Understanding Everyday Racism: An Interdisciplinary Theory


Philomena Essed

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  • SAGE Series on Race and Ethnic Relations

    Series Editor:


    College of William and Mary

    This series is designed for scholars working in creative theoretical areas related to race and ethnic relations. The series will publish books and collections of original articles that critically assess and expand upon race and ethnic relations issues from American and comparative points of view.


    • Robert Blauner
    • Jomills H. Braddock II
    • Scott Cummings
    • Rutledge Dennis
    • Leonard Dinnerstein
    • Reynolds Farley
    • Joe Feagin
    • Barry Glassner
    • Ruth S. Hamilton
    • Dell Hymes
    • James Jackson
    • Roy Bryce Laporte
    • Paul Gordon Lauren
    • William Liu
    • Stanford M. Lyman
    • Gary Marx
    • Robert Miles
    • Rebecca Morales
    • Chester Pierce
    • Vicki L. Ruiz
    • Gary D. Sandefur
    • Diana Slaughter
    • C. Matthew Snipp
    • John Stone
    • Bruce Williams
    • Melvin D. Williams

    Volumes in this series include

    • Roger Waldinger, Howard Aldrich, Robin Ward, and Associates, ETHNIC ENTREPRENEURS: Immigrant Business in Industrial Societies
    • Philomena Essed, UNDERSTANDING EVERYDAY RACISM: An Interdisciplinary Theory
    • Samuel V. Duh, BLACKS AND AIDS: Causes and Origins
    • Steven J. Gold, REFUGEE COMMUNITIES: A Comparative Field Study
    • Mary E. Andereck, ETHNIC AWARENESS AND THE SCHOOLS: Irish Travelers in the American South (title tentative)


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    This fascinating study by Dr. Philomena Essed of the University of Amsterdam promises to break new theoretical ground in research on African-descent women in Western high-technology societies. It is an interdisciplinary analysis of gendered social constructions of racism as experienced by samples of African-descent women in the United States and in the Netherlands. Understanding Everyday Racism is a revised version of Dr. Essed's doctoral dissertation, which has been the center of a widely publicized debate in the Netherlands because it so skillfully pierces dominant “polite Dutch culture” and exposes the cultural and political contours of Dutch styles of gendered racism. Her ideas about racism as experienced by African-American women are just as illuminating.

    I hope that what Dr. Essed has written will stimulate much needed creative and comparative theory building in social scientific research on African-descent women's experiences with racism in Western high-tech societies.

    John H.Stanfield II, Series Editor


    Euro-American culture contains an awkward balance between racist and nonracist tendencies. Throughout history there have been people subscribing to racist beliefs, but there have also been oppositional groups. This book represents oppositional views of Black women. It reports results of a cross-cultural investigation of racism. I have analyzed reconstructions of reality gathered in interviews conducted with African-American women in California and with Black Surinamese women—first-generation immigrants in the Netherlands. Whereas most other studies of racism have a macro orientation, little attention has been paid to its everyday manifestations. The experienced reality of racism one finds in novels or autobiographies of Black authors is hardly visible in the social sciences. This study examines crucial, but largely neglected, dimensions of racism: How is racism experienced in everyday situations? How do Blacks recognize covert expressions of racism? What knowledge of racism do Blacks have, and how is this knowledge acquired? Through the accounts of Black women about their daily racial experiences, this study problematizes and reinterprets many of the meanings and everyday practices the majority has come to take for granted. Moreover, it presents a new approach to the study of racism based on the concept of “everyday racism.” Such an approach requires an interdisciplinary framework. Therefore, I try to combine daily experiences of individuals with a more structural account of racism within a theoretical framework that integrates developments in such disciplines as macro- and microsociology, social psychology, discourse analysis, race relations theory, and women's studies.

    Although the interviews were held in the Netherlands and the United States, there are reasons to assume that the results have a more general nature and also hold true for other White-dominated societies. A general feature of these societies is the fact that the superiority of Euro-American culture is taken for granted. Although in many of these countries the language of cultural tolerance suggests increasing equality among different racial and ethnic groups, this is not the case. On the contrary the idea of tolerance is inherently problematic when applied to hierarchical group relations. This will be illustrated by examples from the Netherlands, where tolerance is generally assumed to be a prevailing national attitude.

    Racism not only operates through culture, it is also the expression of structural conflict. Individuals are actors in a power structure. Power can be used to reproduce racism, but it can also be used to combat racism. This study shows how power, operative in everyday situations, perpetuates racial and ethnic oppression. Note, however, that I focus on racist practices, not on individuals. To talk about “to be or not to be a racist” simplifies the problem. Although individuals are the agents of racism, my concern is practices and their implications, not the psyche of these individuals.

    This study examines more specifically racism among Whites with higher education. This is important when we assume that, the more opportunities people have to gain information about racism and the more authority they have by virtue of their social positions, the more responsible they are for the racist implications of their practices. Dominant group members are, however, generally inclined to deny racism. Therefore, the definition of the situation, and more specifically who defines whether situations are racist, is at the heart of this study. These questions are addressed through an analysis of the knowledge and perceptions of Black women.

    This book is a reworking of a Ph.D. thesis. Because of space limitations I had to cut out, in this commercial edition, pages of the text. As a result some of the technical details of the methodological underpinning of this study could not be included. For those who are really interested in seeing more of it, however, I indicate in the text, at relevant points, those places where additional material is available (which, upon request, can be obtained from me).

    This study is part of an ongoing project on Black perceptions of Whites, which I started in the beginning of the 1980s. I reported on this subject, among others, in my book Everyday Racism, which first appeared in Dutch (1984) and recently in English (Hunter House, California, 1990). Everyday Racism is tuned to a general public. It combines minimal theory with a maximum amount of real-life stories. Readers who are not familiar with race relations theory may want to read that book first as an introduction to the notion of everyday racism. Understanding Everyday Racism is for advanced readers. The project reported here is the result of five years of additional research and writing (1985–1990). Understanding Everyday Racism presents a theory and analysis of the concept of everyday racism.

    The writing was, obviously, a solitary activity, but the project itself was very much a collective effort. The generous cooperation of Black women enabled me to obtain unusually detailed data about racism. I am profoundly grateful to the women—their names cannot be mentioned—who gave their time and reconstructed their experiences, which form the empirical basis of this study. I am sure many of them will read this study. I hope I have done them justice.

    Throughout the years many people have encouraged me in my study and writing and I can here acknowledge my indebtedness to only some of them, doing so more or less chronologically. First I would like to thank Petra de Vries, who supervised my first course on women's studies many years ago at the University of Amsterdam. It dramatically changed my views of, as well as my relation to, the social sciences.

    Support for the completion of this study has come from many sources in the Netherlands and in the United States. Henk Heeren encouraged me to persevere when initially it seemed almost impossible to acquire financial support for the project, given the sensitivity of the topic and the fact that racism is generally denied in the Netherlands. I am indebted to the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), which financed three years of the project. I deeply appreciate the financial contribution of the Mama Cash Foundation for the completion of the project in the United States. Further I am grateful for the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science and the University of Amsterdam for allowing me to complete the analysis of some problems that emerged from the data when the project was nearly finished.

    I thank the University of California, San Diego, for allowing me to use their facilities during my stay. Aaron Cicourel has been a most gentle and supportive supervisor at UCSD. I owe him many many thanks for his generous hospitality, for giving his precious time to discuss with me a range of interview techniques, and for providing me with much needed background information about the California area. I also benefited from talks with Hugh Mehan, whose questions and views about my research were very stimulating. The Association of Black Psychologists, San Diego, have been very supportive. They invited me to their meetings, discussed my work with me, and generally gave me the feeling that I was welcome.

    I owe an invaluable debt to Chris Mullard. His comments on my work have been challenging and very inspiring.

    Doing the interviews is always the nice part of the job; transcribing is a completely different matter. Without the help of Terry Grazier, Marlene Bailey, and Carol Bronson in the United States, I never would have managed. In the Netherlands, Deborah Fellows and Rina Simons did wonders on a few incomplete transcriptions of the U.S. interviews. I feel deep gratitude and respect for Micky Bictorina, who, on her own, did a perfect job on the transcriptions of all the Dutch interviews. Sharon Belden has been a great help in correcting my English. I am also grateful to Marguerite Niekoop, secretary at the Centre for Race and Ethnic Studies (CRES), where I did my research. She took over a great deal of the administrative work involved in the completion of this study.

    I am grateful for the encouragement I received from many friends. Special thanks are due to Glenn Willemsen, who was not only a colleague but also like a brother. I have very much enjoyed our discussions about research and politics. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the contributions of the students in my courses on women and racism at CRES. Their questions and suggestions about the nature of racism in the Netherlands have made teaching a very stimulating challenge. I am also indebted to my family, in particular my parents, for equally encouraging daughters and sons when study and career were concerned. My mother, Ine Corsten, and my friend Kitty Lie have been supportive in a very special way. I have learned, and I am still learning, from their outspoken views on justice and injustice.

    There are no words to express my gratitude to Teun van Dijk. I could not have been more fortunate than to have a partner who knew my work well enough to be a severe critic as well as a staunch supporter. I cannot image how I could have managed without his constant enthusiasm, his love, his solidarity, his commitment to the struggle against racism, and the numerous discussions we have had about each other's work.

    Positive feedback has made the project a pleasant and inspiring one, despite the fact that it deals with a serious problem. I hope the perceptions of the Black women reported in this study are useful for all of us, Black and White, who feel responsible for creating a qualitatively better society.

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    About the Author

    Philomena Essed (University of Amsterdam) works within an interdisciplinary framework, combining various fields of study, such as race relations theory, sociology, social psychology, and feminist theory. Her research interests include the development of cross-cultural perspectives on the experience and empowerment of Black women. She also studies and advises on intercultural management and team building in organizations. She has lectured on women's everyday experiences of racism in various European countries. She has contributed a number of articles to international journals. Her work has appeared in four different languages and was published, apart from the Netherlands, in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, and Italy. She is the author of Everyday Racism (1984/1988; 1990).

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