Understanding Homicide

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Fiona Brookman

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    Preface

    Despite its continued prominence in the media, homicide has received surprisingly little serious analytical attention from criminologists in recent years, especially in Britain. As Rock (1998: 9) puts it, homicide has suffered from ‘intellectual neglectfulness’. Fiona Brookman, whose excellent doctoral thesis on the subject I supervised when she was at Cardiff University during the 1990s, has taken some important steps towards ending this neglect, and I am pleased to accept her invitation to write a brief preface to this very welcome book.

    The book is a substantial contribution to the recent academic literature on homicide, at the same time being written in a reader-friendly manner which will help it reach a wider audience, including students of criminology and criminal justice. It is informed throughout by the author's now considerable research and teaching experience in this area. Her doctoral work was concerned with explanations of different kinds of homicide, especially those committed by men, and she explored and developed theories around the concept of ‘masculinities’ and issues of control. She also considered the extent to which homicide should be regarded as a unique kind of crime, deserving of its own theoretical explanations, or whether it should primarily be regarded as the extreme end of the spectrum of violent behaviour (the death of the victim often being the result of behaviour not initially aimed at killing, and to some extent contingent upon fortune — as it were, the difference between a knife hitting the heart or an arm) and hence explicable in the same ways as serious violence in general. In exploring such questions, she undertook extensive analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data, including details of all cases recorded in England and Wales on the Homicide Index and a considerable number of police files. These theoretical interests have been complemented more recently by policy-focused research on behalf of the Home Office, in which she has both examined police investigations and has explored possible ways in which levels of homicide might be reduced in the UK. This book draws on all the above work, bringing together the theoretical with the practical to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. It gives a clear and well evidenced picture of patterns and forms of homicide, discusses competing explanations of why it occurs, outlines key issues in police investigations, and considers the possibilities of reduction and prevention. Whilst focused mainly on the UK, it deals with literature, research and debates from other parts of the world; especially North America, Australia, New Zealand and Canada.

    In short, this is a thoughtful, lively and informative book which helps to fill a surprising gap in the recent criminological literature in Britain. It deserves wide readership among students of the subject and non-specialists alike, and I wish it every success.

    Mike Maguire

    Professor of Criminology, Cardiff University

    Acknowledgements

    Several people have made this book possible. First, I would like to thank my colleagues at the Centre for Criminology, University of Glamorgan, for their help and support. Special thanks to Harriet Pierpoint, Dr Jon Moran, Dr Katie Holloway, Ian McKim, Maggie McNorton and Professor Trevor Bennett for reading drafts of various chapters of the book and to Ann Williams for her encouragement and support.

    A very big thank you to Detective Superintendent Peter Stelfox of the Greater Manchester Police who was kind enough to share with me large chunks of his PhD thesis into the investigation of homicide. As a seasoned homicide investigator and academic, Peter's work was especially insightful. In addition, many thanks to Assistant Chief Constable Tony Rogers of South Wales Police for granting me permission (on behalf of ACPO) to use the Homicide Investigation Manual and extracts from it. Thanks also to Dr Martin Innes (University of Surrey) for allowing me access to the draft copy of his excellent text on the police investigation of homicide prior to publication. Quite simply, I could not have included a chapter on the police investigation of homicide without their generosity. I am also grateful to the Home Office for allowing me to make use of the Homicide Index during both the preparation of this text and my PhD thesis.

    Huge thanks to Jane Nolan, a fabulous research assistant who helped me enormously in the final few months of preparing this text. As well as collating and summarising many key articles, Jane also prepared an early draft of Chapter 7 ‘When Women Kill’. I only wish we'd worked together sooner — very many thanks, Jane.

    A very special thank you to Professor Mike Maguire of Cardiff University. Not only did he guide me through my PhD, but he also has continued to support me ever since. As ever, Mike gave me the benefit of his brilliant mind and, most importantly, provided much needed guidance and direction throughout the preparation of this book. Thanks a million, Mike, to you and Jay.

    Thanks also to Professor Kenneth Polk of the University of Melbourne for his insightful and generous comments on an earlier draft of the book, and to the Commissioning Editors, Mirander Nunhofer and Caroline Porter at Sage Publications, for their patience and support.

    And last, but not least, love and thanks to Pete (thanks for the Gizmo), Mum and Dad (thanks for your support and encouragement and for ‘nagging’ me about the book, Dad, and ordering millions of copies — you're a star!), Tom and my lovely friends (the ‘Ponty’ girls).

    Dedication

    To my mum, dad and brother (Jan, Ken and Tom Brookman) and Pete

  • Appendix

    Homicide in England and Wales (1997–2001): Victim/Offender Relationships, Gender Mix and Context

    Notes:

    • Percentages in brackets refer to the percentage of the subset under consideration (not the total number of homicides).
    • The category ‘other’ includes racial violence, arson and irrational acts and, if not already stated, suicide pacts and any other category that comprised less than 1 per cent of the total circumstance category.

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