Understanding Occupational and Organizational Psychology

Books

Lynne Millward

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    This book is dedicated to all my students, past, present and future, and to Rick, Oli and D'Arcy, of course!

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgements

    In writing this book I have also been aided and inspired by other writers on occupational and organizational psychology, especially Neil Anderson, Rob Briner, Chris Brotherton, Cathy Cassell, Nik Chmiel, Cary Cooper, Christine Doyle, Adrian Furnham, Alex Haslam, Peter Herriot, Gerard Hodgkinson, Jennifer Kidd, Denise Rousseau, Paul Sparrow, Phyllis Tharanou, and Peter Wall. I am profoundly indebted to them all for helping me to find my way through the subject. Special thanks to Peter Herriot, who has always been a source of much material, inspiration, and opportunity, and especially for consistently believing in me and what I am doing. Peter, you are the best scientist-practitioner role model I have ever met!

    I must also gracefully thank all my students, past and present (from 1995–2004), for their engagement with the course and its material, for their ideas, suggestions and feedback on early drafts of this book, and for their enthusiasm, encouragement and belief in the importance of this very large project. A special thanks to all the students in cohort 2003–2004 at the University of Surrey who fed me encouragement and support and also afforded me the space to do the last run on the book at the final delivery phase. Extra big thanks to Emma Laverick for organizing all her friends to do all the references for me at the last minute despite many other of her own commitments, to Joanna Blackford for getting the referencing process kick-started, and to Jacquie Pearce for always offering to help in any way she can, despite being just as busy as me juggling work and family commitments. You have all been stars. Particular thanks must also go to Joanne Marriot, Olivia Kyriakidou, Julie Gore and Adrian Banks for advice, support, inspiration, and practical help in gathering material and reading drafts.

    Special thanks to my academic colleagues Mark Cropley, Dora Brown, Chris Fife-Schaw, David Uzzell, John Groeger, Caroline Bailey (even though she deserted ship to go off to Australia, for which I nonetheless forgive her), Emma Russell, Adrian Banks, Jennifer Brown and Carol Harris-Lees for their unending support and belief in me, and particularly Mark and Dora who, despite having to put up with me being quite ‘stressy’ (the word my son uses to describe me sometimes!) for a while, have never failed to be there for me. I endeavour always to be able to be the same for you too. Mark and Dora, you have been amazing friends to me, thank you. I would also like to give special thanks to Ros Gilbert (my departmental mum) and Ann Drever for looking after me and going that extra mile to provide help and support, warmth and encouragement (even if, at times, you did have to curse me for not doing something I should have been doing). Thank you for being behind me, and for all those lovely cups of coffee, Ann. Thanks also to Julie Earl for always smiling, always paying an interest, always being supportive, and for proofing some of the modules, and to Patricia Yehia for helping me out with the children during the odd child-care crisis when I had a meeting to go to. I am also indebted to Karen Bryan in EIHMS who has given me time, practical support, invaluable mentorship, involved me in projects, and provided rare collegiality and a genuine interest in what I can contribute. And finally, Emre Ogzen for providing useful feedback on early drafts and for looking after Oli during those awful in-set days that creep up on you when you least want them to. We will all miss him when he goes off to set up his own department of psychology in Turkey but are looking forward to some fun Turkish holidays!

    Big enormous gargantuan thanks also to Michael Carmichael at Sage for his patience with me over a long period of time, for always having a solution up his sleeve when you think there isn't one, for practical help and advice and for being so incredibly supportive and behind me every step of the way. And at my delivery stage, you too delivered your own baby! I must also express my appreciation to the copyeditor Sarah Price, who did all the copyediting (no mean feat!) with extreme diligence and a deep understanding of the readers' needs. Thank you Michael and thank you Sarah. Thanks also to Fabienne Pedroletti, the Production Editor at Sage, as well as Fern Bryant, the proofreader.

    Finally, in trying to find the words to thank my family, I ashamedly struggle! Thank you to my mum and dad for being proud of me, even though they might not really understand what I do. Thank you also to my parents-in-law, Tony and Audrey, for allowing me the time and space to get on with it all, and to Clare, Ian, Isabelle and Lucy for looking after D'Arcy, my daughter, as if she were their own. Thank you to my son, Oli, who is now 10, for appreciating why I might not be able to come and watch his district cricket at the weekend because I have work to do, for keeping my feet firmly on the ground, for showing an interest in what I am doing and why, for telling me off for working too much, and for simply being himself. Oli, you are lovely and I am very proud of you. One day you will play cricket for England and I will be there to wash your smelly old kit, regardless! And to my daughter, D'Arcy, who has been the best distraction ever; and though she is only two and a bit, I cannot ever imagine life without her, flitting around like a pretty little fairy, full of spirit, energy and innocence, bossing everyone around and keeping them all on their toes! Last but not least, thank you to Rick for putting up with me neglecting my wifely role and responsibilities, talking too much shop, for buying too many ‘ready meals’, for giving me a cuddle when I most need it, and for generally loving and having faith in me, especially when I am low.

    LynneMillward May 2004

    Preface

    This book has evolved in response to my MSc students' pleas over the last 10 years for an all-encompassing text, addressing the syllabus requirements for the Level 1 Knowledge criterion for membership of the British Psychological Society (BPS) Division of Occupational Psychology (DOP). The main objective, then, is to provide a comprehensive resource from which to derive a ‘big picture’ of the overall subject domain (the boundaries of which are fuzzy and also perhaps open to debate and dispute, but this can be a strength of the discipline); to obtain a sound basic understanding of the key issues, theories, concepts, methods, evidence and practice implications of each of the eight BPS-prescribed competences; to develop a critical and reflective stance on this material; to appreciate the importance and relevance of theory to the formulation of an issue; to facilitate the process of bridging the gap between theory and practice; and to inspire further reading, reflection and research.

    Perhaps I should also confess that it reflects in no small part my own need to be able to ‘grasp’ the essentials of the discipline. At times in my teaching and project supervision, I have only just been one little step beyond some of my students (and in some aspects of the subject, maybe even one or two steps behind them). The experience and expertise they have brought to their course, the challenge of the questions and issues they have raised, the cases and examples they have brought to bear, their contribution to class discussions and seminars, the analytic pieces and practical assignments they have delivered, and their sheer enthusiasm for the subject have keep me going, and in large part, really the material in this book is a product of their minds as much as my own. Hence some due acknowledgement and credit must be given to my students, who in their own learning and development have facilitated my learning and development.

    Thus, on one level it was easy to write this book because I live and breathe its material daily in the course of my work, and have engaged with probably all of its contents at some point over the years. On another level, it has been a very difficult, insecure and chaotic task of trying to catch and contain (if it ever could be) a constantly moving, ever expanding, knowledge and practice domain. This is by no means a criticism. On the contrary, it is refreshing and exciting to see how the knowledge base and its practice implications have evolved and are still very much evolving. Perhaps it is a lesson for us all here, in the, perhaps futile, attempt to capture the essential knowledge base of anything! Effectively, this textbook is really only the product of my own sense-making efforts. But hopefully it will nonetheless raise or inspire different kinds of questions, challenge some assumptions and help others ‘make sense’ of the discipline.

    On this note, and with an important caveat here, I may not have done justice to some aspects of occupational and organizational psychology in which I do not myself specialize, or practice. I have the benefit of colleagues whose knowledge and skills complement my own, and I hope to have done justice to their contributions in this book. I have also strived to appropriately contextualize the subject matter, within a broader historic, economic and political framework. For instance, the topic of training and development can be seen in the context of a broader learning metaphor prevalent in society as a whole, where economic progress and survival is said to depend on intellectual capital.

    Whilst this book addresses directly the needs of masters or diploma students in occupational psychology, it will also provide an invaluable source of specialist material for many other audiences including final-year undergraduates taking an option in occupational psychology, business and HR students taking options in occupational psychology, work psychology, organizational psychology and organizational behaviour and for practitioners wishing to keep abreast of the knowledge base in the field or to acquire the BPS Level 1 requirement for DOP entry through independent study.

    The textbook addresses the DOP requirements one by one in a self-contained way, although it makes every effort to cross-fertilize and cross-reference across different subjects in the syllabus in an integrated and coherent way. It begins with a primarily ‘personnel’ stance (Chapters 13), moving on to look at the organization and the individual in the organization (Chapters 46), and ends with work and work environment (Chapters 78). There are perhaps some things that I have not covered at all that I should have done, such as the interface between work and people via the particular physical arrangements of their work (for example, open-plan, singular offices). There is a growing psychology of facilities management, which is a topic claimed mainly by environmental psychology. Whilst it is easy to argue that where it belongs does not matter, it might equally be argued that I should have addressed the human issues arising from different physical arrangements in the workplace – but I had to stop somewhere!

    There are indeed – as became increasingly apparent to me in writing this book – very many fine lines that can be drawn between occupational psychology and other disciplines when it comes to focusing on a particular work issue or problem. For instance, environmental psychology can inform us of theories and concepts to understand why different types of attitude and behaviour can be found across different types of office structure and layout. Other fine lines include cross-over into counselling and clinical psychology (for example, in the counselling, development, and coaching domains of occupational psychology), into social psychology (for example, group, team and leadership processes, attitude and behaviour change), developmental psychology (for example, career development), cognitive and socio-cognitive psychology (across all domains of occupational psychology), ergonomics (for example, human-machine interaction), health psychology (for example, occupational health), dispositional psychology (again, across all domains of occupational psychology) and even neuro-cognitive psychology (for example, neural network models of motivation).

    It might therefore even be a bit futile to claim a distinct knowledge base for occupational psychology, because of so many other overlapping claims on the topics it addresses. This does not mean that what occupational psychology does is not distinctive. It is perhaps in the ‘practice’ of occupational psychology that we see our discipline most clearly, and, in so doing, draw on the knowledge base of literally any field of psychology so long as it can help shed light on a problem or issue, or soundly and accountably inform our interventions. If the aims of the occupational psychologist are to simultaneously increase effectiveness (of the individual, group and organization) and to improve the job satisfaction and well-being of the individual, what limits are there to be drawn on what theories and methods we use so long as they are appropriately grounded and used in a reflexive and self-critical way?

    It is increasingly being argued that occupational and organizational psychology should reflect on itself and its knowledge base, the ideology and epistemology that underwrites it. This is clearly beginning to happen, as individual workers are modelled more as proactive shapers of their own destiny as much as they are shaped by external factors, as postmodernism alerts us to the highly constructed nature of reality. Whilst only a few of us in the field have ventured completely into postmodernist thinking, research and practice, most of us are nonetheless mindful of the critical importance of perception and interpretation, as well as individual needs, interests and identities, as core to understanding workplace attitudes and behaviours.

    This moves us away from the assumption that we can tweak features of work and the work environment (for example, job design interventions, introduction of new technologies) and automatically see a benefit in human terms. On the contrary, it is clear that determinist thinking and practice has had its day and we are no longer so fixed on identifying the predictors of this, that and the other work-relevant criterion, but more concerned with looking at mechanisms and processes, and seeking explanations for what we see and find. I see a definite trend away from conventional scientific research (modelled on the experimental paradigm) to looking at the processes in situ, using more creative field-sensitive methods that are equally scientific, but more ecologically valid, and yielding new insights from ‘ground up’ that can be used to develop theory as well as new ways of practising. Research on stress, emotion and coping is perhaps one of the champion domains in this respect (for example, using diaries, introducing longitudinal designs), and there is a growing field of career psychology and organizational development psychology, within what is called the language or narrative mode, espousing new ways of investigating, interpreting and intervening.

    This does not mean that we should abandon our experiments or our more conventional methods, since these clearly do still have a very important place in our science, but that they yield findings that need to be ‘reality checked’ in the field, just as much as what we find in the field may need to be dissected, tested and analysed for generalizability purposes. For instance, in the training domain, the concept of mental model has become significant and has generalizability potential across the discipline for understanding, for example, effective teamwork, organizational change, human-machine interaction and so on. This is a topic for cognitive science to get its teeth into as much as the practitioner, and can be equally validly considered in experimental as well as field contexts. My close colleague Adrian Banks calls the experimental and quasi-experimental angle a ‘micro-world’ scenario enabling ideas to be tested in a fairly controlled way, but which will also facilitate its application to and testing in the field. Hence, all types of research can be entertained in occupational and organizational psychology across micro-worlds, to simulations, to real world.

    The burgeoning use of qualitative and other more field-sensitive methods of investigation is exciting, but may require a form of ‘cognitive switching’ across different epistemological mindsets. Some would say that it is antithetical to the idea of an epistemological framework to be able to ‘switch’ back and forth between, say, positivism and postmodernism; but maybe there are instances – certainly in the practice of occupational psychology – where you do have to do exactly that. Pure, maybe not, but appropriate to the situation at hand, nonetheless; and this does not mean that we undermine our scientific integrity either, when we do switch thinking modes. I have a project right now which requires that I look at the issue (of women's career development in Housing Associations) from both a conventional positivist, as well as a more social constructionist, perspective, harnessing relevant theory and evidence accordingly. The pragmatist in me therefore says, ‘don't put the cart before the horse’, adopt the most appropriate thinking and practice mode or modes (if you can integrate them coherently into a defensible evidence-based approach) required for the issue at hand.

    This textbook will reflect these activities in the way it presents and addresses particular topics and through the provision of cases and examples. It should be used primarily as a resource, prompting and inspiring further reading and research, as well as ideas for dissertations, for problem formulation and the creative application of knowledge to various problem situations. A scientist-practitioner approach built on a problem-solving model will be reflected throughout. That is, how to describe and formulate practical problems arising from the world of work using existing theory and research; how to pursue evidence-based practice; how to design problem solutions or management interventions that are theory-driven and testable through evaluation; and how to ‘use’ knowledge in a critical and constructive and skilled manner in various client situations. I have sought to represent only material from credible rather than popularist sources, adopting a position of the pragmatic scientist (see Introduction and Overview), and, in so doing, have also tried to reflect on the relevance of the more pedantic side of the discipline and its technical advice.

    The current book is designed specifically to address the BPS syllabus as a broad overview and resource, rather than an exhaustive treatise on the subject or its component parts. Complementary recommended texts include: Work Psychology by Arnold, Robertson, and Cooper (1995); Adrian Furnham's (1997) book, The Psychology of Behaviour at Work, which is a brilliant source book with a very useful managerial practice slant, whilst nonetheless firmly rooted in the theoretical and empirical literature; Nik Chmiel's (2000) edited text called Work and Organizational Psychology, which provides a collection of more specialist works offered by experts in their field, which are key sources for more detailed follow-up on particular issues or subject areas; and Christine Doyle's (2003) book, Work and Organizational Psychology, which takes a very challenging – maybe also somewhat cheeky – stance on the field, providing legitimate licence as well as an inspiration to move beyond what the discipline thinks it knows to address what in actual fact it really does know. I have also derived much from reading Chris Brotherton's (1999) application of social psychological thinking to management science; and from Haslam's (2004) book using a social identity approach, which provide a theoretical basis in social psychology for integrating knowledge across many different but important aspects of organizational psychology, enabling the coherent formulation of many different problem issues and considerations arising in this field and a basis for informed practice.

    One other important resource to ‘attach’ to this textbook is Cathy Cassell and Gillian Symon's recently published second edition of a book called Essential Guide to QualitativeMethods in Organizational Psychology (2004), which really does offer an essential tool book for all occupational psychologists, whether in research and/or practice, as well as providing another way of thinking about what we do, why and how.

    This book is a rather more pedestrian view of the field than presented by my aforementioned colleagues, although I do not hesitate to offer my views or to provide my own insights and suggestions where appropriate or relevant. No knowledge of psychology is assumed, although the book is written at the level of a final-year undergraduate student. The text will take the reader to the level of thinking required by the full-fledged scientist-practitioner able to apply knowledge in an informed and critical and professional manner to practical situations. Reference is made to the companion website, http://www.sagepub.co.uk/millward, throughout the book as a crucial source of additional detail, supporting case examples, exercises and activities, and other support material, including measures and other practical resources for both research and practice.

    Each chapter is self-contained and does not depend on prior reading. However, cross-reference is made to themes, issues and topics arising across modules to facilitate lateral thinking and to furnish a bigger thematic picture of the knowledge base of occupational psychology. In my view some general themes do emerge across the book, and the reader is encouraged to cross-fertilize accordingly. These themes are:

    • a change to a model of the individual as a sense-making, proactive processor of information, and thus a challenge to the assumption that employee experiences and behaviours are ‘determined’; parallel to this is the heightened attention to the idea of the self-regulating, self-managed, constantly learning and developing individual;
    • a heightened interest and relevance to occupational psychology of the dispositional (individual difference) perspective;
    • increased attention to the cognitive and meta-cognitive processes involved in accounting for behaviour;
    • increased use of more ecologically sensitive research designs and methods of data collection, including, in particular, the use of more qualitative methods; parallel to this is an increase in research reflexivity;
    • increased attention to the need to understand and explain, rather than just predict;
    • increased salience of the research-practice gap and the need to close it;
    • increased use of theories and insights from other disciplinary knowledge bases;
    • increased attention to the employee voice;
    • increased attention to emotional experiences and processes;
    • increased reference to postmodern thinking.

    Other important themes pertaining more to content include the constructs of:

    • learning;
    • development;
    • knowledge;
    • experience and expertise;
    • self-regulation;
    • reconciling group/organizational and individual interests;
    • sense-making;
    • change;
    • balance;
    • exchange.

    Finally, you are not intended to read this book from cover to cover or from Chapter 1 through to Chapter 8; it is intended for you to dip in and out of, as suits your needs and interests. I hope you find it useful.

    Using the Website

    The companion website, http://www.sagepub.co.uk/millward, provides an essential complement to the text by providing the following additional material

    • elaboration or further detail on an issue, a piece of research or a discussion issue;
    • resources in the form of measures and other tools for research and practice;
    • a source of self-reflection through the provision of exercises and activities designed to illustrate certain points and to bring concepts and theoretical issues alive;
    • examples of contemporary research and ideas for further dissertation research purposes;
    • practical case examples for illustrative purposes, to aid understanding and to consolidate the text.

    The material is organized consecutively by chapter. Whilst reference is made in particular to the website at certain key points throughout the text, the reader is encouraged to surf the website to explore its contents and to use it iteratively in combination with the text as a form of learning support.

    Postscript

    Please contact me by email [l.purvis@surrey.ac.uk] if you have any comment arising from reading all or any section of this textbook, or if you have feedback or suggestions for improving it.

    List of Abbreviations

    16PF – Sixteen Personality Factors

    AART – Applicant Attribution-Reaction Theory

    ACTA – Applied Cognitive Task Analysis

    ASR – Automatic Speech Recognition

    BARS – Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales

    BDI – Behavioural Description Interview

    BOS – Behavioural Observation Scales

    BPR – Business Process Re-engineering

    BPS – British Psychological Society

    BTEC – Business and Technology Education Council

    BTRI – Belbin Team Role Inventory

    C2 Organization – Control and Command Organization

    CATs – Cognitive Ability Tests

    CBI – Confederation of British Industry

    CCS – Cynbernetic Coping Scale

    CDM – Classical Decision Making

    CEO – Chief Executive Officer

    CEST – Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory

    CIS-R – Revised Clinical Interview Schedule

    CIT – Critical Incident Technique

    COPE – Coping Styles Measure

    CRE – Commission for Racial Equality

    C/R ratio – Control/Response Ratio

    CRT – Cognitive Resource Theory

    CSCW – Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

    CSE – Core Self-Evaluations

    CSUQ – Computer System Usability Questionnaire

    CTA – Cognitive Task Analysis

    DAT – Differential Aptitude Test

    DoH – UK Department of Health

    DOP – Division of Occupational Psychology

    DoT – UK Department of Transport

    DSM – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders

    EAP – Employee Assistance Programme

    EC – European Commission

    EEC – European Economic Community

    EID – Ecological Interface Design

    EL – Emotional Labour

    ELM – Elaboration Likelihood Model

    EPQ – Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

    FFM – Five Factor Measures

    FOR – Frame of Reference Training

    GAS – General Adaptation Syndrome

    GCSEs – General Certificate of Secondary Education

    GEMS – Generic Error Modelling System Approach

    GHQ – General Health Questionnaire

    GMA – General Mental Ability

    GNS – Growth-Need-Strength

    HAVS – Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome

    HCI – Human-Computer Interaction

    HMD – Head-Mounted Display

    HPI – Hogan Personality Inventory

    HR – Human Relations

    HRA – Human Reliability Analysis

    HRM – Human Resource Management

    H & S – Health and Safety Regulations

    HSE – UK Health and Safety Executive

    ICL – International Classification of Diseases

    IR – Industrial Relations

    IT – Information Technology

    ITB – Industry Training Boards

    IWAF – Informal Work Accommodations to Family Life

    JCM – Job Characteristics Model

    JDS – Job Diagnostic Survey

    KSA – Knowledge, Skill and Ability

    LB – Learning Bay

    LEC – Local Enterprise Company

    LMX – Leader Member Exchange

    LPC – Least Preferred Co-Worker

    MCI – Management Charter Initiative

    MPS – Motivating Potential

    MSFS – Multiple Source Feedback Systems

    MSMR Feedback System – Multi-Source-Multi-Rater Feedback System

    MSQ – Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

    MSS – Mixed Standard Scales

    NA – Negative Affect

    NCB – National Coal Board

    NCVQ – National Council for Vocational Qualifications

    NDM – Naturalistic Decision Making

    NEC – Network Enabled Capability

    NEO-PI – Big Five Personality Tests

    NHS – UK National Health Service

    Non-FFM – non Five-Factor Measures

    NPE – Negative Psychological Effects

    NTA – National Training Award

    NVQ – National Vocational Qualification

    OA – Organizational Analysis

    OAR – Overall Assessment Rating

    OC – Organizational Commitment

    OCB – Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

    OCQ – Organizational Commitment Questionnaire

    OD – Organizational Development

    OID – Organizational Identification

    OPQ – Occupational Personality Questionnaire

    OSI – Occupational Stress Indicator

    PA – Performance Appraisal

    PAI – Post Appraisal Development Interview

    PAS – Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    PMI – Performance Management Indicator

    PMS – Performance Management Strategy

    POB – Presocial Organizational Behaviour

    POS – Perceived Organizational Support

    PPQ – Professional Personality Questionnaire

    QUIS – Questionnaire User Interaction Satisfaction

    RBS – Royal Bank of Scotland

    RG – Repertory Grid

    RJP – Realistic Job Preview

    SDS – Self-Directed Search

    SM – Scientific Management

    SMEs – Subject Matter Experts

    SMIs – Stress Management Interventions

    STS – Socio-Technical Systems

    TAM – Technology Accepetance Model

    TB – Team Building

    TEC – Training and Enterprise Council

    T-Group – Therapy Group

    TNA – Training Needs Analysis

    TQM – Total Quality Management

    VDU – Visual Display Unit

    VE – Virtual Environment

    VIE Theory – Valence, Instrumentality, Expectancy Theory

    WAB – Weighted Application Blank

    WCCL – Ways of Coping Checklist

  • References

    Aalto, P., & Kankaanranta, K. (1996). Towards an information society: Information technology applications in guidance and counselling. Helsinki: CIMO.
    Abraham, S.E., Karns, L.A., Shaw, K., & Menon, M.A. (2001). Managerial competencies and the managerial performance appraisal process. Journal of Management Development, 20(10), 842–852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710110410842
    Abrams, D., & Hogg, M.A. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420180403
    Adams, J.D., Hayes, J., & Hopkins, B. (1976). Transition: Understanding and managing personal change. London: Martin Robertson.
    Adams, J.S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L.Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267–299). New York: Academic Press.
    Adler, N. (2002). Women joining men as global leaders in the new economy. In M.Gannon & K.Newman (Eds), The Blackwell handbook of cross cultural management. Oxford: Blackwell Business.
    Aldwin, C.M. (2000). Stress, coping and development: An integrative perspective. New York: Wiley.
    Alfred, M.V. (2001). Expanding theories of career development: Adding the voices of African American women in the White academy. Adult Education Quarterly, 51(2), 108–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07417130122087179
    Algera, J.A., & Greuter, M.A.M. (1989). Job analysis for personnel selection. In M.Smith and I.T.Robertson (Eds), Advances in selection and assessment (pp. 7–30). Chichester: Wiley.
    Ali, H., & Davies, D.R. (2003). The effect of age, sex and tenure on the job performance of rubber tapers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 381–391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903769647238
    Alker, L., & McHugh, D. (2000). Human resource maintenance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(4), 303–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940010330975
    Allen, T.D., Freeman, D.M., Russell, J.E.A., Reizenstein, R.C., & Rentz, J.O. (2001). Survivor reactions to downsizing: Does time ease the pain?Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(2), 145–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167299
    Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, W. Jr., Traver, H., & Shotland, A. (1997). A meta-analysis of relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1997.tb00911.x
    Allison, T., Cooper, C.L., & Reynolds, P. (1989). Stress counselling in the workplace – the post office experience. The Psychologist, 2, 384–388.
    Almen, A., Anderson, M., Lagerlof, J., & Pallin, K. (2000). The role of command in network centric warfare. Paper presented at 5th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Orlando, Florida.
    Alvesson, M. (2001). Knowledge work: Ambiguity, image and identity. Human Relations, 54(7), 863–886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726701547004
    Alvesson, M., & Deetz, S. (1996). Critical theory and postmodernism approaches to organization studies. In S.R.Clegg, C.Hardy & W.R.Nord (Eds), Handbook of organizational studies, (pp. 191–217). London: Sage.
    Anderson, J.R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychological Review, 89, 369–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.89.4.369
    Anderson, J.R. (1987). Skill acquisition: Compilation of weak-method problem solutions. Psychological Review, 94, 192–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.94.2.192
    Anderson, N. (2001). Towards a theory of socialization impact: Selection as pre-entry socialization. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9(1/2), 84–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00165
    Anderson, N. (2003). Applicant and recruiter reactions to new technology in selection: A critical review and agenda for future research. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 11(2–3), 121–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00235
    Anderson, N. (2004). Editorial – The dark side of the moon: Applicant perspectives, negative psychological effects (NPEs), and candidate decision making in selection. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12, 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00259.x
    Anderson, N., & Herriot, P. (Eds) (1997). International handbook of assessment and selection. London: Wiley.
    Anderson, N., & Ostroff, C. (1997). Selection as socialisation. In N.Anderson & P.Herriot (Eds), International handbook of selection and assessment (pp. 413–440). Chichester: Wiley.
    AndersonN., & Shackleton, V. (1996). Decision making in the graduate selection interview: A filed study. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 63–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00510.x
    Anderson, N., Born, M., & Cunningham-Snell, N. (2001). Recruitment and selection: Applicant perspectives and outcomes. In N.Anderson, D.S.Ones, H.K.Sinangil & C.Viswesvaran (Eds), Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 200–218). London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221334.
    Anderson, N.R. (1991). Eight decades of employment interview research: A retrospective metareview and prospective commentary. European Work and Organizational Psychologist, 2, 1–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09602009208408532
    Anderson, N.R., Herriot, P., & Hodgkinson, G.P. (2001). The practitioner-researcher divide in industrial, work and organizational (IWO) psychology: Where we are now, and where do we go from here?Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(4), 391–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167451
    Anderson, S.L., & Betz, N.E. (2001). Sources of social self-efficacy expectations: Their measurement and relation to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58(1), 98–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2000.1753
    Andriessen, J.H.E. (1991). Mediated communication and new organizational forms. In C.L.Cooper & I.T.Robertson (Eds), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 17–70) Chichester: Wiley.
    Annett, J., & Sparrow, J. (1985). Transfer training: A review of research and practical implications. Journal of Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 22, 116–124.
    Antoni, C. (1996). Lean production in Europe: A matter of technical adjustment or cultural change?Applied Psychology: An International Review, 45(2), 139–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1996.tb00759.x
    Antonioni, D. (1994). Designing an effective 360-degree appraisal feedback process. Organizational Dynamics, 25(2), 24–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616%2896%2990023-6
    Argote, L. (1993). Group and organizational learning curves. Individual, system, and environmental components. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 31–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1993.tb00984.x
    Argyris, C. (1962). Interpersonal competence and organizational behaviour. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
    Argyris, C. (1971). Management and organizational development: The path from XA to YB. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Argyris, C., & Schon, D.A. (2002). Organizational Learning II. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
    Armeli, S., Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Lynch, P. (1998). Perceived organizational support and police performance: The moderating influence of socioemotional needs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 288–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.288
    Armour, N.L. (1995). The beginning of stress reduction: Creating a code of conduct for how team members treat each other. Public Personnel Management, 24(2), 127–132.
    Armstrong, P., & Armstrong, H. (1990). Theorizing women's work. Toronto: Garamond Press.
    Armstrong-Stassen, M. (2002). Designated redundant but escaping lay-off: A special group of layoff survivors. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(1), 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902167603
    Arnison, L., & Miller, P. (2002). Virtual teams: A virtue for the conventional team. Journal of Workplace Learning, 14(4), 166–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13665620210427294
    Arnold, J. (1985). Tales of the unexpected: Surprises experienced by graduates in the early months of employment. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 13, 308–319.
    Arnold, J. (1997). Managing careers into the 21st century. London: Paul Chapman.
    Arnold, J. (2004). The congruence problem in John Holland's theory of vocational decisions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 95–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915937
    Arnold, J., Robertson, I.T., & Cooper, C.L. (1995). Work psychology: Understanding human behaviour in the workplace (
    3rd edn
    ). London: Pitman.
    Arthur, M.B. (2000). The boundaryless career: A new perspective for organisational enquiry. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 15, 295–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150402
    Arthur, M.B., Hall, D.T., & Lawrence, B.S. (1989). Handbook of career theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625459
    Arthur, W. Jr., Bennett, W. Jr., Edens, P.S., & Bell, S.T. (2003). Effectiveness of training in organizations: A meta-analysis of design and evaluation features. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 234–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.234
    Aryee, S., & Luk, V. (1996). Balancing the two major parts of adult life experience: Work and family identity among dual career couples. Human Relations, 49, 465–487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679604900404
    Aryee, S., Budhwar, P.S., & Chen, Z.-X. (2002). Trust as a mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and work outcomes: Test of a social exchange model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(3), 267–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.138
    Aselage, J., & Eisenberger, R. (2003). Perceived organizational support and psychological contracts: A theoretical integration. Journal of Organizational Behavior24 (5, Special Issue), 491–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.211
    Asch, S.E. (1952). Social psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10025-000
    Ash, A. (1994). Participants reactions to appraisal of managers: Results of a pilot. Public Personnel Management, 23(2), 237–256.
    Asher, J. (1972). The biographical item: Can it be improved?Personnel Psychology, 25(2), 251–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1972.tb01102.x
    Ashforth, B.E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14, 20–39.
    Ashforth, B.E., & Mael, F.A. (1996). Organizational identity and strategy as a context for the individual. Advances in Strategic Management, 13, 19–64.
    Ashforth, B.E., & Tomiuk, M.A. (2000). Emotional labour and authenticity: Views from service agents. In S.Fineman (Ed.), Emotion in organization (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 184–203). London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219850
    AshKanasy, C., Wilderom, C., & Peterson, M. (Eds). (2003). Handbook of organizational culture and climate. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452244273
    Atkinson, R.K., Renkl, A., & Merrill, M.M. (2003). Transitioning from studying examples to solving problems: Combining fading with prompting fosters learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 774–783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.95.4.774
    Attaran, M., & Attaran, S. (2002). Collaborative computing technology: The hot new managing tool. Journal of Management Development, 21(8), 598–609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710210437572
    Atwater, L., Waldman, D., Atwater, D., & Cartier, P. (2000). An upward feedback field experiment: Supervisors' cynicism, reactions, and commitment to subordinates. Personnel Psychology, 53, 275–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2000.tb00202.x
    Audia, G., Locke, E.A., & Smith, K.G. (2000). The paradox of success: An archival and laboratory study of strategic persistence following a radical environmental change. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 837–854. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1556413
    Austin, J.T., & Vancouver, J.B. (1996). Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 338–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.120.3.338
    Axtell, C.M., Wall, T., Stride, C., Pepper, K., Clegg, C., Gardner, P., & Bolden, R. (2002). Familiarity breeds content: The impact of exposure to change on employee openness and wellbeing. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(2), 217–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/09631790260098596
    Axtell, C.M., Waterson, P.E., & Clegg, C.W. (1997). Problems integrating user participation into software development. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 47(2), 323–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ijhc.1997.0143
    Babisch, W. (1998). Epidemiological studies of the cardiovascular effects of occupational noise – a critical appraisal. Noise & Health, 1, 24–39.
    Bailey, C., & Fletcher, C. (2002). The impact of multiple source feedback on management development: Findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(7), 853–867. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.167
    Bailey, C.T. (1983). The measurement of job performance. Hampshire: Gower Publishing Company Ltd.
    Bailey, J.S., & Austin, J. (2002). Productivity in the workplace. In M.A.Mattaini & B.A.Thyer (Eds), Finding solutions to social problems: Behavioral strategies for change (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 179–200). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Bainbridge, L., & Sanderson, P. (1995). Verbal protocol analysis. In J.W.Wilson & E.N.Corlett (Eds), Evaluation of human work: A practical ergonomics methodology (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 169–201). London: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
    Bales, R.F. (1950). Interaction process analysis: A method for the study of small groups. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Ballantyne, I., & Hind, P. (1995). So you want to get chartered?The Occupational Psychologist, No. 25.
    Baltes, B.B., Bauer, C.C., Bajdo, L.M., & Parker, C.P. (2002). The use of multitrait-multimethod data for detecting nonlinear relationships: The case of psychological climate and job satisfaction. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(1), 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016231816394
    Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
    Banks, A. (2001). Mental models in groups. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Guildford, University of Surrey.
    Banks, A., & Millward, L.J. (2000). Running shared mental models as a distributed cognitive process. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 513–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000712600161961
    Banks, M., Bates, I., Breakwell, G., Bynner, J., Emler, N., Jamieson, L., & Roberts, K. (1992). Careers identities. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Bannister, S., Hilliard, R., Regehr, G., & Lingaard, L. (2003). Technical skill in paediatrics: A qualitative study of acquisition, attitudes, and assumptions in the neonatal intensive care unit. Medical Education, 37(12), 1082–1090. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2003.01711.x
    Barley, R. (1989). Careers, identities, and institutions: The legacy of the Chicago School of Sociology. In M.B.Arthur, D.T.Hall & B.S.Lawrence (Eds), Handbook of career theory. (pp. 41–65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625459.005
    Barling, J., Loughlin, C., & Kelloway, E.K. (2002). Development and test of a model linking safety-specific transformational leadership and occupational safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 488–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.488
    Barnard, C. (1938). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Barnes, J.L. (2001). Person perception processes and challenges. In M.London (Ed.), How people evaluate others in organizations (pp. 135–153). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
    Baron, H., & Janman, K. (1996). Fairness in the assessment centre. In C.L.Cooper & I.T.Robertson (Eds), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 61–113). Chichester: Wiley.
    Baron, R.M., & Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173
    Barrett, P., Kline, P., Paltiel, L., & Eysenck, H.J. (1996). An evaluation of the psychometric properties of the concept 5.2 Occupational Personality Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 69, 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1996.tb00595.x
    Barrick, M.R., & Mount, M.K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00688.x
    Barrick, M.R., Mount, M.K., & Judge, T. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: What do we know and where do we go next?International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9, 9–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00160
    Barrick, M.R., Stewart, G.L., & Piotrowski, M. (2002). Personality and job performance: Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 43–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.43
    Barrow, J.C. (1976). Worker performance and task complexity as causal determinants of leader behaviour style and flexibility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 433–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.61.4.433
    Bartholomew, K., & Perlman, D. (Eds). (1994). Attachment processes in adulthood: Advances in personal relationships, Vol. 5. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Bartram, D. (2001). Internet recruitment and selection: Kissing frogs to find princes. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8, 261–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00155
    Bartunek, J.M. (1984). Changing interpretative schemes and organizational restructuring: The example of a religious order. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 355–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393029
    Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership (
    3rd edn
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Bass, B.M. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industry, military and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bass, B.M., & Avolio, B.J. (Eds). (1998). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Bass, B.M., & Vaughan, J.A. (1967). Training in industry: The management of learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Batt, R. (1999). Work organization, technology, performance in customer service sales. Industrial and Labour Relations Review, 52, 539–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2525063
    Beach, L.R. (1997). The psychology of decision making: People in organizations. Foundations for organizational science. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204406
    Bechtoldt, H.P. (1947) Selection. In S.S.Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of experimental psychology (pp. 1237–1267). New York: Wiley.
    Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
    Becker, H.S., & Geer, B. (1958). The fate of idealism in medical school. American Sociological Review, 23, 50–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2088623
    Becker, T.E., & Strauss, A.L. (1956). Careers, personality and adult socialization. American Journal of Sociology, 62, 253–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/222002
    Bedeian, A.G. (2002). Issues in the dimensional structure of career entrenchment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(2), 247–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/09631790260098253
    Beer, M. (1976). On gaining influence and power for OD. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 12(1), 44–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188637601200105
    Behson, S.J. (2002). Coping with family-to-work conflict: The role of informal accommodations to family. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(4), 324–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.7.4.324
    Belbin, R.M. (1981). Management teams: Why they succeed or fail. London: Heinemann.
    Belbin, R.M. (1993). Team roles at work. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
    Bell, B.S., Ryan, A.M., & Wiechmann, D. (2004). Justice expectations and applicant perceptions. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1–2), 24–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00261.x
    Bell, S., & Lee, C. (2002). Development of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire for young women. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 7(2), 189–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548500120116085
    Bellamy, L.J. (1986). The safety management factor: An analysis of human aspects of the Bhopal disaster. Paper presented at the 1986 Safety and Reliability Symposium, Southport, UK.
    Bendicsen, H., & Carlton, S. (1990). Clinical team building: A neglected ingredient in the therapeutic milieu. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 8(1), 5–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J007v08n01_02
    Bennett, K.B., Nagy, A.L., & Flach, J.M. (1997). Visual displays. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 659–696). New York: John Wiley.
    Bennett, K.B., Cress, J.D., Hettinger, L.J., Stautberg, D., & Haas, M.W. (2001). A theoretical analysis and preliminary investigation of dynamically adaptive interfaces. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 11(2), 169–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327108IJAP1102_04
    Bennis, W.G. (1969). Organization development: Its nature, origins, and prospects. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
    Ben-Shakhar, G., et al. (1986). Can graphology predict occupational success? Two empirical studies and some methodological ruminations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(4), 645–653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.4.645
    Benson, L. (1985). Theoretical perspectives. American Behavioral Scientist, 29(1), 25–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000276485029001004
    Berger, P., & Luckman, T. (1967). The social construction of reality. New York: Doubleday.
    Bernardin, H., & Buckley, M.R. (1981). Strategies in rater training. Academy of Management Review, 6, 205–212.
    Bernstein, D.A., & Borkovec, T.D. (1983). Progressive relaxation training. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Betz, N.E. (2000). Self-efficacy theory as a basis for career assessment. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 205–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106907270000800301
    Betz, N.E., & Corning, A. (1993). The inseparability of ‘career’ and ‘personal’ counselling. The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 137–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1993.tb00426.x
    Beveridge, S., Craddock, S.H., Liesener, J., Stapleton, M., & Hershenson, D. (2002). INCOME: A framework for conceptualizing the career development of persons with disabilities. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 45(4), 195–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00343552020450040201
    Bezanson, L. (2003). Career development: Policy, proof and purpose. Career Development and Guidance (UK), October.
    Bhatt, G.D. (2001). Knowledge management in organizations: Examining the interaction between technologies, techniques, and people. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(1), 68–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270110384419
    Bianchi-Berthouze, N., & Lisetti, C.L. (2002). Modeling multimodal expression of user's affective subjective experience. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 12(1), 49–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013365332180
    Bird, A., Gunz, H.P., & Arthur, M.B. (2002). Careers in a complex world: The search for new perspectives in the ‘new science.’Management, 5(1), 1–14.
    Bishop, J.W., & Scott, K.D. (2000). Organizational and team commitment in a team environment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 439–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.439
    Blake, R.R., & Mouton, J.S. (1964). The managerial grid. Houston, TX: Gulf.
    Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Beall, A., Swinth, K.R., Hoyt, C.L., & Bailenson, J.N. (2002). Immersive virtual environment technology as a methodological tool for social psychology. Psychological Inquiry, 13(2), 103–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1302_01
    Blau, G., & Boal, K. (1987). Conceptualizing how job involvement and organizational commitment affect turnover and absenteeism. Academy of Management Review, 12, 288–300.
    Bliesener, T. (1996). Methodological moderators in validating biographical data in personnel selection. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 69(1), 107–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1996.tb00603.x
    Blinkhorn, S., & Johnson, C. (1990). The insignificance of personality testing. Nature, 348, 671–672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/348671a0
    Blum, M., & Naylor, J. (1968). Industrial psychology: Its theoretical and social foundation. New York: Harper and Row.
    Blumberg, M., & Pringle, C.D. (1982). The missing opportunity in organizational research: Some implications for a theory of work performance. Academy of Management Review, 7(4), 562–565.
    Blustein, D., & Noumair, D.A. (1966). Self-development in career development: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Counselling and Development, 74, 433–441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1996.tb01889.x
    Boddy, D., & Gunson, N. (1996). Organizations in the network age. London: Routledge.
    Boechler, P.M., & Dawson, M.R.W. (2002). Effects of navigation tool information on hypertext navigation behavior: A configural analysis of page-transition data. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 11(2), 95–115.
    Boerlijst, J.G. (1998). Career development and career guidance. In P.J.D.Drenth, H.Thierry, & C.J.de Wolff (Eds), Personnel psychology. Vol. 3. Handbook of work and organizational psychology (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 273–296). Hove: Psychology Press Ltd.
    Boje, D.M., Alvarez, R.C., & Schooling, B. (2001). Reclaiming story in organization: Narratologies and action sciences. In R.Westwood & S.Linstead (Eds), The language of organization (pp. 132–175). London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217368
    Boose, J.H. (1985). A knowledge acquisition programme for expert systems based upon personal construct psychology. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 5, 495–526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7373%2885%2980055-9
    Booth, P. (1990). Cognitive models in human-computer Interaction. In P.Booth (Ed.), An introduction to human-computer interaction. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Booth, P., & Marshall, C.J. (1990). Usability in human-computer interaction. In P.Booth (Ed.), An introduction to human-computer interaction. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Borg, G., Bratfisch, O., & Dorinc, J. (1971). On the problem of perceived difficulty. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 12, 249–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.1971.tb00628.x
    Borkin, J.R., Steffen, J.J., Ensfield, L.B., Krzton, K., Wishnick, H., Wilder, K., Yangarber, N. (2000). Recovery Attitudes Questionnaire: Development and evaluation. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 24(2), 95–102.
    Borman, W.C. (1991). Job behaviour, performance and effectiveness. In M.D.Dunnette & L.Hough (Eds), Handbook of industrial & organizational behaviour (Vol. 2, pp. 271–326). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
    Borman, W.C., Walter, C., Campbell, C.H., & Pulakos, E.D. (2001). Analyzing jobs for performance measurement. In J.P.Campbell & D.J.Knapp (Eds), Exploring the limits in personnel selection and classification (pp. 157–180). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Boss, R.W., McConkie, M.L., Ringer, R.C., & Polok, N. (1995). Building productive teams in cross cultural settings: An intervention with Hispanic and non-Hispanic managers. Organization Development Journal, 13(2), 59–69.
    Boswell, W.R., & Boudreau, J.W. (2001). Separating the developmental and evaluative performance appraisal uses. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(3), 391–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012872907525
    Bowers, D.G., & Franklin, J.L. (1994). Survey-guided development: Using human resources measurement in organizational change. In W.L.French, C.H.Bell, & R.A.Zawacki (Eds), Organization development and transformation: Managing effective change (
    4th edn
    , pp. 43–55). Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
    Boyce, T.E., & Geller, E.S. (2001). Encouraging college students to support pro-environment behavior: Effects of direct versus indirect rewards. Environment and Behavior, 33(1), 107–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00139160121972891
    Boydell, T.H. (1970). A guide to job analysis. London: British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education.
    Bradley, M. (2002). IBM's Digitisation Transformation Story. Cynefin Centre for Organizational Complexity, IBM Global Services. IBM Corporation.
    Brant, B., Farmer, J., & Buckmaster, A. (1993). Cognitive apprenticeship approach to helping adults learn. In D.Flannery (Ed.), Applying cognitive learning theory to adult learning (pp. 69–78). San Franciso, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Brayfield, A.H., & Crockett, W.H. (1955). Employee attitudes and employee performance. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 396–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045899
    Breakwell, G.M. (1986). Coping with threatened identity. London: Methuen.
    Breakwell, G.M., & Millward, L. (1995). Basic evaluation methods: Analysing performance, practice and procedure. Leicester: BPS Books and Methuen.
    Brett, J.F., & Atwater, L.E. (2001). 360 degree feedback: Accuracy, reactions, and perceptions of usefulness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 930–942. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.930
    Bretz, R.D., & Judge, T.A. (1998). Realistic job previews: A test of the adverse self-selection hypothesis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2), 330–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.330
    Bretz, R.D., & Thompsett, R.E. (1997). Comparing traditional and integrative learning methods in organizational training programs. In D.F.Russ-Eft, F.Darlene, H.S.Preskill et al. (Eds), Human resource development review: Research and implications (pp. 57–84). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Bridges, W. (2001). Managing transitions. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    Brief, A.P. (1998). Attitudes in and around organizations. London: Sage.
    Brief, A.P., & Motowildo, S.J. (1986). Prosocial organizational behaviours. Academy of Management Review, 11, 710–725.
    Briggs, P. (1987). Usability assessment for the office: Methodological choices and their implications. In M.Frese, E.Ulich & W.Dzida (Eds), Psychological issues of human-computer interaction in the workplace (pp. 381–442). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
    Bright, J.E.H., & Hutton, S. (2000). The impact of competency statements on resumes for shortlisting decisions. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(2), 41–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00132
    Brindle, L., & Ridgeway, C. (1995). Occupational Assessment Survey. The Occupational Psychologist (pp. 17–23).
    Briskin, A. (1998). The striving soul in the workplace. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
    British Psychological Society (2004). What do occupational psychologists do?http://www.bps.org.uk/careers/areas/occupational.cfm.
    Britt, T.W., Adler, A.B., & Bartone, P.T. (2001). Deriving benefits from stressful events: The role of engagement in meaningful work and hardiness. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 53–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.6.1.53
    Brookfield, M. (1986). Understanding and facilitating adult learning. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Brothen, T., Warnbach, C., & Hansen, G. (2002). Accommodating students with disabilities: PSI as an example of universal instructional design. Teaching of Psychology, 29(3), 229–240.
    Brotheridge, C.M., & Lee, R.T. (2003). Development and validation of the Emotional Labour Scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 365–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903769647229
    Brotherton, C. (1996). Guidelines on recording the activities of an affiliate member of the division. The Occupational Psychologist, 29 (August), 50–56.
    Brotherton, C. (1999). Social psychology and management: Issues for a changing society. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Brown, A.D. (2001). Organization studies and identity: Towards a research agenda. Human Relations, 54(1), 113–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726701541014
    Brown, D., & Brooks, L. (1996). Career choice and development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
    Brown, I.D. (1995). Accident reporting and analysis. In J.W.Wilson and E.N.Corlett (Eds), Evaluation of human work: A practical ergonomics methodology (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 309–316). London: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
    Brown, J., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, January-February, 32–42.
    Brown, J.M., & Campbell, E.A. (1998). Stress and policing: Sources and strategies. Chichester: J Wiley & Sons.
    Brown, R. (1988). Group processes: Dynamics within and between groups. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Brown, S.P. (1996). A meta-analysis and review of organizational research on job involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 235–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.120.2.235
    Brutus, S., London, M., & Martineau, J. (1999). The impact of 360-degree feedback on planning for career development. Journal of Management Development, 18(8), 676–693. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621719910293774
    Brutus, S., Ruderman, M.N., Ohlott, P.J., & McCauley, C.D. (2000). Developing from job experiences: The role of organization-based self-esteem. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11(4), 367–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1532-1096%28200024%2911:4%3C367::AID-HRDQ4%3E3.0.CO;2-6
    Bryman, A. (1996). Leadership in organizations. In S.R.Clegg, C.Hardy & W.R.Nord (Eds), Handbook of organizational studies (pp. 276–292). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Bubb-Lewis, C., & Scerbo, M.W. (1999). Does desire for control affect interactions in an adaptive automated environment? In M.W.Scerbo & M.Mouloua (Eds), Automation technology and human performance: Current research and trends (pp. 15–26). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Buchanan, D.A., & Boddy, D. (1983). Advanced technology and the quality of working life: The effects of computerized controls on biscuit-making operators. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56(2), 109–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1983.tb00118.x
    Buller, P. (1988). For successful strategic change: Blend OD practices with strategic management. Organizational Dynamics, Winter, 42–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2888%2990035-6
    Buller, P.F., & Bell, C.H. (1986). Effects of team building and goal setting on productivity: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 29(2), 305–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256190
    Bullinger, H.J., Bauer, W., & Braun, M. (1997). Virtual environments. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 1727–1759). New York: Wiley.
    Bullinger, H.J., Kern, P., & Braun, M. (1997). Controls. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 697–728). New York: John Wiley.
    Bunce, D. (1997). What factors are associated with the outcome of individual-focused worksite stress management interventions?Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1997.tb00627.x
    Buono, A.F., & Bowditch, J.L. (2003). The human side of mergers and acquisitions (
    3rd edn
    ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Burke, M.J., & Day, R.R. (1986). A cumulative study of the effectiveness of managerial training. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 232–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.2.232
    Burke, M.J., Borucki, C.C., & Kaufman, J.D. (2002). Contemporary perspectives on the study of psychological climate: A commentary. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 325–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594320244000210
    Burke, W.W. (2002). Organizational change: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Buttner, E.H., & McNally, M. (1996). The interactive effect of influence tactic, applicant gender, and type of job on hiring recommendations. Sex Roles, 34(7–8), 581–591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01545034
    Buunk, B.P., de Jonge, J., Ybema, J.F., & de Wolfe, C.J. (1998). Psychosocial aspects of occupational stress. In P.J.D.Drenth, H.Thierry & C.J.de Wolff (Eds), Work psychology, vol. 2: Handbook of work and organizational psychology (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 145–173). Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd. UK.
    Caincross, F. (1997). A connected world. Telecommunications survey. The Economist, 13 Sept: 3–4.
    Callahan, J.L., & McCollum, E.E. (2002). Conceptualizations of emotion research in organizational contexts. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 4(1), 4–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1523422302004001002
    Calnan, M., Wainwright, D., Forsythe, M., Wall, B., & Almond, S. (2001). Mental health and stress in the workplace: The case of general practice in the UK. Social Science and Medicine, 52(4), 499–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2800%2900155-6
    Camara, W.J., & Schneider, D.L. (1995). Integrity tests – facts and unresolved issues. American Psychologist, 49(2), 112–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.2.112
    Campbell, D.P. (1996). The use of interest surveys with groups: A useful team-building technique. Measurement & Evaluation in Counselling and Development, 29(3), 153–162.
    Campbell, J.P. (1971). Personnel training and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 22, 565–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.22.020171.003025
    Campbell, J.P. (1991). Modelling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M.D.Dunnette & L.M.Hough (Eds), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 1,
    2nd edn
    , pp. 687–732). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Campbell, J.P. (1999). The definition and management of performance in the new age. In D.R.Ilgen & E.D.Pulakos (Eds), The changing nature of performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development (pp. 154–191). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Campbell, J.P., Houston, M-A., & Oppler, S.H. (2001). Modeling performance in a population of jobs. In J.P.Campbell & D.J.Knapp (Eds), Exploring the limits in personnel selection and classification (pp. 307–333). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Campbell, J.P., McCloy, R.A., Oppler, S.H., & Sager, C.E. (1993). A theory of performance. In N.E.Schmitt & W.C.Borman (Eds), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 35–70). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Campion, M.A., Cheraskin, L., & Stevens, M.J. (1994). Career-related antecedents and outcomes of job rotation. Academy of Management Journal, 37(6), 1518–1542. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256797
    Cannon-Bowers, J.A., Salas, E., Blickensderfer, E., & Bowers, C.A. (1998). The impact of cross-training and workload on team functioning: A replication and extension of initial findings. Human Factors, 40(1), 92–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1518/001872098779480550
    Cannon-Bowers, J.A., & Salas, E. (2001). Reflections on shared cognition. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 22, 195–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.82
    Cardy, R.L., & Dobbins, G.H. (1994). Performance appraisal: Alternative perspectives. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing.
    Carey, A. (1967). The Hawthorne studies: A radical criticism. American Sociological Review, 32, 403–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2091087
    Carlson, K.D., Scullen, S.E., Schmidt, F.L., Rothstein, H., & Erwin, F. (1999). Generalizable biographical data validity can be achieved without multi-organizational development and keying. Personnel Psychology, 52(3), 731–755. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1999.tb00179.x
    Carnall, C. (1990). Managing change in organizations. London: Prentice Hall International.
    Carnevale, A.J. (1992). America and the new economy. Washington, DC: American Society for Training and Development, & U.S. Department of Labour.
    Carr, J.Z., Schmidt, A-M., Ford, J.K., & DeShon, R.P. (2003). Climate perceptions matter: A meta-analytic path analysis relating molar climate, cognitive and affective states, and individual level work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 605–619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.605
    Carrington, P. (1978). Freedom in meditation. New York: Anchor Press.
    Carroll, C.E. (1995). Rearticulating organizational identity: Exploring corporate images and employee identification. Management Learning, 26(4), 463–482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050769502600404
    Carroll, J.M., & Olson, J.R. (1988). Mental models in human-computer interaction. In M.Helander (Ed.), Handbook of human-computer interaction (pp. 45–65). New York: Elsevier Science Publishers.
    Carroll, M. (1995). The counsellor in organizational settings: Some reflections. Employee Counselling Today, 7(1), 23–29.
    Carroll, M. (1996). Workplace counselling. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216927
    Carroll, M., & Walton, M. (1997). Handbook of counselling in organizations. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217009
    Carron, A.V., & Spink, K.S. (1993). Team building in an exercise setting. Sport Psychologist, 7(1), 8–18.
    Carson, K.P., & Gilliard, D.J. (1993). Construct validity of the Miner Sentence Completion Scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 66, 171–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1993.tb00526.x
    Carter, A. (2002). Executive coaching: Inspiring performance at work, IES Report 379. Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.
    Cartwright, S., & Cooper, C.L. (1995). The impact of mergers and acquisitions on people at work: Existing research and issues. British Journal of Management, 1, 65–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.1990.tb00163.x
    Carvel, J. (2004). Life in the NHS: Violence, stress and pride. The Guardian, 10 March.
    Carver, C.S. (1997). You want to measure coping but your protocol's too long: Consider the brief COPE. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 4(1), 92–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm0401_6
    Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (1981). Attention and self-regulation: A control-theory approach to human behaviour. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5887-2
    Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M. (1998). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Cascio, W.F. (1991). Applied psychology in personnel management (
    4th edn
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Cascio, W.F. (1995). Whither industrial and organizational psychology in a changing world of work. American Psychologist, 50(11), 928–939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.11.928
    Cascio, W.F., & Morris, J.R. (1990). A critical reanalysis of Hunter, Schmidt, and Coggin's (1988) ‘Problems and pitfalls in using capital budgeting and financial accounting techniques’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(4), 410–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.4.410
    Casper, W.J., Fox, K.E., Sitzmann, T.M., & Landy, A.L. (2004). Supervisor referrals to work-family programs. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9(2), 136–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.9.2.136
    Cassell, C., & Symon, G. (Eds). (2004). Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Sage.
    Cassell, C., Close, P., Duberley, J., & Johnson, P. (2000). Surfacing embedded assumptions: Using repertory grid methodology to facilitate organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9(4), 561–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594320050203139
    Cassidy, T. (1999). Stress, cognition and health. Psychology focus. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.
    Castledine, G. (1996). Extremes of the nurse practitioner role. British Journal of Nursing, 5(9), 581.
    Cattell, R.B. (1965). The scientific analysis of personality. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Cattell, R.B., Eber, H.W., & Tatsuoka, M.M. (1970). The 16-Factor Personality Questionnaire. Champaign, IL: IPAT.
    Cawley, B.D., Keeping, L.M., & Levy, P.E. (1998). Participation in the performance appraisal process and employee reactions: A meta-analytic review of field investigations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 615–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.4.615
    Cazals, M-P., Almudever, B., & Fraccaroli, F. (1995). Social support, coping strategies, and psychological well-being among young people awaiting employment. In J.M.Peiro & F.Prieto et al. (Eds), Work and organizational psychology: European contributions of the nineties (pp. 89–100). Oxford: Taylor & Francis.
    Cederblom, D. (1982). The performance appraisal interview: A review, implications and suggestions. Academy of Management Review, 7(2), 219–227.
    Cellar, D.F., & Barrett, G.V. (2004). Script processing and intrinsic motivation: The cognitive sets underlying cognitive labels. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 40(1), 115–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2887%2990008-2
    Chalk, J., Donald, I., & Young, S. (1997). Safety teams: Using team work to improve organizational performance. Occupational Psychologist, 5–10 April.
    Chan, C., & Latham, G.P. (2004). The relative effectiveness of external, peer and self-coaches. Applied Psychology, 53(2), 260–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2004.00171.x
    Chan, D. (1996). Criterion and construct validation of an assessment centre. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 69, 167–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1996.tb00608.x
    Chan, D., & Schmitt, N. (2004). An agenda for future research on applicant reactions to selection procedures: A construct-oriented approach. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1–2), 9–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00260.x
    Charan, R., & Colvin, G. (1999). Why CEOs fail. Fortune, 139(12), 68.
    Charoenkitkarn, N., Chignell, M.H., & Golovchinsky, G. (1996). Proceedings of the TREC-4. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Chartrand, J.M., & Walsh, W.B. (2001). Career assessment: Changes and trends. In F.T.L.Leong & A.Barak (Eds), Contemporary models in vocational psychology (pp. 231–255). Malwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Chemers, M.M., Rice, R.W., Sundstrom, E., & Butler, W.M. (1975). Leader esteem for the least preferred co-worker score, training, and effectiveness: An experimental examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31(3), 401–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076473
    Chen, C. (2002). Enhancing vocational psychology practice through narrative inquiry. Australian Journal of Career Development, 1, 14–21.
    Cheng, E.W.L., & Ho, D.C.K. (2001). A review of transfer of training studies in the past decade. Personnel Review, 30(1–2), 102–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483480110380163
    Chignell, M., & Waterworth, J. (1997). Multimedia. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 1808–1861). New York: John Wiley.
    Child, J. (1977). Organization: A guide to problems and practice. London: Harper & Row.
    Chima, F.O. (2002). Employee assistance and human resource collaboration for improving employment and disabilities status. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 17(3), 79–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J022v17n03_06
    Chmiel, N. (1998). Jobs, technology and people. London: Routledge.
    Chmiel, N. (2000). Safety at work. In N.Chmiel (Ed.), Work and organizational psychology: A European perspective (pp. 255–273). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Chreim, S. (2002). Influencing organizational identification during major change: A communication-based perspective. Human Relations, 55(9), 1117–1137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726702055009022
    Chrobot-Mason, D.L. (2003). Keeping the promise: Psychological contract violations for minority employees. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(1), 22–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940310459574
    Chung-Yan, G.A., & Cranshaw, S.F. (2002). A critical re-examination and analysis of cognitive ability tests using the Thorndike model of fairness. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 75(4), 489–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902321119709
    Church, A.H., & Waclawski, J. (2001). A five phase framework for designing a successful multi-source feedback system. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53(2), 82–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.53.2.82
    Ciborra, C.U. (1996). Introduction: What does groupware mean for the organizations hosting it? In C.Ciborra (Ed.), Groupware and teamwork: Invisible aid or technical hindrance? (pp. 1–19). Chichester: Wiley.
    Clarke, M., & Meldrum, M. (1999). Creating change from below: Early lessons for agents of change. The Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 20, 70–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739910259172
    Clarke, S., (1999). Perceptions of organizational safety: Implications for the development of safety culture. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 20, 185–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%28199903%2920:2%3C185::AID-JOB892%3E3.0.CO;2-C
    Clarkson, P. (1990). The scope of stress counselling in organizations. Employee Counselling, 2(4), 3–6.
    Cleary, T.A. (1986). Test bias: Prediction of grades of Negro and white students in integrated colleges. Journal of Educational Measurement, 23, 33–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3984.1986.tb00232.x
    Clegg, C.W., & Walsh, S. (1998). Soft systems analysis. In G.Symon & C.Cassell (Eds), Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research (pp. 107–112). London: Sage.
    Clemente, M.N., & Greenspan, D.S. (1998). Winning at mergers and acquisitions: The guide to market-focused planning and integration. New York: Wiley.
    Cloke, K. (2004). The end of management and the rise of organizational democracy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Cobb, C.D., & Mayer, J.D. (2000). Emotional intelligence: What the research says. Educational Leadership, 58(3), 14–18.
    Cobb, S., Neale, H., Crosier, J., & Wilson, J.R. (2002). Development and evaluation of virtual environments for education. In K.M.Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications. Human factors and ergonomics (pp. 911–936). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Cohen, A. (1993). Organizational commitment and turnover: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 1140–1147. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256650
    Cohen, S., Kessler, R., & Underwood Gordon, L. (Eds). (1995). Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Cohen, M.S., Freeman, J.T., Thompson, B.B. (1997). Training the naturalistic decision maker. In G.Klein & C.Zsambok (Eds), Naturalistic decision making (pp. 257–268). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cohens, S., & Wills, T.A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310
    Coleman, D. (1996). Groupware – the changing environment.http://www.collaborate.com/publications/chapt_toc.html.
    Colet, E., & Aaronson, D. (1995). Visualization of multivariate data: Human factors considerations. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 27(2), 257–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03204742
    Colle, H.A., & Green, R.F. (1996). Introductory psychology laboratories using graphic simulations of virtual subjects. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 28(2), 331–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03204792
    Collins, J.M., Schmidt, F.L., Sanchez-Ku, M., Thomas, L., McDaniel, M.A., & Le, H. (2003). Can basic individual differences shed light on the construct meaning of assessment center evaluations?International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 11(1), 17–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00223
    Collins, M.A., & Amabile, T.M. (1999). Motivation and creativity. In R.Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 297–312). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Colquitt, J.A., & Simmering, M.J. (1998). Conscientiousness, goal orientation, and motivation to learn during the learning process: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(4), 654–665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.4.654
    Colquitt, J.A., Le Pine, J.A., & Noe, R.A. (2000). Towards an integrative theory of training motivation: A meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 678–707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.678
    Comte, A. (1853). The positive philosophy of Auguste Comte. London: Chapman.
    Confederation of British Industry (CBI) (1989). Towards a skills revolution – A youth charter. London: Confederation of British Industry.
    Connerley, M.L., & Rynes, S.L. (1997). The influence of recruiter characteristics and organizational recruitment support on perceived recruiter effectiveness: Views from applicants and recruiters. Human Relations, 50, 1563–1586.
    Contu, A., Grey, C., & Ortenblad, A. (2003). Against learning. Human Relations, 56(8), 931–952. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00187267030568002
    Conway, J.M., Jako, R.A., & Goodman, D.F. (1995). A metaanalysis of interrater and internal consistency reliability of selection interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(5), 565–579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.5.565
    Conway, N., & Briner, R.B. (2002). A daily diary study of effective responses to psychological contract breach and exceeded promises. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 23, 287–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.139
    Conway, S., & Forrestor, R. (1997). Innovation and teamwork: Combining perspectives through a focus on team boundaries. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Teamwork, University of Nottingham, UK, 17–18 Sept.
    Cook, J.D., Hepworth, S.J., Wall, T.D., & Warr, P.B. (1981). The experience of work: A compendium and review of 249 measures and their use. London: Academic Press.
    Cooke, N.J., Kiekel, P.A., Salas, R., Bowers, C., Stout, R., & Cannon-Bowers, J. (2003). Measuring team knowledge: A window to the cognitive underpinnings of team performance. Group Dynamic7, 179–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.7.3.179
    Cooke, R.A., & Rousseau, D.M. (1988). Behaviour norms and expectations: A quantitative approach to the assessment of culture. Group and Organizational Studies, 13, 245–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105960118801300302
    Cooke, R.A., & Szumal, J.L. (1993). Measuring normative beliefs and shared behavioural expectations in organizations: Validation of the organizational culture inventory. Psychological Reports, 72(3), 1299–1330. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1993.72.3c.1299
    Cooper, C.L. (2001). Manageral, occupational and organizational stress research. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Cooper, C.L., & Cartwright, S. (1996). Stress management interventions in the workplace: Stress counselling and stress audits. In S.Palmer & W.Dryden (Eds), Stress management and counselling (pp. 89–98). London: Cassell.
    Cooper, C.L., & Marshall, J. (1976). Sources of managerial and white collar stress. In C.L.Cooper & R.Payne (Eds), Stress at Work. (pp. 301–341). Chichester: J. Wiley and Sons.
    Cooper, C.L., Dewe, P.J., & O'Driscoll, M.P. (2001). Organizational stress: A review and a critique of theory, research and applications. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231235
    Cooper, C.L., Phillips, R.A., Sutherland, V.J., & Makin, P.I. (1994). Reducing accidents using goalsetting theory and feedback: A field study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 219–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1994.tb00564.x
    Cooper, C.L., Sloan, S.J., & Williams, S. (1988). Occupational stress indicator management guide. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
    Cooper, R., & Foster, M. (1971). Sociotechnical systems. American Psychologist, 26, 467–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031539
    Cooperrider, D.L., & Srivastva, S. (1987). Appreciative inquiry in organizational life. In R.W.Woodman & W.A.Pasmore (Eds), Research in organizational change and development: An annual series featuring advances in theory, methodology and research, Vol. 1. (pp. 129–169). Stamford, CT: JAI Press, Inc.
    Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
    Corbett, J.M. (1994). Critical cases in organizational behaviour. London: Macmillan.
    Cordery, J.L. (1999). Job design and the organizational context. In M.Griffin & J.Langham-Fox (Eds), Human performance and the workplace (pp. 49–68). Melbourne: Australian Psychological Society.
    Costa, M., Cropley, M., Griffith, J., Steptoe, A. (1999). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is associated with reduced physical activity during everyday life. Psychosom Med, 61(6), 806–811.
    Costa, P.T., Jr., & MacCrae, R.R. (1990). The NEO Personality Inventory Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
    Cotton, J.L. (1993). Employee involvement: Methods for improving performance and work attitudes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Cox, S., & Flin, R. (1998). Safety culture: Philosopher's stone or man of straw?Work and Stress, 12, 189–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678379808256861
    Cox, T., & Cox, S. (1993). Psychosocial and organizational hazard: Control and monitoring in the workspace. European Occupational Health Series No. 5. Copenhagen: World Health Organization.
    Cox, T., & Griffiths, A. (1995). The nature and measurement of work stress: Theory and practice. In J.W.Wilson & E.N.Corlett (Eds), Evaluation of human work: A practical ergonomics methodology (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 783–803). London: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
    Cox, T., & Howart, I. (1990). Organizational health, culture and caring. Work and Stress, 4, 107–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678379008256972
    Cox, T., & MacKay, C.J. (1981). A transactional approach to occupational stress. In E.N.Corlett & J.Richardson (Eds), Stress, work design and productivity. Chichester: Wiley.
    Coyle-Shapiro, J., & Kessler, I. (2000). Consequences of the psychological contract for the employment relationship: A large scale survey. Journal of Management Studies, 37, 903–930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00210
    Coyle-Shapiro, J.A.M., & Neuman, J.H. (2004). The psychological contract and individual differences: The role of exchange and creditor ideologies. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 64(1), 150–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791%2803%2900031-9
    Coyne, J.C., & Racioppo, M.W. (2000). Never the twain shall meet? Closing the gap between coping research and clinical intervention research. American Psychologist, 55(6), 655–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.6.655
    Craik, K. (1943). The nature of explanation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Cramer, D. (2000). Social desirability, adequacy of social support and mental health. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 10(6), 465–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-1298%28200011/12%2910:6%3C465::AID-CASP571%3E3.0.CO;2-2
    Crites, J.O. (1971). Acquiescence response style and the vocational development inventory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1(2), 189–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2871%2990020-0
    Cropley, M., & Millward, L.J. (2004). Job strain and rumination about work issues during leisure time: A diary study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12(3), 195–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594320344000093
    Cropley, M., Steptoe, A., & Joekes, K. (1999). Job strain and psychiatric morbidity. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1411–1416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329179900121X
    Crozier, S.D. (1999). Women's career development in a ‘relational context.’International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 21(3), 231–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005489823722
    Csikszentmihalyi, M., & LeFevre, J. (1989). Optimal experience in work and leisure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 815–822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.5.815
    Cullen, R. (1999). Does performance measurement improve organisational effectiveness? A postmodern analysis. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 1(1), 9–30.
    Cummings, L.L., & Schwab, D.P. (1970). Evaluation of theories linking employee satisfaction and performance. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 5(2), 581–582.
    Cummings, T.G., & Blumberg, M. (1987). Advanced manufacturing technology and work design. In T.D.Wall, C.W.Clegg & N.J.Kemp (Eds), The human side of advanced manufacturing technology (pp. 37–60). Chichester: Wiley.
    Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C.G. (1993). Organization development and change (
    3rd edn
    ). St Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
    Cummings, T.G., & Worley, C.G. (2000). Organization development and change. Mason, OH: South Western College Publishing.
    Cummins, Paige N. (2002). Violence in the workplace: Preventing and managing the effects of critical incidence stress in the workplace. In D.S.Sandhu (Ed.), Counselling employees: A multi-faceted approach (pp. 323–336). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Cunningham, C.E., Woodward, C.A., Shannon, H.S., MacIntosh, J., Lendrum, B., Rosenblum, D., & Brown, J. (2002). Readiness for organizational change: A longitudinal study of workplace, psychological and behavioural correlates. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 377–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902321119637
    Dabos, G.E., & Rousseau, D.M. (2004). Mutuality and reciprocity in the psychological contracts of employees and employers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 52–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.1.52
    Dalessio, A., Crosby, M., & McManus, M. (1996). Stability of biodata keys and dimensions across English speaking countries: A test of the cross-situational hypothesis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 10(3), 289–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02249604
    Damanpour, F. (2001). E-business e-commerce evolution: Perspective and strategy. Managerial Finance, 27(7), 16–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03074350110767268
    Daniel, C., & Valencia, S. (1991). Structured interviewing simplified. Public Personnel Management. 20(2), 127–134.
    Darken, R.P., & Peterson, B. (2002). Spatial orientation, wayfinding, and representation. In K.M.Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications. (pp. 493–518). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Darnell, M.J. (1998). Bad human factors designs.http://www.baddesigns.com.
    Darrah, C. (1994). Skill requirements at work: Rhetoric versus reality. Work and Occupations, 21(1), 64–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888494021001003
    Davidson, M.J., & Cooper, C.L. (1992). Shattering the glass ceiling: The woman manager. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Davies, S., Haines, H., Norris, B., & Wilson, J.R. (1998). Safety pictograms: Are they getting the message across?Applied Ergonomics, 29(1), 15–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-6870%2897%2900021-5
    Dawis, R.V., & Lofquist, L.H. (1984). A psychological theory of work adjustment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Dawson, P. (2003). Understanding organizational change: The contemporary experience of people at work. London, Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220894
    Day, E.A., Arthur, W. Jr., & Gettman, D. (2001). Knowledge structures and the acquisition of a complex skill. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 1022–1033. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.1022
    De Jong, J.A., Thijssen, J.G.L., & Versloot, B.M. (2001). Planned training on the job: A typology. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 3(4), 408–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15234220122238463
    De Jonge, J., Landeweerd, J.A., & Nijhuis, F.J.N. (2000). Testing reciprocal relationships between job characteristics and psychological outcomes: A cross-lagged structural equation model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 29–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167217
    De Meuse, K.P., & Leibowitz, S.J. (1981). An empirical analysis of team-building research. Group and Organization Studies, 6(3), 357–378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105960118100600311
    De Wolff, C.J. (1989). The changing role of psychologists in selection. In P.Herriot (Ed.), Assessment and selection in organizations (pp. 81–92). Chichester: Wiley.
    De Wolff, C.J., & Van den Bosch, G. (1998). The selection process. In P.J.D.Drenth, H.Thierry & C. J.de Wolff (Eds), Personnel psychology. Vol. 3. Handbook of work and organizational psychology (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 33–58). Hove: Psychology Press.
    Deadrick, D.L., & Madigan, R.M. (1990). Dynamic criteria revisited: A longitudinal study of performance stability and predictive validity. Personnel Psychology, 43(4), 717–744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1990.tb00680.x
    Deal, T.E., & Kennedy, A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Dealtry, R. (2002). Managing the corporate university watershed. Journal of Workplace Learning, 14(6), 256–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13665620210441216
    Dean, A., Carlisle, Y., & Baden-Fuller, C. (1999). Punctuated and continuous change: The UK water industry, British Journal of Management, 10, S3–S18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.10.s1.2
    Dearborn, K. (2002). Studies in emotional intelligence redefine our approach to leadership development. Public Personnel Management, 31(4), 523–530.
    Dearing, Sir R. (1996). Review of qualification for 16–19 year olds. School Curriculum and Assessment Authority Publications, PO Box 235, Hayes, Middlesex, UB3 1HF.
    Deary, I.J., Blenkin, H., Agius, R.M., Endler, N.S., Zealley, H., & Wood, R. (1996). Models of job-related stress and personal achievement among consultant doctors. British Journal of Psychology, 87(1), 3–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1996.tb02574.x
    Deci, E.L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4446-9
    Deci, E.L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R.M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627–668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627
    Dehnbostel, P. (2001). Learning bays in German manufacturing companies. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 3(4), 471–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15234220122238535
    Dench, S., Perryman, S., & Giles, L. (1998). Employers perceptions of key skills (IES Report 349). Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.
    DeNisi, A.S., & Peters, L.H. (1996). Organization of information in memory and the performance appraisal process: Evidence from the field. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(6), 717–737. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.6.717
    Denison, D.R. (1996). What is the difference between organizational culture and climate? A native's point of view on a decade of paradigm wars. Academy of Management Review, 21(3), 619–654.
    Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (1997). The Channel Tunnel Fire.http://www.railways.detr.gov.uk/ctsa/french/chap9.htm.
    Department of Health (1999). HSC 1999/191: Fire safety and health and safety targets. Department of Health Circular.
    Department of Transport (1987). Herald of Free Enterprise. Report of Court no. 8074. London: HMSO.
    Department of Transport (1990). Air Accidents Investigations Branch, Department of Transport. Report on the accident to Boeing 737–400 G-OBME near Kegworth, Leicestershire on 8th January 1989. Number 4/90. London: HMSO.
    De Ridder, D. (1997). What is wrong with coping assessment? A review of conceptual and methodological issues. Psychology and Health, 12(3), 417–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870449708406717
    Derous, E., Bom, M.Ph., & De Wittte, K. (2004). How Applicants want and expect to be treated: Applicants' selection treatment beliefs and the development of the social process questionnaire on selection. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1/2), 99–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00267.x
    Derous, E., De Witte, K., & Stroobants, R. (2003). Testing the social process model on selection through expert analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 179–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903765913696
    De Vos, A., Buyens, D., & Schalk, R. (2003). Psychological contract development during organizational socialization: Adaptation to reality and the role of reciprocity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(5, Special Issue), 537–559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.205
    Dewe, P. (2000). Measures of coping with stress at work: A review and critique. In P.Dewe, M.Leiter & T.Cox (Eds), Coping, health and organizations (pp. 3–28). Washington, DC: Tayor & Francis.
    Dewe, P. (2003). A closer examination of the patterns when coping with work-related stress: Implications for measurement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 517–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903322591613
    Dewe, P.J. (1992). Applying the concept of appraisal to work stressors: Some explanatory analysis. Human Relations, 45, 143–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679204500203
    Diefendorff, J.M., Hall, R.J., Lord, R.G., & Strean, M.L. (2000). Action-state orientation: Construct validity of a revised measure and its relationship to work-related variables. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(2), 250–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.2.250
    Difede, J.A., Hoffman, H., & Jaysinghe, N. (2002). Innovative use of virtual reality technology in the treatment of PTSD in the aftermath of September 11. Psychiatric Services, 53(9), 1083–1085. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.53.9.1083
    Dillard, J.M., & Harley, D.A. (2002). Working with ethnic minority employees in the workplace. In D.S.Sandhu (Ed.), Counseling employees: A multifaceted approach (pp. 131–149). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Dipboye, R.L., Smith, C., & Howell, W.C. (1994). Understanding industrial and organizational psychology: An integrated approach. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace & Jovanovich.
    Dipboye, R.L., Smith, C.S., & Howell, W.C. (1999). Understanding industrial and organizationalpsychology: An integrated approach (
    2nd edn
    ). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace & Jovanovich.
    Dirkx, J.M. (2000). Transformative learning and the journey of individuation. ERIC Digest No. 223.
    Division of Occupational Psychology (2003). Guidelines on Becoming a Chartered Occupational Psychologist. Leicester, UK: The British Psychological Society. http://www.bps.org.uk/
    Division of Occupational Psychology (2004). Career Management for Occupational Psychologists. Leicester, UK: The British Psychological Society. http://www.bps.org.uk/
    Donald, I., & Canter, D. (1992). Intentionality and fatality during the King's Cross underground fire. European Journal of Social Psychology, 22(3), 203–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420220302
    Donovan, J.J., & Radosevich, D.J. (1999). A meta-analytic review of the distribution of practice effect: Now you see it, now you don't. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(5), 795–805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.5.795
    Donovan, J.J., & Williams, K.J. (2003). Missing the mark: Effects of time and causal attributions on goal revision in response to goal performance discrepancies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 379–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.3.379
    Dooley, C.R. (1945). The training within industry report (1940–1945): A record of the development of management techniques for improvement of supervisors, their use and the results. Washington, DC: War Manpower Commission, Bureau of Training, Training within Industry Service.
    Dormann, C., & Zapf, D. (2002). Social stressors at work, irritation, and depressive symptoms: Accounting for unmeasured third variables in a multi-wave study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(1), 33–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902167630
    Dormann, T., & Frese, M. (1994). Error training: Replication and the function of exploratory behavior. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 6(4), 365–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10447319409526101
    Dornan, T., Scherper, A., & Boshuizen, H. (2003). Clinical learning: Towards valid measures of self-directed clinical learning. Medical Education, 37(11), 983–991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2923.2003.01677.x
    Douge, B., & Hastie, P. (1993). Coach effectiveness. Sports Science Review, 2(2), 14–29.
    Dowling, G.R. (2001). Creating corporate reputations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Downey, H.K., Sheridan, J.E., & Slocum, J.W. (1975). Analysis of relationships among leader behavior, subordinate job performance and satisfaction: A path-goal approach. Academy of Management Journal, 18(2), 253–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255528
    Downs, S. (1996). Learning to learn. In S.Truelove (Ed.), The handbook of training and development (pp. 79–112). Oxford: Blackwell Business.
    Downs, S., & Perry, P. (1987). Developing skilled learners: Helping adults to be better learners. Research and Development No. 40. Sheffield: Manpower Services Commission.
    Doyle, C. (2003). Work and organizational psychology: An introduction with attitude. Hove: Psychology Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203163573
    Drakeley, R.J. (1989). Biographical data. In P.Herriot (Ed.), Handbook of assessment in organizations (pp. 439–453). Chichester: Wiley.
    Drenth, P.J.D. (1998). Personnel appraisal. In P.J.D.Drenth, H.Thierry & C.J.de Wolff (Eds), Personnel psychology, Vol. 3. A handbook of work and organizational psychology (pp. 59–88). Hove: Psychology Press.
    Driskell, J., Hogan, R., & Salas, E. (1987). Personality and group performance. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 91–112.
    Driskell, J.E., & Salas, E. (1991). Group decision-making under stress. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(3), 473–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.3.473
    Driskell, J.E., Radtke, P.H., Salas, E. (2003). Virtual teams: Effects of technological mediation on team performance. Group Dynamics, 7(4), 297–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.7.4.297
    Driskell, J.E., Willis, R.P., & Cooper, C. (1992). Effective over learning on retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 615–622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.5.615
    Druskat, V.U., & Pescosolido, A.T. (2002). The content of effective teamwork mental models in self-managing teams: Ownership, learning and heedful interrelating. Human Relations, 55(3), 283–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726702553001
    Druskat, V.U., & Wolff, S.B. (2001). Building the intelligence of groups. Harvard Business Review, 79(3), 81–90.
    Dunnette, M.D. (1963). A note on the criterion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47, 251–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040836
    Dutton, J.E., Dukerich, J.M., & Harquail, C.V. (1994). Organisational images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 239–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393235
    Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B.J., & Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 45(4), 735–744. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3069307
    Dweck, C.S., Hong, Y., & Chiu, C. (1993). Implicit theories: Individual differences in the likelihood and meaning of dispositional inferences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 644–656. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167293195015
    Eagly, A.H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Eagly, A.H., Makhijani, M.G., & Klonsky, B.G. (1992). Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111(1), 3–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.111.1.3
    Eason, K.D. (1996). Information technology and organizational change (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Taylor & Francis.
    Eby, L.T., & Buch, K. (1995). Job loss as career growth: Responses to involuntary career transitions. The Career Development Quarterly, 44 (September), 26–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1995.tb00526.x
    Eby, L.T., Douthitt, S.S., Perrin, T., Noble, C.L., Atchley, K.P., & Ladd, R.T. (2002). Managerial support for dual-career relocation dilemmas. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 60(3), 354–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2001.1818
    Edelmann, R.J., & Woodall, L. (1997). Bullying at work. The Occupational Psychologist, 32, 28–31.
    Eden, D., & Jacobson, D. (1976). Propensity to retire among older executives. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 8, 145–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2876%2990017-8
    Eden, C., & Spender, J.C. (1998). Managerial and organizational cognition. London: Sage.
    Edkins, G.D., & Pollack, C.M. (1997). The influence of sustained attention on railway accidents. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29(4), 533–539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575%2897%2900033-X
    Edwards, J.R. (1992). A cybernetic theory of stress, coping and well-being in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 17, 238–274.
    Edwards, J.R. (1998). Cybernetic theory of stress, coping and well-being: Review and extensions to work and family. In C.Cooper (Ed.), Theories of organizational stress (pp. 122–152). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Edwards, J.R., & Baglioni, A.J. Jr (1993). The measurement of coping with stress: Construct validity of the Ways of Coping Checklist and the Cybernetic Coping Scale. Work & Stress, 7, 17–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678379308257047
    Egan, G. (1998). The skilled helper: A problem management approach to helping (
    6th edn
    ). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Eisenberger, R., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Incremental effects of reward on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(4), 728–741. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.81.4.728
    Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P.D., & Rhoades, L. (2001) Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 42–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.42
    Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.500
    Elen, J., & Lowyck, J. (1999). Metacognitive instructional knowledge: Cognitive mediation and instructional design. Journal of Instructional Learning and Intelligent Systems, 13(3–4), 145–169.
    Elkin, A., & Rosch, P. (1990). Promoting mental health at the workplace: The prevention side of stress management. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Review, 5, 739–754.
    Elliot, M.S., & Williams, D.I. (2002). A qualitative evaluation of an employee counselling service from the perspective of client, counsellor and organisation. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 15, 201–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070210128991
    Ellis, A. (2001). Stress counselling: A rational emotive behaviour approach. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217696
    Elo, A.L. (1994). Assessment of mental stress factors at work. In O.B.Dickerson & E.P.Horvath (Eds), Occupational medicine (pp. 945–959). St Louis: Mosby.
    Elo, A.L., & Vehvilaienen, M.R. (1983). Method for occupational health personnel to assess psychic stress factors at work: A study of reliability and validity of the method. Helsinki: Institute of Occupational Health.
    Emery, R.E., & Trist, E.L. (1969). Socio-technical systems. London: Penguin.
    Emmelkamp, P.M.G. (1994). Behaviour therapy with adults. In S.L.Garfield & A.E.Bergin (Eds), Handbook of psychotherapy and behaviour change (
    4th edn
    , pp. 379–427). New York: Wiley.
    Endler, N.S., & Parker, J.D.A. (1994). Assessment of multidimensional coping: Task, emotional and avoidance strategies. Psychological Assessment, 6, 50–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.6.1.50
    Endsley, M.R., & Kaber, D.B. (1999). Level of automation effects on performance, situation awareness and workload in a dynamic control task. Ergonomics, 42(3), 462–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/001401399185595
    Epstein, S., Pacini, R., Denes Raj, V., & Heier, H. (1996). Individual differences in intuitive-experimental and analytical-reasoning thinking styles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 390–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.2.390
    Ericson, T. (2001). Sensemaking in organizations: Towards a conceptual framework for understanding strategic change. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 17, 109–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-5221%2800%2900035-X
    Ernst and Young (2004). Home Page. http://www.ey.com/global/content.nsf/
    Evetts, J. (1996). Gender and career in science and engineering. London: Taylor and Francis.
    Eysenck, M.W. (1982). Attention and arousal. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-68390-9
    Facteau, J.D., & Bartholomew, S. (2001). Are performance appraisal ratings from different rating sources comparable?Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(2), 215–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.2.215
    Farnham, D.S. (1994). Paradigms of knowledge and instruction. Review of Educational Research, 64(3), 463–477.
    Fay, D., & Sonnentag, S. (2002). Rethinking the effects of stressors: A longitudinal study on personal initiative. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(3), 221–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.7.3.221
    Feldman, D.C. (1976). A contingency theory of socialisation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 433–452. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391853
    Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M.F., & Buss, A.H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076760
    Ferguson, E., Payne, T., & Anderson, N. (1994). Occupational personality assessment: Theory, structure and psychometrics of the OPQ FMX5- student. Personality and Individual Differences, 17(2), 217–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2894%2990028-0
    Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675400700202
    Festinger, L. (1964). Conflicts, decisions and dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Fiedler, F.E. (1967). A theory of leader effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Fiedler, F.E. (1989). The effective utilization of intellectual abilities and job-relevant knowledge in group performance: Cognitive resource theory and an agenda for the future. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 38(3), 289–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1989.tb01259.x
    Finegold, D., & Soskice, D. (1990). The failure of training in Britain: Analysis and prescription. In D.Gleeson (Ed.), Training and its alternatives (pp. 18–57). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Fineman, S. (2003). Understanding emotion at work. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216538
    Finkelstein, A. & Dowell, J. (1993). A comedy of errors: The London Ambulance Services Case Srudy. Report of the inquiry into the London Ambulance Service. International Workshop on Software specification and Design Case Study. The Communication Directorate, South West Thames Regional Health Authority.
    Fisher, C.D., and Boyle, G.J. (1997). Personality and employee selection: Credibility regained. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 35(2), 26–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/103841119703500204
    Fisher, R.C., & Thomas, B. (1987). The application of a task oriented team building model to a ‘newly large’ organization. Consultation: An International Journal, 6(3), 175–186.
    Flanagan, B., Nestel, D., & Joseph, M. (2004). Making patient safety the focus: Crisis resource management in the undergraduate curriculum. Medical Education, 38(1), 56–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2004.01701.x
    Flanagan, J.C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 327–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0061470
    Flannery, R.B. Jr. (2001). The Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP): Ten year empirical support for Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM). International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 3(1), 5–10.
    Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906
    Fleishman, E.A. (1953). The measurement of leadership attitudes in industry. Journal of Applied Psychology, 37, 153–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0063436
    Fleishman, E.A., & Quaintance, M.K. (1984). Taxonomies of human performance: The description of human tasks. New York: Academic Press.
    Fleming, D. (1991). The concept of meta-competence. Competence and assessment (Issue 16). Sheffield. Employment Department Group.
    Fletcher, B.C. (1988). The epidemiology of occupational stress. In C.L.Cooper & R.Payne (Eds), Causes, coping and consequences of stress at work (pp. 3–50). Chichester: Wiley.
    Fletcher, C. (1997). Self-awareness – A neglected attribute in selection and assessment. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 5, 183–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00058
    Fletcher, C. (2001). Performance appraisal and performance management: The developing research agenda. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 473–487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167488
    Fletcher, C. (2002). Appraisal – An individual psychological analysis. In S.Sonnentag (Ed.), The psychological management of individual performance: A handbook in the psychology of management in organizations. Chichester: Wiley.
    Fletcher, C. (2004). Appraisal and feedback: Making performance review work (
    3rd edn
    ). Chartered London: Institute of Personnel and Development.
    Fletcher, C., & Baldry, C. (2001). Multi-source feedback systems: A research perspective. In I.Robertson & C.Cooper (Eds), Personnel psychology and HRM (pp. 117–162). Chichester: Wiley.
    Flin, R.H., Mearns, K.J., Fleming, M., & Gordon, R. (1996). Risk perception in UK offshore workers. Report OTH 94454 to OSD, HSE. Suffolk: HSE Books.
    Flum, H., & Blustein, D.L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(3), 380–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2000.1721
    Fodor, E.M. (1976). Group stress, authoritarian style of control and use of power. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61(3), 313–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.61.3.313
    Folger, R., & Skarlicki, D.P. (2001). Fairness as a dependent variable: Why tough times can lead to bad management. In R.Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the workplace: From theory to practice (Vol. 2, pp. 97–118). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Folkman, S.K., & Moskowitz, J.T. (2000). Positive affect and the other sides of coping. American Psychologist, 55, 647–654. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.6.647
    Folkman, S., Lazarus, R.S., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, A., & Gruen, R.J. (1986). The dynamics of a stressful encounter. Key reading in social psychology. In A.W.Kruglanski & E.T.Higgins (Eds), Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives (pp. 111–127). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
    Fombrun, C., & Rindova, V. (2000). The road to transparency: Reputation management at Royal Dutch/Shell. In M.Schultz & M.J.Hatch (Eds), The expressive organization. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Ford, J., Smith, E., Weissbein, D., Gully, S., & Salas, E. (1998). Relationships of goal orientation, metacognition activity, and practice strategies with learning outcomes and transfer. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 213–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.218
    Ford, J.K., & Kraiger, K. (1995). The application of cognitive constructs and principles to the instructional systems model of training: Implications for needs assessment, design, and transfer. In C.Cooper & I.R.Robertson (Eds), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 1–48). Chichester: Wiley & Sons.
    Ford, L.R., & Locke, K. (2002). Paid time off as a vehicle for self-definition and sense-making. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 23 (Special Issue), 489–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.152
    Fordyce, J.K., & Weil, R. (1979). Managing with people: A manager's handbook of organization development methods (
    2nd Edn
    ). Oxford: Addison-Wesley.
    Foster, J. J. (2000). Motivation in the workplace. In N.Chmiel (Ed.), Work and organizational psychology: A European perspective (pp. 302–326). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
    Foushee, H. (1984). Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet – factors affecting group process and aircrew performance. American Psychologist, 39(8), 885–893. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.39.8.885
    Frayne, C.A., & Geringer, J.M. (2000). Self-management training for improving job performance: A field experiment involving sales people. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 361–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.361
    Freid, Y., Melamed, S., & Ben-David, H.A. (2002). The joint effects of noise, job complexity, and gender on employee sickness absence: An exploratory study across 21 organizations – the CORDIS Study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 131–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/09631790260098181
    French, J.R.P., Caplan, R.D., & Van Harrison, R. (1982). The mechanisms of job stress and strain. New York: Wiley.
    French, W., Bell, C., & Zawacki, R. (Eds). (1994). Organizational development and transformation: Managing effective change. Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin McGraw Hill.
    Frese, M. (1998). Work and organizational psychology. In M.Eysenck (Ed.), Psychology: An integrated approach (pp. 624–667). London: Longman.
    Frese, M. (2000). The changing nature of work. In N.Chmiel (Ed.), Introduction to work and organizational psychology: A European perspective (pp. 424–439). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Frese, M., & Zapf, D. (1994). Action as the core of work psychology: A German approach. In M.D.Dunnett, L.M.Hough & H.C.Triandis (Eds), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 4,
    2nd edn
    , pp. 271–340). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Frese, M., Kring, W., Soose, A., & Zempel, J. (1996). Personal initiative at work: Differences between East and West Germany. Academy of Management Journal, 39(1), 37–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256630
    Fried, Y., Tiegs, R.B., & Bellamy, A. (1992). Personal and interpersonal predictors of supervisors' avoidance of evaluating subordinates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 462–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.4.462
    Fritzsche, B.A., & Brannick, M.T. (2002). The importance of representative design in judgement tasks: The case of resume screening. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(2), 163–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/09631790260098749
    Frone, M.R., Russell, M., & Cooper, L.M. (1997). Relation of work-family conflict to health outcomes: A four-year longitudinal study of employed parents. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 325–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1997.tb00652.x
    Frost, P., Moore, L., Louis, M., Lundberg, C., & Martin, J. (Eds). (1991). Reframing organizational culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Fry, R., Barrett, F., Seiling, J., & Whitney, D. (2002). Appreciative inquiry and organizational transformation: Reports from the field. Personnel Psychology, 55(4), 1022–1025.
    Fulk, J., & Wendler, E.R. (1982). Dimensionality of leader-subordinate interaction: A path-goal investigation. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 30, 241–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2882%2990220-3
    Furnham, A. (1997). The psychology of behaviour at work. Hove: Psychology Press.
    Furnham, A., & Gunter, B. (1993). Corporate assessment: Auditing a company's personality. London: Routledge.
    Furnham, A., Steele, H., & Pendleton, D. (1993a). A psychometric assessment of the Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 66, 245–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1993.tb00535.x
    Furnham, A., Steele, H., & Pendleton, D. (1993b). A response to Dr Belbin's reply. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 241–258.
    Gabris, G.T., & Rock, S.M. (1991). Situational interviews and job-performance – The results in one public agency. Public Personnel Management, 20(4), 469–483.
    Gagne, R., & Driscoll, M. (1988). Essentials of Learning for Instruction (
    2nd edn
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Gagne, R., Briggs, L.J., & Wager, W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.
    Gagne, R.M. (1974). Essentials of learning for instruction (
    2nd edn
    ). Hinsdale, IL: Dryden Press.
    Gallivan, M.J., Hofman, D., & Orlikowski, W. (1994). Implementing radical change: Gradual versus rapid pace. ICIS, 325–339.
    Gallois, C., Callan, V.J., & Palmer, J.A.M. (1992). The influence of applicant communication style and interviewer characteristics on hiring decisions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(13), 1041–1060. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb00941.x
    Ganster, D.C., & Schaubroeck, J. (1995). Work stress and employee health. Journal of Management, 17, 235–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700202
    Garis, J.N. (2001). Individual differences in safe behavior: A safety practitioner's viewpoint. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 22(1), 81–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J005v22n01_08
    Gastil, J. (1994). A meta-analytic review of the productivity and satisfaction of democratic and autocratic leadership. Small Group Research, 26(3), 384–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046496494253003
    Gatewood, R.D., Gowan, M.A., & Lautenschlager, G.J. (1993). Corporate image, recruitment image, and initial job choice decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 36(2), 414–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256530
    Gaugler, B.B., Rosenthal, D.R., Thornton, G.C., & Bentson, C. (1987). Meta-analysis of assessment center validities. Journal of Applied Psychology Monograph, 72, 493–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.3.493
    Gavin, J., & McPhail, S.M. (1978). Intervention and evaluation: A proactive team approach to OD. Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 14(2), 175–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188637801400203
    Geertz, C. (1983). Local knowledge: Further essays in interpretive anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
    Geller, E.S. (2002). Organizational behavior management and industrial/organizational psychology: Achieving synergy by valuing differences. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 22(2), 111–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J075v22n02_10
    Geller, E.S., Roberts, D.S., Gilmore, M.R. (1996). Predicting propensity to actively care for occupational safety. Journal of Safety Research, 27(1), 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4375%2895%2900024-0
    George, J.M., & Jones, G.R. (2001). Towards a process model of individual change in organizations. Human Relations, 54, 419–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726701544002
    Gerard, M.J., Armstrong, T.J., Rempel, D.A., & Woolley, C. (2002). Short term and long term effects of enhanced auditory feedback on typing force, EMG, and comfort while typing. Applied Ergonomics, 33(2), 129–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-6870%2801%2900062-X
    Gerstein, L.W., & Shullman, S.L. (1992). Counselling psychology and the workplace: The emergence of organizational counselling psychology. In R.Brown & R.W.Lent (Eds), The handbook of counselling psychology (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 581–625). New York: Wiley.
    Gibb, S. (2003). What do we talk about when we talk about mentoring?British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 31(1), 39–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0306988031000086152
    Gibson, F.W., Fiedler, F.E., & Barrett, K.M. (1993). Stress, babble and the utilization of leader's intellectual abilities. Leadership Quarterly, 4(2), 189–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843%2893%2990011-H
    Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society. London: Polity Press.
    Giga, S.I., Cooper, C.L., & Faragher, B. (2003). The development of a framework for a comprehensive approach to stress management interventions at work. International Journal of Stress Management, 10, 280–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.10.4.280
    Gill, R.W.T. (1979). The in-tray (in-basket) exercise as a measure of management potential. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 52, 185–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1979.tb00453.x
    Gillen, M., Baltz, D., Gassel, M., Kirsch, L., & Vaccaro, D. (2002). Perceived safety climate, job demands, and coworker support among union and nonunion injured construction workers. Journal of Safety Research, 33(1), 33–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4375%2802%2900002-6
    GilliganC. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gilliland, S.W. (1993). The perceived fairness of selection systems – An organizational justice perspective. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 694–734.
    Gilliland, S.W., & Chan, D. (2001). Justice in organizations: Theory, methods, and applications. London: Sage.
    Ginzberg, E. (1972). Toward a theory of occupational choice: A restatement. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 20, 169–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-585X.1972.tb02037.x
    Ginzberg, E., Ginsberg, S.W., Axelrad, S., & Herma, J.L. (1951). Occupational choice: An approach to general theory. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Gioia, D.A., & Chittipeddi, K. (1991). Sensemaking and sensegiving in strategic change initiation. Strategic Management Journal, 12, 443–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250120604
    Gioia, D.A., & Thomas, J.B. (1996). Identity, image, and issue interpretation: Sensemaking during strategic change in academia. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 370–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393936
    Gist, M.E., & Mitchell, T.R. (1992). Self-efficacy: A theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability. Academy of Management Review, 17(2), 183–211.
    Gladstein, D. (1984). Groups in context: A model of task group effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 499–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392936
    Glennon, J.R., Albright, L.E., & Owens, W.A. (1966). A catalog of life history items. Greensboro, NC: The Richardson Foundation.
    Goffman, E. (1961). The moral career of the mental patient. In E.Goffman (Ed.), Asylums (pp. 125–170). New York: Anchor.
    Goldberg, D. (1978). Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor: National Foundation for Educational Research.
    Goldenhar, L.M., Moran, S.K., & Colligan, M. (2001). Health and safety training in a sample of open-shop construction companies. Journal of Safety Research, 32(2), 237–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4375%2801%2900045-7
    Goldstein, A.P., & Sorcher, M. (1974). Changing supervisor behavior. New York: Pergamon Press.
    Goldstein, I.L. (1980). Training in work organizations. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 229–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.31.020180.001305
    Goldstein, I.L. (1991). Training in work organizations. In M.D.Dunnette & L.M.Hough (Eds), Handbook of Industrial and organizational psychology. (Vol. 2). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Press, Inc.
    Goldstein, I.L. (1993). Training in organizations: Needs assessment, development and evaluation (
    3rd edn
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Goldstein, I.L., & Ford, J.K. (2002). Training in organizations: Needs assessment, development, and evaluation (
    4th edn
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
    Golembiewski, R.T., & Stevenson, J.G. (1998). Cases and applications in nonprofit management. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Gollwitzer, P.M. (1993). Goal achievement: The role of intentions. European Review of Social Psychology, 4, 141–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14792779343000059
    Gomez-Mejia, B.L.R., Balkin, D.B., & Cardy, R.L. (2001). Managing human resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Goodman, J.S., Wood, R.E., & Hendrickx, M. (2004). Feedback specificity, exploration, and learning. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(2), 248–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.2.248
    Goodson, J.R., McGee, G.W., & Cashman, J.F. (1989). Situational leadership theory: A test of leadership prescriptions. Group and Organization Studies, 14(4), 446–461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105960118901400406
    Goodstone, M.S., & Lopez, F.E. (2001). The frame of reference approach as a solution to an assessment center dilemma. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53(2), 96–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.53.2.96
    Gottfredson, G.D., & Holland, J.L. (1996). Dictionary of Holland occupational codes. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
    Gouldner, A.W. (1957). Cosmopolitans and locals: Towards an analysis of latent social roles. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2, 282–292.
    Graham, J.W. (1986). Principled organizational dissent: A theoretical essay. Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 1–52.
    Grandey, A.A., Dickter, D.N., & Sin, H.P. (2004). The customer is not always right: Customer aggression and emotion regulation of service employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 397–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.252
    Graves, J.P. (1982). Let's put appraisal back in performance appraisal: II. Personnel Journal, 61(12), 918–923.
    Gray, J.J. (1999). Techniques to cool the anger. Cognitive and Behavioural Practice, 6(3), 284–286. Gray, K. (1984). Counselling interventions in organizations. In W.Dryden & A.G.Watts (Eds), Guidance and counselling in Britain: A 20 year perspective. Cambridge: Hobson.
    Gray, W.D., & Orasanu, J.M. (1987). Transfer of cognitive skills. In Stephen M.Cormier, & Joseph D.Hagman (Eds), Transfer of learning: Contemporary research and applications. The educational technology series (pp. 183–215). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Green, G.D. (1994). Industrial relations: Text and case studies. London: Pitman Publishing.
    Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16, 399–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639001600208
    Greenberg, J. (1993). Stealing in the name of justice: Informational and interpersonal moderators of theft reactions to underpayment inequity. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 54, 81–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1993.1004
    Greenberger, D.B., & Strasser, S. (1986). Development and application of a model of personal control in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 11(1), 164–177.
    Greene, R., & Nowack, K. (1996). Stress, hardiness and absenteeism: Results of a 3-year longitudinal study. Work and Stress, 9, 448–462.
    Greenhaus, J.H., Collins, K.M., & Shaw, J.D. (2003). The relation between work-family balance and quality of life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 510–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791%2802%2900042-8
    Greiner, B.A. (1994). Work analysis instrument to identify objective stress factors in service work: Observer manual and response sheets. Berkeley: University of California, School of Public Health.
    Greiner, B.A., & Lietner, K. (1989). Assessment of job stress: RHIA instrument. In K.Landau & W.Roohmert (Eds), Recent developments in work analysis (pp. 53–66). Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.
    Greiner, B.A., Ragland, D.R., Krause, N., Syme, S., & Fisher, J.M. (1997). Objective measurement of occupational stress factors: An example with San Francisco urban transit operators. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2, 325–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.2.4.325
    Griffin, M.A., Mathieu, J.E., & Jacobs, R.R. (2001). Perceptions of work contexts: Disentangling influences at multiple levels of analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(5), 563–580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167523
    Griffiths, J., & Luker, K. (1994). Intraprofessional teamwork in district nursing: In whose interests?Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20(6), 1038–1045. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1994.20061038.x
    Grindle, A.C., Dickinson, A.M., & Boettcher, W. (2000). Behavioral safety research in manufacturing settings: A review of the literature. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 20(1), 29–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J075v20n01_03
    Grugulis, I., & Wilkinson, A. (2002). Managing culture at British Airways: Hype, hope and reality. Long Range Planning: International Journal of Strategic Management, 35(2), 179–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0024-6301%2802%2900036-5
    Grzeda, M.M., & Prince, J.B. (1997). Career motivation measures: A test of convergent and discriminant validity. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(3), 172–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585199700000047
    Guest, D. (1998). Is the psychological contract worth taking seriously?Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 19, 649–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%281998%2919:1+%3C649::AID-JOB970%3E3.0.CO;2-T
    Guest, D., & Mackenzie Davey, K. (1996). Don't write off the traditional career. People Management, 2 February, pp. 22–25.
    Guion, R.M. (1961). Criterion measurement and personnel judgments. Personnel Psychology, 14, 141–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1961.tb00930.x
    Guion, R.M. (1998). Assessment, measurement and prediction for personnel decisions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Gully, S.M., Payne, S.C., Koles, K.L.K., & Whiteman, J.K. (2002). The impact of error training and individual differences on training outcomes: An attribute-treatment interaction perspective. Human Performance, 15(4), 381–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327043HUP1504_05
    Gumuseli, A.I., & Ergin, B. (2002). The manager's role in enhancing the transfer of training: A Turkish case study. International Journal of Training and Development, 6, 80–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2419.00151
    Gunzol, H. (1989). The dual meaning of managerial careers: Organizational and individual levels of analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 26, 225–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1989.tb00726.x
    Guppy, A., Edwards, J.A., Brough, P., Peters-Bean, K.M., Sale, C., & Short, E. (2004). The psychometric properties of the short version of the Cybernetic Coping Scale: A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis across four samples. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 39–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915900
    Gutmann, David, & Pierre, Ronan (2000). Consultation and transformation: Between shared management and generative leadership. In Edward B.Klein, & FaithGabelnick (Eds), Dynamic consultation in a changing workplace (pp. 3–31). Madison, CT: Psychosocial Press.
    Guzzo, R.A., Jette, R.D., & Katzell, R.A. (1985). The effects of psychologically based intervention programs on worker productivity: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 38(2), 275–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1985.tb00547.x
    Guzzo, R.A., Noonan, K.A., & Elron, E. (1994). Human resource practices as communications and the psychological contract. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 617–626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.4.617
    Guzzo, R.A., Yost, P.R., Campbell, R.J., & Shea, G.P. (1993). Potency in groups: Articulating a construct. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 87–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1993.tb00987.x
    Haas, M.W., Nelson, T., Repperger, D., Bolia, R., & Zacharias, G. (2001). Applying adaptive control and display characteristics to future Air Force crew stations. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 11(2), 223–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327108IJAP1102_06
    Haccoun, R.R. (1997). Transfer and retention: Let's do both and avoid dilemmas. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 340–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01235.x
    Haccoun, R.R., & Saks, A.M. (1998). Training in the 21st century: Some lessons from the last one. Canadian Psychology, 39(1–2), 33–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0086793
    Hackett, R.D. (2002). Understanding and predicting work performance in the Canadian military. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 34(2), 131–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0087163
    Hackman, J.R., & Morris, C.G. (1975). Group tasks, group interaction process and group performance: A review and proposed integration. In L.Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 45–99). New York: Academic Press.
    Hackman, J.R., & Oldham, G.R. (1975). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 16, 250–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2876%2990016-7
    Hailey, V.H., & Balogun, J. (2002). Devising context sensitive approaches to change: The example of Glaxo Wellcome. Long Range Planning: International Journal of Strategic Management, 35(2), 153–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0024-6301%2802%2900035-3
    Hakel, M.D. (1986). Personnel selection and placement. Annual Review of Psychology, 37, 351–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.37.020186.002031
    Hall, D.T., & Mirvis, P.H. (1995). The new career contract: Developing the whole person at midlife and beyond [Special Issue: Careers from midlife]. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 47, 269–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1995.0004
    Hall, F.S., & Hall, D.T. (1997). The two-career couple. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Hampden-Turner, C. (1994). The structure of entrapment: Dilemmas standing in the way of women managers and strategies to resolve these. Deeper News, 5(1), 1–43.
    Handy, C. (1987). The making of managers. London: NEDO/HMSO.
    Hanges, P.J., Schneider, B., & Niles, K. (1990). Stability of performance: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(6), 658–667. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.658
    Hansen, C. (1989). A causal model of the relationship among accidents, biodata, personality, and cognitive factors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 458–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.1.81
    Hanson, E.K.S., Schaufelli, W., Vrijkotte, T., Plomp, N.H., & Godaert, G.L.R. (2000). The validity and reliability of the Dutch Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 142–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.5.1.142
    Hardingham, A., & Royal, J. (1994). Pulling together: Teamwork in practice. London: IPD Books.
    Harris, C., Daniels, K., & Briner, R.B. (2003). A daily diary study of goals and affective well-being at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 401–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903769647256
    Harris, M.M., Lievens, F., & Van Hoye, G. (2004). ‘I think they discriminated against me’: Using prototype theory and organizational justice theory for understanding perceived discrimination in selection and promotion situations. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1–2), 54–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00263.x
    Harrison, B. (1989). Class and gender in modern british labour. History Journal Past and Present, (124), 121–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/124.1.121
    Harrison, R. (1972). Understanding your organization's character. Harvard Business Review, 50(23), 119–128.
    Hart, P.M., & Cotton, P. (2003). Conventional wisdom is often misleading: Police stress within an organizational health framework. In M.F.Dollard, A.H.Winefield & H.R.Winefield (Eds), Occupational stress in the service professions (pp. 118–127). London: Taylor & Francis.
    Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L., & Hayes, T.L. (2002). Business-unit level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 268–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.2.268
    Harvey, S., Kelloway, E.K., & Duncan-Leiper, L. (2003). Trust in management as a buffer of the relationships between overload and strain. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8(4), 306–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.8.4.306
    Harvey, J., Erdos, G., Bolam, H., Cox, M.A., Kennedy, J.N.P., & Gregory, D.T. (2002). An analysis of safety culture attitudes in a highly regulated environment. Work and Stress, 16(1), 18–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678370110113226
    Haslam, S.A. (2004). Psychology in organizations: The social identity approach (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Sage.
    Hatch, M.J., & Schultz, M. (2002). Relations between organizational culture, identity and image. European Journal of Marketing, 31, 5/6, 356–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090569710167583
    Hatchuel, A., Le Masson, P., & Weil, B. (2002). From knowledge management to design-oriented organisations. International Social Science Journal (NWISS)54(171), 25–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2451.00356
    Hayes, J., Allinson, C.W., Hudson, R.S., & Keasey, K. (2003). Further reflections on the nature of intuition-analysis and the construct validity of the cognitive style index. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(2), 269–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903765913731
    Hayes, J., Rose-Quirie, A., & Allinson, C.W. (2000). Senior managers' perceptions of the competencies they require for effective performance: Implications for training and development. Personnel Review, 29(1–2), 92–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483480010295835
    Health & Safety Executive (1995). A guide to the reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations. Sudbury: HSE Books.
    Health & Safety Executive (1998). Stress at work: A guide for employers. Sudbury: HSE Books.
    Health & Safety Commission (HSC) (1993). Third report of the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations – Organising for Safety. London: Health & Safety Commission.
    Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (1989). Reducing noise at work. Guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations. Sudbury: HSE Books.
    Health and Safety Executive (1999). Understanding health surveillance at work. (
    2nd edn
    ). London: HSE Books.
    Hebden, J.E. (1986). Adopting an organization's culture: The socialization of graduate trainees. Organizational Dynamics, 15(1), 54–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2886%2990025-2
    Heinbokel, T., Sonnentag, S., Frese, M., & Stolte, W. (1996). Don't underestimate the problems of user centredness in software development projects—there are many!Behaviour and Information Technology, 15(4), 226–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014492996120157
    Helwig, A.A. (2001). A test of Gottfredson's theory using a ten-year longitudinal study. Journal of Career Development, 28(2), 77–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012578625948
    Hennessey, B.A., & Amabile, T.M. (1998). Reality, intrinsic motivation, and creativity. American Psychologist, 53(6), 674–675. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.6.674
    Henwood, K.L., & Pidgeon, N.F. (1992). Qualitative research and psychologial theorizing. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 97–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02426.x
    Herbig, B., Bussing, A., & Ewert, T. (2001). The role of tacit knowledge in the work context of nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 34(5), 687–695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01798.x
    Herd, J.A. (1988). Physiological indices of job stress. In J.J.Hurrell, Jr., L.R.Murphy, S.Sauter & C.Cooper (Eds), Occupational stress: Issues and developments in research (pp. 124–148). New York: Taylor & Francis.
    Herr, E.L. (1997). Super's life-span, life-space approach and its outlook for refinement. Career Development Quarterly, 45(3), 238–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1997.tb00468.x
    Herr, E.L., & Cramer, S.H. (1992). Career guidance and counselling through the life span. New York: Harper Collins.
    Herriot, P. (1989). Selection as a social process. In M.Smith & I.Robertson (Eds), Advances in selection and assessment (pp. 171–187). Chichester: Wiley.
    Herriot, P. (1992). The career management challenge. London: Sage.
    Herriot, P. (1995). The changing context of assessment and its implications. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 3(3), 197–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2389.1995.tb00028.x
    Herriot, P. (2001). The employment relationship. London: Routledge.
    Herriot, P. (2002). Selection and self: Selection as a social process. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11(4), 385–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594320244000256
    Herriot, P. (2003). Assessment by groups: Can value be added?European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12(2), 131–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594320344000048
    Herriot, P. (2004). Social identities and applicant reactions. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1–2), 75–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00265.x
    Herriot, P., Hirsch, W., & Reilly, P. (1998). Trust and transition: Managing today's employment relationship. Chichester: Wiley.
    Herriot, P., & Pemberton, C. (1995). Career contracting. Human Relations, 49, 757–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679604900603
    Herriot, P., & Pemberton, C. (1996). Contracting careers. Human Relations, 49(6), 757–790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679604900603
    Herriot, P., & Pemberton, C. (1997). Facilitating new deals. Human Resource Management, 7(1), 45–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.1997.tb00273.x
    Herriot, P., Hirsh, W., & Reilly, P. (1998). Trust and transition: Managing today's employment relationships. Chichester: Wiley.
    Herzberg, F. (1968). One more time: How do you motivate employees?Harvard Business Review, 46, 53–62.
    Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: Wiley.
    Heslin, P.A. (2003). Self- and other-referent criteria of career success. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(3), 262–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072703254500
    Higuera, A.Z.L. (2001). Adverse impact in personnel selection: The legal framework and test bias. European-Psychologist, 6(2), 103–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027//1016-9040.6.2.103
    Hill, W.P. (1971). Cited in Hollway, W. (1991). Work psychology and organizational behaviour. London: Sage.
    Hirschhorn, L., & Barnett, C.K. (1993). The psychodynamics of organizations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Hirsh, W., & Carter, A. (2000). New directions in management development. Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.
    Hitt, Michael A., & Ireland R.Duane (1987). ‘Building competitive strength in international markets.’Long Range Planning, 20 February, 115–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301%2887%2990039-2
    Hix, D., & Gabbard, L. (2002). Usability engineering of virtual environments. In K.M.Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications (pp. 681–699). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    HMSO. (1964). Industrial training act. London: HMSO.
    Hobbs Alan, Williamson, & Ann (2002). Unsafe acts and unsafe outcomes in aircraft maintenance. Ergonomics, 45(12), 866–882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140130210148528
    Hobson, C., Delunas, L., & Kesis, D. (2001). Compelling evidence of the need for corporate work-life balance initiatives. Journal of Employment Counselling, 38, 38–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1920.2001.tb00491.x
    Hochschild, A. (1983). The managed heart. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Hockey, G.R. J. (2000). Work environment and performance. In N.Chmiel (Ed.), Introduction to work and organizational psychology: A European perspective, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hodgkinson, G.P., & Maule, A.J. (2002). The individual in the strategy process: Insights from behavioural decision research and cognitive mapping. In A.S.Huff & M.Jenkins (Eds), Mapping strategic knowledge (pp. 196–219). London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220443
    Hodgkinson, G.P. & Sadler-Smith, E. (2003). Reflections on reflections … On the nature of intuition, analysis and the construct validity of the cognitive style index. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(2), 243–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903765913722
    Hoffman, H. (1998). Virtual reality: A new tool for interdisciplinary psychology research. Cyber Psychology and Behaviour, 1(2), 195–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.1998.1.195
    Hoffman, K.G., & Donaldson, J.F. (2004). Contextual tensions of the clinical environment and their influence on teaching and learning. Medical Education, 38(4), 448–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2923.2004.01799.x
    Hofmann, D.A., & Stetzer, A. (1996). A cross-level investigation of factors influencing unsafe behaviors and accidents. Personnel Psychology, 49(2), 307–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1996.tb01802.x
    Hofmann, D.A., Jacobs, R., & Baratta, J.E. (1993). Dynamic criteria and the measurement of change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 194–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.2.194
    Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organisations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
    Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 286–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393392
    Hogan, R., & Hogan, J. (1995). Hogan Personality Inventory manual (
    2nd edn
    ). Tulsa, OK: Hogan Assessment Systems.
    Holbeche, L. (2003). Aligning human resources and business strategy. International Journal of Training and Development, 7(1), 78–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2419.00172
    Holden, M.K., & Todorov, E. (2002). Use of virtual environments in motor learning and rehabilitation. In K.M.Stanney, (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications (pp. 999–1026). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Holland, J.L. (1959). A theory of vocational choice. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 6, 35–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040767
    Holland, J.L. (1973). Making vocational choices: A theory of careers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    HollandJ.L. (1996). Exploring careers with a typology. What we have learned and some new directions. American Psychologist, 51, 397–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.51.4.397
    Holland, J.L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (
    3rd Edn
    ). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
    Holland, J.L., & Nichols, R.C. (1964). Explorations of a theory of vocational choice: III. A longitudinal study of change in a major field of study. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 43(3), 235–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4918.1964.tb02667.x
    Holland, J.L., Fritzsche, B.A., & Powell, A.B. (1997). The self-directed search technical manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
    Hollenbeck, J.R., Williams, C.R., & Klein, H.J. (1987). Goal commitment and the goal setting process: Problems, prospects, and proposals for future research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 212–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.2.212
    Hollon, S.D., & Beck, A.T. (1994). Cognitive and cognitive-behavioural therapies. In A.E.Bergin & S.L.Garfield (Eds), Handbook of psychotherapy and behaviour change (
    4th edn
    , pp. 428–466). New York: Wiley.
    Hollway, W. (1991). Work psychology and organizational behaviour. London: Sage.
    Holman, D., Epitropaki, O., & Fernie, S. (2001). Understanding learning strategies in the workplace: A factor analytic investigation. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(5), 675–682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167587
    Holmes, T.H., & Rahe, R.H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2867%2990010-4
    Hopson, B., & Adams, J. (1976). Transition: Understanding and managing personal change. London: Martin Robertson.
    Hopson, B., & Hayes, J. (1972). The theory and practice of vocational guidance (pp. 359–373). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    Hosking, D.M. (1988). Organizing, leadership and skilful processes. Journal of Management Studies, 25(2), 147–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1988.tb00029.x
    Hough, L.A. (1984). Development and evaluation of an ‘accomplishment record’ method of selecting and promoting professionals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 135–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.69.1.135
    Hough, L.M., & Oswald, F.L. (2000). Personnel selection: Looking toward the future – remembering the past. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 631–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.631
    Houghton, T., & Proscio, T. (2001). Hard work on soft skills: Creating a ‘culture of work’ in workforce development. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures (Ed. 461737).
    Houkes, I., Janssen, P.P.M., de Jonge, J., & Bakker, A.B. (2003). Specific determinants of intrinsic work motivation, emotional exhaustion and turnover intention: A multisample longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 427–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903322591578
    House, R. J., & Mitchell, T.R. (1975). Path-goal theory of leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business, 3, 81–97.
    House, R. J., & Rizzo, J.R. (1972). Role conflict and ambiguity as critical variables in a model of organizational behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 7, 467–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2872%2990030-X
    Howell, W.C. (1991). Human factors in the workplace. In M.D.Dunnette and L.M.Hough (Eds), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 2). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Hoxie, R.F. (1915). Scientific management and labour. New York: D. Appleton & Company.
    Huddart, S. (1994). Employee stock options. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 18, 207–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-4101%2894%2900363-7
    Hudlick, E., & McNeese, M.D. (1994). Assessment of user affective and belief states for interface adaptation: Application to an Air Force pilot task. User Modeling and User Adapted Interaction, 12(1), 1–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013337427135
    Huff, A.S., & Jenkins, M. (2002). Mapping strategic knowledge. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220443
    Huffcutt, A.I., & Arthur, W. (1994). Hunter and Hunter (1984) revisited – Interview validity for entry-level jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(2), 184–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.2.184
    Huffcutt, A.I., Conway, J.M., Roth, P.L., & Stone, N. J. (2001). Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 897–913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.897
    Humphreys, L.G. (1986). An analysis and evaluation of test and item bias in the prediction context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2), 327–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.2.327
    Hunt, J.G., Osborn, R.N., & Schuler, R.S. (1978). Relations of discretionary and non-discretionary leadership to performance and satisfaction in a complex organization. Human Relations, 31(6), 507–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872677803100603
    Hunter, J.E. & Hunter, R.F. (1984). Validity and utility of alternative predictors of job performance. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 72–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.96.1.72
    Hunter, J.E., & Schmidt, F.L. (1996). Intelligence and job performance: Economic and social implications. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2(3/4), 447–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8971.2.3-4.447
    Hunter, J.E., & Schmidt, F.L. (2000). Fixed effects vs. random effects meta-analysis models: Implications for cumulative research knowledge. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(4), 275–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00156
    Huo, Y.P., Huang, H.J., & Napier, N.K. (2002). Divergence or convergence: A cross-national comparison of personnel selection practices. Human Resource Management, 41(1), 31–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.10018
    Hurrell, J. J. Jr., Nelson, D.L., & Simmons, B.L. (1998). Measuring job stressors and strains: Where we have been, where we are, and where we need to go. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3(4), 368–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.3.4.368
    Hurtz, G.M., & Donovan, J.J. (2000). Personality and job performance: The big five revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 869–879. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.869
    Huse, E. (1980). Organizational development and change (
    2nd edn
    ). St Paul, MN: West.
    Huselid, M.A., & Day, N.E. (1991). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 635–672. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256741
    Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Hyde, A., & Paterson, J. (2000). Leadership development as a vehicle for change during merger. Journal of Change Management, 2(3), 266–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/738552749
    Hyman, R. (1994). Introduction: Economic restructuring, marlet liberalism and the future of national industrial relations systems. In R.Hyman, & A.Fernier (Eds), New frontiers in European industrial relations (pp.1–14). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Ilgen, D.R., & Davis, C.A. (2000). Bearing bad news: Reactions to negative performance feedback. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49(3), 550–565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00031
    Ilgen, D.R., & Sheppard, L. (2001). Motivation in work teams. In MiriamErez & UweKleinbeck, Work motivation in the context of a globalizing economy (pp. 169–179). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Impara, J.C., Plake, B.S., & Spies, R.A. (Eds). (2004). The fifteenth mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, NB: Buros Institute of mental measurements.
    Indik, B., Seashore, S.E., & Slesinger, J. (1964). Demographic correlates of psychological strain. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69(1), 26–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040300
    Ingledew, D.K., Hardy, L., & Cooper, C.L. (1997). Do resources bolster coping and does coping buffer stress? An organizational study with longitudinal aspect and control for negative affectivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2(2), 118–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.2.2.118
    Iovine, J. (1994). Step into virtual reality. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Irving, G.P., & Meyer, J.P. (1994). Reexamination of the met-expectations hypothesis: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 937–949. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.6.937
    Isaac, R.G., Zerbe, W.J., & Pitt, D.C. (2001). Leadership and motivation: The effective application of expectancy theory. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13(2), 212–226.
    Isaksson, K., & Johansson, G. (2000). Adaptation to continued work and early retirement following downsizing: Long-term effects and gender differences. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(2), 241–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317900167001
    Isenberg, D.J. (1981). Some effects of time pressure on vertical structure and decision making accuracy in small groups. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 27(1), 119–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2881%2990042-8
    Ishizaki, M., Tsuritani, I., Noborisaka, Y., Yamada, Y., Tabata, M., & Nakagawa, H. (1996). Relationship between job stress and plasma fibrinolytic activity in male Japanese workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 68, 315–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00409416
    Ivancevich, J.M., & Matteson, M.T. (1998). Promoting the individual's health and physical well-being. In C.Cooper & R.Payne (Eds), Causes, coping and consequences of stress at work (pp. 267–300). London: J. Wiley & Sons.
    Iwasaki, Y., MacKay, K.J., & Ristock, J. (2004). Gender-based analyses of stress among professional managers: An exploratory study. International Journal of Stress Management, 11(1), 56–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.11.1.56
    Jackson, C., & Barltrop, J. (1994). Career workshops. Presented at Improving Career Development in Organizations conference, London, February.
    Jackson, C., Arnold, J., Nicholson, N., & Watts, P. (2000). Managing careers in 2000 and beyond. IES Report 304 Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.
    Jackson, C.J., & Furnham, A. (2001). Appraisal ratings, halo, and selection: A study using sales staff. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 17(1), 17–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027//1015-5759.17.1.17
    Jackson, S.E., & Schuler, R.S. (1985). A meta-analysis and conceptual critique of research on role ambiguity and role conflict in work settings. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36, 16–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2885%2990020-2
    Jacobs, R.L., & Jones, M.J. (1995). Structured on-the-job training: Unleashing employee expertise in the workplace. San Franscisco., CA: Berrettt-Koehler.
    Jacobs, R.L., & Russ-Eft, D. (2001). Cascade training and institutionalising organizational change. Advances in developing Human Resources, 3(4), 496–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15234220122238427
    Jaffee, D. (2001). Organization theory: Tension and change. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
    Jang, C-Y., Steinfield, C., & Pfaff, B. (2002). Virtual team awareness and groupware support: An evaluation of the TeamSCOPE system. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 56(1), 109–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ijhc.2001.0517
    Janis, I.L. (1972). Group Think: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascos. Boston, MA: Houghton.
    Janssen, O. (2003). Innovative behaviour and job involvement at the price of conflict and less satisfactory relations with co-workers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 347–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903769647210
    Janz, T. (1982). Initial comparisons of patterned behaviour description interviews versus unstructured interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 577–580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.67.5.577
    Jawahar, I.M. (2001). Attitudes, self-monitoring, and appraisal behaviours. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 875–883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.875
    Jermier, J., Slocum, J., Fry, L., & Gaines, J. (1991). Organizational subcultures in a soft bureaucracy: Resistance behind the myth and façade of an official culture. Organizational Science, 2, 170–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.2.170
    Jetten, J., O'Brien, A., & Trindall, N. (2002). Changing identity: Predicting adjustment to organizational restructure as a function of subgroup and superordinate identification. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41(2), 281–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466602760060147
    Jirotka, M., & Luff, P. (2002). Representing and modelling collaborative practices for systems development. In Y.Dittrich & C.Floyd (Eds), Social thinking – software practice (pp. 111–139). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Johnson, C.D., & Stokes, G.S. (2002). The meaning, development, and career outcomes of breadth of vocational interests. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(2), 327–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2001.1859
    Johnson, G., & Scholes, K. (1997). Exploring corporate strategy: Texts and cases. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.
    Johnson, J. & Pratt, D. (1998). The apprenticeship perspective: modelling ways of being. In D.Pratt & Associates (Eds), Five perspectives on teaching in adult and higher education (pp. 93–104). Malaber, FL: Krieger.
    Johnson, P., & Cassell, C. (2001). Epistemology and work psychology: New agendas. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(2), 125–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167280
    Joireman, J.A., Parrott, L.P., & Hammersla, J. (2002). Empathy and the self-absorption paradox: Support for the distinction between self-rumination and self-reflection. Self and Identity, 1, 53–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/152988602317232803
    Jones, A., Herriot, P., Long, B., & Drakeley, R.J. (1991). Attempting to prove the validity of a well-established assessment centre. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 64, 1–64.
    Jones, F., & Bright, J. (2002). Stress: Myth, theory and research. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.
    Jones, F., & Fletcher, B.C. (1996). Taking work home: A study of daily fluctuations in work stressors, effects on moods and impacts on marital partners. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 69(1), 89–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1996.tb00602.x
    Jones, G.R. (1986). Socialization tactics, self-efficacy, and newcomers' adjustments to organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 262–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256188
    Jones, J.W., Slora, K.B., & Boye, M.W. (1990). Theft reduction through personnel selection: A control group design in the supermarket industry. Journal of Business and Psychology, 5, 275–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01014337
    Jones, J.W., Joy, D.S., Werner, S.H., & Orbon, J.A. (1991). Criterion related validity of a pre-employment integrity inventory: Large scale between groups comparison. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 131–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1991.72.1.131
    Jones, L., & Fletcher, C. (2002). Self-assessment in a selection situation: An evaluation of different measurement approaches. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(2), 145–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/09631790260098730
    Jordan, R., & Millward, L.J. (2004). A daily diary study of reflective appraisal and its implications for emotional well-being among mental health professionals. University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
    Judge, T.A., & Bono, J.E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits – self-esteem, generalised self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability – with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 80–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.80
    Judge, T.A., & Ilies, R. (2002). Relationship of personality to performance motivation: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 797–807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.797
    Kaber, D.B., Riley, J.M., & Tan, J.M. (2002). Improved usability of aviation automation through direct manipulation and graphical user interface design. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 12(2), 153–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327108IJAP1202_4
    Kacmar, K.M., Delery, J.E., & Ferris, G.R. (1992). Differential effectiveness of applicant impression management tactics on employment interview decisions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 1250–1272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb00949.x
    Kahn, R.L. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692–724. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256287
    Kahn, R.L., Wolfe, D.N., Quinn, R.P., Snoek, J.D., & Rosenthal, R. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. New York: Wiley.
    D.P., Kahneman Slovic, & A.Tversky (Eds). (1982). Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kald, K., & Nilsson, F. (2000). Performance management at Nordic companies. European Management Journal, 25, 349–358.
    Kalimo, R., Lindström, K., & Smith, M.J. (1997). Psychosocial approach in occupational health. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
    Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D., & Wanberg, C.R. (2003). Unwrapping the organizational entry process: Disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 779–794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.779
    Kampa-Kokesch, S., & Anderson, M. (2001). Executive coaching: A comprehensive review of the literature. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 205–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.53.4.205
    Kane, M. (2002). Validating high-stakes testing programs. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 21(1), 31–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3992.2002.tb00083.x
    Kanfer, R. (1992). Motivation theory and industrial and organizational psychology. In M.Dunnette & L.M.Hough (Eds), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (
    2nd edn
    , Vol. 1, pp. 75–170). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P.L. (1989). Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/aptitude-treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition. Journal of Applied Psychology – Monograph, 74, 657–690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.4.657
    Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P.L. (2000). Individual differences in work motivation: Further explorations of a trait framework. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49(3), 470–482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00026
    Kantowitz, B., & Sorkin, R. (1987). Allocation of functions. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors (pp. 355–369). New York: Wiley.
    Karasek, R.A., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: Stress, productivity and the reconstruction of working life. New York: Basic Books.
    Karasek, R., Brisson, C., Kawakami, N., Houtman, I., Bongers, P., & Amick, B. (1998). The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ): An instrument for internationally comparative assessments of psychosocial job characteristics. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3(4), 322–355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.3.4.322
    Katzenbach, J.R., & Smith, D.K. (1993). The wisdom of teams. New York: McKinney.
    Keates, S., Langdon, P., Clarkson, P.J., & Robinson, P. (2002). User models and user physical capability. User Modeling and User Adapted Interaction, 12(2–3), 139–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015047002796
    Keen, P.G.W. (1981). Information systems and organizational change. Communications of the ACM, 24(1), 24–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/358527.358543
    Keenan, T. (1995). Graduate recruitment in Britain: A survey of selection methods used by organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(4), 303–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030160403
    Keeping, L.M., & Levy, P.E. (2000). Performance appraisal reactions: Measurement, modelling, and method bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 708–723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.708
    Kelly, G. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton.
    Kenny, D.T., & Cooper, C. (2003). Introduction: Occupational stress and its management. International Journal of Stress Management, 10(4), 275–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.10.4.275
    Kenny, N.P., Mann, K.V., & MacLeod, H. (2003) Role modelling in physicians' professional formation: Reconsidering an essential but untapped educational strategy. Academic Medicine, 78, 1203–1210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200312000-00002
    Kerr, S., & Jermier, J.M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 22, 375–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2878%2990023-5
    Kettley, P., & Strebler, M. (1997). Changing roles for senior managers (IES Report No. 327). Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.
    Kidd, J.M. (2002). Careers and career management. In P.B.Warr (Ed.), Psychology at work (
    5th edn
    ). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Kidd, J.M. (2004). Emotion in career contexts: Challenges for theory and research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(3), 441–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2003.12.009
    Kidd, J.M., Jackson, C., & Hirsh, W. (2003). The outcomes of effective career discussion at work. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 62, 119–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791%2802%2900027-1
    Kidd, J.M., & Smewing, C. (2001). The role of the supervisor in career and organizational commitment. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10(1), 25–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594320042000016
    Kiefer, T. (2002). Understanding the emotional experience of organizational change: Evidence from a merger. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 4(1), 39–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1523422302004001004
    Kieras, D.E. (1987). What mental model should be taught: Choosing instructional content for complex engineered systems. In J.Psotka, D.Massey and S.Mutter (Eds), Intelligent tutoring systems: Lessons learned (pp. 315–324). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
    Kilmann, R.H. (1985). Corporate culture. Psychology Today, 15, 62–68.
    King, P.M., Fisher, J.C., & Garg, A. (1997). Evaluation of the impact of employee ergonomics training in industry. Applied Ergonomics, 28(4), 249–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-6870%2896%2900067-1
    King, Z. (2001). Career self-management: A framework for guidance of employed adults. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 29(1), 65–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069880020019365
    Kinicki, A.J., & Vecchio, R.P. (1994). Influences on the quality of supervisor-subordinate relations: The role of time-pressure, organizational commitment and locus of control. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 75–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150108
    Kinicki, A.J., Hom, P.W., Trost, M.R., & Wade, K.J. (1995). Effects of category prototypes on performance-rating accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(3), 354–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.3.354
    Kirk, A.K., & Brown, D.F. (2003). Latent constructs of proximal and distal motivation predicting performance under maximum test conditions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 40–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.40
    Kirk, J. J., Downey, B., Duckett, S., & Woody, C. (2000). Name your career development intervention. Journal of Workplace Learning, 12(5), 205–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13665620010316217
    Kirkman, B.L., Tesluk, P.E., & Rosen, B. (2001). Alternative methods of assessing team-level variables: Comparing the predictive power of aggregation and consensus methods. Personnel Psychology, 54, 645–667. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00226.x
    Kirlik, A., Walker, N., Fisk, A.D., & Nagel, K. (1996). Supporting perception in the service of dynamic decision making. Human Factors, 38(2), 288–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1518/001872096779048039
    Kirman, B.L., Rosen, B., Gibson, C.B., Tesluk, P.E., & McPherson, S.M. (2001). Five challenges to virtual team success: Lessons from Sabre, Inc.Academy of Management Executive, 16(3), 67–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.2002.8540322
    Kirpatrick, D.L. (1976). Evaluation of training. In R.L.Craig (Ed.), Training and development handbook: A guide to human resource development (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 301–319). New York: McGraw Hill.
    Kirwan, B. (1995). Human reliability assessment. In J.W.Wilson & E.N.Corlett (Eds), Evaluation of human work: A practical ergonomics methodology (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Taylor & Francis.
    Klein, G. (1998). Sources of power: How people make decisions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Klein, G.A., Orasanu, J., & Zsambok, C.E. (Eds). (1993). Decision making in action: Models and methods. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp.
    Klein, H.J., Wesson, M.J., Hollenbeck, J.R., Wright, P.M., & DeShon, R.P. (2001). The assessment of goal commitment: A measurement model meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85(1), 32–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2000.2931
    Klimoski, R., & Brickner, M. (1987). Why do assessment centers work? The puzzle of assessment center validity. Personnel Psychology, 30, 243–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1987.tb00603.x
    Kline, P. (1986). Handbook of test construction. London: Routledge.
    Kline, P., & Lapham, S.L. (1992). Personality and faculty in British universities. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(7), 855–857. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2892%2990061-S
    Klingner, Y., & Schuler, H. (2004). Improving participants' evaluations while maintaining validity by a work sample-intelligence test hybrid. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1–2), 120–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00268.x
    Kluger, A.N., & DeNisi, A. (1998). Feedback interventions: Toward the understanding of a double-edged sword. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7(3), 67–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep10772989
    Knefelkamp, L.L., & Slepitza, R. (1976). A cognitive-developmental model of career development: An adaptation of the Perry scheme. Counseling Psychologist, 6(3), 53–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001100007600600310
    Knerr, B.W., Breaux, R., Goldberg, S.L., & Thurman, R.A. (2002). National defense. In K.M.Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications. Human factors and ergonomics (pp. 857–872). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Knight, D., Durham, C.C., & Locke, E.A. (2001). The relationship of team goals, incentives, and efficacy to strategic risk, tactical implementation and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 1089–1121.
    Knowles, M. (1972). The modern practice of adult education. Chicago: Association Press.
    Kobaska, S.C. (1979) Stressful life events, personality and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1), 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.1.1
    Kodz, J., Harper, H., & Dench, S. (2002). Work-life balance: Beyond the rhetoric. Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.
    Kodz, J., Kersley, B., & Bates, P. (1999). The fifties revival. IES Report 359. Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.
    Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Kompier, M.A.J., Cooper, C.L., & Geurts, S.A.E. (2000). A multiple case study approach to work stress prevention in Europe. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9, 371–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/135943200417975
    Kontogiannis, T., & Embrey, D. (1997). A user-centred design approach for introducing computer-based process information systems. Applied Ergonomics, 28(2), 109–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-6870%2896%2900041-5
    Kormanski, C. (1991). Using theory as a foundation for group training designs. Journal for Specialists in Groupwork, 16(4), 215–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929108416155
    Korsgaard, M.A., Sapienza, H.J., & Schweiger, D.M. (2002). Beaten before begun: The role of procedural justice in planning change. Journal of Management, 28(4), 497–516.
    Kotter, J. (1990). A force for change: How leadership differs from management. New York: Free Press.
    Kotter, J.P. (1973). The psychological contract: Managing the joining-up process. California Management Review, 15, 91–99.
    Kotter, J.P. & Heskett, J.L. (1992). Corporate culture and performance. New York: The Free Press.
    Koubek, R.J., & Salvendy, G. (1991). Cognitive performance of super-experts on computer program modification tasks. Ergonomics, 34(8), 1095–1112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139108964849
    Koubek, R.J., Benysh, S.A.H., & Tang, E. (1997). Learning. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 130–149). New York: John Wiley.
    Koumoundourou, G.A. (2004). The reliability and validity of the Greek version of the task specific occupational self-efficacy scale. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32(1), 75–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069880310001648067
    Kraiger, K., & Ford, J.K. (1985). A meta-analysis of ratee race effects in performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 56–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.70.1.56
    Kraiger, K., Ford, J., & Salas, E. (1993). Application of cognitive, skill-based and effective theories of learning outcomes to new methods of training evaluation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 311–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.2.311
    Kravitz, D.A., & Balzer, W.K. (1992). Context effects in performance appraisal: A methodological critique and empirical study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(1), 24–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.1.24
    Kroeber, A.L., & Kluckhohn, F. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. New York: Vintage Books.
    Krumboltz, J.D. (1996). A learning theory of career counseling. In M.L.Savickas & W.B.Walsh (Eds), Handbook of career counseling theory and practice (pp. 55–80). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.
    Krumboltz, J.D., Mitchell, A.M., & Jones, G.B. (1976). A social learning theory of career selection. Counseling Psychologist, 6(1), 71–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001100007600600117
    Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. London: Tavistock/Routledge Publications.
    Kuhl, J. (1994). Volitional aspects of achievement orientation and learned helplessness: Toward a comprehensive theory of action control. In B.A.Maher (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 13, pp. 99–171). New York: Academic Press.
    Kulik, C.T., & Ambrose, M.L. (1993). Category based and feature based processes in performance appraisal: Integrating visual and computerised sources of performance data. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 821–830. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.5.821
    Kuper, H., & Marmot, M. (2003). Job strain, job demands, decision latitude, and risk of coronary heart disease within the Whitehall II study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57(2), 147–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.57.2.147
    Laming, Lord (2003). The Victoria Climbié Inquiry. London: HMSO.
    Lampton, D.R., Bliss, J.P., & Morris, C.S. (2002). Human performance measurement in virtual environments. In K.M.Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications (pp. 701–720). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Landy, F.J. (2003). Validity generalization: Then and now. In K.R.Murphy (Ed.), Validity generalization: A critical review (pp. 155–195). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Landy, F.J., & Farr, J.L. (1980). Performance rating. New York: Academic Press.
    Larson, J.R., & Christensen, C. (1993). Groups as problem solving units: Toward a new meaning of social cognition. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 5–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1993.tb00983.x
    Larson, L., & Rowland, K. (1973). Leadership style, stress and behavior in task performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 9(3), 407–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2873%2990062-7
    Laszlo, K.C., & Laszlo, A. (2002). Evolving knowledge for development: The role of knowledge management in a changing world. Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(4), 400–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270210440893
    Latham, G.P. (1988). Human resource training and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 545–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.39.020188.002553
    Latham, G.P., & Wexley, K.N. (1977) Behavioral observation scales for performance appraisal purposes. Personnel Psychology, 30(2), 255–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1977.tb02092.x
    Latham, G.P., & Saari, L.M. (1984). Do people do what they say? Further studies on the situational interview. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 569–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.69.4.569
    Latham, G.P., Millman, Z., & Miedema, H. (1998). Theoretical, practical and organizational issues affecting training. In H.Thierry & P.Drenth (Eds), Handbook of work and organizational psychology Vol. 3: Personnel psychology. (
    2nd edn.
    pp. 185–206). Hove: Psychology Press.
    Latham, G.P., Saari, L.M., Russell, E.P., & Campion, M.A. (1980). Training managers to minimise rating errors in the observation of behaviour. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 550–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.60.5.550
    Laudon, C.L., & Laudon, J.P. (2002). Management information systems: Managing the digital firm (
    7th Edn
    ), Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
    Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Lawler, E.E., Mohrman, S.A., & Ledford, G.E. (1992). Employee involvement and total quality management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Lawrence, P.R., Bailey, J.C., Katz, R.L., Seiler, J.A., Orth, C.D., Clark, J.V., Barnes, L.B., & Turner, A.N. (1961). Organizational behavior and administration: Cases, concepts, and research findings. Oxford: Dorsey Press & Richard D. Irwin.
    Lawrence, P.R., & Lorsch, J.W. (1967). Organizations and environment: Managing differentiation and integration. Boston: Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University Press.
    Lawrence et al., 1961
    Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.
    Lazarus, R.S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. London: Free Association.
    Lazarus, R.S. (2000). Towards better research on coping and stress. American Psychologist, 55, 665–673. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.6.665
    Lazlo, K.C., & Lazlo, S. (2002). Evolving knowledge for development: The role of knowledge management in a changing world. Journal of knowledge management, 6(4), 400–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270210440893
    Leach, D.J., Wall, T.D., & Jackson, P.R. (2003). The effect of empowerment on job knowledge: An empirical test involving operators of complex technology. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(1), 27–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903321208871
    Leavitt, H. J., & Whisler, T.L. (1958). Management in the 1980's. Harvard Business Review, (November-December), 41–49.
    Le Blanc, P., de Jonge, J., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2000). Job stress and health. In N.Chmiel (Ed.), Introduction to work and organizational psychology: A European perspective (pp. 148–177). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
    Lefkowitz, J. (2000). The role of interpersonal affective regard in supervisory performance ratings: A literature review and proposed causal model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(1), 67–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317900166886
    Lee, K., Carswell, J., & Allen, N. (2000). A meta-analytic review of occupational commitment: Relations with people and work-related variables. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 799–811. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.799
    Lee, K.S. (2002). Building intergroup relations after September 11. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2(1), 131–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-2415.2002.00033.x
    Lee, R.T., & Ashforth, B.E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(2), 123–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.2.123
    Lee, S., & Klein, H.J. (2000). Relationships between conscientiousness, self-efficacy, self-deception, and learning over time. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(6), 1175–1182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.6.1175
    Leicester, M. (2002). Two decades of feminist thought-and beyond. International Journal of Lifelong Education20(1–2), 55–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0260137001
    Leiter, M.P., & Maslach, C. (1988). The impact of interpersonal environment on burnout and organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 9, 297–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030090402
    Lent, R.W., & Worthington, R.L. (2000). On school-to-work transition, career development theories, and cultural validity. Career Development Quarterly, 48(4), 376–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.2000.tb00883.x
    Lester, S.W., Turnley, W.H., Bloodgood, J.M., & Bolino, Mark C. (2002). Not seeing eye to eye: Differences in supervisor and subordinate perceptions of and attributions for psychological contract breach. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(1), 39–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.126
    Levine, A.S., & Zachert, V. (1951). Use of biographical inventory in the Air Force Classification Programme. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35, 241–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0055145
    Levinson, D.J. with Darrow, C.N., Klein, E.N., Levinson, M.H., & McKee, B. (1978). The seasons of a man's life. New York: Knopf.
    Levinson, H., Price, C.R., Munden, K., Mandl, H.J., & Solley, C.M. (1962). Men, management and mental health. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science. London: Tavistock.
    Lewin, K., & Lippitt, R. (1938). An experimental approach to the study of autocracy and democracy: A preliminary note. Sociometry, 1, 292–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2785585
    Lewis, G., & Pelosi, A.J. (1990). The case-control study in psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 197–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.157.2.197
    Liden, R.C., Wayne, S.J., & Sparrowe, R.T. (2000). An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 407–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.407
    Liebowitz, S.J., & De Meuse, K.P. (1982). The application of team building. Human Relations, 35(1), 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678203500102
    Lievens, F., & Klimoski, R.J. (2001). Understanding the assessment center process: Where are we now? In C.L.Cooper & I.T.Robertson (Eds), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 16, pp. 245–286). Chichester: Wiley.
    Likert, R. (1967). The human organization. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lin, H.X., Choong, Y.Y., & Salvendy, G. (1997). A proposed index of usability: A method for comparing the relative usability of different software systems. Behavior and Information Technology, 16(4–5), 267–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014492997119833
    Lind, E.A., Greenberg, J., Scott, K.S., & Welchans, T.D. (2000). The winding road from employee to complainant: Situational and psychological determinants of wrongful termination claims. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 557–590. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667109
    Linehan, M. (2001). Women international managers: The European experience. Cross Cultural Management, 8(3–4), 68–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527600110797281
    Linstead, A., & Brewis, J. (2004). Beyond boundaries: Towards fluidity in theorizing and practice. Gender, Work and Organization, 11(4), 355–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00237.x
    Locke, E.A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M.D.Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297–1349). Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Locke, E.A. (1991). Goal theory vs. control theory: Contrasting approaches to understanding work motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 15(1), 9–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00991473
    Locke, E.A. (1997). The motivation to work: What we know. In M.Maehr & P.Pintrich (Eds), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 10, pp. 375–412). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Locke, E.A. (2001). Self-set goals and self-efficacy as mediators of incentives and personality. In M.Erez & U.Kleinbeck (Eds), Work motivation in the context of a globalizing economy (pp. 13–26). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (1990). A theory of goal setting & task performance. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35 year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705–717. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.57.9.705
    Lodahl, T., & Kejner, M. (1965). The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49, 24–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0021692
    Lofquist, L.H., & Dawis, R.V. (1969). Adjustment to work. New York: Appelton-Century-Crofts.
    Loo, R. (2004). Kolb's learning styles and learning preferences: Is there a linkage?Educational-Psychology, 24(1), 99–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0144341032000146476
    London, M. (1993). Relationships between career motivation, empowerment and support for career development. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 66, 55–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1993.tb00516.x
    London, M., & Mone, E.M. (1987). Career management and survival in the workplace: Helping employees make tough decisions, stay motivated, and reduce career stress. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
    London, M., & Smither, J.W. (1995). Can multi-source feedback change perceptions of goal accomplishment, self-evaluations, and performance related outcomes? Theory based applications and directions for research. Personnel Psychology, 48, 803–839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01782.x
    Lord, R.G., Hanges, P.J., & Godfrey, E.G. (2003). Integrating neural networks into decision-making and motivational theory: Rethinking VIE theory. Canadian Psychology, 44(1), 21–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085815
    Lord, R.G., & Maher, K.J. (1990). Alternate information-processing models and their implications for theory, research and practice. Academy of Management Review, 15, 9–28.
    Louis, M.R. (1981). Surprise and sense-making What newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 226–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392453
    Lowe, R., & Bennett, P. (2003). Exploring coping reactions to work stress: Application of an appraisal theory. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 393–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903769647247
    Ludema, J.D. (2002). Appreciative storytelling: A narrative approach to organization development and change. In R.Fry & F.Barrett (Eds), Appreciative inquiry and organizational transformation: Reports from the field (pp. 239–261). Westport, CT: Quorum Books/Greenwood.
    Luzzo, D.A. (Ed.) (2000). Career counseling of college students: An empirical guide to strategies that work. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10362-000
    Lynch, J.G., & Lind, B. (2002). Escaping merger and acquisition madness. Strategy and Leadership, 30(2), 5–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10878570210422094
    Lyons, M.H., Cochrane, P., & Fisher, K. (1993). Teleworking in the 21st century. IEE Computing and Control Engineering Journal, August.
    Mabey, C. (1986). Black pupils' achievement in inner London. Educational Research, 28(3), 163–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188860280301
    Macdonald, J.M. (1985). Market exchange or vertical integration: An empirical analysis. Review of Economics and Statistics, 67, 327–331. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1924734
    Macdonald, S. (1997). Work-place alcohol and other drug testing: A review of the scientific evidence. Drug and Alcohol Review, 16(3), 251–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09595239800187431
    Mack, R.L., & Burdett, J.M. (1992). When novices elicit knowledge: Question-asking in designing, evaluating and learning to use software. In R.Hoffman (Ed.), The Psychology of expertise: Cognitive research and empirical AI (pp. 245–268). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9733-5_15
    Mackley, W.B. (1982). Aftermath of Mt. Erebus. Flight Safety Digest, 1, 3–7.
    Madzar, S. (2001). Subordinates information inquiry: Exploring the effect of perceived leadership style and individual differences. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(2), 221–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167325
    Mael, F., & Ashforth, B.E. (1992). Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organisational identification. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 13, 103–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030130202
    Mael, F.A., & Ashforth, B.E. (1995). Loyal from day one: Biodata, organizational identification, and turnover among newcomers. Personnel Psychology, 48(2), 309–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01759.x
    Maertz, C.P. Jr., Bauer, T.N., Mosley, D.C. Jr., Posthuma, R.A., Campion, M.A. (2004). Do procedural justice perceptions in a selection testing context predict applicant attraction and intention toward the organization?Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(1), 125–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb02540.x
    Mafi, S.L. (2001). Planned on the job managerial training. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 3(4), 488–495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15234220122238418
    Magnuson, C.S., & Starr, M.F. (2000). How early is too early to begin life career planning? The importance of the elementary school years. Journal of Career Development, 27(2), 89–101.
    Majchrzak, A., & Borys, B. (1998). Computer aided technology and work: Moving the field forward. In C.Cooper & I.Robertson (Eds), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 305–354). Chichester: Wiley.
    Makin, P.J., Cooper, C.L., & Cox, C.J. (1996). Organizations and the psychological contract: Managing people at work. Leicester: British Psychological Society.
    Malan, D.H. (1976). The frontier of brief psychotherapy. New York: Plenum Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2220-7
    Manpower Services Commission (1987). TVEI: Progress report on the 16–18 Phase. NSF/86/11. London.
    Maples, M.F. (1992). Steamwork: An effective approach to teambuilding. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 17(3), 144–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929208413723
    Maran, N. J., & Glavin, R.J. (2003). Low- to high-fidelity simulation – A continuum of medical education?Medical Education, 37(Suppl 1), 22–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2923.37.s1.9.x
    Marcoulides, G.A., & Heck, R.H. (1993). Organizational culture and performance: Proposing and testing a model. Organization Science, 4(2), 209–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.4.2.209
    Marginson, P., & Sisson, K. (1994). The structure of transnational capital in Europe: The emerging Euro-company and its implications for industrial relations. In R.Hyman & A.Fernier (Eds), New frontiers in European industrial relations (pp. 15–51). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Marks, I.M., Hodgson, R., & Rachman, S. (1975). Treatment of chronic obsessive-compulsive neurosis by in-vivo exposure: A two-year follow-up and issues in treatment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 349–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.127.4.349
    Marks, J. (1996). Britain out of training for world success. The Sunday Times, 2 January.
    Marks, M.A., Sabella, M.J., Burke, C.S., & Zaccaro, S.J. (2002). The impact of cross-training on team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 3–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.3
    Marks, M.L., & Mirvis, P.H. (2001). Making mergers and acquisitions work: Strategic and psychological preparation. Academy of Management Executive, 15(2), 80–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.2001.4614947
    Marks, M.M., Sabella, M.J., Burke, C.S., & Zaccaro, S.J. (2002). The impact of cross-training on team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 3–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.3
    Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1987). Possible selves: The interface between motivation and the self-concept. In K.Yardley & T.Honess (Eds), Self and identity: Psychosocial perspectives (pp. 157–172). Chichester: Wiley.
    Martin, B.L., & Reigeluth, C.M. (1999). Affective education and the affective domain: Implications for instructional design theories and models. In C.M.Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Martin, J. (2002). Organizational culture. London: Sage.
    Martin, J., & Frost, P. (1996). The organizational culture war games: A struggle for intellectual dominance. In S.R.Clegg & C.Hardy (Eds), Handbook of organizational studies (pp. 345–367). London: Sage.
    Martin, P. (1997). Counselling skills training for managers in the public sector. In M.Carroll & M.Walton (Eds), Handbook of counselling in organizations (pp. 240–259). London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217009
    Marshall, H. (1994). Discourse analysis in an occupational context. In C.Cassell & G.Symon (Eds), Qualitative methods in organizational research: A practical guide (pp. 91–106). London: Sage.
    Maslach, C., & Jackson, S.E. (1986). Maslach Burnout Inventory: Manual (
    2nd edn
    ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row.
    Mathews, B.P., & Shepherd, J.L. (2002). Dimensionality of Cook and Wall's (1980) British Organizational Commitment Scale revisited. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 369–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902320369767
    Mathieu, J., & Martineau, J. (1997). Individual and situational influences in training motivation. In K.Ford & Associates (Eds), Improving Training Effectiveness in Organizations. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Mathieu, J.E., & Zajac, D.M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.2.171
    Mathieu, J.E., Martineau, J.W., & Tannenbaum, S.I. (1993). Individual and situational influences on the development of self-efficacy: Implications for training effectiveness. Personnel Psychology, 46, 125–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1993.tb00870.x
    Mathieu, J.E., Tannenbaum, S.I., & Salas, E. (1992). Influences of individual and situational characteristics on measures of training effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 35(4), 828–847. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256317
    Mathieu, J.E., Heffner, T.S., Goodwin, G.F., Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J.A. (2000). The influence of shared mental models on team process and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 284–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.2.273
    Maurer, T. (2001). Career-relevant learning and development, worker age, and beliefs about self-efficacy for development. Journal of Management, 27, 123–140.
    Maurer, T.J., Mitchell, D.R.D., & Barbeite, F.G. (2002). Predictors of attitudes towards 360-degree feedback system and involvement in post-feedback management development activity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(1), 87–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902167667
    May, D.R., Gilson, R.L., & Harter, L.M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 11–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915892
    Mayer, R.E. (1988). Learning strategies: An overview. In E.T.Goetz & C.E.Weinstein (Eds), Learning and study strategies: Issues in assessment, instruction, and evaluation (pp. 11–22). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Mayfield, E.C. (1964). The selection interview: A reevaluation of research. Personnel Psychology, 17, 239–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1964.tb00065.x
    Mayo, E. (1933). The human problems of industrial civilization. New York: Macmillan.
    MCI (1987). The Management Charter Initiative. London: Management Charter Group.
    McCarthy, J.C., Healey, P.G.T., Wright, P.C., & Harrison, M.D. (1998). Accountability of work activity in high-consequence work systems: Human error in context. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 47(6), 735–766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ijhc.1997.9997
    McCloy, R.A., Campbell, J.P., & Cudeck, R. (1994). A confirmatory test of a model of performance determinants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 493–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.4.493
    McCormick, E.J., Jeanneret, P.R., & Mecham, R.C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Journal of Applied Psychology, 56(4), 347–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033099
    McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T. (1987). Analysis of a five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.81
    McCredie, H., & Shackleton, V. (1994). The development and interim validation of a dimension-based senior management assessment centre. Human Resource Management Journal, 5, 91–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.1994.tb00361.x
    McDaniel, M.A., Rothstein Hirsch, H., Schmidt, F.L., Raju, N.S., & Hunter, J.E. (1997). Interpreting results of meta-analytic research: A comment on Schmitt, Gooding, Noe and Kirsch. (1984). Personnel Psychology, 39, 141–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1986.tb00579.x
    McDaniel, M., Whetzel, D., Schmidt, F., & Maurer, S. (1994). The validity of employment interviews: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(4), 599–616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.4.599
    McDougall, W. (1932). Of the words character and personality. Character and Personality. A Quarterly for Psychodiagnostic and Allied Studies, 1, 3–16.
    McGhee, W., & Thayer, P.W. (1961). Training in business and industry. New York: Wiley.
    McGrath, J.E. (1984). Groups: Interaction and performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    McGregor, D. (1964). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    McGuire, T.W., Kiesler, S., & Siegel, J. (1987). Group and computer-mediated discussion effects in risk decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(5), 917–930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.5.917
    McIntosh, C.N. (2001). Report on the construct validity of the Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale. Social Indicators Research, 54(1), 37–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007264829700
    McKenna, E., & Beech, N. (1995). Essence of human resource management. London: Prentice Hall.
    McKnight, C., Dillon, A., & Richardson, J. (1991). Hypertext in context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    McLelland, I. (1995). Product assessment and user trials. In J.W.Wilson & E.N.Corlett (Eds), Evaluation of human work: A practical ergonomics methodology (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
    McMahon, G., & Palmer, S. (Eds). (1997). Client assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221624
    McMahon, M., & Patton, W. (2002). Beyond 2000: Incorporating the constructivist influence into career guidance and counselling. Australian Journal of Career Development, 9(1), 25–29.
    McMillan, G.R., Eggleston, R.G., & Anderson, T.R. (1997). Nonconventional controls. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 729–771). New York: John Wiley.
    McNally, R. J., Bryant, R.A., & Ehlers, A. (2003). Does early psychological intervention promote recovery from post traumatic stress?Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 1(2), 45–80.
    McNish, M. (2002). Guidelines for managing change: A study of their effects on the implementation of new information technology projects in organizations. Journal of Change Management, 2(3), 201–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/738552754
    Meara, N.M., Day, J.D., Chalk, L.M., Phelps, R.E. (1995). Possible selves: Applications for career counseling. Journal of Career Assessment, 3(3), 259–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106907279500300402
    Mearns, K., & Flin, R. (1995). Risk perception and attitudes to safety by personnel in the offshore oil and gas industry: A review. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 8, 299–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0950-4230%2895%2900032-V
    Mearns, K.J., & Flin, R. (1999). Assessing the state of organizational safety culture or climate?Current Psychology, 18(1), 5–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-999-1013-3
    Mearns, K., Whitaker, S.M., & Flin, R. (2001). Benchmarking safety climate in hazardous environments: A longitudinal, interorganizational approach. Risk Analysis, 21(4), 771–786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0272-4332.214149
    Mearns, K., Flin, R., & O'Connor, P. (2001). Sharing ‘worlds of risk’: Improving communication with crew resource management. Journal of Risk Research, 4(4), 377–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13669870110063225
    Mearns, K.J., & Flin, R. (2001). Assessing the state of organizational safety—Culture or climate? In H.Ellis & N.Macrae (Eds), Validation in psychology: Research perspectives (pp. 5–20). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
    Meglino, B.M., Ravlin, E.C., & DeNisi, A.S. (2001). A meta-analytic examination of realistic job preview effectiveness: A test of three counterintuitive propositions. Human Resource Management Review, 10(4), 407–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822%2800%2900034-6
    Meichenbaum, D. (1985). Stress inoculation. New York: Pergamon Press.
    Meister, D. (1986). Human factors testing and evaluation. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
    Mental Health Foundation (2000). The cost of mental health problems. The fundamental facts. (http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/ffcost.htm).
    Menzies, I. (1954). The functioning of social systems as a defence against anxiety. Human Relations, 13, 95–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872676001300201
    Mero, N.P., Motowidlo, S.J., & Alexandra, L. (2003). Effects of accountability on rating behaviour and rater accuracy. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(12), 2493–2514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2003.tb02777.x
    Merrill, M.D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02505024
    Meyer, J.P. (1997). Organizational commitment. In C.Cooper & I.Robertson (Eds), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 289–341). Chichester: Wiley.
    Meyer, J.P., & Allen, N.J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231556
    Meyerson, D.E. (1994). Interpretations of stress in institutions: The cultural production of ambiguity and burnout. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 628–653. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393774
    Mezirow, J. (1985). A critical theory of self-directed learning. In S.Brookfield (Ed.), Self-directed learning: From theory to practice (pp. 17–30). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Militello, L.G., & Hutton, R.J.B. (1998). Applied cognitive task analysis (ACTA): A practitioner's toolkit for understanding cognitive task demands. Ergonomics, 41(11), 1618–1641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/001401398186108
    Miller, L.E., & Grush, J.E. (1988). Improving predictions in expectancy theory research: Effects of personality, expectancies, and norms. Academy of Management Journal, 31(1), 107–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256500
    Mills, A.J., & Tancred, P. (Eds). (1992). Gendering organizational analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
    Millward, L.J., & Brewerton, P. (1999). Contractors and their psychological contract. British Journal of Management, 10, 253–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00131
    Millward, L. J., & Brewerton, P. (2000). The psychological contract: employment relations in the 21st century. In C.Cooper & I.Robertson (Eds), International Review of Industrial & Organizational Psychology (Vol. 15, pp.1–62). Chichester: Wiley.
    Millward, L. J., & Cropley, M. (2003). Psychological contracting: Processes of contract formation during interviews between nannies and their ‘employers’. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(2), 213–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903765913713
    Millward, L.J., & Herriot, P. (2000). Psychological contracts in the UK. In R.Schalk & D.Rousseau (Eds), International Psychological Contracts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Millward, L.J., & Jeffries, N. (2001). The team survey: A tool for health care service development. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35(2), 276–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01844.x
    Millward, L. J., & Kyriakidou, O. (2004a). Effective virtual teamwork: A socio-cognitive and motivational model. In P.Ferris & S.Godar (Eds), Virtual and collaborative teams: Process, technologies and practice (pp. 20–34). London: Idea Group Inc.
    Millward, L. J., & Kyriakidou, O. (2004b). Linking pre- and post-merger identities through the concept of career. Career Development International, 9(1), 12–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13620430410518110
    Millward, L.J., & Purvis, R.G. (1998). Team building techniques – A critical evaluation and conceptual model. Report for Defence Evaluation Research Agency under contract CHS7330.
    Millward, L.J., Brown, D., & Kyriakidou, O. (2003). Managing diversity in multi-national teams. Report under contract for Quinetiq, Farnborough, UK.
    Millward, L. J., Flyn, C., & Anderton, J. (2004). Career self-concept – A model and a measurement tool. Manuscript submitted for publication in Journal of Career Guidance and Counselling.
    Millward, L. J., Bryan, K., Collins, R., & Everatt, J. (2005). Clinicians and dyslexia – a computer based assessment of one of the key cognitive skills involved in drug administration. International Journal of Nursing Studies. In press.
    Millward, L. J., Uzzell, D., Webb, C., & Rolph, J. (2004). Hotdesking, interaction salience and affective commitment. Under review for publication. University of Surrey, UK.
    Milner, P., & Palmer, S. (1998). Integrative stress counselling: A humanistic problem solving approach. London: Cassell.
    Miner, J.B. (1964). Scoring guide for the miner sentence completion scale. Atlanta, GA: Organizational Measurement Systems Press.
    Ministry of Labour and National Service. (1958). (The Carr Report) Training for skill: Recruitment and training of young workers in industry. London: HMSO.
    Mischel, W. (1973). Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualisation of personality. Psychological Review, 80, 252–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035002
    Mishra, A.K., & Spreitzer, G.M. (1998). Explaining how survivors respond to downsizing: The roles of trust, empowerment, justice, and work redesign. Academy of Management Review, 23, 567–588.
    Misumi, J. (1985). The behavioral science of leadership. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    Misumi, J., & Peterson, M.F. (1985). The behavioral science of leadership: An interdisciplinary Japanese research program. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    Mitchell, T.R. (1997). Matching motivational strategies with organizational contexts. In B.M.Staw & L.L.Cummings (Eds), Research in organizational behaviour (Vol. 19, pp. 57–149). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Mitta, D.A., & Packebusch, S.J. (1995). Improving interface quality: An investigation of humancomputer interaction task learning. Ergonomics, 38(7), 1307–1325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139508925190
    Mohr, D.L., & Clemmer, D.I. (1988). The ‘accident prone’ worker: An example from heavy industry. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 20, 123–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-4575%2888%2990028-0
    Monat, A., & Lazarus, R.S. (Eds). (1991). Stress and coping: An anthology (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Mone, M.A., & Barker, V.L., III (1996). A postmodern Dr. Strangelove: Or how we got along after the downsizing. In S.M.Sommer (Chair), The role of trust in understanding workplace cooperation and competition. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Cincinnati, OH, August.
    Moore, R.S. (1995). Creating public value: Strategic management in government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Moorrees, V. (1933). Industrial psychology at Rowntree's Cocoa Works. I. The work of the psychological department. Human Factor, 7, 159–166.
    Moos, R.H. (1981). Work environment scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Moran, E. T., & Volkwein, J.F. (1992). The cultural approach to the formation of organizational climate. Human Relations, 45(1), 19–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679204500102
    Moran, T. (1981). The command language grammar: A representation for the user interface of interactive computer systems. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 15, 3–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7373%2881%2980022-3
    Moray, N. (1997). Models of models of … mental models. In T.B.Sheridan, T.Van Luntern et al., (Eds), Perspectives on the human controller: Essays in honor of Henk G. Stassen (pp. 271–285). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.
    Moreland, R.L., & Levine, J.M. (1993). Group staffing levels and responses to prospective and new group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(4), 723–734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.4.723
    Morgan, Gareth (1997). Images of organization (
    2nd edn
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Morin, L., & Latham, G.P. (2000). Effect of mental practice and goal setting as a transfer of training intervention on supervisors' self-efficacy and communication skills: An exploratory study. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49, 566–578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00032
    Morosini, P. (1998). Managing cultural differences. New York: Pergamon Press.
    Morris, J.A., & Feldman, D.C. (1996). The dimension, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labour. Academy of Management Review, 21, 986–1010.
    Morrison, D., Payne, R.L., & Wall, T.D. (2000). Is job a viable unit of analysis? A multi-level analysis of demand-control-support models. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8(3), 209–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.8.3.209
    Morrison, E.W., & Robinson, S.L. (1997). When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of Management Review, 22, 226–256.
    Moscoso, S. (2000). Selection interview: A review of validity evidence, adverse impact and applicant reactions. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 6, 240–240.
    Moscoso, S., & Salgado, J.F. (2004). Fairness reactions to personnel selection techniques in Spain and Portugal. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1–2), 187–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00273.x
    Motowidlo, S.J., & Tippins, N. (1993). Further studies of the low-fidelity simulation in the form of a situational inventory. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 66(4), 337–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1993.tb00543.x
    Motowidlo, S.J., Dunnette, M.D., & Carter, G.W. (1990). An alternative selection procedure: The low fidelity simulation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 640–647. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.640
    Mount, M.K., Barrick, M.R., & Strauss, J.P. (1994). The joint relationship of conscientiousness and ability with performance: Test of the interaction hypothesis. Journal of Management, 25, 707–721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639902500505
    Mount, M.K., Witt, L.A., & Barrick, M.R. (2000). Incremental validity of empirically keyed biodata scales over GMA and the Five Factor Personality Constructs. Personnel Psychology, 53(2), 299–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2000.tb00203.x
    Mowday, R.T., Steers, R.M., & Porter, L.W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 4, 224–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2879%2990072-1
    Mumford, M.D., & Stokes, G.S. (1992). Developmental determinants of individual action: Theory and practice in applying background measures. In M.D.Dunnette & L.M.Hough (Eds), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (
    2nd edn
    , Vol. 3, pp. 61–138). Palo Alto, CA. Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Munro, A., Breaux, R., Patrey, J., & Sheldon, B. (2002). Cognitive aspects of virtual environments design. In K.M.Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications (pp. 415–434). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Murnighan, J.K., & Leung, T.K. (1976). The effects of leader involvement and the importance of the task on subordinates' performance. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 17, 299–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2876%2990069-6
    Murphy, L.R. (1988). Workplace interventions for stress reduction and prevention. In C.L.Cooper and R.Payne (Eds), Causes, coping and consequences of stress at work (pp. 301–342). Chichester: Wiley.
    Murphy, K.R., & Cleveland, J.N. (1995). Understanding performance appraisal: Social, organizational and goal-based perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Murphy, K.R., & Cleveland, J.N., Skattebo, A.L., & Kinney, T.B. (2004). Raters who pursue different goals give different ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 158–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.1.158
    Murphy, K.R., Cronin, B.E., & Tam, A.P. (2003). Controversy and consensus regarding the use of cognitive ability testing in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 660–671. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.660
    Murphy, K.R., Jako, R.A., & Anhalt, R.L. (1993). Nature and consequences of halo error: A critical analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 218–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.2.218
    Murphy, L.R., & De Shon, R.P. (2000). Inter-rater correlations do not estimate the reliability of job performance ratings. Personnel Psychology, 53, 873–900. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2000.tb02421.x
    Murphy, L.R., Hurrell, J.J. Jr., Sauter, S.L., & Keita, G-P. (Eds). (1995). Job stress interventions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10183-000
    Murray, H.A. (1938). Explorations in personality. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
    Murrell, K.L., & Valsan, E.H. (1985). A team building workshop as an OD intervention in Egypt. Leadership and Development Journal, 6(2), 11–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb053572
    Myers, D.G. (1993). Social Psychology (
    4th edn
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    NCVQ (1991). General National Vocational Qualifications. London: NVCQ.
    Nagy, M.S. (2002). Using a single-item approach to measure facet job satisfaction. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 77–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902167658
    Neenan, M. (1993). Using RET in the workplace. Stress News, 5(1), 7–10.
    Nelson-Jones, B. (1993). Lifeskills helping: Helping others through a systematic people-centred approach. London: Brooks-Cole.
    Neuman, G.A., Edwards, J.E., & Raju, N.S. (1989). Organizational development interventions: A meta-analysis of their effects on satisfaction and other attitudes. Personnel Psychology, 42(3), 461–489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1989.tb00665.x
    Newell, A., & Simon, H.A. (1972). Human problem-solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Newton, T. (1995). Managing stress. London: Sage.
    Nicholson, N. (1987). The transition cycle: A conceptual framework for the analysis of change and human resources management, Vol. 5. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Nicholson, N., & West, M. (1988). Managerial job change. London: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511522116
    Nicholson, P. (1995). Gender, power and organisation. London: Routledge.
    Niedenthal, P.M., Cantor, N., & Kihlstrom, J.F. (1985). Prototype matching: A strategy for social decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 575–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.48.3.575
    Nielsen, J. (1995). Multimedia and hypertext: The internet and beyond. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.
    Nielsen, J. (1997). Usability testing. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 1543–1568). New York: John Wiley.
    Niendenthal, P.M., Cantor, N., & Kihlstrom, J.K. (1985). Prototype matching: A strategy for social decision-making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(3), 575–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.48.3.575
    Nilan, M.S. (1992). Cognitive space: Using virtual reality for large information resource management problems. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 115–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00814.x
    Nixon, J., & Carroll, M. (1994). Can a line manager also be a counsellor?Employee Counselling Today, 6(1), 10–15.
    Noe, R.A. (1986). Training attributes and attitudes: Neglected influences on training effectiveness. Academy of Management Review, 11(4), 736–749.
    Noe, R.A. (1996). Is career management related to employee development and performance?Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 17, 119–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%28199603%2917:2%3C119::AID-JOB736%3E3.0.CO;2-O
    Noer, D.M. (1997). Healing the wounds: Overcoming the trauma of layoffs and revitalizing downsized organizations (
    2nd edn
    ). San Franscisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Noordsy, D., Torrey, W., Mueser, K., Mead, S., O'Keefe, C., & Fox, L. (2002). Recovery from severe mental illness: An intrapersonal and functional outcome definition. International Review of Psychiatry, 14, 318–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0954026021000016969
    Nord, W.R. (1969). Beyond the teaching machine: The neglected area of operant conditioning in the theory and practice of management. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 4(4), 375–401.
    Nordstrom, C.R., Wendland, D., & Williams, K.B. (1998). An examination of the effectiveness of error management training. Journal of Business and Psychology, 12(3), 269–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025019212263
    Norman, D.A. (1983a). Some observations on mental models. In D.Gentner & A.Stevens (Eds), Mental models (pp. 15–34). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Norman, D.A. (1983b). Design rules based on an analysis of human error. Communications of the ACM, 26(4), 254–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2163.358092
    Norman, D.A. (1990). The problem with automation: Inappropriate feedback and interaction, not ‘over-automation’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B327, 585–593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1990.0101
    Northouse, P.G. (2001). Leadership: Theory and practice. London: Sage.
    Norton, S.D., & Edinger, J.A. (1978). Assessment centers versus traditional methods for predicting managerial success: Empirical and content validity. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 8(1786), 100.
    Nuttman-Shwartz, O., & Ginsburg, R. (2002). Injuries. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 17(3), 17–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J022v17n03_02
    O'Hare, D., Wiggins, W., Batt, R., & Morrison, D. (1995). Cognitive failure analysis for aircraft accident investigation. Ergonomics, 37(11), 1855–1869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139408964954
    O'MalleyC.E., & Draper, S.W. (1992). Representation and interaction: Are mental models all in the mind? In Y.Rogers, A.Rutherford & P.A.Bibby (Eds), Models in the mind (pp. 73–92). London: Academic Press.
    O'Reilly, C.A., & Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effects of compliance, identification and internalisation on prosocial behaviour. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 492–499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.492
    O'Reilly, C.A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 487–516. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256404
    O'Toole, M. (2002). The relationship between employees' perceptions of safety and organizational culture. Journal of Safety Research, 33(2), 231–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4375%2802%2900014-2
    Oakland, S., & Ostell, A. (1996). Measuring coping: A review and critique. Human Relations, 49, 133–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679604900201
    Offermann, L.R., & Phan, L.U. (2002). Culturally intelligent leadership for a diverse world. In F.J.Pirozzolo (Ed.), Multiple intelligences and leadership (pp. 187–214). Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Ofshe, R., & Singer, M.T. (1986). Attacks on peripheral versus central elements of self and the impact of thought reforming techniques. Cultic Studies Journal, 3(1), 3–24.
    Ogden, J. (2002). Health and the construction of the individual. New York: Routledge.
    Oher, J.M. (1999). The employee assistance handbook. New York: Wiley.
    Olins, W. (1995). The new guide to corporate identity. Aldershot: Gower.
    Oliver, A., Cheyne, A., Tomas, J.M., & Cox, S. (2002). The effects of organizational and individual factors on occupational accidents. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 473–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902321119691
    Olson, M.H., & Ives, B. (1981). User involvement in system design: An empirical test of alternative approaches. Information and Management, 4, 183–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-7206%2881%2990059-8
    Olson, R., & Austin, J. (2001). Behavior-based safety and working alone: The effects of a self-monitoring package on the safe performance of bus operators. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(3), 5–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J075v21n03_02
    Ondrack, D.A. (1975). Socialization in professional schools: A comparative study. Administrative Science Quarterly, 20, 97–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392126
    Ones, D.S., & Viswesvaran, C. (1996). Bandwidth-fidelity in personality measurement for personnel selection. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 17, 609–626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%28199611%2917:6%3C609::AID-JOB1828%3E3.0.CO;2-K
    Ones, D.S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F.L. (1993). Comprehensive meta analysis of integrity test validities – findings and implications for personnel-selection and theories of job-performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 679–706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.679
    Ones, D.S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F.L. (1995). Integrity tests: Overlooked facts, resolved issues, and remaining questions. American Psychologist, 50(6), 456–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.6.456
    Ong, S. (2004). Substitutes for culture. A critical review of the culture change literature. Essay prepared for MSc in Occupational and Organizational Psychology, University of Surrey, UK.
    Organ, D.W. (1998). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behavior. In L.L.Cummings & B.M.Staw (Eds), Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 12, pp. 43–72). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Orlikowski, W. (1993). CASE tools organizational change: Investigating incremental and radical changes in systems development. MIS Quarterly, 17(3), 309–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/249774
    Ornstein, S., & Isabella, L.A. (1993). Making sense of careers: A review 1989–1992. Journal of Management, 19, 243–267.
    Osipow, S.H., & Davis, A.S. (1988). The relationship of coping resources to occupational stress and strain. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 32, 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2888%2990002-4
    Östberg, O. (1980). Risk perception and work behaviour in forestry: Implications for accident prevention policy. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 12, 189–200.
    Ostroff, C. (1991). Training effectiveness measures and scoring schemes: A comparison. Personnel Psychology, 44, 353–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00963.x
    Ostroff, C. (1993). The effects of climate and personal influences on individual behavior and attitudes in organizations. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Making Processes, 56(1), 56–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1993.1045
    Pahl, J.M. (1995). After success. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Pajak, E. (1993). Change and continuity in supervision and leadership. In G.Cawelti (Ed.), Challenges and achievements of American education (pp. 158–186). Alexandria, VA: Edward Brothers.
    Palmer, C.I., Boyles, W.R., Veres, J.G., & Hill, J.B. (1972). Validation of a clerical test using work samples. Journal of Business and Psychology, 7(2), 239–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01013932
    Palmer, S. (1996). Developing a stress management programme. In R.Woolfe & W.Dryden (Eds), Handbook of counselling psychology (pp. 528–552). London: Sage.
    Palmer, S., & Dryden, W. (1996). Stress management and counselling: Theory, practice, research and methodology. London: Cassell.
    Panks, J.G. (2002). The utilization of employee assistance program services by managers. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 62(12-A), 4035.
    Pannone, R. (1994). Blue collar selection. In M.Mumford & G.S.Stokes (Eds), Biodata handbook: Theory, research, and use of biographical information in selection and performance prediction (pp. 261–273). Palo Alto, CA: CPP Books.
    Park, K.S. (1997). Human error. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 163–225). New York: John Wiley.
    Parker, P., & Arthur, M. (2004). Giving voice to the dual career couple. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32(1), 3–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069880310001648102
    Parker, S.K. (1998). Role breadth self-efficacy: Relationship with work enrichment and other organizational practices. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 835–852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.6.835
    Parker, S.K., & Wall, T.D. (1998). Job and work design. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231518
    Parker, S.K., & Wall, T.D. (2001). Work design: Learning from the past and mapping a new terrain. In N.Anderson, D.S.Ones, H.K.Sinangil & C.Viswesvaran (Eds), Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 90–109). London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221334.
    Parker, S.K., Axtell, C.M., & Turner, N.A. (2001). Designing a safer workplace: Importance of job autonomy, communication quality, and supportive supervisors. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 211–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.6.3.211
    Parker, S.K., Wall, T.D., & Jackson, P.R. (1997). ‘That's not my job’: Developing flexible employee work orientations. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 899–929. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256952
    Parker, S.K., Wall, T.D., & Cordery, J.L. (2001). Future work design research and practice: Towards an elaborated model of work design. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(4), 413–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167460
    Parkes, C.M. (1972). Bereavement: Studies of grief in adult life. New York: International Universities Press.
    Parsloe, E. (1992). Coaching, mentoring and assessing: A practical guide to developing competence. New York: Kogan Paul.
    Parsons, F. (1909). Choosing a vocation. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
    Parsons, S., & Mitchell, P. (2002). The potential of virtual reality in social skills training for people with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46(5), 430–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.2002.00425.x
    Pascale, R., Millemann, M., & Gioja, L. (2000). Surfing the edge of chaos: The new art and science of management. New York: Crown Publishers.
    Paterson, J.M., Green, A., & Cary, J. (2002). The measurement of organizational justice in organizational change programmes: A reliability, validity and context-sensitivity assessment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(4), 393–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902321119565
    PATRA (1992–94). Psychological and social aspects of teleworking in rural areas. CEC/DGXIII 02004, Opportunities for Rural Areas (ORA Programme).
    Patrick, J. (2000). Training. In N.Chmiel (Ed.), Work and organizational psychology (pp. 100–124). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
    Patton, W., & Creed, P. (2001). Developmental issues in career maturity and career decision status. The Career Development Quarterly, 49, 336–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.2001.tb00961.x
    Paul, R. J., & Ebadi, Y.M. (1989). Leadership decision-making in a service organization: A Fields test of the Vroom Yetton model. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 62, 201–211.
    Paul, W.P., & Robertson, K.B. (1970). Job enrichment and employee motivation. London: Gower.
    Payne, D., & Altman, J. (1962). An index of electronic equipment operability: Report of development, Report AIR-C-43–1/62. Pittsburgh: American Institutes for Research.
    Payne, R.L. (1979). Demands, supports, and constraints and psychological health. In C. J.Mackay & T.Cox (Eds), In response to stress: Occupational aspects (pp. 85–105). London: IPC Business Press.
    Pearce, C.L., Gallagher, C.A., & Ensley, M.D. (2002). Confidence at the group level of analysis: A longitudinal investigation of the relationship between potency and team effectiveness. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(1), 115–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902167685
    Pearn, M., Roderick, C., & Mulrooney, C. (1995). Learning Organisations in Practice. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
    Pearn, M., & Kandola, R. (1993). Job analysis: A manager's guide. London: Institute of Personnel Management.
    Peavy, R.V. (1992). A constructivist model of training for career counsellors. Journal of Career Development, 18, 215–228.
    Peavy, R.V. (1997). Sociodynamic counselling: A constructivist perspective. Victoria, Canada: Trafford.
    Pelfrene, E., Vlerick, P., Moreau, M., Mak, R.P., Kornitzer, M., & De Backer, G. (2003). Perceptions of job insecurity and the impact of world market competition as health risks: Results from Belstress. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(4), 411–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903322591569
    Peluchette, J., & Jeanquart, S. (2000). Professionals' use of different mentor sources at various career stages: Implications for career success. Journal of Social Psychology, 140(5), 549–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224540009600495
    Pervin, L.A. (1997). The Science of personality. Chichester and New York: Wiley.
    Peters, R., & Waterman, R. (1982). In search of excellence. New York: Harper & Row.
    Peterson, M.F., & Smith, P.B. (2000). Sources of meaning, organizations and culture. In N.Ashkanasy, C.Wilderom & M.Peterson (Eds), Handbook of organizational culture and climate (pp. 101–115). London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452244273
    Pettijohn, L.S., Parker, R., Pettijohn, C.E., & Kent, O.L. (2001). Performance appraisals: Usage, criteria and observations. Journal of Management Development, 20(9), 754–771. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000006159
    Pfurtscheller, G., Flotzinger, D., & Neuper, C. (1994). Differentiation between finger, toe and tongue movement in man based on 40Hz EEG. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 90, 456–460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694%2894%2990137-6
    Pheasant, S. (1991). Ergonomics, work and health. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Pheasant, S. (1995). Anthropometry and the design of workspaces. In J.W.Wilson & E.N.Corlett (Eds), Evaluation of human work: A practical ergonomics methodology (
    2nd edn
    , pp. 23–27). London: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
    Phillips, J. (1990). Handbook of training evaluation and measurement issues. London: Kogan Page.
    Phillips, P., Louveries, P., Millward, L.J., Kyriakidou, O., & Gore, J. (2003). Examining organizational change and its measurement in future C2 organizations and identifying the nature of the digitalised organization. Report for QuinetiQ under contract. October.
    Pinder, C.C. (1984). Work motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Pinder, C.C. (1998). Human nature: Emotions at work. In Work Motivation in Organizational Behaviour, NJ: Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs.
    Pinzel, L.J., Freeman, F.G., Scerbo, M.W., Mikulka, P.J., & Pope, A.T. (2000). A closed loop system for examining psychophysiological measures for adaptive task allocation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 10(4), 393–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327108IJAP1004_6
    Plach, M., & Wallach, D. (2002). Toward methods for supporting the anticipation-feedback loop in user interface design. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 3(1), 26–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14639220110110333
    Plant, P. (2002). IT in careers guidance: Constructs and learning: Computer-assisted careers guidance – Some European perspectives. Danish University of Education, Copenhagen.
    Ployhart, R.E., & Harold, C.M. (2004). The Applicant Attribution-Reaction Theory (AART): An integrative theory of applicant attributional processing. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1–2), 84–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00266.x
    Ployhart, R.E., & Schneider, B. (2002). A multi-level perspective on personnel selection: When will practice catch up? Research in multi-level issues, Vol. 1. In F.Dansereau & F.J.Yammarino (Eds), The many faces of multi-level issues (pp. 165–175). New York: Elsevier Science/JAI Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1475-9144%2802%2901033-0
    Popescu, G.V., Burdea, G.C., & Trefftz, H. (2002). Multimodal interaction modeling. Human factors and ergonomics. In K.M.Stanney (Ed), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications (pp. 435–454). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Porras, J., & Silvers, R. (1991). Organizational development and transformation. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 51–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191.000411
    Porteous, M. (1997). Occupational psychology. London: Prentice Hall.
    Porter, L.W., & Bigley, G.A. (2001). Motivation and transformational leadership: Some organizational context issues. In U.Kleinbeck & E.Miriam (Eds), Work motivation in the context of a globalizing economy (pp. 279–291). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Premack, S.L., & Wanous, J.P. (1985). A meta-analysis of realistic job preview experiments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 706–719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.70.4.706
    Pritchard, R.D., Campbell, K.M., & Campbell, D. J. (1977). Effects of extrinsic financial rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(1), 9–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.62.1.9
    Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C.A., & Evers, K. (1997). The transtheoretical model of change. In K.Glanz, F.M.Lewis & B.K.Rimer (Eds), Health behaviour and health education: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 60–84). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Pugh, S.D., Skarlicki, D.P., & Passell, B.S. (2003). After the fall: Layoff victims' trust and cynicism in re-employment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 201–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903765913704
    Pulakos, E.D., Arad, S., Donovan, M.A., & Plamondon, K.E. (2000). Adaptability in the workplace: Development of taxonomy of adaptive performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(4), 612–624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.4.612
    Pulley, M.L. (1994). Navigating the evaluation rapids. Training and Development, Sept., p. 19.
    Qureshi, S. (2000). Organizational change through collaborative learning in a network form. Group Decision and Negotiation, 9(2), 129–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008754621165
    Quick, J.C. (1998). Introduction to the measurement of stress at work. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 3(4), 291–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.3.4.291
    Quick, J.C. (1999). Occupational health psychology: Historical roots and future directions. Health Psychology, 18(1), 82–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.18.1.82
    Rafaeli, A., & Klimoski, R.J. (1983). Predicting sales success through handwriting analysis: An evaluation of the effects of training and handwriting sample content. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2, 212–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.2.212
    Rafiq, A., Moore, J.A., Zhao, X., Doarn, C.R., & Merrell, R.C. (2004). Digital video capture and synchronous consultation in open surgery. Ann Surg, 239(4), 567–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.sla.0000118749.24645.45
    Rainey, H.G. (2001). Work motivation. In R.T.Golembiewski (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior (
    2nd edn
    , pp.19–42). New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Rasmussen, J. (1987). The definition of human error and a taxonomy of technical system design. In J.Rasmussen, K.Duncan & J.Leplat (Eds), New technology and human error. Chichester: John Wiley.
    Raynor, T.O., & Roeder, G.P. (1987). Motivation and future orientation: Task and time effects for achievement motivation. In F.Halisch & J.Kuhl (Eds), Motivation, interaction and volitions (pp. 61–71). Berlin: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-70967-8_6
    Reason, J.T. (1988). Errors and violations: The lessons of Chernobyl. Paper presented at the IEEE Conference on Human Factors in Nuclear Power, Monterey, CA.
    Reason, J.T. (1990). Human error. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139062367
    Reddy, M. (1993). The manager's guide to counselling at work. London: IPM.
    Redmill, R. (1997). Practical risk management. In F.Redmill and C.Dale (Eds), Life cycle management for dependability. London: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-0939-6
    Ree, M.J., & Carretta, T.R. (1996). Central role of g in military pilot selection. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 6(2), 111–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327108ijap0602_1
    Reichers, A.E. (1985). A review and reconceptualization of organizational commitment. Academy of Management Review, 10, 465–476.
    Reid, A.M., & Barrington, H. (1997). Learning and training in training interventions: Managing employee development (
    5th edn
    ). London: IPD.
    Reile, D.M., & Harris-Bowlsbey, J.A. (2000). Using the Internet in career planning and assessment. Journal of Career Assessment, 8(1), 69–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106907270000800106
    Reynolds, S., & Briner, R.B. (1996). Stress management at work: With whom, for whom and to what ends?British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 22(1), 75–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069889408253667
    Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.698
    Richardson, M.S. (2000). A new perspective for counsellors: From career ideologies to empowerment through work and relational practices. In A.Collin & R.Young (Eds), The future of career (pp. 69–82). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rick, J., & Briner, R. (2001). Trauma management vs stress debriefing: What should responsible organizations do? In The British Psychological Society occupational and organizational psychology conference book of proceedings (pp. 126–130). Liecester: British Psychological Society.
    Rick, J., & Guppy, A. (1994). Coping strategues and mental health in white collar public sector employees. European Work and Organizational Psychologist, 4, 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594329408410479
    Riva, G. (2002). Communicating in CMC: Making order out of miscommunication. Studies in new technologies and practices in communication. In R.Ciceri & L.Anolli (Eds), Say not to say: New perspectives on miscommunication (pp. 197–227). Amsterdam: IOS Press.
    Riverin-Simard, D. (2000). Career development in a changing context of the second part of working life. In R.A.Young & A.Collin (Eds), The future of career (pp. 115–129). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511520853.008
    Rizzo, J.R., House, R., & Lirtzman, S. (1970). Role conflict and role ambiguity in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15, 150–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391486
    Roberts, C., Probst, T.M., Martocchio, J.J., Drasgow, F., & Lawler, J.L. (2000). Empowerment and continous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: Predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 643–658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.643
    Roberts, K. (1977). The social conditions, consequences, and limitations of career guidance. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 5, 1–9.
    Roberts, G.E., & Pavlak, T. (1996). Municipal government personnel professionals and performance appraisal: Is there a consensus on the characteristics of an effective appraisal system?Public Personnel Management, 25(3), 379–408.
    Robertson, I.T., & Kandola, R.S. (1982). Work sample tests: Validity, adverse impact and applicant reaction. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 55, 171–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1982.tb00091.x
    Robertson, I.T., & Smith, M. (Eds). (1987). Advances in selection and assessment. Chichester: Wiley.
    Robertson, I.T., & Smith, M. (2001). Personnel selection. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 441–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167479
    Robertson, I.T., Baron, H., Gibbons, P., MacIver, R., & Nyfield, G. (2000). Conscientiousness and managerial performance. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73, 171–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317900166967
    Robinson, G.S., & Wick, C.W. (1992). A Human Resource Planning, 15(1), 63–76.
    Robinson, S.L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 574–599. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393868
    Robinson, S.L., & Morrison, E.W. (2000). The development of psychological contract breach and violation: A longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 21, 525–546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-1379%28200008%2921:5%3C525::AID-JOB40%3E3.0.CO;2-T
    Robitschek, C., & Cook, S.W. (1999). The influence of personal growth initiative and coping styles on career exploration and vocational identity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(1), 127–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1998.1650
    Rockart, J.F., Earl, M.J., & Ross, J.W. (1996). Eight imperatives for the new IT organization, Sloan Management Review, 38(1), 43–54.
    Roddy, K. (2004). Organizational cognition: A shared mental model approach to military organization. Farnborough: QinetiQ.
    Rodger, A. (1968). The seven point plan. In B.Hopson & J.Hayes (Eds), The theory and practice of vocational guidance (pp. 359–373). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    Roethlisberger, F.J. (1964). Contributions of the behavioural sciences to a general theory of management. In H.Leavitt & L.R.Pondy (Eds), Readings in managerial psychology (pp. 518–541). Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
    Roethlisberger, F.J., & Dickson, W.J. (1939). Management and the worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rogers, C.R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
    Rogers, William P. (1986). Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (5 vols). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Rogovin, B. (1979). Three Mile Island: A Report to the Commissioners and to the Public (The Rogovin Report). USNRC Report Nureg/CR-1250-V. Washington, DC: USNRC.
    Rollinson, D., Broadfield, A., & Edwards, D.J. (1998). Organizational behaviour and analysis. Harlow: Addison-Wesley.
    Rosenman, R.H., Swan, G.E., & Carmelli, D. (1988). Definition, assessment, and evolution of the Type A behavior pattern. In C.R.Snyder & B.Houston (Eds), Type A behavior pattern: Research, theory, and intervention (pp. 8–31). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
    Roskies, E. (1987). Stress management for the healthy type A: Theory and practice. New York: Guilford Press.
    Ross, R.R., & Altmaier, E.M. (1994). Counselling for occupational stress: A handbook of counselling for stress at work. London: Sage.
    Roth, P.L., BeVier, C.A., Switzer III, F.S., & Schippmann, J.S. (1996). Meta-analysing the relationship between grades and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 548–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.5.548
    Rothstein, H., Erwin, F., Schmidt, F., Owens, W., & Sparks, C. (1990). Biographical data in employment selection – Can validities be made generalizable?Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(2), 175–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.2.175
    Rotundo, M., & Sackett, P.R. (2002). The relative importance of task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: A policy capturing approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 66–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.66
    Rousseau, D.M. (1989). New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 11, 389–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030110506
    Rousseau, D.M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231594
    Rousseau, D.M. (2001). Schema, promise and mutuality: The building blocks of the psychological contract. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 511–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167505
    Rousseau, D.M., & Schalk, R. (Eds). (2000). Psychological contracts in employment: Cross-National perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231273
    Rousseau, D.M., & Tijoriwala, S.A. (1998). Assessing psychological contracts: Issues, alternatives and measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 649–695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%281998%2919:1+%3C649::AID-JOB970%3E3.0.CO;2-T
    Rousseau, D.M., & Wade-Benzioni, K.A. (1995). Changing individual-organizational attachments: A two-way street. In A.Howard (Ed.), The changing nature of work (pp. 290–322). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R., & Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: A cross-disciplinary view of trust. Academy of Management Review, 23, 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1998.926617
    Rowley, J. (2002). From learning organization to knowledge entrepreneur. Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 7–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270010315362
    Rowling, J.K. (2000). Harry Potter and the goblet of fire. London: Bloomsbury.
    Ruddle, R.A., Payne, S.J., & Jones, D.M. (1997). Navigating buildings in ‘desk-top’ virtual environments: Experimental investigations using extended navigational experience. Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied, 3(2), 143–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.3.2.143
    Rugg, G., Eva, M., Mahmood, A., Rehman, N., Andrews, S., & Davies, S. (2002). Eliciting information about organizational culture via laddering. Information Systems Journal, 12(3), 215–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2575.2002.00124.x
    Russell, C. J. (2001). A longitudinal study of top-level executive performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(4), 560–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.4.560
    Russell, C.J., & Domm, D.R. (1995). Two field tests of an explanation of assessment center validity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 68, 25–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1995.tb00686.x
    Russell, C.J., Mattson, J., Devlin, S.E., & Atwater, D. (1990). Predictive validity of biodata items generated from retrospective life experience essays. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 511–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.5.569
    Rust, J. (1999). Discriminant validity of the ‘big five’ personality traits in employment settings. Social Behavior and Personality, 27(1), 99–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.1999.27.1.99
    Ryan, A.M., & Ployhart, R.E. (2000). Applicants' perceptions of selection procedures and decisions: A critical review and agenda for the future. Journal of Management, 26, 565–606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600308
    Rynes, S.L. (1993). Who's selecting whom? Effects of selection practices on applicant attitudes and behaviour. In N.Schmitt & W.C.Borman (Eds), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 240–274). San Franscisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Rynes, S.L., & Cable, D.M. (2003). Recruitment research in the twenty-first century. In D.Ilgen, R.Daniel & W.C.Borman (Eds), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology, Vol. 12. (pp. 55–76). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Rynes, S.L., & Connerley, M.L. (1993). Applicant reactions to alternative selection procedures. Journal of Business and Psychology, 7, 261–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01015754
    Sackett, P.R. (1987). Assessment centres and content validity: Some neglected issues. Personnel Psychology, 40, 13–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1987.tb02374.x
    Sackett, P.R., & Harris, M.M. (1984). Honesty testing for personnel selection – A review and critique. Personnel Psychology, 37(2), 221–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1984.tb01447.x
    Sackmann, S.A. (1997). Cultural complexity in organizations: Inherent contrasts and contradictions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Sadler-Smith, E., Spicer, D.P., & Tsang, F. (2000). The cognitive style index: A replication and extension. British Journal of Management, 11, 175–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.t01-1-00159
    Sagie, A., & Magnezy, R. (1997). Assessor type, number of distinguishable dimension categories, and assessment centre construct validity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 103–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1997.tb00634.x
    Saks, A.M., & Ashforth, B.E. (2002). Is job search related to employment quality? It all depends on the fit. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 646–654. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.646
    Sala, F., & Dwight, S. (2002). Predicting executive performance with multi-rater surveys: Whom to ask makes a difference. Journal of Consulting Psychology, Research and Practice, 54(3), 166–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.54.3.166
    Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J.A. (2001). The science of training: A decade of progress. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 471–499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.471
    Salas, E., Cannon-Bowers Rhodenizer, J.A., & Bowers, C.A. (1999). Training in organizations: Myths, misconceptions and mistaken assumptions. In G.Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 17, pp. 123–161). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.
    Salas, E., Oser, R.L., Cannon-Bowers, J.A., & Daskarolis-Kring, E. (2002). Team training in virtual environments: An event-based approach. Human factors and ergonomics. In K.M.Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications (pp. 873–892). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Salgado, J.F. (1997). The Five Factor Model of personality and job performance in the European Community. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 30–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.1.30
    Salgado, J.F. (1999). Personnel selection methods. In C.L.Cooper & I.T.Robertson (Eds), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 14). Chichester: Wiley.
    Salgado, J.F. (2003). Predicting job performance using FFM and non-FFM personality measures. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 76(3), 323–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317903769647201
    Salgado, J.F., Anderson, N., Moscoso, S., Bertua, C., de Fruyt, F., & Rolland, J.P. (2003). A meta-analytic study of general mental ability validity for different occupations in the European Community. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(6), 176–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.6.1068
    Salminen, S., & Tallberg, T. (1996). Human errors in fatal and serious occupational accidents in Finland. Ergonomics, 39(7), 980–988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139608964518
    Salzman, M.C., & Rivers, S.D. (1994). Smoke and mirrors: Setting the stage for a successful usability test. Behavior and Information Technology, 13(1–2), 9–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01449299408914578
    Sandberg, J. (2000). Understanding human competence at work: An interpretive approach. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 9–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1556383
    Sanders, M.S., & McCormick, E.J. (1993). Human factors in engineering and design (
    7th edn
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Sandhu, D.S., & Longwell-Grice, R.M. (2002). Reasons, considerations, and strategies for developing and implementing employee assistance programs. In D.S.Sandhu (Ed.), Counselling employees: A multifaceted approach (pp. 143–156). Alexandria, VA: American Counselling Association.
    Sarafino, E.P. (1998). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (
    3rd edn
    ). New York: Wiley.
    Sarter, N.B., Woods, D.D., & Billings, C.E. (1997). Automation surprises. In G.Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 1926–1943). New York: John Wiley.
    Sashkin, M. (1984). Group and organization studies: An international journal. Beverly Hills, London, New Delhi: Sage.
    Satava, R.M., & Jones, S.B. (2002). Medical applications of virtual environments. Human factors and ergonomics. In K.M.Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications (pp. 937–957). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Sauer, J., Wastell, D.G., Hockey, G.R.J., Crawshaw, C.M., Ishak, M., & Downing, J.C. (2002). Effects of display design on performance in a simulated ship navigation environment. Ergonomics, 45(5), 329–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140130110116128
    Sauter, S., Murphy, L., & Hurrell, J. (1990). Prevention of work-related disorders. American Psychologist, 45, 1146–1158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.10.1146
    Savickas, M.L. (2002). Reinvigorating the study of careers. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 61, 381–385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2002.1880
    Saville, P., Holdsworth, R., Nyfield, G., Cramp, L., & Mabey, W. (1984). Occupational Personality Questionnaire Manual. Thames Ditton: Saville-Holdsworth, Ltd.
    Schabracq, M., Cooper, C., Travers, C., & van Maanen, D. (2001). Occupational health psychology: The challenge of workplace stress. Leicester: BPS Books.
    Schaefer, J. J. (2004). Simulators and difficult airway management skills. Paediatric Anesthesia, 14(1), 28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-9592.2003.01204.x
    Scharmer, C.O. (2001). Self-transcending knowledge: Sensing and organizing around emerging opportunities. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(2), 137–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270110393185
    Schein, E. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Schein, E.H. (1978). Career dynamics: Matching individual and organizational needs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Schein, E.H. (1990). Career anchors: Discovering your real values. San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer and Co.
    Schein, E.H. (1999). Process consultation revisited: Building the helping relationship. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Schein, E.H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership (
    3rd edn
    ). New York: Wiley.
    Schinkel, S., van Dierndonck, D., & Anderson, N. (2004). The impact of selection encounters on applicants: An experimental study into feedback effects after a negative selection decision. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1–2), 197–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00274.x
    Schippman, J.S., Prien, E.P., & Katz, J.A. (1990). Reliability and validity of in-basket performance measures. Personnel Psychology, 43, 837–859. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1990.tb00685.x
    Schmidt, A.M., & Ford, J.K. (2003). Learning within a learner control training environment: The interactive effects of goal orientation and metacognitive instruction on learning outcomes. Personnel-Psychology, 56, 405–429. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00156.x
    Schmidt, F.L. (2002). The role of general cognitive ability and job performance: Why there can be no debate. Human Performance, 15, 187–210.
    Schmidt, F.L., & Hunter, J.E. (1993). Tacit knowledge, practical intelligence, general mental ability, and job knowledge. Current Directions of Psychological Science, 2, 8–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770456
    Schmidt, F.L., & Hunter, J.E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practice and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 262–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.262
    Schmidt, F.L., & Hunter, J. (2004). General mental ability in the world of work: Occupational attainment and job performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(1), 162–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.86.1.162
    Schmidt, F.L., Hunter, J.E., McKenzie, R.C., & Muldrow, T.W. (1979). The impact of valid selection procedures on work-force productivity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 609–626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.64.6.609
    Schmitt, N. (1989). Fairness in employment selection. In M.Smith & I.T.Robertson (Eds), Advances in selection and assessment (pp. 133–153). Chichester: John Wiley.
    Schmitt, N., & Chan, D. (1998). Personnel selection: A theoretical approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Schmitt, N., & Noe, R.A. (1986). On shifting standards for conclusions regarding validity generalization. Personnel Psychology, 39, 849–852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1986.tb00599.x
    Schmitt, N., Gooding, R.Z., Noe, R.A., & Kirsch, M. (1984). Meta-analyses of validity studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 280–289.
    Schmitt, N., Oswald, F.L., Kim, B.H., Gillespie, M.A., & Ramsay, L.J. (2004). The impact of justice and self-serving bias explanation of the perceived fairness of different types of selection tests. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(1–2), 160–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00271.x
    Schneider, B. (2000). The psychological life of organizations. In N.M.Ashkanasy, C.P.M.Wilderom & M.F.Peterson (Eds), Handbook of organizational culture and climate (pp. xvii–xxi). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452244273
    Schneider, B., Kristof-Brown, A.L., Goldstein, H.W., & Smith, D.B. (1997). What is this thing called fit? In N.Anderson & P.Herriot (Eds), International handbook of selection and assessment. Chichester: Wiley.
    Schneider, R.J., Hough, L.M., Dunnette, M.D. (1996). Broadsided by broad traits: How to sink science in five dimensions or less. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 17(6), 639–655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%28199611%2917:6%3C639::AID-JOB3828%3E3.0.CO;2-9
    Schneier, C.E. (1978). The contingency model of leadership: An extension to emergent leadership and leader's sex. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 21, 220–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2878%2990051-X
    Scholarios, D., & Lockyer, C. (1999). Recruiting and selecting professionals: Context, qualities and methods. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 7(3), 142–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00114
    Schott, F., Grzondziel, H., & Hillebrandt, D. (2001). What kind of instructional theory do we need for instructional technology in the 21st century? Possible directions of further developments—UCIT. Journal of Structural Learning and Intelligent Systems, 14(4), 371–383.
    Schuler, H. (1989). Construct validity of a multi-model procedure. In B.J.Fallon, H.P.Pfister & J.Brebner (Eds), Advances in industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 343–354). New York: North Holland.
    Schuler, H. (1993). Social validity of selection situations: a concept and some empirical results. In H.Schuler, J.Farr & M.Smith (Eds), Personnel selection and assessment: Individual and organizational perspectives (pp. 11–26). Hillsdale, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum.
    Schuler, H., & Guldin, A. (1991). Methodological issues in personnel selection research. In C.Cooper & I.Robertson (Eds), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 213–263). Chichester: Wiley.
    Schulz, M.S., Cowan, P.A., Pape Cowan, C., & Brennan, R.T. (2004). Coming home upset: Gender, marital satisfaction, and the daily spillover of workday experience into couple interactions. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(1), 250–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.18.1.250
    Sciegaj, M., Garnick, D.W., Horgan, C.M., Merrick, E.L., Goldin, D., Urato, M., & Hodgkin, D. (2001). Employee assistance programs among Fortune 500 firms. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 16(3), 25–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J022v16n03_03
    Scott-Morton, M. (Ed.). (1991). The corporation of the 1990s. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Scriven, M. (1967). The methodology of evaluation. In R.W.Tyler, R.M.Gagné & M.Scriven (Eds), Perspectives of curriculum evaluation (pp. 39–83). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Scullen, S.E., Mount, M.K., & Goff, M. (2000). Understanding the latent structure of job performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(6), 956–970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.956
    Secker, J., & Membrey, H. (2003). Promoting mental health through employment and developing healthy workplaces: The potential of natural supports at work. Health Education Research, 18(2), 207–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/18.2.207
    Sedikides, C., Herbst, K.C., Hardin, D.P., & Dardis, G.J. (2002). Accountability as a deterrent to self-enhancement: The search for mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(3), 592–605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.83.3.592
    Segal, L. (1987). Is the future female? Troubled thoughts on contemporary feminism. London: Virago.
    Segan, C. J., Borland, R., & Greenwood, K.M. (2004). What is the right thing at the right time? Interaction between stages and processes of change among smokers who make an attempt to quit. Health Psychology, 23, 86–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.23.1.86
    Seijts, G.H., & Latham, B.W. (2001). Creativity through applying ideas from fields other than one's own: Transferring knowledge from social psychology to industrial/organizational psychology, Canadian Psychology, 44(3), 232–239.
    Sekaran, U. (1986). Dual career families: Contemporary organizational and counselling issues. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Learned helplessness: On depression, development and death. San Francisco: Freeman.
    Sell, J. (1997). Gender, strategies, and contributions to public goods. Social Psychology Quarterly, 60(3), 252–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2787085
    Selye, H. (1956). The story of the adaptation syndrome. Montreal: Acta.
    Semmer, N.K. (2003). Job stress interventions and organization of work. In J.C.Quick & L.E.Tetrick (Eds), Handbook of occupational health psychology (pp. 325–354). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10474-016
    Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. London: Century Business.
    Senior, B. (2000). Organizational change and development. In N.Chmiel (Ed.), Introduction to work and organizational psychology: A European perspective (pp. 347–382). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
    Setterlund, M.B., & Niedenthal, P.M. (1993). ‘Who am I? Why am I here?’: Self-esteem, self-clarity, and prototype matching. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 769–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.4.769
    Settoon, R.P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R.C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3), 219–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.3.219
    Sexner, S., Gold, D., Anderson, D., & Williams, D. (2001). The impact of a worksite health promotion program on short term disability usage. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Management, 43(1), 25–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00043764-200101000-00006
    Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and on the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4–13.
    Shackel, B. (1990). Human factors and usability. In J.Preece & L.Keller (Eds), Human-computer Interaction. Cambridge: Prentice Hall.
    Shackel, B. (1996). Ergonomics: scope, contribution and future possibilities. The Psychologist, 9(7), 304–308.
    Shackleton, V., & Newell, S. (1997). International assessment and selection. In N.Anderson & P.Herriot (Eds), International handbook of selection and assessment(pp. 81–95). Chichester: Wiley.
    Shackleton, V., & Wale, P. (2000). Leadership and Management. In N.Chmiel (Ed.), Work and organizational psychology: A European perspective (pp. 277–301). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
    Shaffer, M.A., & Harrison, D.A. (2001). Forgotten partners of international assignments: Development and test of a model of spouse adjustment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(2), 238–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.2.238
    Shea, C., & Bond, T. (1997). Ethical issues for counselling in organizations. In M.Carroll & M.Walton (Eds), Handbook of counselling in organizations (pp. 187–205). London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217009
    Sheehy, N., & Chapman, A. (1988). Reconciling witness accounts of accidents. In R.de Bruin & T.Rothengatter (Eds), Road user behaviour: Theory and research (pp. 20–25). Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum & Co B.V.
    Shiffrin, M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.127
    Shirom, A., Westman, M., Shamai, O., & Carel, R.S. (1997). Effects of work overload and burnout on cholesterol and triglycerides levels: The moderating efffects of emotional reactivity among male and female employees.