Understanding Occupational and Organizational Psychology


Lynne Millward

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  • Dedication

    This book is dedicated to all my students, past, present and future, and to Rick, Oli and D'Arcy, of course!


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    In writing this book I have also been aided and inspired by other writers on occupational and organizational psychology, especially Neil Anderson, Rob Briner, Chris Brotherton, Cathy Cassell, Nik Chmiel, Cary Cooper, Christine Doyle, Adrian Furnham, Alex Haslam, Peter Herriot, Gerard Hodgkinson, Jennifer Kidd, Denise Rousseau, Paul Sparrow, Phyllis Tharanou, and Peter Wall. I am profoundly indebted to them all for helping me to find my way through the subject. Special thanks to Peter Herriot, who has always been a source of much material, inspiration, and opportunity, and especially for consistently believing in me and what I am doing. Peter, you are the best scientist-practitioner role model I have ever met!

    I must also gracefully thank all my students, past and present (from 1995–2004), for their engagement with the course and its material, for their ideas, suggestions and feedback on early drafts of this book, and for their enthusiasm, encouragement and belief in the importance of this very large project. A special thanks to all the students in cohort 2003–2004 at the University of Surrey who fed me encouragement and support and also afforded me the space to do the last run on the book at the final delivery phase. Extra big thanks to Emma Laverick for organizing all her friends to do all the references for me at the last minute despite many other of her own commitments, to Joanna Blackford for getting the referencing process kick-started, and to Jacquie Pearce for always offering to help in any way she can, despite being just as busy as me juggling work and family commitments. You have all been stars. Particular thanks must also go to Joanne Marriot, Olivia Kyriakidou, Julie Gore and Adrian Banks for advice, support, inspiration, and practical help in gathering material and reading drafts.

    Special thanks to my academic colleagues Mark Cropley, Dora Brown, Chris Fife-Schaw, David Uzzell, John Groeger, Caroline Bailey (even though she deserted ship to go off to Australia, for which I nonetheless forgive her), Emma Russell, Adrian Banks, Jennifer Brown and Carol Harris-Lees for their unending support and belief in me, and particularly Mark and Dora who, despite having to put up with me being quite ‘stressy’ (the word my son uses to describe me sometimes!) for a while, have never failed to be there for me. I endeavour always to be able to be the same for you too. Mark and Dora, you have been amazing friends to me, thank you. I would also like to give special thanks to Ros Gilbert (my departmental mum) and Ann Drever for looking after me and going that extra mile to provide help and support, warmth and encouragement (even if, at times, you did have to curse me for not doing something I should have been doing). Thank you for being behind me, and for all those lovely cups of coffee, Ann. Thanks also to Julie Earl for always smiling, always paying an interest, always being supportive, and for proofing some of the modules, and to Patricia Yehia for helping me out with the children during the odd child-care crisis when I had a meeting to go to. I am also indebted to Karen Bryan in EIHMS who has given me time, practical support, invaluable mentorship, involved me in projects, and provided rare collegiality and a genuine interest in what I can contribute. And finally, Emre Ogzen for providing useful feedback on early drafts and for looking after Oli during those awful in-set days that creep up on you when you least want them to. We will all miss him when he goes off to set up his own department of psychology in Turkey but are looking forward to some fun Turkish holidays!

    Big enormous gargantuan thanks also to Michael Carmichael at Sage for his patience with me over a long period of time, for always having a solution up his sleeve when you think there isn't one, for practical help and advice and for being so incredibly supportive and behind me every step of the way. And at my delivery stage, you too delivered your own baby! I must also express my appreciation to the copyeditor Sarah Price, who did all the copyediting (no mean feat!) with extreme diligence and a deep understanding of the readers' needs. Thank you Michael and thank you Sarah. Thanks also to Fabienne Pedroletti, the Production Editor at Sage, as well as Fern Bryant, the proofreader.

    Finally, in trying to find the words to thank my family, I ashamedly struggle! Thank you to my mum and dad for being proud of me, even though they might not really understand what I do. Thank you also to my parents-in-law, Tony and Audrey, for allowing me the time and space to get on with it all, and to Clare, Ian, Isabelle and Lucy for looking after D'Arcy, my daughter, as if she were their own. Thank you to my son, Oli, who is now 10, for appreciating why I might not be able to come and watch his district cricket at the weekend because I have work to do, for keeping my feet firmly on the ground, for showing an interest in what I am doing and why, for telling me off for working too much, and for simply being himself. Oli, you are lovely and I am very proud of you. One day you will play cricket for England and I will be there to wash your smelly old kit, regardless! And to my daughter, D'Arcy, who has been the best distraction ever; and though she is only two and a bit, I cannot ever imagine life without her, flitting around like a pretty little fairy, full of spirit, energy and innocence, bossing everyone around and keeping them all on their toes! Last but not least, thank you to Rick for putting up with me neglecting my wifely role and responsibilities, talking too much shop, for buying too many ‘ready meals’, for giving me a cuddle when I most need it, and for generally loving and having faith in me, especially when I am low.

    LynneMillward May 2004


    This book has evolved in response to my MSc students' pleas over the last 10 years for an all-encompassing text, addressing the syllabus requirements for the Level 1 Knowledge criterion for membership of the British Psychological Society (BPS) Division of Occupational Psychology (DOP). The main objective, then, is to provide a comprehensive resource from which to derive a ‘big picture’ of the overall subject domain (the boundaries of which are fuzzy and also perhaps open to debate and dispute, but this can be a strength of the discipline); to obtain a sound basic understanding of the key issues, theories, concepts, methods, evidence and practice implications of each of the eight BPS-prescribed competences; to develop a critical and reflective stance on this material; to appreciate the importance and relevance of theory to the formulation of an issue; to facilitate the process of bridging the gap between theory and practice; and to inspire further reading, reflection and research.

    Perhaps I should also confess that it reflects in no small part my own need to be able to ‘grasp’ the essentials of the discipline. At times in my teaching and project supervision, I have only just been one little step beyond some of my students (and in some aspects of the subject, maybe even one or two steps behind them). The experience and expertise they have brought to their course, the challenge of the questions and issues they have raised, the cases and examples they have brought to bear, their contribution to class discussions and seminars, the analytic pieces and practical assignments they have delivered, and their sheer enthusiasm for the subject have keep me going, and in large part, really the material in this book is a product of their minds as much as my own. Hence some due acknowledgement and credit must be given to my students, who in their own learning and development have facilitated my learning and development.

    Thus, on one level it was easy to write this book because I live and breathe its material daily in the course of my work, and have engaged with probably all of its contents at some point over the years. On another level, it has been a very difficult, insecure and chaotic task of trying to catch and contain (if it ever could be) a constantly moving, ever expanding, knowledge and practice domain. This is by no means a criticism. On the contrary, it is refreshing and exciting to see how the knowledge base and its practice implications have evolved and are still very much evolving. Perhaps it is a lesson for us all here, in the, perhaps futile, attempt to capture the essential knowledge base of anything! Effectively, this textbook is really only the product of my own sense-making efforts. But hopefully it will nonetheless raise or inspire different kinds of questions, challenge some assumptions and help others ‘make sense’ of the discipline.

    On this note, and with an important caveat here, I may not have done justice to some aspects of occupational and organizational psychology in which I do not myself specialize, or practice. I have the benefit of colleagues whose knowledge and skills complement my own, and I hope to have done justice to their contributions in this book. I have also strived to appropriately contextualize the subject matter, within a broader historic, economic and political framework. For instance, the topic of training and development can be seen in the context of a broader learning metaphor prevalent in society as a whole, where economic progress and survival is said to depend on intellectual capital.

    Whilst this book addresses directly the needs of masters or diploma students in occupational psychology, it will also provide an invaluable source of specialist material for many other audiences including final-year undergraduates taking an option in occupational psychology, business and HR students taking options in occupational psychology, work psychology, organizational psychology and organizational behaviour and for practitioners wishing to keep abreast of the knowledge base in the field or to acquire the BPS Level 1 requirement for DOP entry through independent study.

    The textbook addresses the DOP requirements one by one in a self-contained way, although it makes every effort to cross-fertilize and cross-reference across different subjects in the syllabus in an integrated and coherent way. It begins with a primarily ‘personnel’ stance (Chapters 13), moving on to look at the organization and the individual in the organization (Chapters 46), and ends with work and work environment (Chapters 78). There are perhaps some things that I have not covered at all that I should have done, such as the interface between work and people via the particular physical arrangements of their work (for example, open-plan, singular offices). There is a growing psychology of facilities management, which is a topic claimed mainly by environmental psychology. Whilst it is easy to argue that where it belongs does not matter, it might equally be argued that I should have addressed the human issues arising from different physical arrangements in the workplace – but I had to stop somewhere!

    There are indeed – as became increasingly apparent to me in writing this book – very many fine lines that can be drawn between occupational psychology and other disciplines when it comes to focusing on a particular work issue or problem. For instance, environmental psychology can inform us of theories and concepts to understand why different types of attitude and behaviour can be found across different types of office structure and layout. Other fine lines include cross-over into counselling and clinical psychology (for example, in the counselling, development, and coaching domains of occupational psychology), into social psychology (for example, group, team and leadership processes, attitude and behaviour change), developmental psychology (for example, career development), cognitive and socio-cognitive psychology (across all domains of occupational psychology), ergonomics (for example, human-machine interaction), health psychology (for example, occupational health), dispositional psychology (again, across all domains of occupational psychology) and even neuro-cognitive psychology (for example, neural network models of motivation).

    It might therefore even be a bit futile to claim a distinct knowledge base for occupational psychology, because of so many other overlapping claims on the topics it addresses. This does not mean that what occupational psychology does is not distinctive. It is perhaps in the ‘practice’ of occupational psychology that we see our discipline most clearly, and, in so doing, draw on the knowledge base of literally any field of psychology so long as it can help shed light on a problem or issue, or soundly and accountably inform our interventions. If the aims of the occupational psychologist are to simultaneously increase effectiveness (of the individual, group and organization) and to improve the job satisfaction and well-being of the individual, what limits are there to be drawn on what theories and methods we use so long as they are appropriately grounded and used in a reflexive and self-critical way?

    It is increasingly being argued that occupational and organizational psychology should reflect on itself and its knowledge base, the ideology and epistemology that underwrites it. This is clearly beginning to happen, as individual workers are modelled more as proactive shapers of their own destiny as much as they are shaped by external factors, as postmodernism alerts us to the highly constructed nature of reality. Whilst only a few of us in the field have ventured completely into postmodernist thinking, research and practice, most of us are nonetheless mindful of the critical importance of perception and interpretation, as well as individual needs, interests and identities, as core to understanding workplace attitudes and behaviours.

    This moves us away from the assumption that we can tweak features of work and the work environment (for example, job design interventions, introduction of new technologies) and automatically see a benefit in human terms. On the contrary, it is clear that determinist thinking and practice has had its day and we are no longer so fixed on identifying the predictors of this, that and the other work-relevant criterion, but more concerned with looking at mechanisms and processes, and seeking explanations for what we see and find. I see a definite trend away from conventional scientific research (modelled on the experimental paradigm) to looking at the processes in situ, using more creative field-sensitive methods that are equally scientific, but more ecologically valid, and yielding new insights from ‘ground up’ that can be used to develop theory as well as new ways of practising. Research on stress, emotion and coping is perhaps one of the champion domains in this respect (for example, using diaries, introducing longitudinal designs), and there is a growing field of career psychology and organizational development psychology, within what is called the language or narrative mode, espousing new ways of investigating, interpreting and intervening.

    This does not mean that we should abandon our experiments or our more conventional methods, since these clearly do still have a very important place in our science, but that they yield findings that need to be ‘reality checked’ in the field, just as much as what we find in the field may need to be dissected, tested and analysed for generalizability purposes. For instance, in the training domain, the concept of mental model has become significant and has generalizability potential across the discipline for understanding, for example, effective teamwork, organizational change, human-machine interaction and so on. This is a topic for cognitive science to get its teeth into as much as the practitioner, and can be equally validly considered in experimental as well as field contexts. My close colleague Adrian Banks calls the experimental and quasi-experimental angle a ‘micro-world’ scenario enabling ideas to be tested in a fairly controlled way, but which will also facilitate its application to and testing in the field. Hence, all types of research can be entertained in occupational and organizational psychology across micro-worlds, to simulations, to real world.

    The burgeoning use of qualitative and other more field-sensitive methods of investigation is exciting, but may require a form of ‘cognitive switching’ across different epistemological mindsets. Some would say that it is antithetical to the idea of an epistemological framework to be able to ‘switch’ back and forth between, say, positivism and postmodernism; but maybe there are instances – certainly in the practice of occupational psychology – where you do have to do exactly that. Pure, maybe not, but appropriate to the situation at hand, nonetheless; and this does not mean that we undermine our scientific integrity either, when we do switch thinking modes. I have a project right now which requires that I look at the issue (of women's career development in Housing Associations) from both a conventional positivist, as well as a more social constructionist, perspective, harnessing relevant theory and evidence accordingly. The pragmatist in me therefore says, ‘don't put the cart before the horse’, adopt the most appropriate thinking and practice mode or modes (if you can integrate them coherently into a defensible evidence-based approach) required for the issue at hand.

    This textbook will reflect these activities in the way it presents and addresses particular topics and through the provision of cases and examples. It should be used primarily as a resource, prompting and inspiring further reading and research, as well as ideas for dissertations, for problem formulation and the creative application of knowledge to various problem situations. A scientist-practitioner approach built on a problem-solving model will be reflected throughout. That is, how to describe and formulate practical problems arising from the world of work using existing theory and research; how to pursue evidence-based practice; how to design problem solutions or management interventions that are theory-driven and testable through evaluation; and how to ‘use’ knowledge in a critical and constructive and skilled manner in various client situations. I have sought to represent only material from credible rather than popularist sources, adopting a position of the pragmatic scientist (see Introduction and Overview), and, in so doing, have also tried to reflect on the relevance of the more pedantic side of the discipline and its technical advice.

    The current book is designed specifically to address the BPS syllabus as a broad overview and resource, rather than an exhaustive treatise on the subject or its component parts. Complementary recommended texts include: Work Psychology by Arnold, Robertson, and Cooper (1995); Adrian Furnham's (1997) book, The Psychology of Behaviour at Work, which is a brilliant source book with a very useful managerial practice slant, whilst nonetheless firmly rooted in the theoretical and empirical literature; Nik Chmiel's (2000) edited text called Work and Organizational Psychology, which provides a collection of more specialist works offered by experts in their field, which are key sources for more detailed follow-up on particular issues or subject areas; and Christine Doyle's (2003) book, Work and Organizational Psychology, which takes a very challenging – maybe also somewhat cheeky – stance on the field, providing legitimate licence as well as an inspiration to move beyond what the discipline thinks it knows to address what in actual fact it really does know. I have also derived much from reading Chris Brotherton's (1999) application of social psychological thinking to management science; and from Haslam's (2004) book using a social identity approach, which provide a theoretical basis in social psychology for integrating knowledge across many different but important aspects of organizational psychology, enabling the coherent formulation of many different problem issues and considerations arising in this field and a basis for informed practice.

    One other important resource to ‘attach’ to this textbook is Cathy Cassell and Gillian Symon's recently published second edition of a book called Essential Guide to QualitativeMethods in Organizational Psychology (2004), which really does offer an essential tool book for all occupational psychologists, whether in research and/or practice, as well as providing another way of thinking about what we do, why and how.

    This book is a rather more pedestrian view of the field than presented by my aforementioned colleagues, although I do not hesitate to offer my views or to provide my own insights and suggestions where appropriate or relevant. No knowledge of psychology is assumed, although the book is written at the level of a final-year undergraduate student. The text will take the reader to the level of thinking required by the full-fledged scientist-practitioner able to apply knowledge in an informed and critical and professional manner to practical situations. Reference is made to the companion website, http://www.sagepub.co.uk/millward, throughout the book as a crucial source of additional detail, supporting case examples, exercises and activities, and other support material, including measures and other practical resources for both research and practice.

    Each chapter is self-contained and does not depend on prior reading. However, cross-reference is made to themes, issues and topics arising across modules to facilitate lateral thinking and to furnish a bigger thematic picture of the knowledge base of occupational psychology. In my view some general themes do emerge across the book, and the reader is encouraged to cross-fertilize accordingly. These themes are:

    • a change to a model of the individual as a sense-making, proactive processor of information, and thus a challenge to the assumption that employee experiences and behaviours are ‘determined’; parallel to this is the heightened attention to the idea of the self-regulating, self-managed, constantly learning and developing individual;
    • a heightened interest and relevance to occupational psychology of the dispositional (individual difference) perspective;
    • increased attention to the cognitive and meta-cognitive processes involved in accounting for behaviour;
    • increased use of more ecologically sensitive research designs and methods of data collection, including, in particular, the use of more qualitative methods; parallel to this is an increase in research reflexivity;
    • increased attention to the need to understand and explain, rather than just predict;
    • increased salience of the research-practice gap and the need to close it;
    • increased use of theories and insights from other disciplinary knowledge bases;
    • increased attention to the employee voice;
    • increased attention to emotional experiences and processes;
    • increased reference to postmodern thinking.

    Other important themes pertaining more to content include the constructs of:

    • learning;
    • development;
    • knowledge;
    • experience and expertise;
    • self-regulation;
    • reconciling group/organizational and individual interests;
    • sense-making;
    • change;
    • balance;
    • exchange.

    Finally, you are not intended to read this book from cover to cover or from Chapter 1 through to Chapter 8; it is intended for you to dip in and out of, as suits your needs and interests. I hope you find it useful.

    Using the Website

    The companion website, http://www.sagepub.co.uk/millward, provides an essential complement to the text by providing the following additional material

    • elaboration or further detail on an issue, a piece of research or a discussion issue;
    • resources in the form of measures and other tools for research and practice;
    • a source of self-reflection through the provision of exercises and activities designed to illustrate certain points and to bring concepts and theoretical issues alive;
    • examples of contemporary research and ideas for further dissertation research purposes;
    • practical case examples for illustrative purposes, to aid understanding and to consolidate the text.

    The material is organized consecutively by chapter. Whilst reference is made in particular to the website at certain key points throughout the text, the reader is encouraged to surf the website to explore its contents and to use it iteratively in combination with the text as a form of learning support.


    Please contact me by email [l.purvis@surrey.ac.uk] if you have any comment arising from reading all or any section of this textbook, or if you have feedback or suggestions for improving it.

    List of Abbreviations

    16PF – Sixteen Personality Factors

    AART – Applicant Attribution-Reaction Theory

    ACTA – Applied Cognitive Task Analysis

    ASR – Automatic Speech Recognition

    BARS – Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales

    BDI – Behavioural Description Interview

    BOS – Behavioural Observation Scales

    BPR – Business Process Re-engineering

    BPS – British Psychological Society

    BTEC – Business and Technology Education Council

    BTRI – Belbin Team Role Inventory

    C2 Organization – Control and Command Organization

    CATs – Cognitive Ability Tests

    CBI – Confederation of British Industry

    CCS – Cynbernetic Coping Scale

    CDM – Classical Decision Making

    CEO – Chief Executive Officer

    CEST – Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory

    CIS-R – Revised Clinical Interview Schedule

    CIT – Critical Incident Technique

    COPE – Coping Styles Measure

    CRE – Commission for Racial Equality

    C/R ratio – Control/Response Ratio

    CRT – Cognitive Resource Theory

    CSCW – Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

    CSE – Core Self-Evaluations

    CSUQ – Computer System Usability Questionnaire

    CTA – Cognitive Task Analysis

    DAT – Differential Aptitude Test

    DoH – UK Department of Health

    DOP – Division of Occupational Psychology

    DoT – UK Department of Transport

    DSM – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders

    EAP – Employee Assistance Programme

    EC – European Commission

    EEC – European Economic Community

    EID – Ecological Interface Design

    EL – Emotional Labour

    ELM – Elaboration Likelihood Model

    EPQ – Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

    FFM – Five Factor Measures

    FOR – Frame of Reference Training

    GAS – General Adaptation Syndrome

    GCSEs – General Certificate of Secondary Education

    GEMS – Generic Error Modelling System Approach

    GHQ – General Health Questionnaire

    GMA – General Mental Ability

    GNS – Growth-Need-Strength

    HAVS – Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome

    HCI – Human-Computer Interaction

    HMD – Head-Mounted Display

    HPI – Hogan Personality Inventory

    HR – Human Relations

    HRA – Human Reliability Analysis

    HRM – Human Resource Management

    H & S – Health and Safety Regulations

    HSE – UK Health and Safety Executive

    ICL – International Classification of Diseases

    IR – Industrial Relations

    IT – Information Technology

    ITB – Industry Training Boards

    IWAF – Informal Work Accommodations to Family Life

    JCM – Job Characteristics Model

    JDS – Job Diagnostic Survey

    KSA – Knowledge, Skill and Ability

    LB – Learning Bay

    LEC – Local Enterprise Company

    LMX – Leader Member Exchange

    LPC – Least Preferred Co-Worker

    MCI – Management Charter Initiative

    MPS – Motivating Potential

    MSFS – Multiple Source Feedback Systems

    MSMR Feedback System – Multi-Source-Multi-Rater Feedback System

    MSQ – Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

    MSS – Mixed Standard Scales

    NA – Negative Affect

    NCB – National Coal Board

    NCVQ – National Council for Vocational Qualifications

    NDM – Naturalistic Decision Making

    NEC – Network Enabled Capability

    NEO-PI – Big Five Personality Tests

    NHS – UK National Health Service

    Non-FFM – non Five-Factor Measures

    NPE – Negative Psychological Effects

    NTA – National Training Award

    NVQ – National Vocational Qualification

    OA – Organizational Analysis

    OAR – Overall Assessment Rating

    OC – Organizational Commitment

    OCB – Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

    OCQ – Organizational Commitment Questionnaire

    OD – Organizational Development

    OID – Organizational Identification

    OPQ – Occupational Personality Questionnaire

    OSI – Occupational Stress Indicator

    PA – Performance Appraisal

    PAI – Post Appraisal Development Interview

    PAS – Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    PMI – Performance Management Indicator

    PMS – Performance Management Strategy

    POB – Presocial Organizational Behaviour

    POS – Perceived Organizational Support

    PPQ – Professional Personality Questionnaire

    QUIS – Questionnaire User Interaction Satisfaction

    RBS – Royal Bank of Scotland

    RG – Repertory Grid

    RJP – Realistic Job Preview

    SDS – Self-Directed Search

    SM – Scientific Management

    SMEs – Subject Matter Experts

    SMIs – Stress Management Interventions

    STS – Socio-Technical Systems

    TAM – Technology Accepetance Model

    TB – Team Building

    TEC – Training and Enterprise Council

    T-Group – Therapy Group

    TNA – Training Needs Analysis

    TQM – Total Quality Management

    VDU – Visual Display Unit

    VE – Virtual Environment

    VIE Theory – Valence, Instrumentality, Expectancy Theory

    WAB – Weighted Application Blank

    WCCL – Ways of Coping Checklist

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