Understanding School Bullying: Its Nature & Prevention Strategies

Books

Peter K. Smith

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    The research area around school bullying, and more recently cyberbullying, has been growing so rapidly, that it is difficult for any book to do justice to it. Like the Red Queen in Alice in Wonderland, I felt I had been running as fast as I could to keep up with the research, and meanwhile the book stayed where it was (half completed). A mixture of patience and cajoling from the publishers, and my own desire to finally finish it, has helped bring about a conclusion. I would like to thank a number of colleagues and friends who have contributed to or commented on drafts and excerpts, or answered queries, including Cristina del Barrio, Antonella Brighi, Hilary Cremin, Rosario del Rey, Jevetta Doyley, Erika Fox, Carrie Herbert, Alana James, Seung-ha Lee, Conor McGuckin, Ersilia Menesini, Mona O'Moore, Dan Olweus, Rosario Ortega, Debra Pepler, Tiziana Pozzoli, Christina Salmivalli, Muthanna Samara, Shu Shu, Ruth Sittichai, Barbara Spears, Fran Thompson and Michael Turner. Inevitably, some things will be omitted, and some material will be superceded as research moves on, but I hope not too many errors have been made. Working in this area of social science has been satisfying and rewarding, both through having so many helpful colleagues, and through the knowledge that we appear to be having at least some success in reducing the impact of school bullying and improving children's well-being. I hope this book can also contribute to this wider endeavour.

    PeterK.Smith January 2014
  • Appendix A: Record Sheet for Incidents of Bullying

    School name:…………………………………………………………………………………….

    [This sheet should be filled in for any incident of bullying that was reported and dealt with. An ‘incident’ refers to what may have been a series of events, but where there is a definite outcome in terms of trying to get the bullying to stop.

    There is no need to identify any individual by name, pseudonyms can be used, e.g. ‘boy X in year 7 was attacked by two older boys, Y and Z, from year 8’.]

    A: What happened?

    Date of incident (month/year): ……………………………………………………………

    Who was directly involved? [Indicate age and gender]

    [As perpetrator]

    ▪ One boy ▪ One girl ▪ Several boys ▪ Several girls ▪ Both boys and girls

    Year group? ………………………….

    [As victim]

    ▪ One boy ▪ One girl ▪ Other: [specify] ………………………….

    Year group? ………………………….

    Were there any bystanders? If so, about how many (if known)?

    ▪ No ▪ Yes–if so about how many? ………………………….

    What happened? What kind of bullying?

    ▪ Physical Verbal ▪ Relational ▪ Cyber

    ▪ Other (specify) …………

    What was the sequence of events in the bullying–brief details?

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    How often had this happened?

    ▪ Once ▪ 2–3 times ▪ 4–5 times ▪ Many times

    Over how long a period?

    ▪ A few days ▪ A week ▪ A month ▪ Several months

    How serious was this incident judged to be?

    ▪ Not very serious ▪ Average ▪ More serious than usual ▪ Very serious

    How was the bullying found out about? [Who first told about it?]

    ▪ Victim ▪ Peer supporter ▪ Other pupil ▪ Parent ▪ Observed by staff

    ▪ Other (specify) ……………………………………………

    B: What was done about it?

    What was initially done about the bullying in this case?

    ▪ Serious Talk with bully or bullies

    ▪ Restorative Approaches

    ▪ Pikas Method

    ▪ Support Group Method

    ▪ Bully Court

    ▪ Negative Sanctions–if so what kind? …………………………………

    Did this work? ▪ Yes ▪ Partially ▪ No

    What was the outcome?

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    Was any follow-up work with the bullying student(s) carried out?

    ▪ No ▪ Yes–how?

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    What was the outcome of that?

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    Was the victim supported in any way?

    ▪ No ▪ Yes–how?

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    What was the outcome of that?

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    Any other comments on this incident and how it was dealt with?

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………

    References

    Ahmad, Y. & Smith, P. K. (1990). Behavioural measures: bullying in schools, Newsletter of the Association for Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 12: 26–27.
    Ahmad, Y., Whitney, I. & Smith, P. K. (1991). A survey service for schools on bully/victim problems. In P. K.Smith & D. A.Thompson (Eds), Practical Approaches to Bullying. London: David Fulton, pp. 103–111.
    Ahmed, E. (2001). Shame management: regulating bullying. In E.Ahmed, N.Harris, J.Braithwaite & V.Braithwaite (Eds), Shame Management through Reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 211–314.
    Ahmed, E. & Braithwaite, V. (2004a). Bullying and victimization: cause for concern for both families and schools, Social Psychology of Education, 7: 35–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:SPOE.0000010668.43236.60
    Ahmed, E. & Braithwaite, V. (2004b). ‘What, me ashamed?’: shame management and school bullying, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41: 245–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427804266547
    Alderson, P. & Morrow, V. (2004). Ethics, Social Research and Consulting with Children and Young People. Available at http://www.barnados.org.uk
    Alsaker, F. D. & Valkanover, S. (2012). The Bernese program against victimization in kindergarten and elementary school, New Directions for Youth Development, 133: 15–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/yd.20004
    Ammermueller, A. (2012). Violence in European schools: a widespread phenomenon that matters for educational production, Labour Economics, 19: 908–922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2012.08.010
    Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A., Rothstein, H. R. & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries: a meta-analytic review, Psychological Bulletin, 136: 151–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018251
    Andreou, E. (2004). Bully/victim problems and their association with Machiavellianism and self-efficacy in Greek primary school children, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74: 297–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709904773839897
    Andreou, E. & Bonoti, F. (2009). Children's bullying experiences expressed through drawings and self-reports, School Psychology International, 31: 164–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034309352421
    Ang, R. P. & Goh, D. H. (2010). Cyberbullying among adolescents: the role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender, Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41: 387–397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-010-0176-3
    Anti-Bullying Alliance (ABA) (2011). ‘Tackling bullying in schools: a governors guide’. Available at http://www.anti-bullyingalliance.org.uk
    Aoyama, I., Utsumi, S. & Hasegawa, M. (2012). Cyberbullying in Japan. In Q.Li, D.Cross & P. K.Smith (Eds), Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives. Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 183–201.
    Arora, C. M.J. & Thompson, D. A. (1987). Defining bullying for a secondary school, Education and Child Psychology, 14: 110–120.
    Arora, T. (1994). Measuring bullying with the ‘Life in School’ checklist, Pastoral Care in Education, 12: 11–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02643949409470880
    Arseneault, L., Milne, B. J., Taylor, A., Adams, F., Delgado, K., Caspi, A. & Moffitt, T. E. (2008). Being bullied as an environmentally mediated contributing factor to children's internalizing problems: a study of twins discordant for victimization, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 162: 145–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.53
    Arslan, S., Savaser, S., Hallett, V. & Balci, S. (2012). Cyberbullying among primary school students in Turkey: self-reported prevalence and associations with home and school life, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15: 525–533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0207
    Atria, M., Strohmeier, D. & SpielC. (2007). The relevance of the school class as social unit for the prevalence of bullying and victimization, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4: 372–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405620701554560
    Ball, H. A., Arsenault, L., Taylor, A., Maughan, B., Caspi, A. & Moffitt, T. E. (2008). Genetic and environmental influences on victims, bullies and bully-victims in childhood, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49: 104–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01821.x
    Bandura, A. (2002). Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency, Journal of Moral Education, 312: 101–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305724022014322
    Banerjee, R., Robinson, C. & Smalley, D. (2010). Evaluation of the Beatbullying Peer Mentoring Programme: Report for Beatbullying. Sussex: University of Sussex.
    Barker, E. D., Arsenault, L., Brendgen, M., Fontaine, N. & Maughan, B. (2008). Joint development of bullying and victimization in adolescence: relations to delinquency and self-harm, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47: 1030–1038.
    Barter, C. (2011). Peer violence in residential children's homes: a unique experience. In C.Monks & I.Coyne (Eds), Bullying in Different Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61–86.
    Bauer, N. S., Lozano, P. & Rivara, F. P. (2007). The effectiveness of the Olweus bullying prevention program in public middle schools: a controlled trial, Journal of Adolescent Health, 40: 266–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.10.005
    Bauman, S. (2011). Cyberbullying: What Counselors Need To Know. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Bauman, S. (2012). Cyberbullying in the United States. In Q.Li, D.Cross & P. K.Smith (Eds), Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives. Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 143–179.
    Bauman, S., Toomey, R. B. & Walker, J. (2013). Associations among bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students, Journal of Adolescence, 36: 341–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.12.001
    Bauman, S., Underwood, M. K. & Card, N. (2013). Definitions: another perspective and a proposal for beginning with cyberaggression. In S.Bauman, J.Walker & D.Cross (Eds), Principles of Cyberbullying Research: Definition, Methods, and Measures. New York & London: Routledge, pp. 87–93.
    Bauman, S., Walker, J. & Cross, D. (2013). Principles of Cyberbullying Research: Definition, Methods, and Measures. New York & London: Routledge.
    Beckman, L., Hagquist, C. & Hellstrom, L. (2012). Does the association with psychosomatic health problems differ between cyberbullying and traditional bullying?, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17: 421–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2012.704228
    Belsey, B. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.cyberbullying.ca, 15 July 2004.
    Benton, T. (2011). ‘Sticks and stones may break my bones, but being left on my own is worse’: An analysis of reported bullying at school within NFER attitude survey. Slough: NFER. Available at http://www.nfer.ac.uk
    Berne, S., Frisén, A., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Naruskov, K., Luik, P., Katzer, C., Erentaite, R., & Zukauskiene, R. (2013). Cyberbullying assessment instruments: a systematic review, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18: 320–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.022
    Besag, V. (1989). Bullies and Victims in Schools. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Besag, V. (2006). Understanding Girls’ Friendships, Fights and Feuds. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Bibou-Nakou, I., Tsiantis, J., Assimopoulos, H. & Chatzilambou, P. (2012). Bullying/victimization from a family perspective: a qualitative study of secondary school students’ views, European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28: 53–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10212-011-0101-6
    Bijttebier, P. & Vertommen, H. (1998). Coping with peer arguments in school-age children with bully/victim problems, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68: 387–394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1998.tb01299.x
    Birkett, M., Espelage, D. L. & Koenig, B. (2009). LGB and questioning students in schools: the moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38: 989–1000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9389-1
    Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J. & Kaukainen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression, Aggressive Behavior, 18: 117–127.
    Black, S. A. & Jackson, E. (2007). Using bullying incident density to evaluate the Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme, School Psychology International, 28: 623–638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034307085662
    Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Dionne, G., Girard, A., Perusse, D. & Tremblay, R. (2012). Strong genetic contribution to peer relationship difficulties at school entry: findings from a longitudinal twin study: Child Development, 84: 1098–1114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12019
    Bosacki, S. L., Marini, Z. A. & Dane, A. V. (2006). Voices from the classroom: pictorial and narrative representations of children's bullying experiences, Journal of Moral Education, 35: 231–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057240600681769
    Boulton, M. J. (1992). Rough physical play in adolescence: does it serve a dominance function?, Early Education and Development, 3: 312–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15566935eed0304_4
    Boulton, M. J. (1994). Understanding and preventing bullying in the junior school playground. In P. K.Smith & S.Sharp (Eds), School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London. Routledge, pp. 132–159.
    BoultonM. J. (1999). Concurrent and longitudinal relations between children's playground behavior and social preference, victimization, and bullying, Child Development, 70: 944–954. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00068
    BoultonM. J. (2013). The effects of victim of bullying reputation on adolescents’ choice of friends: mediation by fear of becoming a victim of bullying, moderation by victim status, and implications for befriending interventions, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114: 146–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.05.001
    BoultonM.J. & FlemingtonI. (1996). The effects of a short video intervention on secondary school pupils’ involvement in definitions of and attitudes towards bullying, School Psychology International, 17: 331–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034396174003
    Boulton, M. J. & Smith, P. K. (1992). Ethnic preferences and perceptions among Asian and White British middle school children, Social Development, 1: 55–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.1992.tb00134.x
    Boulton, M. J. & Smith, P. K. (1994). Bully/victim problems among middle school children: stability, self-perceived competence, and peer acceptance, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12: 315–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1994.tb00637.x
    Boulton, M. J., Smith, P. K. & Cowie, H. (2010). Short-term longitudinal relationships between children's peer victimization/bullying experiences and self-perceptions: evidence for reciprocity, School Psychology International, 31: 296–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034310362329
    Bouman, T., van der Meulen, M., Goossens, F. A., Olthof, T., Vermande, M. M. & Aleva, E. A. (2012). Peer and self-reports of victimization and bullying: their differential association with internalizing problems and social adjustment, Journal of School Psychology, 50: 759–774. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2012.08.004
    Bovaird, J. A. (2010). Scales and surveys: some problems with measuring bullying behavior. In S. R.Jimerson, S. M.Swearer & D. L.Espelage (Eds), Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. New York & London: Routledge, pp. 277–292.
    Bowen, R. & Holcom, D. (2010). A Survey into the Prevalence and Incidence of School Bullying in Wales. Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government. Available at http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/563/
    Bowers, L., Smith, P. K. & Binney, V. (1992). Family relationships as perceived by children involved in bully/victim problems at school, Journal of Family Therapy, 14: 371–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j..1992.00467.x
    Bowes, L., Arsenault, L., Maughan, B., Taylor, A., Caspi, A. & Moffitt, T. E. (2009). School, neighborhood, and family factors are associated with children's bullying involvement: a nationally representative longitudinal study, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48: 545–553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819cb017
    Bowes, L., Maughan, B., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E. & Arseneault, L. (2010). Families promote emotional and behavioural resilience to bullying: evidence of an environmental effect, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51: 809–817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02216.x
    Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Barker, E. D., Vitaro, F., Girard, A., Tremblay, R. & Perusse, D. (2011). Gene-environment processes linking aggression, peer victimisation and the teacher-child relationship, Child Development, 82: 2021–2036. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01644.x
    Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F., Girard, A., Dionne, G., & Perusse, D. (2008). Gene-environment interaction between peer victimisation and child aggression, Development & Psychopathology, 20: 455–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000229
    Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B. & Gotlib, I. H. (1993). Psychopathology and early experience: a reappraisal of retrospective reports, Psychological Bulletin, 113: 82–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.82
    Brier, J. & Ahmad, Y. (1991). Developing a school court as a means of addressing bullying in schools. In P. K.Smith & D. A.Thompson (Eds), Practical Approaches to Bullying. London: David Fulton, pp. 25–36.
    Brown, S. & Taylor, K. (2008). Bullying, education and earnings: evidence from the National Child Development Study, Economics of Education Review, 27: 387–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2007.03.003
    Burk, F. L. (1897). Teasing and bullying, Pedagogical Seminary, 4: 336–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08919402.1897.10534145
    Butchart, A. & Kahane, T. (2006). Preventing Child Maltreatment: A Guide to Taking Action and Generating Evidence. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
    Calvete, E., Orue, I., Estévez, A., Villardón, L. & Padilla, P. (2010). Cyberbullying in adolescents: modalities and aggressors’ profile, Computers in Human Behavior, 26: 1128–1135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.017
    Campbell, M., Spears, B., Slee, P., Butler, D. & Kift, S. (2012). Victims’ perceptions of traditional and cyberbullying, and the psychosocial correlates of their victimisation, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17: 389–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2012.704316
    Caravita, S., DiBlasio, P. & Salmivalli, C. (2009). Unique and interactive effects of empathy and social status on involvement in bullying, Social Development, 18: 140–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00465.x
    Carlyle, K. E. & Steinman, K. J. (2007). Demographic differences in the prevalence, co-occurrence, and correlates of adolescent bullying at school, Journal of School Health, 77: 623–629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2007.00242.x
    Carragher, D. J. & Rivers, I. (2002). Trying to hide: a cross-national study of growing up for non-identified gay and bisexual male youth, Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7: 457–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359104502007003011
    Cassidy, W., Jackson, M. & Brown, K. N. (2009). Sticks and stones can break my bones, but how can pixels hurt me?, School Psychology International, 30: 383–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034309106948
    Chan, J. H.F., Myron, R. & Crawshaw, M. (2005). The efficacy of non-anonymous measures of bullying, School Psychology International, 26: 443–458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034305059020
    Chaux, E., Molano, A. & Podlesky, P. (2009). Socio-economic, socio-political and socio-emotional variables explaining school bullying: a country-wide multilevel analysis, Aggressive Behavior, 35: 520–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20320
    ChildLine (2006). Casenotes: Calls to ChildLine about Sexual Orientation, Homophobia and Homophobic Bullying. Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/inform/publications/downloads/WD_CasenotesSexualOrientation_gf37413.pdf
    Christensen, L. L., Fraynt, R. J., Neece, C. L. & Baker, B. L. (2012). Bullying adolescents with intellectual disability, Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 5: 49–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19315864.2011.637660
    Cole, J. C.M., Cornell, D. G. & Sheras, P. (2006). Identification of school bullies by survey methods. Professional School Counseling, 9: 305–313.
    Collishaw, S., Pickles, A., Messer, J., Rutter, M., Shearer, C. & Maughan, B. (2007). Resilience to adult psychopathology following childhood maltreatment: evidence from a community sample, Child Abuse & Neglect, 31: 211–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.02.004
    Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G. & Kim, T. E. (2010). Variability in the prevalence of bullying and victimization: a cross-national and methodological analysis. In S. R.Jimerson, S. M.Swearer & D. L.Espelage (Eds), Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. New York & London: Routledge, pp. 347–362.
    Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E. & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic investigation, School Psychology Quarterly, 25: 65–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020149
    Cornell, D. G. & Brockenbrough, K. (2004). Identification of bullies and victims: a comparison of methods, Journal of School Violence, 3: 63–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J202v03n02_05
    Cowie, H., & Olafsson, R. (2001). The role of peer support in helping the victims of bullying in a school with high levels of aggression, School Psychology International, 21: 79–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034300211006
    Cowie, H. & Sharp, S. (1994). Tackling bullying through the curriculum. In P. K.Smith & S.Sharp (Eds), School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 84–107.
    Cowie, H. & Smith, P. K. (2010). Peer support as a means of improving school safety and reducing bullying and violence. In B.Doll, W.Pfohl & J.Yoon (Eds), Handbook of Youth Prevention Science. New York: Routledge. pp. 177–193.
    Cowie, H., Smith, P. K., Boulton, M. J. & Laver, R. (1994). Co-operative Group Work in the Multi-ethnic Classroom. London: David Fulton.
    Cowie, H. & Wallace, P. (2000). Peer Support in Action–From Bystanding to Standing By. London: SAGE.
    Coyne, I. (2011). Bullying in the workplace. In C.Monks & I.Coyne (Eds), Bullying in Different Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 157–184.
    Coyne, I., Chesney, T., Logan, B. & Madden, N. (2009). Griefing in a virtual community: an exploratory study of second life residents, Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217: 214–221.
    Craig, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., Fogel-Grinvald, H., Dostaler, S., Hetland, J., Simons-Morton, B., Molcho, B., Gaspar de Mato, M., Overpeck, M., Due, P., Pickett, W., HBSC Violence & Injuries Prevention Focus Group, and HBSC Bullying Writing Group (2009). A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries, International Journal of Public Health, 54 (Suppl 2): 216–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-009-5413-9
    Cremin, H. (2013). Critical perspectives on Restorative Justice/Restorative Approaches to educational settings. In E.Sellman, H.Cremin & G.McCluskey (Eds), Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Whole School Approaches to Managing Relationships. London: Routledge.
    Crick, N. R. & Dodge, K. A. (1999). ‘Superiority’ is in the eye of the beholder: a comment on Sutton, Smith and Swettenham, Social Development, 8: 128–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00084
    Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment, Child Development, 66: 710–722. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131945
    Cross, J. E. & Newman-Gonchar, R. (2004). Data quality in student risk behavior surveys and administrator training, Journal of School Violence, 3: 89–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J202v03n02_06
    Cullerton-Sen, C. & Crick, N. R. (2005). Understanding the effects of physical and relational victimization: the utility of multiple perspectives in predicting social-emotional adjustment, School Psychology Review, 34: 147–160.
    Currie, C. et al. (eds) (2012). Social Determinants of Health and Well-being among Young People: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: International report from the 2009/2010 survey. Copenhagen:WHO Regional Office for Europe.
    Debarbieux, E., Blaya, C. & Vidal, D. (2003). Tackling violence in schools: a report from France. In P. K.Smith (Ed.), Violence in Schools: The Response in Europe. London & New York: RoutledgeFalmer. pp. 17–32.
    Del Barrio, C., Martín, E., Montero, I., Gutiérrez, H., Barrios, A. & de Dios, M. J. (2008). Bullying and social exclusion in Spanish secondary schools: national trends from 1999 to 2006, International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 8: 657–677.
    Department for Education (DfE) (1994). Bullying: Don't Suffer in Silence: An Anti-bullying Pack for Schools. London: HMSO. (
    2nd edition
    , 2000.)
    Department for Education (DfE) (2013). Preventing and Tackling Bullying: Advice for Head Teachers, Staff and Governing Bodies. Available at http://www.education.gov.uk/publications
    Dixon, R. (2011). Rethinking School Bullying: Towards an Integrated Model. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Dixon, R., Smith, P. K. & Jenks, C. (2004). Bullying and difference: a case study of peer group dynamics in one school, Journal of School Violence, 3: 41–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J202v03n04_04
    Dooley, J. J., Cross, D., Hearn, L. & Treyvaud, R. (2009). Review of Existing Australian and International Cyber-safety Research. Perth, Australia: Child Health Promotion Research Centre, Edith Cowan University.
    Dooley, J. J., Pyżalski, J. & Cross, D. (2009). Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying: a theoretical and conceptual review, Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217: 182–188.
    Due, P., Merlo, J., Harel-Fisch, Y. et al. (2009). Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: a comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries, American Journal of Public Health, 99: 907–914. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.139303
    Duncan, N. (1999). Sexual Bullying: Gender Conflict and Pupil Culture in Secondary Schools. London: Routledge.
    Duncan, N. (2002). Girls, bullying and school transfer. In T. V.Sunnari, J.Kangasvuo & M.Heikkinen (Eds), Gendered and Sexualised Violence in Educational Environments. Oulu: University of Oulo Press, pp. 110–126.
    Duncan, R. D. (1999). Peer and sibling aggression: an investigation of intra- and extra-familial bullying, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14: 871–886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626099014008005
    Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions, Child Development, 82: 405–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x
    Egan, S. K. & Perry, D. G. (1998). Does low self-regard invite victimization?, Developmental Psychology, 34: 299–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.2.299
    Eisner, M. & Malti, T. (2012). The future of research on evidence-based developmental violence prevention in Europe–Introduction to the Focus Section, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6: 166–175.
    Elgar, F. J., Craig, W., Boyce, W., Morgan, A. & Vella-Zarb, R. (2009). Income inequality and school bullying: multilevel study of adolescents in 37 countries, Journal of Adolescent Health, 45: 351–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.04.004
    Ellis, V. & High, S. (2004). Something more to tell you: gay, lesbian or bisexual young people's experiences of secondary schooling, British Educational Research Journal, 30: 213–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192042000195281
    Encarta World English Dictionary (1999). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Endresen, I. M. & Olweus, D. (2001). Self-reported empathy in Norwegian adolescents: sex differences, age trends, and relationship to bullying. In A. C.Bohart, C.Arthur & D. J.Stipek (Eds), Constructive and Destructive Behavior: Implications for Family, School and Society. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 147–165.
    Engström, K., Hallqvist, J., Möller, J. & Laflamme, L. (2005). Do episodes of peer victimization trigger physical injury? A case-crossover study of Swedish school children, Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 33: 19–25.
    Epstein, D., Dowler, A., Mellor, D. J. & Madden, L. (2006). Evaluation of Anti-bullying Policies in Schools in Wales: Final Report. Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government.
    Eslea, M., Menesini, E., Morita, Y., O'Moore, M., Mora-Merchan, J. A., Pereira, B., Smith, P. K. & Wenxin, Z. (2003). Friendship and loneliness among bullies and victims: data from seven countries, Aggressive Behavior, 30: 71–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20006
    Eslea, M. & Mukhtar, K. (2000). Bullying and racism among Asian children in Britain, Educational Research, 42: 207–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/001318800363845
    Espelage, D. L., Low, S., Polanin, J. R. & Brown, E. C. (2013). The impact of a middle school program to reduce aggression, victimization, and sexual violence, Journal of Adolescent Health, 30: 1–7.
    Espelage, D. L. & Swearer, S. M. (Eds) (2004). Bullying in American schools: A Socio-ecological Perspective on Prevention and Intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Fanti, K. A., Demetriou, A. G. & Hawa, V. V. (2012). A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: examining risk and protective factors, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9: 168–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2011.643169
    Faris, R. & Felmlee, D. (2011). Status struggles: network centrality and gender segregation in same- and cross-gender aggression, American Sociological Review, 76: 48–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003122410396196
    Farrington, D. P., Lösel, F., Ttofi, M. M. & Theodorakis, N. (2012). School Bullying, Depression and Offending Behaviour Later in Life: An Updated Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies. Stockholm: Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention.
    Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F. I.M. & Verloove-Vanhorick, P. S. (2006). Effects of antibullying school program on bullying and health complaints, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160: 638–644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.160.6.638
    Ferguson, C. J. & Kilburn, J. (2010). Much ado about nothing: the misestimation and overinterpretation of violent video game effects in Eastern and Western nations: comment on Anderson et al. (2010), Psychological Bulletin, 136: 174–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018566
    Finkelhor, D. (2008). Childhood Victimization: Violence, Crime and Abuse in the Lives of Young People. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. & Hamby, S. (2012). Let's prevent peer victimization, not just bullying, Child Abuse & Neglect, 36: 271–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.12.001
    Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R. & Hamby, S. L. (2009). Trends in childhood violence and abuse exposure: evidence from two national surveys, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164: 238–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.283
    Finnegan, R. A., Hodges, E. V.E. & Perry, D. G. (1998). Victimization by peers: associations with children's reports of mother-child interaction, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75: 1076–1086. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.4.1076
    Fisher, H. L., Moffitt, T. E., Houts, R. M., Belsky, D. W., Arsenault, L. & Caspi, A. (2012). Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: longitudinal cohort study, British Medical Journal, 344.
    Fleming, L. C. & Jacobsen, K. H. (2009). Bullying and symptoms of depression in Chilean middle school students, Journal of School Health, 79: 130–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.0397.x
    Flouri, E. & Buchanan, A. (2002). Life satisfaction in teenager boys: the moderating role of father involvement and bullying, Aggressive Behavior, 28: 126–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.90014
    Flouri, E. & Buchanan, A. (2003). The role of mother involvement and father involvement in adolescent bullying behaviour, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18: 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260503251129
    Flygare, E., Frånberg, G-M., Gill, P., Johansson, B., Lindberg, O., Osbeck, C. & Söderström, Å. (2011). Evaluation of Anti-bullying Methods. Report 353, National Agency for Education, Stockholm. Available at http://www.skolverket.se
    Fonzi, A. (Ed.) (1997). Il Bullismo in Italia: Il fenomeno delle prepotenze a scuola dal Piemonte alla Sicilia. Firenze: Giunti.
    Fonzi, A., Genta, M. L., Menesini, E., Bacchini, D., Bonino, S. & Costabile, A. (1999). Italy. In P. K.Smith, Y.Morita, J.Junger-Tas, D.Olweus, R.Catalano & P.Slee (Eds), The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. London & New York: Routledge, pp. 140–156.
    Foshee, V. A. & Matthew, R. A. (2007). Adolescent dating abuse perpetration: a review of findings, methodological limitations, and suggestions for future research. In D. J.Flannery, A. T.Vazsonyi & I. D.Waldman (Eds), The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 431–449.
    Fox, C. L. & Boulton, M. J. (2006). Friendship as a moderator of the relationship between social skills problems and peer victimisation, Aggressive Behavior, 32: 110–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20114
    Fraczek, A. (1996). Violence and aggression in children and youth: a socio-psychological perspective, European Review, 4: 75–90.
    Frey, K. S. (2005). Gathering and communicating information about school bullying: overcoming ‘secrets and lies’, Health Education, 105: 409–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09654280510630759
    Frick, P. J. & White, S. F. (2008). Research review: the importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49: 359–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01862.x
    Frisén, A., Berne, S., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Naruskov, K., Luik, P., Katzer, C., Erentaite, R., & Zukauskiene, R. (2013). Measurement issues: a systematic review of cyber-bullying instruments. In P. K.Smith & G.Steffgen (Eds), Cyberbullying through the New Media: Findings from an International Network. Hove: Psychology Press, pp. 37–62.
    Frisén, A., Hasselblad, T. & Holmqvist, K. (2012). What actually makes bullying stop? Reports from former victims, Journal of Adolescence, 35: 981–990.
    Furlong, M. J., Sharkey, J. D., Felix, E. D., Tanigawa, D. & Green, J. G. (2010). Bullying assessment: a call for increased precision of self-reporting procedures. In S. R.Jimerson, S. M.Swearer & D. L.Espelage (Eds), Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. New York & London: Routledge, pp. 329–345.
    Galen, B. R. & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children, Developmental Psychology, 33: 589–600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.33.4.589
    Gámez-Guadix, M., Orue, I., Smith, P. K. & Calvete, E. (2013). Longitudinal and reciprocal relations of cyberbullying with depression, substance use, and problematic internet use among adolescents, Journal of Adolescence, 53: 446–452.
    Garandeau, C. F., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2014). Tackling acute cases of school bullying in the KiVa anti-bullying program: A comparison of two approaches. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
    GehringT. M., DebryM. & SmithP. K. (Eds) (2001). The Family System Test (FAST): Theory and Application. London and Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
    Gendron, B. P., Williams, K. R. & Guerra, N. (2011). An analysis of bullying among students within schools: estimating the effects of individual normative beliefs, self-esteem, and school climate, Journal of School Violence, 10: 150–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2010.539166
    Genta, M. L. (Ed.) (2002). Il Bullismo: Bambini aggressivi a scuola. Roma: Carocci.
    Genta, M. L., Smith, P. K., Ortega, R., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Thompson, F., Tippett, N., Mora-Merchan, J. & Calmaestra, J. (2012). Comparative aspects of cyberbullying in Italy, England and Spain: findings from a DAPHNE project. In Q.Li, D.Cross & P. K.Smith (Eds), Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives. Chichester, England:Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 15–31.
    Gholsen, B. & Barker, P. (1985). Kuhn, Lakatos and Laudan: applications in the history of physics and psychology, American Psychologist, 40: 755–769. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.7.755
    Gini, G. (2006). Social cognition and moral cognition in bullying: what's wrong?Aggressive Behavior, 32: 528–539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20153
    Gini, G., Albiero, P., Benelli, B. & Altoè, G. (2008). Determinants of adolescents’ active defending and passive bystanding behaviour in bullying, Journal of Adolescence, 31: 93–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.05.002
    Gini, G. & Pozzoli, T. (2009). Association between bullying and psychosomatic symptoms: a meta-analysis, Pediatrics, 123: 1059–1065. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1215
    Gini, G. & Pozzoli, T. (2013). Bullied children and psychosomatic problems: a meta-analysis, Pediatrics, 132: 720–729. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-0614
    Gini, G., Pozzoli, T. & Hauser, M. (2011). Bullies have enhanced moral competence to judge relative to victims, but lack moral compassion, Personality and Individual Differences, 50: 603–608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.12.002
    Gini, G., Pozzoli, T. & Hymel, S. (2014). Moral disengagement among children and youth: a meta-analytic review of links to aggressive behavior, Aggressive Behavior, 40: 56–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21502
    Gittins, C. (Ed.) (2006). Violence Reduction in Schools–How to Make a Difference. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
    Goldbaum, S., Craig, W. M., Pepler, D. & Connolly, J. (2003). Developmental trajectories of victimization: identifying risk and protective factors, Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19: 139–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J008v19n02_09
    Goossens, F. A., Olthof, T. & Dekker, P. H. (2006). New participant role scales: comparison between various criteria for assigning roles and indications for their validity, Aggressive Behavior, 32: 343–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20133
    Goossens, F. X., Gooren, E. M.J.C., de Castro, B. C., van Overveld, K. W., Buijs, G. J., Monshouwer, K., Onrust, S. A. & Paulussen, T. G.W.M. (2012). Implementation of PATHS through Dutch municipal health services: a quasi-experiment, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6: 234–248.
    Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D. & Spiel, C. (2009). Traditional bullying and cyberbullying: identification of risk groups for adjustment problems, Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217: 205–213.
    Greene, M. B. (2006). Bullying in schools: a plea for a measure of human rights, Journal of Social Issues, 62: 63–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00439.x
    Gregory, A., Cornell, D., Fan, X., Sheras, P., Shih, T-H. & Huang, F. (2010). Authoritative school discipline: high school practices associated with lower bullying and victimization, Journal of Educational Psychology, 102: 483–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018562
    Grigg, D. (2010). Cyber-aggression: definition and concept of cyberbullying, Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20: 143–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1375/ajgc.20.2.143
    Guerin, S. & Hennessy, E. (2002). Pupils’ definitions of bullying, European Journal of Psychology of Education, 17: 249–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03173535
    Guerra, N., Williams, K. R. & Sadek, S. (2011). Understanding bullying and victimization during childhood and adolescence: a mixed methods study, Child Development, 82: 295–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01556.x
    Guidelines for preventing cyber-bullying in the school environment: a review and recommendations (2012). COST 1S0801. Available at http://sites.google.com/site/costis0801/
    Hamburger, M. E., Basile, K. C. & Vivolo, A. M. (2011). Measuring Bullying, Victimisation, Perpetration, and Bystander Experiences: A Compendium of Assessment Tools. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pub/measuring_bullying.html
    Hamer, A. den, Konijn, E. A. & Keijer, M. G. (2014). Cyberbullying behavior and adolescents’ use of medias with antisocial content: a cyclic process model, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17: 74–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0307
    Hamiwka, L. D., Yu, C. G., Hamiwka, L. A., Sherman, E. M.S., Anderson, B. & Wirrell, E. (2009). Are children with epilepsy at greater risk for bullying than their peers?, Epilepsy & Behavior, 15: 500–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.06.015
    Hanewinkel, R. (2004). Prevention of bullying in German schools: an evaluation of an anti-bullying approach. In P. K.Smith, D.Pepler & K.Rigby (Eds), Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 81–97.
    Hawker, D. S.J. & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: a meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41: 441–455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00629
    Hawkins, D. L., Pepler, D. J. & Craig, W. M. (2001). Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying, Social Development, 10: 512–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00178
    Hay, C. & Meldrum, R. (2010). Bullying, victimization and adolescent self-harm: testing hypotheses from General Strain theory, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39: 446–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9502-0
    Hayes, R. & Herbert, C. (2011). Rising Above Bullying: From Despair to Recovery. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Heinemann, P. P. (1972). Mobbning–Gruppvåld bland barn och vuxna. Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.
    Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. & De Haan, J. (2013). Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation. London: LSE/EU Kids Online.
    Herba, C. M., Ferdinand, R. F., Stijnen, T., Veenstra, R., Oldehinkel, A. J., Ormel, J. & Verhulst, F. C. (2008). Victimisation and suicide ideation in the TRAILS study: specific vulnerabilities of victims, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49: 867–876. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01900.x
    Higgins, C. (1994). Improving the school ground environment as an anti-bullying intervention. In P. K.Smith & S.Sharp (Eds), School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge. pp. 160–192.
    Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2008a). Bullying beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE (Corwin Press).
    Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2008b). Cyberbullying: an exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization, Deviant Behavior, 29: 1–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639620701457816
    Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide, Archives of Suicide Research, 14: 206–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2010.494133
    Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012a). Cyberbullying: neither an epidemic nor a rarity?, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9: 539–543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2012.706448
    Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012b). School Climate 2.0: Preventing Cyberbullying and Sexting One Classroom at a Time. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE (Corwin Press).
    Hodges, E. V.E., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F. & Bukowski, W. M. (1999). The power of friendship: protection against an escalating cycle of peer victimization, Developmental Psychology, 35: 94–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.35.1.94
    Hodges, E. V.E., Malone, M. J. & Perry, D. G. (1997). Individual risk and social risk as interacting determinants of victimization in the peer group, Developmental Psychology, 33: 1032–1039. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.1032
    Hodges, E. V.E. & Perry, D. G. (1999). Personal and interpersonal antecedents and consequences of victimisation by peers, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76: 677–685. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.677
    Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations (
    2nd edition
    ). London: SAGE.
    Holmberg, K. & Hjern, A. (2008). Bullying and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 10-year-olds in a Swedish community, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 50: 134–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.02019.x
    Horton, P. (2011a). ‘School Bullying and Power Relations in Vietnam’. PhD dissertation. Linköping, Sweden: Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, no. 541.
    Horton, P. (2011b). School bullying and social and moral orders, Children & Society, 25: 268–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2011.00377.x
    Horton, P. (2012). Bullied Into It: Bullying, Power and the Conduct of Conduct. Gloucestershire: E&E Publishing.
    Houlston, C. & Smith, P. K. (2009). The impact of a peer counselling scheme in an all girl secondary school, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79: 69–86http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709908X293878
    Houlston, C., Smith, P. K. & Jessel, J. (2009). Investigating the extent and use of peer support initiatives in English schools, Educational Psychology, 29: 325–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410902926751
    House of Commons (2004). Elder Abuse. London: HMSO.
    Hugh-Jones, S. & Smith, P. K. (1999). Self-reports of short- and long-term effects of bullying on children who stammer, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69: 141–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709999157626
    Hughes, T. (1857). Tom Brown's School Days. Cambridge: Macmillan.
    Huitsing, G. & Veenstra, R. (2012). Bullying in classrooms: participant roles from a social network perspective, Aggressive Behavior, 38: 494–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21438
    Humphrey, N., Kalambouka, A., Bolton, J., Lendrum, A., Wigelsworth, M., Leenie, C. & Farrell, P. (2008). Primary Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL): Evaluation of Small Group Work. DCSF RB064. London: DCSF.
    Humphrey, N., Lendrum, A. & Wigelsworth, M. (2010). Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) Programme in Secondary Schools: A National Evaluation. DFE-RB049. London: DfE.
    Hunt, C., Peters, L. & Rapee, R. M. (2012). Development of a measure of the experience of being bullied in youth, Psychological Assessment, 24: 156–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025178
    Hunt, R. & Jensen, J. (2007). The School Report: The Experiences of Young Gay People in Britain's Schools. London: Stonewall.
    Hunter, S. C. & Boyle, J. M.E. (2004). Appraisal and coping strategy use of victims of school bullying, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74: 83–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709904322848833
    Hunter, S. C., Boyle, J. M.E. & Warden, D. (2007). Perceptions and correlates of peer-victimization and bullying, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77: 797–810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709906X171046
    Hussey, J. M., Chang, J. J. & Kotch, J. B. (2010). Child maltreatment in the United States: prevalence, risk factors, and adolescent health consequences, Pediatrics, 118: 933–942. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-2452
    Hymel, S., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Bonnano, R. A., Vaillancourt, T. & Henderson, N. R. (2010). Bullying and morality: how good kids can behave badly. In S. R.Jimerson, S. M.Swearer & D. L.Espelage (Eds), Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. New York & London: Routledge. pp. 101–118.
    Ireland, J. L. (2011). Bullying in prisons: bringing research up to date. In C.Monks & I.Coyne (Eds), Bullying in Different Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 137–156.
    Jäger, T. (2009). CyberTraining: a research-based European training manual on cyberbullying, Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217: 234.
    James, A., Smith, P. K. & Radford, L. (2014). Becoming grown-ups: a qualitative study of the experiences of peer mentors, Pastoral Care in Education, forthcoming.
    Janowski, A. (1999). Sweden. In P. K.Smith, Y.Morita, J.Junger-Tas, D.Olweus, R.Catalano & P.Slee (Eds), The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. London & New York: Routledge, pp. 264–275.
    Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (2012). Heisei 22nenndo Jidou seito no mondaikoudoutou seitoshidou jou no shomondai ni kansuru chousa [2010 Annual fact-finding survey on problematic behavior in school]. Tokyo: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology.
    Jennifer, D. (2013). Girls and indirect aggression. In I.Rivers & N.Duncan (Eds), Bullying: Experiences and Discourses of Sexuality and Gender. London and New York, Routledge, pp. 47–59.
    Jimerson, S., Swearer, S. & Espelage, D. (Eds) (2010). Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. New York: Routledge.
    Jolliffe, D. & Farrington, D. P. (2006). Examining the relationship between low empathy and bullying, Aggressive Behavior, 32: 540–550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20154
    Jolliffe, D. & Farrington, D. P. (2011). Is low empathy related to bullying after controlling for individual and social background variables?, Journal of Adolescence, 34: 59–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.02.001
    Jones, L. M., Mitchell, K. J. & Finkelhor, D. (2012). Trends in youth internet victimization: findings from three youth internet safety surveys 2000–2010, Journal of Adolescent Health, 50: 179–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.09.015
    Jones, L. M., Mitchell, K. J. & Walsh, W. A. (2013). Evaluation of Internet Child Safety Materials used by ICAC Task Forces in School and Community Settings: Final Report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.
    Juvonen, J. & Graham, S. (Eds) (2001). Peer Harassment at School: The Plight of the Vulnerable and Victimised. New York: Guilford.
    Juvonen, J., Nishina, A. & Graham, S. (2001). Self-views versus peer perceptions of victim status among early adolescents. In J.Juvonen & S.Graham (Eds), Peer Harassment at School: The Plight of the Vulnerable and Victimised. New York: Guilford, pp. 105–124.
    Kanetsuna, T. & Smith, P. K. (2002). Pupil insights into bullying, and coping with bullying: a bi-national study in Japan and England, Journal of School Violence, 1: 5–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J202v01n03_02
    Kanetsuna, T., Smith, P. K. & Morita, Y. (2006). Coping with bullying at school: children's recommended strategies and attitudes to school-based interventions in Japan and England, Aggressive Behavior, 32: 570–580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20156
    Karch, D. L., Logan, J., Daniel, D. D., Floyd, C. F. & Vagi, K. J. (2013). Precipitating circumstances of suicide among youth aged 10–17 years by sex: data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 16 states, 2005–2008, Journal of Adolescent Health, 53: S51–S53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.06.028
    Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T., Alanen, E., Poskiparta, E. & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Going to scale: a nonrandomized nationwide trial of the KiVa antibullying program for comprehensive schools, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79: 796–805.
    Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T., Alanen, E., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). Effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program: Grades 1–3 and 7–9, Journal of Educational Psychology, 105: 535–551.
    Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T., Poskiparta, E., Kaljonen, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). A large-scale evaluation of the KiVa anti-bullying program: Grades 4–6, Child Development, 82: 311–330.
    Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Poskiparta, E. & Salmivalli, C. (2010). Vulnerable children in varying classroom contexts: Bystanders’ behaviors moderate the effects of risk factors on victimization, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56: 261–282.
    Kaukiainen, A., Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K., Österman, K., Salmivalli, C., Rothberg, S. & Ahlbom, A. (1999). The relationship between social intelligence, empathy, and three types of aggression, Aggressive Behavior, 25: 81–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1999)25:2<81::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-M
    Kendal, R. L. (2008). Animal ‘culture wars’, The Psychologist, 21: 312–315.
    Kert, A. S., Codding, R. S., Tryon, G. S. & Shiyko, M. (2010). Impact of the word ‘bully’ on the reported rate of bullying behavior, Psychology in the Schools, 47: 193–204.
    Khoury-Kassabri, M., Benbenishty, R., Astor, R. A. & Zeira, A. (2004). The contributions of community, family, and school variables to student victimization, American Journal of Community Psychology, 34: 187–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10464-004-7414-4
    Kidscape (1986). Bully Courts. London: Kidscape.
    Kim, Y. S., Koh, Y-J. & Leventhal, B. L. (2004). Prevalence of school bullying in Korean middle school students, Archives Journal of Adolescent Mental Health, 158: 737–741.
    Kim, Y. S., Koh, Y-J. & Leventhal, B. L. (2005). School bullying and suicidal risk in Korean middle school students, Pediatrics, 115: 357–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-0902
    Kim, Y-S., Leventhal, B., Koh, Y-J. & Boyce, W. T. (2009). Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents, Archives Journal of Adolescent Mental Health, 20, 133–154.
    King, M., McKeown, E., Warner, J., Ramsay, A., Johnson, K., Cort, C., Davidson, O. & Wright, L. (2003). Mental health and social wellbeing of gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in England and Wales: controlled, cross-sectional study, British Journal of Psychiatry, 183: 552–558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.183.6.552
    Klomek, A. B., Kleinman, M., Altschuler, E., Marrocco, F., Amakawa, L. & Gould, M. S. (2011). High school bullying as a risk for later depression and suicidality, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 41: 501–516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1943-278X.2011.00046.x
    Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A., Niemelä, S., Kumpulainen, K., Piha, J., Tamminen, T., Almqvist, F. & Gould, M. S. (2009). Childhood bullying behaviours as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: a population-based cohort study, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48: 254–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e318196b91f
    Knights, K. (2011). ‘Evaluating a Recovery Programme for Children & Adolescents Who Have Been Bullied: A Mixed Method Study’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Hertfordshire.
    Knox, E. & Conti-Ramsden, G. (2003). Bullying risks of 11-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI): does school placement matter?, International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 38: 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13682820304817
    Kochenderfer-Ladd, B. (2003). Identification of aggressive and asocial victims and the stability of their peer victimization, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49: 401–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2003.0022
    Kochenderfer, B. & Ladd, G. W. (1997). Victimized children's responses to peers’ aggression: behaviors associated with reduced versus continued victimization, Development and Psychopathology, 9: 59–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579497001065
    Koo, H. (2004). ‘The Nature of School Bullying in South Korea’. Unpublished PhD thesis, Goldsmiths, University of London.
    Koo, H., Kwak, K. & Smith, P. K. (2008). Victimization in Korean schools: the nature, incidence and distinctive features of Korean bullying or wang-ta, Journal of School Violence, 7: 119–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15388220801974084
    Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S. P. & Agatston, P. W. (2008). Cyber Bullying. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Kristensen, S. M. & Smith, P. K. (2003). The use of coping strategies by Danish children classed as bullies, victims, bully/victims, and not involved, in response to different (hypothetical) types of bullying, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44: 479–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-9450.2003.00369.x
    Kyriakides, L., Kaloyirou, C. & Lindsay, G. (2006). An analysis of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire using the Rasch measurement model, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76: 781–801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709905X53499
    Ladd, G. W. & Kochenderfer-Ladd, B. (1998). Parenting behaviors and parent-child relationships: correlates of peer victimization in kindergarten?, Developmental Psychology, 34: 1450–1458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.6.1450
    Ladd, G. W. & Kochenderfer-Ladd, B. (2002). Identifying victims of peer aggression from early to middle childhood: analysis of cross-informant data for concordance, estimation of relational adjustment, prevalence of victimization, and characteristics of identified victims, Psychological Assessment, 14: 74–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.14.1.74
    Lakatos, I. (1970). Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. In I.Lakatos & A.Musgrave (Eds), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 91–106.
    Lam, L. T. & Li, Y. (2013). The validation of the E-victimization Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents, Computers in Human Behavior, 29: 3–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.021
    Lam, O. B. & Liu, W. H. (2007). The path through bullying–a process model from the inside story of bullies in Hong Kong secondary schools, Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 24: 53–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10560-006-0058-5
    Lambert, P., Scourfield, J., Smalley, N. & Jones, R. (2008). The social context of school bullying: evidence from a survey of children in South Wales, Research Papers in Education, 23: 269–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02671520701809866
    Law, D. M., Shapka, J. D. & Olson, B. F. (2010). To control or not to control? Parenting behaviours and adolescent online aggression, Computers in Human Behavior, 26: 1651–1656. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.06.013
    Lee, E. & Kim, M. (2004). Exposure to media violence and bullying at school: Mediating influences of anger and contact with delinquent friends, Psychological Reports, 95: 659–672.
    Lee, S., Smith, P. K. & Monks, C. (2011). Perception of bullying-like phenomena in South Korea: a qualitative approach from a lifespan perspective, Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3: 210–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17596591111187738
    Lee, S-H., Smith, P. K. & Monks, C. (2012). Meaning and usage of a term for bullying-like phenomena in South Korea: a lifespan perspective, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 31: 342–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X12446602
    Leff, S. S., Kupersmidt, J. B., Patterson, C. J. & Power, T. J. (1999). Factors influencing teacher identification of peer bullies and victims, School Psychology Review, 28: 505–517.
    Lereya, S. T., Samara, M. & Wolke, D. (2013). Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: a meta-analysis study, Child Abuse & Neglect, 37: 1091–1108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.03.001
    Lester, L., Cross, D. & Shaw, T. (2012). Problem behaviours, traditional bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents: longitudinal analyses, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17: 435–447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2012.704313
    Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work, European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, 5: 165–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594329608414853
    Li, Q. (2007). Bullying in the new playground: research into cyberbullying and cyber victimisation, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23: 435–454.
    Li, Q., Cross, D. & Smith, P. K. (2012). Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives. Chichester, England:Wiley-Blackwell.
    Limber, S. P., Nation, M., Tracy, A. J., Melton, G. B., & Flerx, V. (2004). Implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme in the Southeastern United States. In P. K.Smith, D.Pepler & K.Rigby (Eds), Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–79.
    Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A. & Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and Safety on the Internet: The Perspective of European Children: Full findings. London: LSE/EU Kids Online.
    Ma, L., Phelps, E., Lerner, J. V. & Lerner, R. M. (2009). The development of academic competence among adolescents who bully and who are bullied, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30: 628–644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2009.07.006
    Machmutow, K., Perren, S., Sticca, F. & Alsaker, F. D. (2012). Peer victimisation and depressive symptoms: can specific coping strategies buffer the negative impact of cybervictimisation?, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17: 403–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2012.704310
    Madsen, K. C. (1996). Differing perceptions of bullying and their practical implications, Educational and Child Psychology, 13: 14–22.
    Mahdavi, J. & Smith, P. K. (2002). The operation of a bully court and perceptions of its success: a case study, School Psychology International, 23: 327–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034302023003235
    Mahdavi, J. & Smith, P. K. (2007). Individual risk factors or group dynamics? An investigation of the scapegoat hypothesis of victimisation in school classes, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4: 353–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405620701512196
    Maines, G. & Robinson, B. (1992). Michael's Story: The ‘No Blame’ Approach. Bristol: Lame Duck.
    Malti, T., Ribeaud, D. & Eisner, M. (2012). Effectiveness of a universal school-based social competence program: the role of child characteristics and economic factors, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6: 249–259.
    Martin, P., & Bateson, P. (2007). Measuring Behaviour: An Introductory Guide (
    3rd edn
    ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    May-Chahel, C. & Cawson, P. (2005). Measuring child maltreatment in the United Kingdom: a study of the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, Child Abuse & Neglect, 29: 969–984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.05.009
    Mayeux, L., Underwood, M. & Risser, S. (2007). Perspectives on the ethics of sociometric research with children: how children, peers and teachers help to inform the debate, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 53: 53–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2007.0002
    McGrath, H. & Noble, T. (Eds) (2006). Bullying Solutions: Evidence-based Approaches to Bullying in Australian Schools. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson, pp. 189–201.
    McGuckin, C., Lewis, C. A., Cummins, P. K. & Cruise, S. M. (2011). The stress and trauma of school victimization in Ireland: a retrospective account, Psychology, Society & Education, 3: 55–67.
    McGuckin, C., Perren, S., Corcoran, L., Cowie, H., Dehue, F., Ševčiková, A., Tsatsou, P. & Vollink, T. (2013). Coping with cyberbullying: how we can prevent cyberbullying and how victims can cope with it. In P. K.Smith & G.Steffgen (Eds), Cyberbullying through the New Media: Findings from an International Network. Hove: Psychology Press, pp. 121–135.
    Menesini, E. (2000). Bullismo: Che fare? Prevenzione e strategie d'intervento nella scuola. Firenze: Giunti.
    Menesini, E., Codecasa, E., Benelli, B. & Cowie, H. (2003). Enhancing children's responsibility to take action against bullying: evaluation of a befriending intervention in Italian middle schools, Aggressive Behavior, 29: 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.80012
    Menesini, E., Eslea, M., Smith, P. K., Genta, M. L., Giannetti, E., Fonzi, A. & Costabile, A. (1997). A cross-national comparison of children's attitudes towards bully/victim problems in school, Aggressive Behavior, 23: 245–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1997)23:4<245::AID-AB3>3.0.CO;2-J
    Menesini, E., Fonzi, A. & Smith, P. K. (2002). Attribution of meanings to terms related to bullying: a comparison between teachers’ and pupils’ perspectives in Italy, European Journal of Psychology of Education, 17: 393–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03173593
    Menesini, E., Nocentini, A. & Palladino, B. E. (2012). Empowering students against bullying and cyberbullying: evaluation of an Italian peer-led model, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6: 313–320.
    Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., Palladino, B. E., Frisén, A., Berne, S., Ortega Ruiz, R., Calmaestra, J., Scheithauer, H., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Luik, P., Naruskov, K., Blaya, C., Berthaud, J. & Smith, P. K. (2012). Cyberbullying definition among adolescents: a comparison across six European countries, Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 15: 455–463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0040
    Mishna, F. (2003). Learning disabilities and bullying: double jeopardy, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36: 336–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00222194030360040501
    Mishna, F., Cook, C., Saini, M., Wu, M-J. & MacFadden, R. (2009). Interventions for Children, Youth and Parents to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse. Oslo, Norway: Campbell Systematic Reviews.
    Molcho, M., Craig, W., Due, P., Pickett, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., Overpeck, M. & The HBSC Bullying Writing Group (2009). Cross-national time trends in bullying behaviour 1994–2006: findings from Europe and North America, International Journal of Public Health, 54: S1–S10. Available at http://springerlink.com/content/j15430j1x087r023/fulltext.pdfolhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-009-5414-8
    Monks, C. & Coyne, I. (Eds) (2011). Bullying in Different Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Monks, C., Ortega-Ruiz, R. & Rodríguez-Hidalgo, A. J. (2008) Peer victimization in multi-cultural schools in Spain and England, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5: 507–535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405620701307316
    Monks, C. & Smith, P. K. (2006). Definitions of ‘bullying’: age differences in understanding of the term, and the role of experience, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24: 801–821. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/026151005X82352
    Monks, C. & Smith, P. K. (2010). Peer, self and teacher nominations of participant roles taken in victimization by five- and eight-year-olds, Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 2: 4–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.5042/jacpr.2010.0532
    Monks, C. & Smith, P. K. (2011). Bullying, aggression and victimization in young children: measurement, nature and prevention. In M.Veisson, M.Maniganayake, E.Hujala, E.Kikas & P. K.Smith (Eds), Global Perspectives in Early Childhood Education: Diversity, Challenges and Possibilities. Frankfurt: Peter Land, pp. 457–475.
    Monks, C., Smith, P. K., Naylor, P., Barter, C., Ireland, J. L. & Coyne, I. (2009). Bullying in different contexts: commonalities, differences and the role of theory, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14: 146–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2009.01.004
    Monks, C., Smith, P. K. & Swettenham, J. (2003). Aggressors, victims and defenders in preschool: peer, self and teacher reports, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49: 453–469. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2003.0024
    Monks, C., Smith, P. K. & Swettenham, J. (2005). The psychological correlates of peer victimization in preschool: social cognitive skills, executive function and attachment profiles, Aggressive Behavior, 31: 571–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20099
    Mora-Merchan, J. & Jäger, T. (Eds) (2010). Cyberbullying: A Cross-national Comparison. Landau, Germany: Verlag Empirische Pädagogik.
    Moran, S., Smith, P. K., Thompson, D. & Whitney, I. (1993). Ethnic differences in experiences of bullying: Asian and white children, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 63: 431–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1993.tb01069.x
    Morita, Y. (1985). Ijime shuudan no kouzo ni kansuru shakaigakuteki kenkyu [Sociological study on the structure of bullying group]. Osaka: Department of Sociology, Osaka City University.
    Morita, Y. (2001). Ijime no kokusai hikaku kenkyu [Cross-national comparative study of bullying]. Japan: Kaneko Shobo.
    Morita, Y., Soeda, H., Soeda, K. & Taki, M. (1999). Japan. In P. K.Smith, Y.Morita, J.Junger-Tas, D.Olweus, R.Catalano & P.Slee (Eds), The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. London & New York: Routledge, pp. 309–323.
    Muñoz, L.C., Qualter, P. & Padgett, G. (2011). Empathy and bullying: exploring the influence of callous-unemotional traits, Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 42: 183–196.
    Nabuzoka, D. & Smith, P. K. (1993). Sociometric status and social behaviour of children with and without learning difficulties, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34: 1435–1448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1993.tb02101.x
    Nakamoto, J. & Schwartz, D. (2010). Is peer victimization associated with academic achievement? A meta-analytic review, Social Development, 19: 221–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00539.x
    Nansel, T. R., Craig, W., Overpeck, M. D., Saluja, G., & Ruan, W. J. (2004). Cross-national consistency in the relationship between bullying behaviors and psychosocial adjustment, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158: 730–736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.158.8.730
    Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M. D., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B. & Scheidt, P. C. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment, Journal of the American Medical Association, 285: 2094–2100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.16.2094
    National Family Week Survey (2010). Facebook is a major influence on girls, says survey. Retrieved 19 May 2010, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/10121931.stm
    Naylor, P., Cowie, H. & del Rey, R. (2001). Coping strategies of secondary school children in response to being bullied, Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 6: 114–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1360641701002647
    Naylor, P., Petch, L. & Ali, A. (2011). Domestic violence: bullying in the home. In C.Monks & I.Coyne (Eds), Bullying in Different Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 87–112.
    Nesdale, D., Durkin, K., Maass, A., Kiesner, J. & Griffiths, J. A. (2008). Effects of group norms on children's intentions to bully, Social Development, 17: 889–907. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00475.x
    Nickerson, A. B., Mele, D. & Princiotta, D. (2008). Attachment and empathy as predictors of roles as defenders or outsiders in bullying interactions, Journal of School Psychology, 46: 687–703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2008.06.002
    O'Connell, P., Pepler, D. J. & Craig, W. M. (2001). Peer involvement in bullying: insights and challenges for intervention, Journal of Adolescence, 22: 437–452.
    OFSTED (2012). No Place For Bullying. Available at http://www.ofsted.gov.uk
    Olafsen, R. N. & Viemerö, V. (2000). Bully/victim problems and coping with stress in school among 10- to 12-year-old pupils in Åland, Finland, Aggressive Behavior, 26: 57–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(2000)26:1<57::AID-AB5>3.0.CO;2-I
    Oliver, C. & Candappa, M. (2003). Tackling Bullying: Listening to the Views of Children and Young People. Nottingham: Department for Education and Skills.
    Olweus, D. (1973/1978). Forskning om skolmobbning. Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell. (English translation, Aggression in Schools: Bullies and Whipping Boys. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
    Olweus, D. (1986). Mobbning–vad vi vet och vad vi kan göra. Stockholm: Liber.
    Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Olweus, D. (1999a). Sweden. In P. K.Smith, Y.Morita, J.Junger-Tas, D.Olweus, R.Catalano & P.Slee (Eds), The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. London & New York: Routledge, pp. 7–27.
    Olweus, D. (1999b). Norway. In P. K.Smith, Y.Morita, J.Junger-Tas, D.Olweus, R.Catalano & P.Slee (Eds), The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. London & New York: Routledge, pp. 28–48.
    Olweus, D. (2004). The Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme: design and implementation issues and a new national initiative in Norway. In P. K.Smith, D.Pepler & K.Rigby (Eds), Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 13–36.
    Olweus, D. (2012a). Cyberbullying: an overrated phenomenon?, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9: 520–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2012.682358
    Olweus, D. (2012b). Comments on cyberbullying article: a rejoinder, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9: 559–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2012.705086
    Olweus, D. (2013). School bullying: development and some important challenges, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9: 751–780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185516
    Olweus, D. & Endresen, I. M. (1998). The importance of sex-of-stimulus object: age trends and sex differences in empathic responsiveness, Social Development, 7: 370–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00073
    Olweus, D. & Limber, S. (2010). The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: implementation and evaluation over two decades. In S.Jimerson, S.Swearer & D.Espelage (Eds), Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. New York: Routledge, pp. 377–401.
    O'Moore, M. (2000). Critical issues for teacher training to counter bullying and victimisation in Ireland, Aggressive Behavior, 26: 99–111.
    O'Moore, M. (2013). ABC whole-school approach to bullying prevention. In M.O'Moore & P.Stevens (Eds), Bullying in Irish Education. Cork: Cork University Press, pp. 338–374.
    O'Moore, M. & Minton, S. J. (2004). Dealing with Bullying: A Training Manual for Teachers, Parents and Other Professionals. London: Paul Chapman.
    O'Moore, M. & Minton, S. J. (2009). Cyber-bullying: the Irish experience. In C.Quin & S.Tawse (Eds), Handbook of Aggressive Behavior Research. Nova Scotia: Nova Scotia Publishers, Inc, pp. 269–292.
    Ortega, R., del Rey, R. & Casas, J. A. (2012). Knowing, building and living together on internet and social networks: the ConRed cyberbullying prevention program, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6: 303–313.
    Ortega, R., del Rey, R. & Fernández, I. (2003). Working together to prevent school violence: the Spanish response. In P. K.Smith (Ed.), Violence in Schools: The Response in Europe. London and New York: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 135–152.
    Ortega, R., del Rey, R. & Mora-Merchan, J. (2004). SAVE model: an anti-bullying intervention in Spain. In P. K.Smith, D.Pepler & K.Rigby (Eds), Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 167–185.
    Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora-Merchan, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Smith, P. K., Thompson, F. & Tippett, N. (2012). The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross-national study, Aggressive Behavior, 38: 342–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21440
    Ortega, R. & Sánchez, V. (2011). Juvenile dating and violence. In C.Monks & I.Coyne (Eds), Bullying in Different Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 113–136.
    Ostrov, J. M. (2008). Forms of aggression and peer victimisation during early childhood: a short-term longitudinal study, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36: 311–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9179-3
    Ostrov, J. M. & Keating, C. F. (2004). Gender differences in preschool aggression during free play and structured interactions: An observational study, Social Development, 13: 255–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2004.000266.x
    Ouellet-Morin, I., Danese, A., Bowes, L., Shakoor, S., Ambler, A., Pariante, C. M., Papadopoulos, A. S., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E. & Arsenault, L. (2011). A discordant monozygotic twin design shows blunted cortisol reactivity among bullied children, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50: 574–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.02.015
    Patchin, J. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Trends in online social networking: adolescent use of MySpace over time, New Media and Society, 12: 197–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444809341857
    Patchin, J. & Hinduja, S. (2012). Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert Perspectives. New York: Routledge.
    Paul, J. P. & Cillessen, A. H.N. (2003). Dynamics of peer victimization in early adolescence: results from a four-year longitudinal study, Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19: 25–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J008v19n02_03
    Paul, S., Smith, P. K., & Blumberg, H. H. (2010). Addressing cyberbullying in school using the quality circle approach, Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 20: 157–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1375/ajgc.20.2.157
    Paul, S., Smith, P. K. & Blumberg, H. H. (2012). Revisiting cyberbullying in schools using the quality circle approach, School Psychology International, 33: 492–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034312445243
    Peeters, M., Cillessen, A. H.N. & Scholte, R. H.J. (2010). Clueless or powerful? Identifying subtypes of bullies in adolescence, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39: 1041–1052. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9478-9
    Pellegrini, A. D. & Bartini, M. (2000a). An empirical comparison of methods of sampling aggression and victimization in school settings, Journal of Educational Psychology, 92: 360–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.92.2.360
    Pellegrini, A. D. & Bartini, M. (2000b). A longitudinal study of bullying, victimization, and peer affiliation during the transition from primary school to middle school, American Educational Research Journal, 37: 699–726. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312037003699
    Pellegrini, A. D. & Bartini, M. (2001). Dominance in early adolescent boys: affiliative and aggressive dimensions and possible functions, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 47: 142–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2001.0004
    Pellegrini, A. D., Bartini, M. & Brooks, F. (1999). School bullies, victims, and aggressive victims: factors relating to group affiliation and victimization in early adolescence, Journal of Educational Psychology, 91: 216–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.2.216
    Pellegrini, A. D., Bohn-Gettler, C. M., Dupuis, D., Hickey, M., Roseth, C. & Solberg, D. (2011). An empirical examination of sex differences in scoring preschool children's aggression, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109: 232–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2010.11.003
    Pellegrini, A. D. & Long, J. D. (2002). A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and victimisation during the transition from primary school through secondary school, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20: 259–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/026151002166442
    Penning, S. L., Bhagwanjee, A. & Govender, K. (2010). Bullying boys: the traumatic effects of bullying in male adolescent learners, Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 22: 131–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/17280583.2010.528580
    Pepler, D. J. & Craig, W. M. (1995). A peek behind the fence: naturalistic observations of aggressive children with remote audiovisual recording, Developmental Psychology, 31: 548–553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.31.4.548
    Pepler, D. J., Craig, W. M., Connolly, J. A., Yuile, A., McMaster, L. & Jiang, D. (2006). A developmental perspective on bullying, Aggressive Behavior, 32: 376–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20136
    Pepler, D. J., Craig, W. M., O'Connell, P., Atlas, R. & Charach, A. (2004). Making a difference in bullying: evaluation of a systemic school-based programme in Canada. In P. K.Smith, D.Pepler & K.Rigby (Eds), Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 125–139.
    Pepler, D. J., Craig, W. M. & Roberts, W. L. (1998). Observations of aggressive and nonaggressive children on the school playground, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 44: 55–76.
    Pepler, D. J., Craig, W. M., Zeigler, S. & Charach, A. (1994). An evaluation of an anti-bullying intervention in Toronto schools, Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 13: 95–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.7870/cjcmh-1994-0014
    Perkins, H. W., Craig, D. W. & Perkins, J. M. (2011). Using social norms to reduce bullying: a research intervention in five middle schools, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14: 703–722. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1368430210398004
    Perren, S., Corcoran, L., Cowie, H., Dehue, F., Garcia, D., McGuckin, C., Ševčiková, A., Tsatsou, P. & Völlink, T. (2012). Tackling cyberbullying: review of empirical evidence regarding successful responses by students, parents and schools, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6: 283–293.
    Perren, S., Ettekal, I. & Ladd, G. (2013). The impact of peer victimization on later maladjustment: mediating and moderating effects of hostile and self-blaming attributions, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54: 46–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02618.x
    Perry, D. G., Perry, L. C. & Boldizar, J. P. (1990). Learning of aggression. In M.Lewis & S.Miller (Eds), Handbook of Developmental Psychopathology. New York: Plenum, pp. 135–146.
    Persson, M. & Svensson, M. (2013). The willingness to pay to reduce school bullying, Economics of Education Review, 35: 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2013.02.004
    Peterson, J. S. & Ray, K. E. (2006). Bullying and the gifted: victims, perpetrators, prevalence, and effects, Gifted Child Quarterly, 50: 148–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001698620605000206
    Pikas, A. (1989). A pure concept of mobbing gives the best results for treatment, School Psychology International, 10: 95–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034389102003
    Pikas, A. (2002). New developments of the Shared Concern Method, School Psychology International, 23: 307–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034302023003234
    Poskiparta, E., Kaukiainen, A., Pöyhönen, V. & Salmivalli, C. (2012). Anti-bullying computer game as part of the KiVa program: students’ perceptions of the game. In A.Costabile & B.Spears (Eds), The Impact of Technology on Relationships in Educational Settings. London: Routledge, pp. 158–168.
    Pozzoli, T., Gini, G. & Vieno, A. (2012). The role of individual correlates and class norms in defending and passive bystanding behaviour in bullying: a multilevel analysis, Child Development, 83: 1917–1931. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01831.x
    Pronk, J., Goossens, F. A., Olthof, T., De Mey, L. & Willemen, A. M. (2013). Children's intervention strategies in situations of victimization by bullying: social cognitions of outsiders versus defenders, Journal of School Psychology, 51: 669–682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2013.09.002
    Pyzalski, J. (2011). Electronic aggression among adolescents: an old house with a new facade (or even a number of houses). In C.Hällgren, E.Dunkels & G-M.Frånberg (Eds), Youth Culture and Net Culture: Online Social Practices. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, pp. 278–295.
    Pyzalski, J. (2012). From cyberbullying to electronic aggression: typology of the phenomenon, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17: 305–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2012.704319
    Randall, P. E. (1997). Adult Bullying. London: Routledge.
    Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J. H., Prinzie, P. & Telch, M. J. (2010). Peer victimization and internalizing problems in children: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies, Child Abuse & Neglect, 34: 244–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.009
    Renati, R., Berrone, C. & Zanetti, M. A. (2012). Morally disengaged and unempathic: do cyberbullies fit these definitions? An exploratory study, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15: 391–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0046
    Renold, E. (2002). Presumed innocence: (hetero) sexual, heterosexist and homophobic harassment among primary school girls and boys, Childhood, 9: 415–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0907568202009004004
    Renold, E. (2006). ‘They won't let us play … unless you're going out with one of them’: girls, boys and Butler's ‘heterosexual matrix’ in the primary years, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27: 489–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425690600803111
    Restorative Justice Consortium (2005). Statement of Restorative Justice Principles: As Applied in a School Setting. London: Restorative Justice Consortium. Available at http://www.restorativejustice.org.uk
    Reynolds, W. M. (2003). Reynolds Bully Victimization Scales. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Assessment.
    Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G. & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds. Washington, DC: Henry J. Kaiser Foundation. Available at http://www.kff.org
    Rigby, K. (1997). Attitudes and beliefs about bullying among Australian school children, Irish Journal of Psychology, 18: 202–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03033910.1997.10558140
    Rigby, K. (2002). New Perspectives on Bullying. London & Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Rigby, K. & Griffiths, C. (2010). Applying the Method of Shared Concern in Australian schools: An Evaluative Study. Canberra: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). Available at http://www.deewr.gov.au/schooling/nationalsafeschools/pages/research.aspx
    Rigby, K. & Johnson, B. (2006). Expressed readiness of Australian schoolchildren to act as bystanders in support of children who are being bullied, Educational Psychology, 26: 425–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410500342047
    Rigby, K. & Slee, P. (1991). Bullying among Australian school children: reported behaviour and attitudes toward victims, Journal of Social Psychology, 131: 615–627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1991.9924646
    Rigby, K. & Slee, P. (1993). The Peer Relations Questionnaire (PRQ). Adelaide: University of South Australia.
    Rigby, K. & Smith, P. (2011). Is school bullying really on the rise?, Social Psychology of Education, 14: 441–455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-011-9158-y
    Ringrose, J. (2008a). ‘Just be friends’: exposing the limits of educational bully discourses for understanding teen girls’ heterosexualized friendships and conflicts, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29: 509–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425690802263668
    Ringrose, J. (2008b). ‘Every time she bends over she pulls up her thong’: teen girls negotiating discourses of competitive, heterosexualized aggression, Girlhood Studies, 1: 33–59http://dx.doi.org/10.3167/ghs.2008.010104
    Rivers, I. (2001). Retrospective reports of school bullying: recall stability and its implications for research, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19: 129–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/026151001166001
    Rivers, I. (2011). Homophobic Bullying: Research and Theoretical Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Rivers, I., & Noret, N. (2010). ‘I h8 u’: findings from a five-year study of text and email bullying, British Educational Research Journal, 36: 643–671. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920903071918
    Rivers, I., Poteat, V. P., Noret, N. & Ashurst, N. (2009). Observing bullying at school: the mental health implications of witness status, School Psychology Quarterly, 24: 211–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018164
    Rivers, I. & Smith, P. K. (1994). Types of bullying behaviour and their correlates, Aggressive Behaviour, 20: 359–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2337(1994)20:5<359::AID-AB2480200503>3.0.CO;2-J
    Robinson, B. & Maines, G (1997). Crying for Help: The No Blame Approach to Bullying. Bristol: Lucky Duck.
    Robinson, G. & Maines, B. (2007). Bullying: A Complete Guide to the Support Group Method. Bristol: Lucky Duck.
    Robinson, J. P., Espelage, D. L. & Rivers, I. (2013). Developmental trends in peer victimization and emotional distress in LGB and heterosexual youth, Pediatrics, 131: 423–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-2595
    Roland, E. (2011). The broken curve: Norwegian manifesto against bullying, International Journal of Behavioural Development, 35: 383–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165025411407454
    Roland, E., Bru, E., Midthassel, U. V. & Vaaland, G. S. (2010). The Zero programme against bullying: effects of the programme in the context of the Norwegian manifesto against bullying, Social Psychology of Education, 13: 41–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-009-9096-0
    Roland, E. & Midthassel, U. V. (2012). The Zero program, New Directions for Youth Development, 133: 29–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/yd.20005
    Roland, E. & Munthe, E. (1989). Bullying: An International Perspective. London: David Fulton.
    Ross, D. M. (2002). Childhood Bullying and Teasing: What School Personnel, Other Professionals and Parents Can Do (
    2nd edn
    ). Alexandria, VA: American Counselling Association.
    Rothon, C., Head, J., Klineberg, E. & Stansfeld, S. (2010). Can social support protect bullied adolescents from adverse outcomes? A prospective study on the effects of bullying on academic achievement and mental health of adolescents at secondary schools in East London, Journal of Adolescence, 34: 579–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.02.007
    RSM McClure Watters (2011). The Nature and Extent of Pupil Bullying in Schools in the North of Ireland, Volume 56. Bangor, Northern Ireland: Department of Education for Northern Ireland.
    Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K. & Demaray, M. K. (2011). Stability of peer victimization in early adolescence: effects of timing and duration, Journal of School Psychology, 49: 443–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2011.04.005
    Saarento, S., Boulton, A. J. & Salmivalli, C. (2014). Reducing bullying and victimization: Student- and classroom-level mechanisms of change, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, forthcoming.
    Saarento, S., Kärnä, A., Hodges, E. V.E. & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Student-, classroom-, and school-level risk factors for victimization, Journal of School Psychology, 51: 421–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2013.02.002
    Sainio, M., Veenstra, R., Huitsing, G. & Salmivalli, C. (2010). Victims and their defenders: a dyadic approach, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35: 144–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165025410378068
    Salmivalli, C. (2002). Is there an age decline in victimization by peers at school?, Educational Research, 44: 237–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131880210135331
    Salmivalli, C. (2010). Bullying and the peer group: a review, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15: 112–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2009.08.007
    Salmivalli, C. & Isaacs, J. (2005). Prospective relations among victimization, rejection, friendliness, and children's self- and peer-perceptions, Child Development, 76: 1161–1171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00841.x-i1
    Salmivalli, C., Karhunen, J. & Lagerspetz, K. M.J. (1996). How did the victims respond to bullying?, Aggressive Behavior, 22: 99–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1996)22:2<99::AID-AB3>3.0.CO;2-P
    Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A. & Poskiparta, E. (2010). From peer putdowns to peer support: a theoretical model and how it translated into a national anti-bullying program. In S.Jimerson, S.Swearer & D.Espelage (Eds), Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. New York: Routledge, pp. 441–454.
    Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A. & Poskiparta, E., (2011). Counteracting bullying in Finland: the KiVa program and its effects on different forms of being bullied, International Journal of Behavioural Development, 35: 405–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165025411407457
    Salmivalli, C., Kaukiainen, A., Kaistaniemi, L. & Lagerspetz, K. (1999). Self-evaluated self-esteem, peer-evaluated self-esteem, and defensive egotism as predictors of adolescents’ participation in bullying situations, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25: 1268–1278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167299258008
    Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: participant roles and their relations to social status within the group, Aggressive Behavior, 22: 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1996)22:1<1::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-T
    Salmivalli, C., Lappalainen, M. & Lagerspetz, K. M.J. (1998). Stability and change of behaviour in connection with bullying in schools: a two-year follow-up, Aggressive Behavior, 24: 205–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1998)24:3<205::AID-AB5>3.0.CO;2-J
    Salmivalli, C. & Poskiparta, E. (2012). KiVa antibullying program: overview of evaluation studies based on a randomized controlled trial and national rollout in Finland, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6: 294–302.
    Salmivalli, C. & Pöyhönen, V. (2012). Cyberbullying in Finland. In Q.Li, D.Cross, & P. K.Smith (Eds), Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives. Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 57–72.
    Salmivalli, C. & Voeten, M. (2004). Connections between attitudes, group norms, and behaviour in bullying situations, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28: 246–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01650250344000488
    Samara, M. & Smith, P. K. (2008). How schools tackle bullying, and the use of whole school policies: changes over recent years, Educational Psychology, 28: 663–676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410802191910
    Sapouna, M., Wolke, D., Vannini, N., Watson, S., Woods, S., Schneider, W., Enz, S. & Aylett, R. (2012). Individual and social network predictors of the short-term stability of bullying victimization in the United Kingdom and Germany, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82: 225–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.2011.02022.x
    Sapouna, M., Wolke, D., Vannani, N., Watson, S., Woods, S., Schneider, W., Enz, S., Hall, L., Paiva, A., Andre, E., Dautenhahn, K., & Aylett, R. (2010). Virtual learning intervention to reduce bullying victimization in primary school: a controlled trial, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51: 104–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02137.x
    Sawyer, A. L., Bradshaw, C. P. & O'Brennan, L. M. (2008). Examining ethnic, gender, and developmental differences in the way children report being a victim of ‘bullying’ on self-report measures, Journal of Adolescent Health, 43: 106–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.12.011
    Sawyer, J-L., Mishna, F., Pepler, D. & Wiener, J. (2011). The missing voice: parents’ perspectives of bullying, Children and Youth Services Review, 33: 1795–1803. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.05.010
    Schäfer, M., Korn, S., Brodbeck, F., Wolke, D. & Schulz, H. (2005). Bullying roles in changing contexts: the stability of victim and bully roles from primary to secondary school, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29: 323–335.
    Schäfer, M., Korn, S., Smith, P. K., Hunter, S. C., Mora-Merchán, J.A., Singer, M. M. & van der Meulen, K. (2004). Lonely in the crowd: recollections of bullying, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22: 379–394.
    Scheithauer, H., Hess, M., Schultze-Krumbholz, A. & Bull, H. D. (2012). School-based prevention of bullying and relational aggression in adolescence: the fairplayer manual, New Directions for Youth Development, 133: 55–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/yd.20007
    Schuster, B. (1999). Outsiders at school: the prevalence of bullying and its relation with social status, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 2: 175–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1368430299022005
    Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S. & Bates, J. E. (1997). The early socialization of aggressive victims of bullying, Child Development, 68: 665–675. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1132117
    Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S. & Bates, J. E. (2000). Friendship as a moderating factor in the pathway between early harsh home environment and later victimization in the peer group, Developmental Psychology, 36: 646–662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.36.5.646
    Schwartz, D., Gorman, A. H., Nakamoto, J. & Toblin, R. L. (2005). Victimization in the peer group and children's academic functioning, Journal of Educational Psychology, 97: 425–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.97.3.425
    Schwartz, D. & Proctor, L. J. (2000). Community violence exposure and children's social adjustment in the peer group: the mediating roles of emotion regulation and social cognition, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68: 670–683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.4.670
    Ševčiková, A. & Šmahel, D (2009). Online harassment and cyberbullying in the Czech Republic: comparison across age groups, Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217: 227–229.
    Shakoor, S., Jaffee, S. R., Andreou, P., Bowes, L., Ambler, A. P., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E. & Arseneault, L. (2011a). Mothers and children as informants of bullying victimization: results from an epidemiological cohort of children, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39: 379–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-010-9463-5
    Shakoor, S., Jaffee, S. R., Bowes, L., Ouellet-Morin, I., Andreou, P., Happé, F., Moffitt, T. E. & Arseneault, L. (2011b). A prospective longitudinal study of children's theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53: 254–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02488.x
    Shariff, S. (2008). Cyber-bullying: Issues and Solutions for the School, the Classroom and the Home. London: Routledge.
    Sharp, S. & Cowie, H. (1994). Empowering pupils to take positive action against bullying. In P. K.Smith & S.Sharp (Eds), School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge. pp. 108–131.
    Sharp, S., Thompson, D. & Arora, T. (2000). How long before it hurts? An investigation into long-term bullying, School Psychology International, 21: 37–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034300211003
    Shaw, T., Cross, D., Thomas, L.T. & Zubrick, S. R. (2014). Bias in student survey findings from active parental consent procedures, British Educational Research Journal, forthcoming.
    Shaw, T., Cross, D. & Zubrick, S.R. (submitted). Testing for response shift bias in evaluations of school anti-bullying programs, In review.
    Shaw, T., Dooley, J. J., Cross, D., Zubrick, S. R. & Waters, S. (2013). The Forms of Bullying Scale (FBS): Validity and reliability estimates for a measure of bullying victimization and perpetration in early adolescence, Psychological Assessment, 25: 1045–1057. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032955
    Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: another main type of bullying?, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49: 147–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00611.x
    Slonje, R., Smith, P. K. & Frisén, A. (2012). Processes of cyberbullying, and feelings of remorse by bullies, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9: 244–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2011.643670
    Slonje, R., Smith, P. K. & Frisén, A. (2013). The nature of cyberbullying, and strategies for prevention, Computers in Human Behavior, 29: 26–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.024
    Smith, P. K. (1999). England. In P. K.Smith, Y.Morita, J.Junger-Tas, D.Olweus, R.Catalano & P.Slee (Eds), The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. London & New York: Routledge. pp. 68–90.
    Smith, P. K. (Ed.) (2003). Violence in Schools: The Response in Europe. London & New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
    Smith, P. K. (2007). Why has aggression been thought of as maladaptive? In P.Hawley, T. D.Little & P.Rodkin (Eds), Aggression and Adaptation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 65–83.
    Smith, P. K. (2010a). Bullying in primary and secondary schools: psychological and organizational comparisons. In S. R.Jimerson, S. M.Swearer & D. L.Espelage (Eds), Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective. New York & London: Routledge, pp. 137–150.
    Smith, P. K. (2010b) (with one chapter by Y. Gosso). Children and Play. Oxford:Wiley-Blackwell.
    Smith, P. K. (2010c). Victimization in different contexts: comments on the Special Issue, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56: 441–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mpq.0.0053
    Smith, P. K. (2011). Bullying in schools: thirty years of research. In C.Monks & I.Coyne (Eds), Bullying in Different Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 36–60.
    Smith, P. K. (2012). Cyberbullying and cyber aggression. In S. R.Jimerson, A. B.Nickerson, M. J.Mayer & M. J.Furlong (Eds), Handbook of School Violence and School Safety: International Research and Practice (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Routledge, pp. 93–103.
    Smith, P. K., Cowie, H., Olafsson, R. & Liefooghe, A. (2002). Definitions of bullying: a comparison of terms used, and age and sex differences, in a 14-country international comparison, Child Development, 73: 1119–1133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00461
    Smith, P. K., Cowie, H. & Sharp, S. (1994). Working directly with pupils involved in bullying situations. In P. K.Smith & S.Sharp (Eds), School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 193–212.
    Smith, P. K., del Barrio, C. & Tokunaga, R. (2013). Definitions of bullying and cyberbullying: how useful are the terms? In S.Bauman, J.Walker & D.Cross (Eds), Principles of Cyberbullying Research: Definition, Methods, and Measures. New York & London: Routledge, pp. 64–86.
    Smith, P. K., Howard, S. & Thompson, F. (2007). Use of the Support Group Method to tackle bullying, and evaluation from schools and local authorities in England, Pastoral Care in Education, 25: 4–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0122.2007.00402.x
    Smith, P. K., Kupferberg, A., Mora-Merchan, J. A., Samara, M., Bosley, S. & Osborn, R. (2012). A content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: a follow-up after six years, Educational Psychology in Practice, 28: 61–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02667363.2011.639344
    Smith, P. K., Kwak, K. & Toda, Y. (Eds) (in preparation). Reducing Bullying and Cyberbullying in Schools–Eastern and Western Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Smith, P. K. & Levan, S. (1995) Perceptions and experiences of bullying in younger pupils, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65: 489–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1995.tb01168.x
    Smith, P. K., Madsen, K. & Moody, J. (1999). What causes the age decline in reports of being bullied at school? Towards a developmental analysis of risks of being bullied, Educational Research, 41: 267–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188990410303
    Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S. & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying, its forms and impact in secondary school pupils, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49: 376–385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01846.x
    Smith, P. K. & Monks, C. P. (2008). Concepts of bullying: developmental and cultural aspects, International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20: 101–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/IJAMH.2008.20.2.101
    Smith, P. K., Morita, Y., Junger-Tas, J., Olweus, D., Catalano, R. & Slee, P. (Eds) (1999) The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. London: Routledge.
    Smith, P. K., Pepler, D. and Rigby, K. (Eds) (2004). Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Smith, P. K., Salmivalli, C. & Cowie, H. (2012). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: a commentary, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8: 433–441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11292-012-9142-3
    Smith, P. K. & Sharp, S. (Eds) (1994). School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge.
    Smith, P. K., Sharp, S., Eslea, M. & Thompson, D. (2004). England: The Sheffield project. In P. K.Smith, D. K.Pepler & K.Rigby (Eds), Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 99–123.
    Smith, P. K., Shu, S. & Madsen, K. (2001). Characteristics of victims of school bullying: developmental changes in coping strategies and skills. In J.Juvonen & S.Graham (Eds), Peer Harassment at School: The Plight of the Vulnerable and Victimised. New York: Guilford, pp. 332–352.
    Smith, P. K., Smees, R. & Pellegrini, A. D. (2004). Play fighting and real fighting: using video playback methodology with young children, Aggressive Behavior, 30: 164–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20013
    Smith, P. K., Smith, C., Osborn, R. & Samara, M. (2008). A content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: progress and limitations, Educational Psychology in Practice, 24: 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02667360701661165
    Smith, P. K. & Steffgen, G. (2013). Cyberbullying through the New Media: Findings from an International Network. Hove: Psychology Press.
    Smith, P. K., Talamelli, L., Cowie, H., Naylor, P. & Chauhan, P. (2004). Profiles of non-victims, escaped victims, continuing victims and new victims of school bullying, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74: 565–581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/0007099042376427
    Smith, P. K., Thompson, F. & Bhatti, S. (2013). Ethnicity, gender, bullying and cyberbullying in English secondary school pupils, Psychologie in Österreich, 1: 28–32.
    Smith, P. K. & Watson, D. (2004). Evaluation of the CHIPS (ChildLine in Partnership with Schools) Pogramme. Research report RR570. Nottingham: DfES publications.
    Smorti, A., Menesini, E. & Smith, P. K. (2003). Parents’ definition of children's bullying in a five-country comparison, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34: 417–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022103034004003
    Solberg, M. & Olweus, D. (2003). Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, Aggressive Behavior, 29: 239–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.10047
    Sourander, A., Helstelä, L., Helenius, H. & Piha, J. (2000). Persistence of bullying from childhood to adolescence–a longitudinal 8-year follow-up study, Child Abuse & Neglect, 24: 873–881. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00146-0
    Sourander, A., Klomek, A. B., Ikonen, M., Lindroos, J., Luntamo, T., Koskelainen, M., Ristkari, T. & Helenius, H. (2010). Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: a population-based study, Archives of General Psychiatry, 67: 720–728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.79
    Spears, B. & Kofoed, J. (2013). Transgressing research binaries: youth as knowledge brokers in cyberbullying research. In P. K.Smith & G.Steffgen (Eds), Cyberbullying through the New Media: Findings from an International Network. Hove: Psychology Press, pp. 201–221.
    Spiel, C., Salmivalli, C. & Smith, P. K. (2011). Translational research: national strategies for violence prevention in school, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35: 381–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165025411407556
    Spiel, C., & Strohmeier, D. (2011). National strategy for violence prevention in the Austrian public school system: development and implementation, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35: 412–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165025411407458
    Spriggs, A. L., Iannotti, R.J., Nansel, T. R. & Haynie, D. L. (2007). Adolescent bullying involvement and perceived family, peer and school relations: commonalities and differences across race/ethnicity, Journal of Adolescent Health, 41: 283–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.04.009
    Stevens, V. & Van Oost, P. (1994). Pesten op school: Een actieprogramma [Bullying at school: An action programme]. Kessel-Lo: Garant Uitgevers.
    Stevens, V., Van Oost, P. & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2004). Interventions against bullying in Flemish schools: programme development and evaluation. In P. K.Smith, D.Pepler & K.Rigby (Eds), Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 141–165.
    Strohmeier, D. & Noam, G. G. (Eds) (2012). Evidence-based bullying prevention programs for children and youth, New Directions for Youth Development, 133, Spring (whole issue).
    Sullivan, K., Cleary, M. & Sullivan, G. (2004). Bullying in Secondary Schools. London: Paul Chapman.
    Sutton, J. & Keogh, E. (2000). Social competition in school: relationships with bullying, Machiavellianism and personality, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70: 443–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709900158227
    Sutton, J. & Smith, P. K. (1999). Bullying as a group process: an adaptation of the participant role approach, Aggressive Behavior, 25: 97–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1999)25:2<97::AID-AB3>3.0.CO;2-7
    Sutton, J., Smith, P. K. & Swettenham, J. (1999a). Bullying and ‘theory of mind’: a critique of the ‘social skills deficit’ view of anti-social behaviour, Social Development, 8: 117–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00083
    Sutton, J., Smith, P. K. & Swettenham, J. (1999b). Social cognition and bullying: social inadequacy or skilled manipulation?, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17: 435–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/026151099165384
    Tani, F., Greenman, P. S., Schneider, B. H. & Fregoso, M. (2003). Bullying and the Big Five: a study of childhood personality and participant roles in bullying incidents, School Psychology International, 24: 131–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034303024002001
    Tapper, K. & Boulton, M. J. (2002). Studying aggression in school children: the use of a wireless microphone and micro-video camera, Aggressive Behavior, 28: 356–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.80009
    Tattum, D. (1989). Violence and aggression in schools. In D. P.Tattum & D. A.Lane (Eds), Bullying in Schools. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Tattum, D. & Lane, D. A. (Eds) (1989). Bullying in Schools. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Tellus 4 National Report (2010). Research Report DCSF-RR218. London: DCSF.
    Thompson, F., Robinson, S. & Smith, P. K. (2013). Il cyberbullismo nel Regno unito: valutazione di alcune procedure di intervento [An evaluation of some cyberbullying interventions in England]. In M. L.Genta, A.Brighi & A.Guarini (Eds), Cyberbullismo: Ricerche e Strategie di Intervento [Cyberbullying Research and Intervention Strategies). Milano: Franco Angeli, pp. 136–153.
    Thompson, F. & Smith, P. K. (2011). The Use and Effectiveness of Anti-bullying Strategies in Schools. DFE-RR098. London: DfE.
    Thurlow, C. (2001). Naming the ‘outsider within’: homophobic pejoratives and the verbal abuse of lesbian, gay and bisexual high-school pupils, Journal of Adolescence, 24: 25–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.2000.0371
    Tippett, N. & Kwak, K. (2012). Cyberbullying in South Korea. In Q.Li, D.Cross & P. K.Smith (Eds) Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 202–219.
    Tippett, N. & Smith, P.K. (submitted). Is cyberbullying changing? Findings from a 3-year longitudinal study. In review.
    Tippett, N., Wolke, D. & Platt, L. (2013). Ethnicity and bullying involvement in a national UK youth sample, Journal of Adolescence, 36: 639–649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.03.013
    Tokunaga, R. S. (2010). Following you home from school: a critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization, Computers in Human Behavior, 26: 277–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.11.014
    Toomey, R. B. & Russell, S. T. (2013). The role of sexual orientation in school-based victimization: a meta-analysis, Youth & Society, 45: 500–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X11422546
    Totura, C. M.W., Green, A. E., Karver, M. S. & Gesten, E. L. (2009). Multiple informants in the assessment of psychological, behavioural, and academic correlates of bullying and victimization in middle school, Journal of Adolescence, 32: 193–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.04.005
    Townsend, L., Flisher, A. J., Chikobvu, P., Lombard, C. & King, G. (2008). The relationship between bullying behaviours and high school dropout in Cape Town, South Africa, South African Journal of Psychology, 38: 21–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/008124630803800102
    Tremblay, R. E. (2003). Why socialization fails: the case of chronic physical aggression. In B. B.Lahey, T. E.Moffitt & A.Caspi (Eds), The Causes of Conduct Disorder and Juvenile Delinquency. New York: Guilford.
    Troop-Gordon, W. & Quenelle, A. (2010). Children's perceptions of their teachers’ responses to students’ peer harassment: moderators of victimization-adjustment linkages, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56: 333–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mpq.0.0056
    Ttofi, M. M. & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Reintegrative shaming theory, moral emotions and bullying, Aggressive Behavior, 34: 352–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20257
    Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P. & Baldry, A. C. (2008). ‘Effectiveness of Programs to Reduce School Bullying: A Systematic Review’. Report prepared for The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention. Västerås, Sweden: Edita Norstedts.
    Ttofi, M. M. & Farrington, D. P. (2011). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: a systematic and meta-analytic review, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7: 27–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11292-010-9109-1
    Ttofi, M. M. & Farrington, D. P. (2012). Bullying prevention programs: the importance of peer intervention, disciplinary methods and age variations, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8: 443–462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11292-012-9161-0
    Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P. & Lösel, F. (2011). Do the victims of school bullies tend to become depressed later in life? A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies, Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3: 63–73.
    Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P. & Lösel, F. (2012). School bullying as a predictor of violence later in life: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective longitudinal studies, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17: 405–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.05.002
    Ucanok, Z., Smith, P. K. & Karasoy, D. S. (2011). Definitions of bullying: age and gender differences in a Turkish sample, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 14: 75–83.
    United Nations (1991). United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Innocenti Studies, Florence: UNICEF.
    Vandebosch, H. & van Cleemput, K. (2008). Defining cyberbullying: a qualitative research into the perceptions of youngsters, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11: 499–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.0042
    Vandebosch, H. & van Cleemput, K. (2009). Cyberbullying among youngsters: profiles of bullies and victims, New Media & Society, 11: 1349–1371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444809341263
    Van IJzendoorn, M. H. & Tavecchio, L. W.C. (1987). The development of attachment theory as a Lakatosian research program: philosophical and methodological aspects. In L. W.C.Tavecchio & M.H.van IJzendoorn (Eds), Attachment in Social Networks. North-Holland: Elsevier, pp. 3–31.
    Van Kaenel-Platt, J. & Douglas, T. (2012). Cybermentoring. In A.Costabile & B. A.Spears (Eds), The Impact of Technology on Relationships in Educational Settings. London: Routledge, pp. 151–157.
    Van Roekel, E., Scholte, R. H.J. & Didden, R. (2010). Bullying among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence and perception, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40: 63–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0832-2
    Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Zijlstra, B. J.H., De Winter, A. F., Verhulst, F. C. & Ormel, J. (2007). The dyadic nature of bullying and victimization: testing a dual-perspective theory, Child Development, 78: 1843–1854. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01102.x
    Volk, A. A., Camilleri, J. A., Dane, A. V. & Marini, Z. A. (2012). Is adolescent bullying an evolutionary adaptation?, Aggressive Behavior, 38: 222–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21418
    Von Marées, N. & Petermann, F. (2009). The bullying and victimization questionnaire for children (BVF-K): construction and analysis of an instrument for the assessment of bullying in kindergarten and primary school, Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 58: 96–109.
    Wachs, S. (2012). Moral disengagement and emotional and social difficulties in bullying and cyberbullying: differences by participant role, Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 17: 347–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2012.704318
    Walsh, C. A., D'Aoust, G. & Beamer, K. (2011). Elder abuse and bullying: exploring theoretical and empirical connections. In C.Monks & I.Coyne (Eds), Bullying in Different Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 185–210.
    Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., Luk, J. W. & Nansel, T. R. (2010). Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35: 1103–1112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsq048
    Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J. & Nansel, T. R. (2009). School bullying among adolescents in the United States: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber, Journal of Adolescent Health, 45: 368–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.03.021
    Whitney, I., Smith, P. K. & Thompson, D. (1994). Bullying and children with special educational needs. In P. K.Smith & S.Sharp (Eds), School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 213–240.
    Willard, N. E. (2006). Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats. Eugene, OR: Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use.
    Williams, K., Chambers, M., Logan, S. & Robinson, D. (1996). Association of common health symptoms with bullying in primary school children, British Medical Journal, 313: 17–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.313.7048.17
    Williams, S. (2013). Sexual bullying in one local authority. In I.Rivers & N.Duncan (Eds), Bullying: Experiences and Discourses of Sexuality and Gender. London: Routledge, pp. 60–74.
    Wolak, J., Mitchell, K. & Finkelhor, D. (2006). ‘Online Victimization of Youth: Five Years Later’. Report to National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. http://www.missingkids.com/en_us/publications/NC167.pdf
    Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C. C., Chiodo, D. & Jaffe, P. (2009). Child maltreatment, bullying, gender-based harassment, and adolescent dating violence: making the connections, Psychology of Woman Quarterly, 33: 21–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.01469.x
    Wolke, D., Copeland, W. E., Angold, A. & Costello, E. J. (2013). Impact of bullying in childhood on adult health, wealth, crime and social outcomes, Psychological Science, 24: 1958–1970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797613481608
    Wolke, D. & Samara, M. (2004). Bullied by siblings: association with peer victimisation and behaviour problems in Israeli lower secondary school children, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45: 1015–1029. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.t01-1-00293.x
    Wolke, D., Woods, S. & Samara, M. (2009). Who escapes or remains a victim of bullying in primary school?, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27: 835–851. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/026151008X383003
    Wong, D. S.W., Lok, D. P.P., Lo, T. W. & Ma, S. K. (2008). School bullying among Hong Kong Chinese primary schoolchildren, Youth & Society, 40: 35–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X07310134
    Woods, S. & Wolke, D. (2003) Does the content of anti-bullying policies inform us about the prevalence of direct and relational bullying behaviour in primary schools?, Educational Psychology, 23: 381–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410303215
    Ybarra, M., Boyd, D., Korchmaros, J. & Oppenheim, J. (2012). Defining and measuring cyberbullying within the larger context of bullying victimization, Journal of Adolescent Health, 51: 53–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.12.031
    Ybarra, M. & Mitchell, K. J. (2004). Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and targets: a comparison of associated youth characteristics, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45: 1308–1316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00328.x
    Ybarra, M. & Mitchell, K. J. (2007). Prevalence and frequency of Internet harassment instigation: implications for adolescent health, Journal of Adolescent Health, 41: 189–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.03.005
    Ybarra, M., Mitchell, K. J. & Korchmaros, J. D. (2011). National trends in exposure to and experiences of violence on the internet among children, Pediatrics, 128: 1376–1386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-0118
    Young, S. (1998). The Support Group approach to bullying in schools, Educational Psychology in Practice, 14: 32–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0266736980140106
    Youth Justice Board (2004). National Evaluation of the Restorative Justice in Schools Programme. Youth Justice Board Publication, Number D61.
    Yuile, A., Pepler, D., Craig, W. & Connolly, J. (2006). The ethics of peeking behind the fence: issues related to studying children's aggression and victimization. In B.Leadbeater (Ed.), Ethics in Community-based Research. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 117–150.
    Zapf, D., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H. & Vartia, M. (2003). Empirical findings on bullying in the workplace. In S.Einarsen, H.Hoel, D.Zapf & C. L.Cooper (Eds), Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice. London: Taylor and Francis, pp. 103–126.
    Zwierzynska, K., Wolke, D. & Lereya, T. S. (2013). Peer victimization in childhood and internalizing problems in adolescence: a prospective longitudinal study, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41: 309–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9678-8

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website