall, S. and Du Gay, P. (eds) Questions of Cultural Identity. Sage: London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221907(1997) ‘Tribute to Raphael Samuel’, New Left Review no. 221, pp. 119–127.(1998) ‘The great moving nowhere show’, Marxism Today Nov/Dec(1999) ‘Unsettling the heritage: re-imagining the post-nation’, in Department for Culture, Media and Sport (1999) Whose Heritage?HMSO: London.(2000) ‘The multicultural question’, in Hesse, B. (2000) Un/settled Multiculturalisms. Zed Books: London. pp. 209–241.(1992) The Politics of Pictures: The Creation of the Public in the Age of Popular media. Routledge: London.(1992) Structuralism and Semiotics. Routledge: London.(1998) The Course of My Life. Hodder & Stoughton: London.(1979) Subculture, the Meaning of Style. Routledge: London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203139943(2000) Profit and Pleasure: Sexual Identiting in Late Capitalism. Routledge: London & New York.(Hesse, B. (ed.) (2000) Un/settled Multiculturalisms, Diasporas, Entanglements, Transruptions. Zed Books: London.2002) Interesting Times. Allen Lane/Penguin: London.(1959) The Uses of Literacy. Penguin: London.(1997) The Dialectic of Enlightenment (1944)Verso: London.and (1978) Class and Class Structure. Lawrence and Wishart: London.(1980) Marxism and Democracy. Lawrence and Wishart: London.(Ingham, R. (1978) (ed.) Football Hooliganism: The Wider Context. Interaction: London.[Page 216]1997) ‘The great moving centre show’New Statesman 21 November pp. 26–28.(1997) ‘Les enfants du Marx and CocaCola’New Statesman, 28 November vol. 126 pp. 34–6.and (1997) ‘Cultural revolutions’New Statesman Dec 5th vol. 126, pp. 24–6.and (1991) Postmodernism or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Verso: London.(1988) Thatcherism. Polity: London., , and (1989) Consensus Politics from Atlee to Thatcher. Blackwell: Oxford.and (1995) The First New Left. Lawrence and Wishart: London.(1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. Verso: London.and (1996) ‘Stuart Hall and the Marxist concept of ideology’, reprinted in MorleyD. and Chen, K. (eds) Stuart Hall, Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. Routledge: London. Originally published in the journal Theory, Culture & Society (1991) no. 8Sage: London. pp. 1–28.(1991) The Media Studies Book, a Guide for Teachers. Routledge: London.(1967) Class: A Symposium. Anthony Blond: London.(1991) Teaching About Television. Macmillan: London.(1992) Teaching the Media. Routledge: London.(1992) Cultural Populism. Routledge: London.(1981) ‘Settling accounts with subcultures: a feminist critique’, in Bennett, T., Martin, G., Mercer, C. and Woollacott, J. (eds) Culture, Ideology and Social Process: A Reader. Open University Press: London.(1996) ‘Looking back at New Times and its critics’, in Morley, D. and Chen, K. (eds) Stuart Hall, Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. Routledge: London.(1996) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues. Routledge: London.and (1980) The Nationwide Audience. British Film Institute: London.(2002) Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. Routledge: London.(Morris, P. (1994) (ed.) The Bakhtin Reader. Edward Arnold: London.1975) ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’, in Screen16/3 pp. 6–18.(Nagel, J. (1969) (ed.) Student Power. Merlin Press: London.‘Parekh Report of the Commission on the future of multi-ethnic Britain’ (2000) The Runnymede Trust/Profile Books: London.1979) State, Power, Socialism. New Left Books: London.(1987) Reading the Romance. Verso: London.(1981) People's History and Socialist Theory. Routledge, Kegan and Paul: London.([Page 217]1973) Deviance and Social Control. Tavistock: London.and (1999) ‘Editorial: A third way with teeth’Soundings. Lawrence and Wishart, Issue 11, Spring 1999 pp. 7–21.(2002) Racism and Cultural Studies, Critiques of Multiculturalist Ideology and the Politics of Difference. Duke University Press: Durham and London.(1980) Gramsci's Politics. Minnesota University Press: Mineapolis.(1974) Television Violence: Crime, Drama and the Analysis of Content. CCCS stencilled paper: University of Birmingham., , and (1982) Gramsci's Political Thought. Lawrence & Wishart: London.(1996) ‘Stuart Hall, cultural studies and marxism’, in MorleyD. and Chen, K. (eds) Stuart Hall, Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. Routledge: London. p. 71–101.(1994) New Vocabularies in Film Semiotics. Routledge: London., , and (2001) Cultural Theory and Popular Culture. Prentice Hall: London.(1995) The Downing Street Years. Harper Collins: London.(1963) The Making of the English Working Classes. Penguin: Harmondsworth.(2000) British Cultural Studies. Routledge: London.(Twitchin, J. (1993) (ed.) The Black and White Media Book. Trentham Books: Stoke on Trent.1958) Culture and Society. Chatto & Windus: London.(Williams, R. (1969) (ed.) May Day Manifesto. Penguin: London.1974) Television, Technology and Cultural Form. Routledge: London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426647(1980) ‘Advertising in women's magazines: 1956–74’, CCCS Stencilled paper no. 59.(1998) ‘Stuart Hall's cultural studies and the problem of hegemony’, The British Journal of Sociology. Vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 399–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591390(