Understanding Corporate Life: The Warwick Organisation Theory Network
This book brings to the forefront contemporary and contested themes and issues about corporate life. Each chapter is written by a leading scholar who demonstrates how these issues and themes have been contextualized and theorized within writing and research. Each chapter supports the reader with an introduction and summary, review of the relevant literature and research, and a critique of how the theme under discussion fits into the bigger picture presented by the book.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
© The Warwick Organisation Theory Network 2010
First published 2009
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2009922676
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-2384-2 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed by CPI Antony Rowe, Chippenham Wiltshire
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
Notes on Contributors[Page vi]
Martin Corbett works at Warwick Business School and has done for quite some time. He has written quite a bit of stuff on the psychological and cultural aspects of technology, although his more recent research interests include neuro-scientific management and the role of the unconscious in organizational behaviour.
Christopher Grey is Professor of Organizational Behaviour at the University of Warwick. He was previously Professor of Organizational Theory at the University of Cambridge and has held posts at Leeds and Manchester. He has wide-ranging research interests including the sociology of management and management education, professional socialization and identity and the organization of intelligence agencies.
Philip Hancock is an Associate Professor (Reader) of Organization Studies at the Warwick Business School. His research is concerned with a critical appraisal of organizational aestheticization and embodiment, space and place, and the managerial colonization of everyday life, all of which inform his current fascination with the organization of Christmas. He has published in the usual selection of internationally recognised journals and has co-authored and co-edited a number of books, the most recent of which is The Management of Everyday Life (Palgrave). He is currently joint editor-in-chief of the Inderscience publication, The International Journal of Work, Organization to Organisation.
Chris Land lectures in management at the University of Essex. His research on ‘community’ has included a two-year project on Communities of Practice with the Innovation, Knowledge and Organization Networks (IKON) research unit at Warwick Business School, living in a commune, and working for a Community Interest Company. He sees in ‘community’ the possibility of moving beyond the idea of ‘resistance’ in critical management studies to explore instead the many and varied forms of non-capitalist organization found in daily life around the globe and throughout history.
Karen Legge is Professor Emerita of Organizational Behaviour, Warwick Business School. Prior to her retirement in 2007, Karen held posts at Manchester Business School, Institute of Work Psychology – Sheffield, Imperial College Management School, Lancaster University Management
[Page vii]School and Warwick Business School. She was a long serving Joint Editor of Journal of Management Studies and also served on numerous editorial boards, including British Journal of Industrial Relations, Industrial Relations, Human Resource Management Journal, Gender, Work and Organization and Organization. Karen's research interests lie in the area of applying postmodern and critical organization theory to HRM, change management, the development of learning organizations and in organizational ethics. She has published widely in these areas, a well known publication being HRM, Rhetorics and Realities (Palgrave/Macmillan, 1995), an updated anniversary edition of which was published in 2005.
Nick Llewellyn is Associate Professor (Reader) of Organization Studies at Warwick Business School (IROB group). His research focuses mainly on work and interaction in organizations and in public settings. He has published on this research in journals such as The British Journal of Sociology, Sociology, Organization Studies, Human Relations and Discourse Studies.
Glenn Morgan is Professor of Organizational Behaviour at Warwick Business School, University of Warwick. He is one of the Editors in Chief of the journal Organization: the critical journal of organization, theory and society. Recent publications include Images of the Multinational Firm (2009: edited with Collinson) and Changing Capitalisms? (2005 edited with Whitley and Moen) as well as articles in various journals. He is Visiting Professor at the International Centre for Business and Politics at Copenhagen Business School as well as an associate of the Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization at the University of Warwick.
Maxine Robertson (BSc, MA, PhD) is a Professor of Management at Queen Mary University of London and Director of Research in the School of Business and Management. Her research interests include the management of knowledge workers and knowledge intensive firms, networked innovation and the management of knowledge in organizations. She has published extensively in all of these areas. She is also co-author of Managing Knowledge Work and Innovation published by Palgrave (2009). Recent research includes a comparative UK/US study of biomedical innovation. Her current research focuses on the management of clinical trials in the UK.
André Spicer is an Associate Professor (Reader) of Organization Studies at the Warwick Business School and a visiting research fellow at Lund University, Sweden. His research focuses on political dynamics in and around organizations. He has studied these dynamics in the media, ports, libraries, and social movements. His work has appeared in journals such as Organization, Organization Studies, Human Relations and Journal of Management Studies. He is also author of Contesting the Corporation[Page viii](Cambridge University Press) and Unmasking the Entrepreneur (Edward Elgar).
Andrew Sturdy is Professor of Organisational Behaviour at Warwick Business School. He has a longstanding interest in the production and use of management ideas such as customer service. His research has explored this in various contexts including training, business school education and management consultancy. Most recently, he led a ‘fly-on-the-wall’ study of consultancy projects, from which a book (with Handley, Clark and Fincham) was published in 2009 by Oxford University Press – Management Consultancy: Boundaries and Knowledge in Action.
Emma Surman lectures in marketing at Keele University. After completing her PhD at Keele in 2004, Emma was a research fellow at the University of Exeter and subsequently a lecturer at Warwick Business School before returning to Keele in August 2007 to join the marketing department. Prior to her career in academia, she held marketing posts in a variety of organizations that encompassed the private, public and charity sectors. Her research interests include: telework, emotion in the workplace, the production and consumption of organizational space, and gender, identity and power relations.
Jacky Swan is Professor of Organizational Behaviour at Warwick Business School, University of Warwick. She holds a first degree in Psychology and completed her PhD at University of Wales, Cardiff. Jacky is co-founder of IKON – a research centre based at Warwick on Innovation Knowledge and Organisational Networks (http://www.warwick.ac.uk/go/ikon). Her interests are in linking innovation and networking to processes of managing knowledge across different industry sectors and national contexts. She is currently researching the processes through which knowledge is translated from scientific discovery into changes in clinical and healthcare practice, focusing on the management and organizational of clinical trials. She is a Senior Editor for Organization Studies, co-author of Managing Knowledge Work and Innovation and publishes in organization theory, innovation and management journals.
It is supposed to be the most rational place in the world. When you walk through the big revolving doors of a large corporation, you are supposed to be moving from the disorder, chaos and unreasonable world of street life into an altogether more reified environment. The expensive marble beneath your feet, the sleek black leather chairs, and the cool lighting are all supposed to remind you this is a different universe. The security barrier staffed by guards and the speedy lifts that race you towards the heavens of the executive quarters are all there to remind you that this is not normal life. This is corporate life.
In this book, we have tried to take you inside this corporate life. As you probably know, it is a life that many aspire to lead. It is a life that looks attractive, well paid, and very exciting from the outside. It seems to be life doing important things with important people. And, as many texts books about management remind us, it is. But instead of trying to paint a picture of corporate life as one that is bursting with satisfaction and rationality, we have tried to let you in on a few of the dirty secrets. In this book, we have tried to provide the reader with a picture of corporate life that is at once inspiring as well as insipid. It is hyper-rational as well as completely crazy. It is moving and leaves you cold at the same time. It showers you with information but makes no sense.
In order to let you into this world, we have gathered together a series of essays that each look at one aspect of corporate life. Instead of looking at the topics you would usually encounter in a textbook (like motivation, groups, structure), we tried to focus on the most immediate and obvious aspects of corporate life. We looked at how people use knowledge in organizations. We asked what kinds of space people dwell in and how they use them. We considered how people experience time during their day at work. We investigated the ways people seek to build an identity in the workplace. We uncovered the effects that globalization is having on everyday life at work. We traced through the ways in which technology is used and played with in the workplace. We deliberated on the aesthetics of corporate [Page 184]life. And finally, we asked whether community might be built within organizations. With all these questions, we have tried to lead you into some of strange corners and back allies of corporate life which are always there, but rarely visited. In doing so, we hope to have opened your eyes to some of the aspects of this world that you have either never thought about, or recognized, but never been able to talk about.Cross-Cutting Themes
Reading across the text, we hope to have drawn out three cross-cutting themes. The first is the importance of understanding. Too often, we simply take corporations at their word. We assume that what their CEOs say is a matter of truth. If we are a little cynical, then we might suspect they are misleading us, but also think that we can do very little about such deception. Too often the words and sweet phrases of management gurus and grand plans associated with corporate change are too seductive to ignore. But we know all too well that when such advice is implemented, at best it can often only lead to fairly minor improvements in performance. At worst, it can lead to disastrous failures and the kind of corporate catastrophes that are becoming only too familiar today. By seeking to understand corporate life, rather than taking it at face value, we hope to push our readers beyond the corporate hype and into all the strange contradictions which plague everyday life at work. In addition, we also hope to question some of the more explicitly scientific views of the organization which hold that corporate life is a strict pattern of causality (like a giant game of billiard's). This involves realizing that, unlike the physical universe, the corporate world does not always go to plan. One may pull a ‘strategic lever’ and nothing happens. But it is equally possible that an entirely unexpected result will appear. This is because humans are far less predictable in their reactions than lumps of physical matter. It is just a pity that so many scientific and engineering trained managers seem to forget this, and get so confused when people do not react as they are expected to.
Understanding corporate life also allows us to expand our repertoires of ways of understanding this world. Instead of simply assuming that there is one correct model that perfectly describes the social world, we would like to suggest multiplying the ways in which we are able to look at a problem. This means that we do not have a single myopic perspective on aspects of organizational life. Rather, it means that we can look at it from a range of different and contrasting perspectives. This is vital because any good social actor must have the ability to recognize the multi-faceted nature of any problem with an organization. By doing so, it means that they are able to appreciate the often unacknowledged or unthought of aspects of an organization.
[Page 185]By seeking to enhance our understanding of corporate life, we are able to begin to describe and name aspects of organizational life that we already recognize but were previously not able to put into words. A proper understanding provides us with a formal language we can use to analyse, discuss and consider a particular phenomenon. For instance, by developing a proper understanding of space we are able to develop a language and set of terms that we can use to describe the office space which we work in now. It means we can talk sensibly about this space, describe it in some detail and perhaps compare it to other spaces. Instead of it just being there, it becomes something that has a degree of meaning for us. No longer are we mute about the things that happen to us and around us. When we seek to understand corporate life we gain the ability to actually make sense of this world which we accepted as just ‘there’ before.
By seeking to develop an understanding of corporate life, we become far more able to intervene in it. An understanding of a phenomenon gives us a language that we can play with, talk about, and possibly use to suggest alternatives. For instance, once we begin to gain a language for talking about aesthetics in the workplace, it means we are able to talk about the horrible décor or oppressive architecture. It also means that we might be able to pick out what exactly we don't like about, and possibly begin to suggest alternatives. A proper understanding allows us to see the limitations of our existing understandings. It also allows us to play with alternative ways of understanding a phenomenon. This begins to provide us with different ways of engaging with it. Ultimately, we hope that understanding will become a central plank in identifying what we would like to change about a situation and then having the ability to set about changing it.
The second theme that we hope cuts across the book is reviewing various aspects of the corporation. We hope that each of the chapters reminds the reader that corporations have become increasingly dominant institutions within our society. Indeed, they often infuse more and more aspects of our lives. Corporations have shaped our most intimate behaviour, such as how we experience time and how we move about in space. They also seek to forge a specific sense of identity and self within us. Furthermore, they build communities for us and offer us a sense of belonging in the increasingly faceless cities in which we dwell. Finally, we have tried to highlight that corporations shape even the broadest and most systematic aspects of social behaviour. For instance, in the chapter on globalization, we discussed how corporations have been instrumental in forging links between individuals and societies throughout the world.
In addition to seeing how corporations shape aspects of lives, we hope that the chapters that are contained in this book remind us of another meaning of corporate life – that is a life lived in a corpus, or body. By reminding readers of this dimension, we hope to highlight the highly embodied aspects of [Page 186]corporate life. After all, we take our bodies to work, we drag them through the time of the work-day, our knowledge and skill is often inscribed into our bodies. Indeed, the corporation is in many ways a collection of bodies. But at the same time as being a group of actual bodies, it is also an abstract person – a person with a legal reality but without any body. So it seems that the corporation requires the bodies of the people who work for it to carry out all the tasks that it can't do. In some ways it is a kind of a body snatcher.
The final aspect that cuts throughout these chapters is a reminder that corporate life is not like ‘normal’ life. Rather, life in the corporation involves a whole series of constraints that would not be tolerated in most aspects of our lives. Attempts to control where we move in space, how we use our time, the kind of knowledge we acquire, would be shocking to us in other circumstances. However, when we enter into the workplace, we merely take these aspects as a given in the workplace. Moreover, the kind of rights that the corporation has over our time, space and knowledge differs quite radically in different national contexts. For instance, Karoshi (or death by overwork) is a common consequence of the extreme demands on employees' time in Japan. However, this would not be tolerated in most European companies, because a corporation's claim on an individual's time is thought to be highly circumscribed to the working day. By thinking through these different constraints, we begin to understand why corporate life is so different in different national contexts.
And yet these chapters also illustrate the fact that the time we do in corporations is after all part of our life. We hope to have shown the reader that there is no strict demarcation to be drawn between the corporation and life. Rather, much of our lives take place within corporations. We increasingly eat, are entertained, make friends, meet romantic partners, play sports and even sleep within the corporation. Even when we leave for the night, the corporation follows us home with the Blackberry we keep in our pockets. Further, forms of life and living seem to have become increasingly incorporated. This has happened as the most basic details of what we eat, how we sleep, how we make love, how we develop our sense of identity and our sense of time are governed and shaped by corporations. Recall that some corporations own the copyright for certain words, DNA structures, and even various routine behaviours. Indeed, some would argue that life is increasingly becoming the next big zone for corporations to do their trade in. Companies increasingly sell life itself in the form of our human genome, our patterns of eating and sleeping, and our biorhythms. We live a life incorporated. And to understand it, we must understand the corporations that shape it.
In the march to quantify and commodify, corporations often come up against a barrier, something that they find very difficult to deal with. Bodies are messy things that cannot be fitted into corporate life that easily. Our bodies demand sleep, they cannot be effectively disciplined, and they have [Page 187]biological needs. Some people have bodies that are not accepted by large corporations because they do not fit into their criteria for the perfect worker. More than this, humans in corporations also demand a life. We want a sense that we can live a normal life. In fact, we often want a good life, something that is attractive and sustainable. And we are likely to say no to corporations when that good life is threatened, when we feel we risk our health, or when stress invades every pore of who we are. The result is that life continues to fight against being incorporated.Future Corporate Life
The chapters in this book provide a compelling and interesting exploration of corporate life. Corporate life, as it has been lived for the past two decades, is very specific. It is has been a life where corporations have been rapidly expanding, where they have been increasingly flexible, where they have sought to incorporate people into them through a whole range of ideological mechanisms, where they have developed increasingly short-term commitments, where they have focused on speeding up and innovation. Underlying this new form of corporate life has been an emphasis on neo-liberal economic models which mean that the individual has to be available for the marketplace 24/7.
However, this model of corporate life is now under serious threat – the recent financial melt-down has resulted in many of the most advanced corporations in the financial, manufacturing and service sectors coming under severe strain, and in some cases collapsing. Some of the basic principles that lie behind the contemporary corporation, such as short-term flexibility, control by financial institutions, increasing incorporation of all aspects of people's life-world are now being questioned. Some see the financial meltdown and the mass company failures associated with it as evidence that the kinds of principles developed by large companies have not been applied rigorously and strenuously enough. Others, however, argue that it is precisely these principles which have precipitated such a melt-down. Indeed, the increasingly short-term orientation of corporations has meant that they engaged in increasingly risky behaviours, did not undergo adequate due process when considering the issues associated with their undertakings, and so on. Indeed, many would argue that the forms of corporate life which we describe in the chapters in this book in fact laid the very groundwork for the economic tragedy which we now see unfolding before us.
If we are indeed faced with the prospect that the theories we used to understand corporate life have utterly failed us, then we are faced with some very tough decisions. In particular, there is the question of how it is possible to sustain these kinds of ways of organizing and of living in the future. It is a [Page 188]question of exactly how we might actually make our way in the world and deal with many of these questions – how we might begin to forge a new kind of organizational life? There are many open questions about what it would actually look like. For instance, how would knowledge be developed, shared and transformed into innovations? How would these new corporate spaces look? Would they still be the same kind of skyscrapers in downtown areas which we see today or would they be quite different? How about time? Would we see a consistent concern and obsession with clock time? Or would some other way of marking time emerge? Would we find the need to develop new kinds of rhythms, and what would these be? What about speed? Would we continue with our obsession with increasingly accelerating the pace and circulation of commodities and people? Or might the gigantic financial coronary that the world economy is now suffering actually provide an opportunity and indeed a reason, to slow down? What about globalization? Are we witnessing a deepening global connection?
Or might we actually be seeing a de-linking as some companies seek to protect themselves from the financial maelstrom? What will this mean for identity? Will people continue to invest significant aspects of their identity in the workplace? Or will this identity actually be something which changes? Will people find their identities in new places? Where will these be? And what of people who find themselves out of work following this collapse? How will they craft an identity in a workless present? What will the new corporate aesthetic look like? Will it still be one of unceasing blurring and modern slickness? Or will it be something altogether different? A cosier aesthetic? Or maybe an aesthetic of rubble and junk? Perhaps one of the hardest questions that we need to ask ourselves is what the revolutions and crises of our time might mean for communities? Will corporations still be able to provide the promise of community to employees? Or has that promise disappeared into ash and smoke? Are we going to witness quite another form of coming together to work in time to come? These are all question that must be answered in the future if we want to understand and indeed remake corporate life into something that is more fruitful, engaging and beautiful. These are the questions that we hope that you might begin to answer.
References[Page 189]1996) ‘Management fashion’, Academy of Management Review, 21: 254–85.(1990) ‘Can culture be managed?’, Personnel Review, 19:3–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483489010142655and (1990) Time and Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity.(1995) Timewatch: The Social Analysis of Time. Cambridge: Polity.(2002) ‘The gendered time politics of globalization: of shadowlands and elusive justice’, Feminist Review, 70: 3–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave/fr/9400001(2004) Time. Cambridge: Polity.(2002) ‘Choreographing time and management: traditions, developments and opportunities’, in R.Whipp, B.Adam and I.Sabelis (eds), Making Time: Time and Management in Modern Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press., and (1970/1997) Aesthetic Theory, trans. R.Hullot-Kentor. London: Athlone Press.(2000) ‘Collaboration networks, structural-holes, and innovation: a longitudinal study’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 45: 425–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667105(1997) Do Organizations Have Feelings?London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203429174(2003) ‘We're all partying here: target and games, or targets as games in call center management’, in A.Carr and P.Hancock (eds), Art and Aesthetics at Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave.and (1993) Organizations Working Together. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.and (2002) ‘Identity regulation as organizational control: producing the appropriate individual’, Journal of Management Studies, 39: 619–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00305and (2002) ‘Departures from knowledge and/or management in knowledge management’, Management Communication Quarterly, 16: 282–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089331802237242, and (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, revised edition. London: Verso.(2002) Doing the Dirty Work: The Global Politics of Domestic Labour. London: Zed Books.(2006) ‘A very private business: migration and domestic work’, Working Paper 26. Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford.(1988) ‘Social relationships’, in M.Hewstone, W.Stroebe, J-P.Codol and G.M.Stephenson (eds), Introduction to Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.(2006) The Economics and Sociology of Management Consulting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511488467(2000) ‘Paul Virilio: An Introduction’, in J.Armitage (ed.), Paul Virilio: From Modernism to Hypermodernism and Beyond. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218242(1984) ‘Competition between the organisational professions and the evolution of management control strategies’, in K.Thompson (ed.), Work, Employment and Unemployment: Perspectives on Work and Society. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.([Page 190]1985) ‘Changing management control strategies: the role of competition between accountancy and other organisational professions’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 10:129–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0361-3682%2885%2990012-1(1989) Handbook of Career Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625459, and (1995) Non-places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. London: Verso.(1958) The Poetics of Space. Boston: Orion Press.(2002) ‘Taylorism, targets and the pursuit of quantity and quality by call centre management’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 17: 102–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00103, , , and (1999) ‘Space – the final frontier’, Sociology, 33: 535–53.(1998) Emotion, Social Theory and Social Structure – A Macro-sociological Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511488740(1993) ‘Tightening the iron cage: concertive control in self-managing teams’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 38: 408–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393374(1985) ‘Word processing and the transformation of patriarchal relations of control in the office’, in D.MacKenzie and J.Wajcman (eds), The Social Control of Technology. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.and (2001) ‘Practice as collective action’, in T.Schatzki, K. KnorrCetina and E.von Savigny (eds), The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory. London: Routledge.(1991) ‘Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage’, Journal of Management, 17: 99–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700108(2000) ‘Teleworking: benefits, and pitfalls as perceived by professionals and managers’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 15: 34–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00063(1998) Globalization. The Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity.(2000) Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2001) Community: Seeing Safety in an Insecure World. Cambridge: Polity.(2004) The Birth of the Modern World, 1780–1914. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.(2000) What is Globalization?Oxford: Polity Press.(1981) Workspace: Creating Environments in Organizations. New York: Praeger.(1982) Artworlds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1982) ‘The sexual division of labour and the labour process’, in S.Wood (ed.), The Degradation of Work? Skill, Deskilling and the Labour Process. London: Hutchinson.(1915) Art. London: Chatto and Windus.(2002) ‘Hangingon the telephone: temporal flexibility and the accessible worker’, in R.Whipp, B.Adam and I.Sabelis (eds), Making Time: Time and Management in Modern Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1956) Work and Authority in Industry. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1966) Changing Organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1990) ‘Corporate architecture: turning physical settings into symbolic resources’, in P.Gagliardi (ed.), Symbols and Artifacts: Views of the Corporate Landscape. Berlin: de Gruyter.and (1991) Managing Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Oxford: Blackwell.(1995) ‘Sociohistorical technology studies’, in S.Jasanoff, G.E.Markle, J.C.Peterson and T.J.Pinch (eds), Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412990127([Page 191]1967) Land and Work in Medieval Europe. London: Routledge.(1992) ‘Machine and manoeuvres: responsibility accounting and the construction of hospital information systems’, Accounting, Management and Information Technology, 2: 197–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0959-8022%2892%2990009-H, , and (Blyton, P. and Turnbull, P. (eds) (1994) Reassessing Human Resource Management. London: Sage.2003) ‘Contribution to the critique of the aesthetic economy’, Thesis Eleven, 73: 71–82.(2005) The New Spirit of Capitalism. London: Verso.and (2005) Emotion Management in the Workplace. Houndmills: Palgrave.(1983) The Discoverers. New York: Random House.(1986) Theories of Social Change. Cambridge: Polity.(2000) ‘Interpersonal and interaction influences on informal resource exchanges between R&D researchers across organizational boundaries’, Academy of Management Journal, 43: 50–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1556385(1974) Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review Press.(1957) Schriften zum Theater. Berlin and Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.(1997) ‘Email, power and the constitution of organisational reality’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 12: 25–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00020and (2001) ‘Power, identity and new technology homework: implications for new forms of organising’, Organization Studies, 22: 445–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840601223003(2000) ‘Organizational identity and learning: a psychodynamic perspective’, Academy of Management Review, 25: 102–20.and (2005) ‘Territoriality in organizations’, Academy of Management Review, 30: 577–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2005.17293710, and (2001) ‘Knowledge and organization: a social-practice perspective’, Organization Science, 12:198–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.126.96.36.19916and (1982) ‘The irrationality of action and action rationality: decisions, ideologies and organizational actions’, Journal of Management Studies, 19: 29–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1982.tb00058.x(1989) The Organization of Hypocrisy: Talk, Decisions and Actions in Organizations. Chichester: Wiley.(1999) Power, Politics and Organizational Change. London: Sageand (1983) Organisations in the ComputerAge. Aldershot: Gower.and (1979) Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process Under Monopoly Capitalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1997) ‘Social relationships and emotions’, Sociology, 31: 37–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038597031001004(1992) ‘Back to the future: time and organization’, in M.Reed and M.Hughes (eds), Rethinking Organization. London: Sage.(1997) Pandemonium: Towards a Retro-Organization Theory. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221846(1986) ‘The sociology of an actor-network: the case of the electric vehicle’, in M.Callon, J.Law and A.Rip (eds), Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology. London: Macmillan.(2006) ‘Fine fashion: using symbolic artifacts, sensemaking, and sensegiving to construct identity and image’, in A.Rafaeli and M.G.Pratt (eds), Artifacts and Organizations: Beyond Mere Symbolism. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and (1967) ‘The Hawthorne Studies: a radical criticism’, American Sociological Review, 32: 403–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2091087([Page 192]2002) ‘A pragmetic view of knowledge and boundaries: boundary objects in new product development’, Organization Science, 13: 442–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.13.4.442.2953(How to Win Friends and Influence People. New York: Vermilion.(1937/1990)1999) The challenge of postmodernism and the casting of psychoanalysis as mere hermeneutics', in Y.Gabriel (ed.), Organizations in Depth: The Psychoanalysis of Organizations. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217269(2003) ‘Art as a form of knowledge: the implications for critical management’, in A.Carr and P.Hancock (eds), Art and Aesthetics at Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554641(1999) ‘People who can be friends: selves and social relationships’, in S.Bell and S.Coleman (eds), The Anthropology of Friendship. Oxford: Berg.(1987) Paraesthetics: Foucault, Lyotard, Derrida. London: Routledge.(2000) ‘An-aesthetics’, in S.Linstead and H.Höpfl (eds), The Aesthetics of Organization. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217351and (2005) ‘Laziness’, in C.Jones and D.O'Doherty (eds), Manifestos for the Business School of Tomorrow. Truku: Dvalin Books.and (1997) ‘Ideologies and forms of domination in the organization of the global production and consumption of goods in the emerging postmodern era: a case study of Nike Corporation and the implications for gender’, Gender, Work and Organizations, 4:189–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-0432.00035(1995) Work, Self and Society: After Industrialism. London: Routledge.(1999) The Fate of Place. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.(1996) The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwells(2007) ‘How ICI settled on the wording of its epitaph’, Observer, 24 June, at: http://observer.guardian.co.uk/business/story/0,,2109728,00.html(2007) Bound Together: How Traders, Preachers, Adventurers and Warriors Shaped Globalization. New Haven: Yale University Press.(1997) ‘Strategic choice in the analysis of action, structure, organizations and environments: retrospect and prospect’, Organization Studies, 18:107–41 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069701800104(1972) ‘Organisation structure, environment and performance: the role of strategic choice’, Sociology, 6:1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803857200600101(2005) Cooperative Strategy: Managing Alliances, Networks and Joint Ventures. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199266241.001.0001, and (2003) ‘Fiascos that haunt ‘cando’ company’, The Guardian 15 February, at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2003/feb/15/londonpolitics.congestoncharging(2005) ‘Out of sight but not out of mind: managing invisible social identities in the workplace’, Academy of Management Review, 30: 78–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2005.15281431, and (1995) Managing Innovation and Change: People, Technology and Strategy. London: Sage.(1997) The Managerial State. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221747and (2004) ‘From dramaturgy to theatre as technology: the case of corporate theatre’, Journal of Management Studies, 4: 37–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00420.xand (2008) Managing & Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. London: Sage., and (CMR International (2004) Centre for Medical Research International R&D Compendium 2004. London: CMR.1983) Brothers: Male Dominance and Technological Change. London: Pluto Press.([Page 193]1971) ‘A garbage can model of organizational choice’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 17:1–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392088, and (1992) Escape Attempts. Harmondsworth: Penguin.and (2005) ‘The (not so simple) case for teleworking: a study at Lloyds of London’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 20:115–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2005.00148.x(1992) Managing the Shopfloor: Subjectivity, Masculinity and Workplace Culture. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110879162(2002) ‘Managing humour’, Journal of Management Studies, 39: 269–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00292(2003) ‘Identities and insecurities: selves at work’, Organization, 10: 527–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13505084030103010(1997) ‘“Delayering managers”: time-space surveillance and its gendered effects’, Organization, 4: 375–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050849743005and (2000) ‘Comment on Wenger and Yanow. Knowing in practice: a delicate flower in the organizational learning field’, Organization, 7: 269–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050840072004and (2003) ‘Re-embedding situatedness: the importance of power relations in learning theory’, Organization Science, 14: 283–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.14.3.283.15167and (1999) ‘Bridging epistemologies: the generative dance between organizational knowledge and organizational knowing’, Organization Science, 10: 381–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.10.4.381and (1987) Architect or Bee?: The Human Price of Technology. London: Hogarth Press.(1992) ‘Systems and organizations: distal and proximal thinking’, Systems Practice, 5: 373–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01059829(1995) ‘Organization: distal and proximal views’, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 13: 237–74.and (2003) ‘Sound organisation: a brief history of psychosonic management’, ephemera: critical dialogues on organization, 3: 261–72.(2002) ‘Making a drama before the crisis’, The Guardian, 5 January.(1999) Britain at Work. London: Routledge., , and (2005) ‘Impact of MIS/IT upon middle managers: some evidence from the NHS’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 20:115–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2005.00148.xand (2003) ‘An-aesthetics and architecture’, in A.Carr and P.Hancock (eds), Art and Aesthetics at Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave.and (2002) The Senses of Modernism: Technology, Perception and Aesthetics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1964) ‘The artworld’, Journal of Philosophy, 61: 571–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2022937(2003) Factory. London: Reaktion.(1998) Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.and (1992) The Virtual Corporation. New York: Harper Business Press.and (2000) Developing Knowledge-Based Client Relationships. Woburn, MA: Butterworth.(1997) The Living Company. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.(2005) Irresistible Empire: America's Advance through 20th Century Europe. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of the University of Harvard.(2004) The Art Firm: Aesthetic Management and Metaphysical Marketing. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.(1999) The New Corporate Cultures. London: Orion.and (1998) Celebration at Work: Play, Purpose and Profit at Work. New York: Berrett-Koehler.and ([Page 194]2005) ‘Recruiting a self: women performers and aesthetic labour’, Work, Employment and Society, 19(4): 761–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017005058061(2003) Community. London: Routledge.(1998) Life on the Line in Contemporary Manufacturing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198292333.001.0001(1992) ‘Postscript on the societies of control’, October, 59: 3–7.(1984) Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.and (2006) ‘Work, organisation and Enterprise Resource Planningsystems: an alternative research agenda’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 21: 199–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2006.00175.x, , and (DfES (2002) Progress File: ‘Getting Started’, ‘Moving On’, ‘Exploring Pathways’, ‘Widening Horizons’. London: HMSO.2006) Global Shift,(5th edn.London: Sage.1974) Art and the Aesthetic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(2000) Beautiful Corporations: Corporate Style in Action. Harlow: Pearson Education.and (1999) The Art of Management and the Aesthetic Manager. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.(1993) Post-Capitalist Society, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.(1996) Consumption and Identity at Work. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221945.(2000) In Praise of Bureaucracy. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217580.(1997) The New Office. London: Conran Octopus.(The Division of Labour in Society, trans. W.Halls. Basingstoke: Macmillan.(1893/1984)1999) Cyber-Marx: Cycles and Circuits of Struggle in High-Technology Capitalism. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.(1990) The Ideology of the Aesthetic. Oxford: Blackwell.(2005) The Politics of Working Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271900.001.0001and (1979) Contested Terrain: The Transformation of the Workplace in the Twentieth Century. London: Heinemann.(1959) Cosmos and History: The Myth of the Eternal Return. New York: Harper & Row.(1978) The History of Manners – The Civilising Process, Vol. 1. Oxford: Blackwell.(1998) ‘Brands as symbolic resources for construction of identity’, International Journal of Advertising, 17: 131–43.(1964) The Technological Society. New York: Vintage Books.(2004b) ‘Interpreting workplace identities: the role of office décor’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25: 99–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.233(Employers for Work-Life Balance (2007) http://www.employersforwork-lifebalance.org.uk2002) ‘The aesthetic economy: the production of value in the field of fashion modelling’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 2(3): 317–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146954050200200302(1998) ‘Accounting for teamwork’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 43: 358–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393856and (2001) ‘Power, control and resistance in the factory that time forgot’, Journal of Management Studies, 38: 1053–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00272, and (2000) The Volume and Dynamics of International Migration and Transnational Social Spaces. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198293910.001.0001([Page 195]1992) ‘Postmodernism and the aestheticization of everyday life’, in S.Lash and J.Friedman (eds), Modernity and Identity. Oxford: Blackwell.(1986) ‘Society and concepts of time’, International Social Science Journal, 107, 19–32.and (Fineman, S. (ed.) (1993) Emotion in Organizations. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219850Fineman, S. (ed.) (2000a) Emotion in Organizations,2nd edn.London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462198502000b) ‘Commodifying the emotionally intelligent’, in S.Fineman (ed.) Emotion in Organizations,(2nd edn.London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462198502003) Understanding Emotion at Work. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216538(2005a) ‘Metaphors of resistance’, Management Communication Quarterly, 19: 45–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0893318905276559(2005b) ‘Workers' playtime? Boundaries and cynicism in a “culture of fun” program’, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41: 285–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886305277033(2005c) ‘Kindergarten cop’: paternalism and resistance in a high commitment workplace’, Journal of Management Studies, 42: 1469–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00551.x(2003) ‘Working from a cynical distance: implications for power, subjectivity and resistance’, Organization, 10: 159–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508403010001376and (2009) ‘Just be yourself – towards neo-normative control in organisations’, Employee Relations, October, forthcoming.and (2002) The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York, NY: Basic Books.(2006) ‘Working for themselves? Capital market intermediaries and present day capitalism’, Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change Working Paper 25. Milton Keynes., , and (1985) The Information Technology Revolution. Oxford: Blackwell.(The Will to Knowledge. London: Penguin.(1976/1998)1979) The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1982) ‘The subject and power’, in H.Dreyfus and P.Rabinow (eds), Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester.(2000) ‘Friendship as a way of life’, in P.Rabinow (ed.), The Essential Works of Michel Foucault, 1954–1984: Ethics. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(2002) ‘Utopianism and the cultivation of possibilities: grassroots movements of hope’, in M.Parker (ed.), Utopia and Organization. Oxford: Blackwell/Sociological Review.(2005) ‘Yes’, in C.Jones and D.O'Doherty (eds), Manifestos: For the Business School of Tomorrow. Turku: Dvalin Books.(1974) Man Mismanagement. London: Hutchinson.(2000) ‘Communities of practice, Foucault and actor-network theory’, Journal of Management Studies, 37: 853–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00207(Freedman, R. (ed.) (1962) Marx on Economics. London: Pelican.1999) On the Front Line: Organization of Work in the Information Age. Ithaca: ILR Press., , and (2005) The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Globalized World in the 21st Century. London: Penguin/Allen Lane.(2004) The Palgrave Companion to North American Utopias. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.and (2006) Financialization and Strategy. Narratives and Numbers. London: Routledge., , and (1982) ‘Technology-structure research: three critical issues’, Academy of Management Journal, 25: 532–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256078([Page 196]1992) The End of History and the Last Man. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(2002) Knowledge Management Foundations. London: Butterworth Heinemann.(1995) The unmanaged organization: stories, fantasies and subjectivity, Organization Studies, 16: 477–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069501600305(1999) Organizations in Depth. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217269(2003) ‘Glass palaces and iron cages: organizations in times of flexible work, fragmented consumption and fragile selves’, ephemera: critical dialogues on organizations, 3: 166–84.(1990) ‘Artifacts as pathways and remains of organizational life’, in P.Gagliardi (ed.), Symbols and Artifacts: Views of the Corporate Landscape. Berlin: de Gruyter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110874143(1983) Gender at Work. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin.and (1967) Studies in Ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity.(1996) The New Work Order. Behind the Language of the New Capitalism. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin., and (2000) ‘Emotions and leadership: the role of emotional intelligence’, Human Relations, 53: 1027–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726700538001(1996) ‘Global commodity chains: new forms of coordination and control among nations and firms in international industries’, Competition and Change1: 427–39.(2001) ‘Shifting governance structures in global commodity chains. With special reference to the internet’, American Behavioural Scientist, 44:1616–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00027640121958087(2005) ‘The global economy: organization, governance and development’, in N.J.Smelser and R.Swedberg (eds), The Handbook of Economic Sociology,(2nd edn.Princeton, NJ: Russell Sage Foundation and Princeton University Press.Gereffi, G. and Korzeniewicz, M. (eds) (1994) Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism. Westport, CT: Praeger.1953) Character and Social Structure – The Psychology of Social Institutions. San Diego: Harvest/HBJ.and (2006) Organizational Knowledge: The Texture of Workplace Learning. Blackwell.(2004a) ‘Arts based training in management development; improvisational theatre’, Journal of Management Development, 23: 741–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710410549594(2004b) ‘Imagination, creativity and HRD; an aesthetic perspective’, Human Resource Development Review, 3: 53–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534484303261841(2006) Aesthetics and HR: Connections, Concepts and Opportunities. London: Routledge.(1979) Central Problems in Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity.(1984) The Constitution of Society. Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity.(1991) Modernity and Self Identity. Cambridge: Polity.(1999) Runaway World: How Globalization is Reshaping our Lives. London: Profile Books.(1990) When Technology Wounds: The Human Consequences of Progress. New York: William Morrow.(1996) ‘Reworking E.P. Thompson's “Time, work-discipline and industrial capitalism”’, Time & Society, 5: 275–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961463X96005003001and (1980) Time, Work and Culture in the Middle Ages. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.(1961) Asylums. New York: Anchor Press.([Page 197]1998) Nike Culture. London: Sage.and (1968) The Affluent Worker: Industrial Attitudes and Behaviours. London: Cambridge University Press., , and (Gordon, C. (ed.) (1980) Michel Foucault. Power/Knowledge. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.1954) Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy. New York: Free Press.(1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.(1973) The strength of weak ties', American Journal of Sociology, 78: 1360–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/225469(2006) The false promise of technological determinism: the case of enterprise resource planning systems', New Technology, Work and Employment, 21: 2–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2006.00159.x, , and (1996) ‘Prospering in dynamically-competitive environments: organizational capability as knowledge integration’, Organization Science, 7: 375–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.7.4.375(2005) Management Speak: Why We Listen to What the Gurus Tell Us. London: Routledge.and (1995) Going Virtual: Moving Your Organisation into the 21st Century. New York: Prentice Hall.and (1994) ‘Career as a project of the self and labour process discipline’, Sociology, 28: 479–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038594028002007(2003) ‘The fetish of change’, Tamara, 2:1–19.(2005) A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book About Studying Organizations. London: Sage.(2007) ‘Friendship and organizational analysis: towards a research agenda’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 16: 157–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492606295500and (1996) ‘Re-engineering history’, Organization, 1:179–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050849400100116(1998) The Sociology of Work. Cambridge: Polity.(1997) The Machine at Work: Technology, Work and Organization. Cambridge: Polity.and (2000) ‘Cultural control and the culture manager: employment practices in a consultancy’, Work Employment and Society, 14:97–116., and (2003) ‘Assimilation and transnationalism: determinants of political action among contemporary migrants’, American Journal of Sociology, 108: 1211–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/375195, and (2006) The Taylorized Beauty of the Mechanical and the Rise of Modernist Architecture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1980) Work Redesign. New York: Addison-Wesley.and (1999) ‘Learning in networks’, Industrial Marketing Management, 2: 443–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0019-8501%2899%2900080-2, and (1996) Modernity: An Introduction to Modern Society. London: Blackwell.(2006) Commerce and Capitalism in Chinese Societies. London: Routledge.(1997) ‘Citizenship or vassalage? Organizational membership in the age of unreason’, Organization, 4: 93–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050849741006(2003) ‘Aestheticizingthe world of organization – creating beautiful untrue things’, Tamara, 2: 91–103.(2005) ‘Uncovering the semiotic in organizational aesthetics’, Organization, 12: 29–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508405048575(2006) ‘The Spatial and Temporal Mediation of Social Change’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 19: 619–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09534810610686706([Page 198]2000) ‘“The look of love”: gender, work and the organization of aesthetics’, in J.Hassard, R.Holliday and H.Willmott (eds), Body and Organization. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218303and (1985) Understanding Organisations. London: Penguin.(1995) The Empty Raincoat. London: Arrow.(1998) ‘Professionalism as enterprise: service class politics and the redefinition of professionalism’, Sociology, 32: 43–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038598032001004(1996) Transnational Connections. London: Routledge.(1999) ‘The search transfer problem: the role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organizational sub-units’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 82–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667032(1999) ‘What's your strategy for managing knowledge?’, Harvard Business Review, March/April, 106–116., and (1991) Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Free Association Books.(2000) Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.and (1980) Fundamental Concepts and the Sociological Enterprise. London: Croom Helm.(2006) ‘Employees as animate artifacts: wearing the brand’, in A.Rafaeli and M.G.Pratt (eds), Artifacts and Organizations: Beyond Mere Symbolism. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1980) Fundamental Concepts and the Sociological Enterprise. London: Croom Helm.(1974) Social Justice and the City. Oxford: Blackwell.(1989) The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.(1996) ‘Images of time in work and organization’, in S.R.Clegg, C.Hardy, and W.Nord (eds), Handbook of Organizations. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781848608030.(Hassard, J. and Law, J. (eds) (1999) Actor Network Theory and After. Oxford: Blackwell.1997) Organization Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2006) Organization Theory: Modern, Symbolic, and Postmodern Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1956) The Concept of Time. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1995) White Collar Blues: Management Loyalties in an Age of Corporate Restructuring. New York: Basic Books.(1977) The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. New York: Harper & Row.(2004) ‘A whiff of success’, Rapport: The Magazine for Peugeot Owners, Summer Issue: 23–5.(1975) The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1988) The Tragedy of Technology. London: Pluto Press.(1999) Globalization in Question,and (2nd edn.Oxford: Polity Press.1998) Uncommon People: Resistance, Rebellion and Jazz. London: Abacus.(2004) The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489013(1983) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1997) The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. New York: Metropolitan Books.([Page 199]1996) ‘Love and the teleworker’, Distans, February.(1991) Work Psychology and Organizational Behaviour. London: Sage.(2004) In Praise of Slow. London: Ovion.(2006) ‘Post-bureaucracy and Weber's ‘modern’ bureaucrat’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 19: 8–21.(2007) Organizational Behaviour,and (6th edn.London: Prentice Hall.1999) Futurism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1996) The Clash of Civilizations. New York: Simon Schuster.(An Inquiry Concerning Beauty, Order, Harmony, Design, ed. P.Kivy. The Hague: Martinus: Nijhoff.(1725/1973)1993) ‘Network centrality, power, and innovation involvement: determinants of technical and administrative roles’, Academy of Management Journal, 36: 471–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256589(1990) Technology and the Lifeworld: From Garden to Earth. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1995) ‘Work, time and industry’, Time & Society, 4: 5–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961463X95004001001(2000) ‘Friendship among competitors in the Sydney hotel industry’, American Journal of Sociology, 106: 387–423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/316965and (Jackson, P. (ed.) (1999) Virtual Working: Social and Organizational Dynamics. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/97802030643681993) Art and Business, London: Thames and Hudson.(1996) Manufacturing the Employee. Management Knowledge from the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Centuries. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221938.(1972) Marienthal: The Sociography of an Unemployed Community. London: Tavistock.(1982) Employment and Unemployment: A Social-Psychological Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2007) Affluenza. London: Random House.(2005) ‘Many diversities for many services: theorizing diversity (management) in service companies’, Human Relations, 58: 311–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726705053424and (2002) ‘What is a cryptohutopia and why does it matter?’, in M.Parker (ed.), Utopia and Organisation. London: Blackwell Books.(2004) The Successful Candidate: How to be the Person they Want to Hire. London: Pearson.(1988) ‘Sabotage at work: the rational view’, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 6: 101–34.(1982) ‘Destruction or redistribution of engineering skills? The case of numerical control’, in S.Woods (ed.), The Degradation of Work?London: Hutchinson.(JPC-SED (2004) Japan Productivity Center for Socio-Economic Development. http://www.jpc-sed.or.jp (accessed 30 April 2007).Critique of Judgement, trans. J.C.Meredith. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1790/1997)1972) Commitment and Community: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(Kenney, M. (ed.) (2000) Understanding Silicon Valley: The Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region. Stanford: Stanford University Press.2004) Locating Global Advantage: Industry Dynamics in the International Economy. Stanford: Stanford University Press.with (1994) Agile Manufacturing: Forging New Frontiers. London: Addison-Wesley.(2000) No Logo. London: Flamingo.([Page 200]2000) ‘Bewitched, bothered and bewildered: the meaning and experience of teamwork for employees in an automobile company’, Human Relations, 53: 1481–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726700538004and (1988) New Technology and the Labour Process. London: Macmillan.and (1989) ‘Power and subjectivity at work: from degradation to subjugation in social relations’, Sociology, 24: 535–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038589023004003and (2006) Introducing Organizational Behaviour and Management. London: Thompson.and (1999) Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2002) ‘Global microstructures: the virtual societies of financial markets’, American Journal of Sociology, 107: 905–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/341045and (Knorr Cetina, K. and Preda, A. (eds) (2005) The Sociology of Financial Markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press.2003) ‘Communities of coping: collective emotional labour in service work’, Organization, 10: 55–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508403010001479(1999) ‘E-tribalized marketing?: the strategic implications of virtual communities of consumption’, European Journal of Management, 17: 252–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-2373%2899%2900004-3(1993) ‘Informal collaboration in R&D: the formation of networks across organizations’, Organization Studies, 14: 189–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069301400202and (1981) ‘Women's time’, Signs, 7: 13–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/493855(2002) The Pleasures of Slow Food: Celebrating Authentic Traditions, Flavors and Recipes. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.(1992) Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High-Tech Corporation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(2005) ‘Managers, markets and ideologies – design and devotion revisited’, in S.Ackroyd, R.Batt, P.Thompson and P.S.Tolbert (eds), Oxford Handbook of Work and Organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (2007) ‘Flying the black flag: revolt, revolution and the social organization of piracy in the “golden age”’, Management and Organizational History, 2: 169–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744935907078726(2001) ‘From the Borgias to the Borg (and back again): rethinking organizational futures’, in W.Smith, M.Higgins, M.Parker and G.Lightfoot (eds), Science Fiction and Organization. London: Routledge.and (1983) Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.(1987) The End of Organized Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.and (Lash S. and Urry J. (1994) Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage.1991) ‘Technology is society made durable’, in J.Law (ed.), A Sociology of Monsters? Essays on Power, Technology and Domination. London: Routledge.(1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355and (1992) ‘Notes on the theory of the actor-network: ordering, strategy and heterogeneity’, Systems Practice, 5: 379–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01059830(2005) Happiness. Lessons from a New Science. London: Penguin.(2000) Living on Thin Air: The New Economy. London: Penguin.(2004) Becoming an Employer of Choice. London: CIPD.(1991) The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell.(1993) Fast Food, Fast Talk: Service Work and The Routinization of Everyday Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.([Page 201]1999) ‘Emotional labour in service work’, Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 561: 81–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716299561001006(1992) ‘Core capabilities and core rigidities: a paradox in managing new product development’, Strategic Management Journal, 13: 111–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250131009(2005) ‘Charters of liberty in black face and white face’, Mute, 2(1): 72–85.(1954) The Economics of Location. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(The Theory of the Novel: A Historico-Philosophical Essay on the Forms of Great Epic Literature, trans. A.Bostock. London: Merlin Press.(1920/1978)2000) Hybrid. Basel: Christopher Merian Verlag.(2003) ‘The psychological impact of teleworking: stress, emotions and health’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 18:196–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00121and (1991) ‘Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning’, Organization Science, 2: 71–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.1.71(1968) Negations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1978) The Aesthetic Dimension: Towards a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics. Boston: MA: Beacon Press.(1974) ‘What do bosses do?’, in A.Gorz (ed.), The Division of Labour. The Labour Process and Class Struggle in Modern Capitalism. Brighton: Harvester.(1999) ‘The new migrants: ‘flexible workers’ in a global economy’, in T.skelton and T.Allen (eds), Culture and Global Change. London: Routledge.(2007) World City. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1992) A User's Guide to Capitalism and Schizophrenia: Deviations from Deleuze and Guattari. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1989) Tools of Change: New Technology and the Democratisation of Work. Sydney: Pluto Press.(2006) ‘Dynamics of social capital and their performance implications: lessons from biotechnology’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 51: 262–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.183and (2002) ‘Building brand community’, Journal of Marketing, 66: 38–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.188.8.131.5251, and (2005a) ‘Governing working bodies through leisure: a genealogical analysis’, Leisure Sciences, 27: 315–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490400590962425(2005b) ‘Fitter, happier, more productive: governing working bodies through wellness’, Culture and Organization, 11: 125–38 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14759550500091036(1987) The Human Side of Enterprise. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(2002) ‘Dead selves': the birth of the modern career’, Organization, 9:595–614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050840294005(1999) Creative Technological Change: The Shaping of Technology and Organisations. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203019870(1962) The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.(The Philosophy of the Present, ed. A.E.Murphy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1932/1980)1946) The Phenomenology of Perception. London: Routledge.(1993) ‘The curriculum vitae: confessions of a wage labourer’, Work, Employment and Society, 6: 619–41.(1987) ‘Cultural change: an integration of three different views’, Journal of Management Studies, 24: 623–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1987.tb00466.xand (1990) ‘Governingeconomic life’, Economy and Society, 19(1): 1–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149000000001and (On Liberty in Focus, eds J.Gray and G.W.Smith. London: Routledge.(1859/1991) [Page 202]2003) ‘Hegemonic and marginalised educational utopias in the contemporary western world’, Policy Futures in Education, 1: 440–466. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2003.1.3.2(2004) ‘Practices of global capital: gaps, cracks and ironies in transnational call centres in India’, Global Networks, 4: 245–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2004.00098.x(2003) ‘Telework and occupational health: a Quebec empirical study and regulatory implications’, Safety Science, 41: 339–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535%2802%2900042-5and (1985) ‘From west to east and back again: capitalist expansion and class formation in the nineteenth century’, in H.Newby et al. (eds), Restructuring Capital: Recession and Reorganization in Industrial Society. London: Macmillan.(1996) ‘National stakeholders in the global contest for corporate investment’, European Journal of Industrial Relations, 2: 345–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095968019623004(1992) ‘The Europeanization of manufacturing and the decentralization of bargaining’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 3:15–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585199200000128and (1934) Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt Brace.(1967) The Myth of the Machine, Volume 1: Technics and Human Development. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.(2001) ‘Brand community’, Journal of Consumer Research, 27(4): 412–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/319618and (2003) The 21st Century Office. London: Lawrence King.and (1998) ‘Social capital, intellectual capital and the organizational advantage’, Academy of Management Review, 23(2): 242–66.and (National Audit Office (2002) ‘Individual Learning Accounts’ [press Notice 60/02] http://www.nac.org.uk/pn/Ø1-Ø2/Ø1Ø212.35.htm2000) ‘Managing careers’, in S.Bach and K.Sisson (eds), Personnel Management,(3rd edn.Oxford: Blackwell.2002) Managing Knowledge Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave., , and (2006) ‘The work for making telemedicine work’, Social Science & Medicine, 62(11): 2754–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.11.001(Nicolini, D., Gherardi, S., Yanow, D. (eds) (2003) Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-Based Approach. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.1984) Forces of Production. New York: Alfred Knopf.(1993) Progress Without People: In Defence of Luddism. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr.(1994) ‘A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation’, Organization Science, 5:14–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.5.1.14(2005) God's Clockmaker: Richard of Wallingford and the Invention of Time. London: Hambledon.(Time: The Modern and Postmodern Experience. Cambridge: Polity.(1989/1994)1998) ‘Managing organizational culture: compliance or genuine change?’, British Journal of Management, 9: 273–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00098and (2006) ‘Organisational culture in the age of the Internet: an exploratory study’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 21: 162–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2006.00170.xand (1989) ‘Managing in a borderless world’, Harvard Business Review, 67: 52–61.(1989) Corporate Identity: Making Business Strategy Visible Through Design. London: Thames and Hudson.(2005) Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics and Ethics as Anthropolgical Problems. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.and (1992) ‘The duality of technology: rethinking the concept of technology in organizations’, Organizational Sciences, 3: 398–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.3.3.398([Page 203]2002) ‘Knowing in practice: enacting a collective capability in distributed organizing’, Organization Science, 13: 249–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.184.108.40.20676(2006) ‘Material knowing: the scaffolding of human knowledgeability’, European Journal of Information Systems, 15: 460–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000639(1969) On the Experience of Time. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1990) ‘Sharing knowledge, celebrating identity: war stories and community memory in a service culture’, in D.Middleton and D.Edwards (eds), Collective Remembering: Remembering in a Society. London: Sage.(1981) Theory Z: How American Business can meet the Japanese Challenge. New York: Avon.(1978) ‘Types of organizational control and their relationship to emotional well-being’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 23: 293–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392566and (2004) ‘Knowledge networks as channels and conduits: the effects of spillovers in the Boston biotechnology community’, Organization Science, 15: 5–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1030.0054and (2000) On Friendship. Cambridge: Polity.(1997) ‘Organizations and citizenship’, Organization, 4: 75–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050849741005(2007) Dictionary of Alternatives. London: Zed Books., and (2001) Airspace. London: Reaktion.(2006) ‘Art for management's sake? a doubt’, Culture and Organization, 12(1): 65–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14759550500490592(2003) Re-Imagine! Business Excellence in a Disruptive Age. London: Dorling Kindersley.(1982) In Search of Excellence. New York: Harper & Row.and (2001) Slow Food: Collected Thoughts on Taste, Tradition, and the Honest Pleasures of Food. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.(2004) ‘Brand culture and branded workers: service work and aesthetic labour in fashion retail’, Consumption, Markets and Culture, 7(2): 165–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1025386042000246214(1992) Managing with Power. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.(1984) The Second Industrial Divide. New York: Basic Books.and (Art and Social Life, ed. A. Rothstein; trans. A.Fineberg. London: Lawrence and Wishart.(1912/1947)1962) Personal Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2001) ‘That's infotainment’, People Management, 6: 19–23.(2002) ‘Transnational entrepreneurs: the emergence and determinants of an alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation’, American Sociological Review, 67: 278–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3088896, and (1990) The Mode of Information. Cambridge: Polity.(2003) The Substance of Style: How the Rise of Aesthetic Value is Remaking Commerce, Culture and Consciousness. New York, NY: Perennial.(2001) ‘The capitalist firm in the twenty-first century: emerging patterns in Western enterprises’, in P.DiMaggio (ed.), The Twenty-First Century Firm. Princeton: Princeton University Press.(2005) ‘Network dynamics and field evolution: the growth of interorganizational collaboration in the life sciences’, The American Journal of Sociology, 110:1132–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/421508, , and (2000) ‘The good, the bad and the ambivalent: managing identification among Amway distributors’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 45: 456–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667106(2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Touchstone.([Page 204]Quiller-Couch, A. (ed.) (1919) The Oxford Book of English Verse: 1250–1900. Oxford: Oxford University Press.1993) Tailored meanings: on the meaning and impact of organizational dress', Academy of Management Review, 18(1): 32–55.and (2004) Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. London: Verso.(1984) ‘Management as a social practice’, Journal of Management Studies, 21: 273–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1984.tb00411.x(2004) Happy Mondays: Putting Pleasure Back into Work. London: Pearson Education.(1996) The McDonaldization of Society, revised edn. Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage.(2004) The Globalization of Nothing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.(2005) The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.(2006) ‘From organization to hypermodern organization: the accelerated appearance and disappearance of Enron’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 19: 558–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09534810610686067and (1986) Information Technology: A Luddite Analysis. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.and (1975) Industrial Behaviour,(2nd edn.Harmondsworth: Penguin.1989) Governing The Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self. London: Routledge.(1996) ‘The death of the social? Refiguring the territory of government’, Economy and Society, 25: 327–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149600000018(2004) No-Collar: The Humane Workplace and its Hidden Costs. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(2005) ‘“Watch out, here comes feeling!” Women executives and emotion work’, International Journal of Work, Organisation and Emotion, 1:48–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJWOE.2005.007326, and (1963) Timetables. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.(1993) ‘The invention of corporate culture: a history of the histories of Cadbury’, Human Relations, 46: 299–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679304600301and (1960) ‘Banana time: job satisfaction and informal interaction’, Human Organization, 18: 156–68.(In Praise of Idleness. London: Routledge.(1935/2001)1991) ‘Rigid politics and technological flexibility: the anatomy of a failed hospital innovation’, Science, Technology, & Human Values, 16: 419–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399101600401(1996) Rebels Against the Future. The Luddites and their War on the Industrial Revolution: Lessons for the ComputerAge. London: Quartet.(2003) Migrant Remittances to Developing Countries, prepared for the UK Deptfor International Development (DFID). London: Bannock Consulting.(2006) Territory Authority Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.(2006) The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1992) Technology and Organization: Power, Meaning and Design. London: Routledge.and (2001) ‘Explaining the diffusion of knowledge management: the role of fashion’, British Journal of Management, 12: 3–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00182and ([Page 205]2001) ‘Practice theory’, in T.Schatzki, K.Knorr Cetina and E.von Savigny (eds), The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory. London: Routledge.(1978) Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organizational Needs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1980) The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Blackwell.(1997) Marketing Aesthetics: The Strategic Management of Brands, Identity and Image. New York: Free Press.and (2005) Globalization: A Critical Introduction,(2nd edn.London: Palgrave Macmillan.1995) ‘Subcultures of consumption: an ethnography of the new bikers’, Journal of Consumer Research, 22: 43–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209434and (Schultz, M., Hatch, M.J. and Larsen, M.H. (eds) (2000) The Expressive Organization: Linking Identity, Reputation, and the Corporate Brand. Oxford: Oxford University Press.2004) ‘Knowing what you don't know? Discourses and contradictions in knowledge management research’, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 549–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00444.xand (1973) Small is Beautiful. London: Blond and Briggs.(2004) The Paradox of Choice. Why More is Less. New York: Harper Perennial.(1998) Serial Killers. London: Routledge.(1998) The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. New York: Norton.(1999) The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. New York: Norton.(2006) The Culture of the New Capitalism. New Haven: Yale University Press.(1993) The Hidden Injuries of Class. New York: W.W. Norton and Sons.and (1992a) ‘Empowerment or emasculation? Shopfloor surveillance in a total quality organisation’, in P.Blyton and W.Streeck (eds), Reassessing Human Resource Management. London: Sage.and (2007) Leadership for the Disillusioned. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.(2000) ‘Enterprise resource planning in re-engineering business’, Business Process Management Journal, 6: 376–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14637150010352390(1970) Introduction, in Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Books 1–3). Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1982) ‘Leadership: the management of meaning’, The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 18: 257–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188638201800303and (The Wealth of Nations (Books I-III). Harmondsworth: Pelican Classics.(1776/1970)The Wealth of Nations (Books IV-V). Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1776/2000)Soderberg, A-M. and Vaara, E. (eds) (2003) Merging across Borders: People, Cultures and Politics. Copenhagen; Copenhagen: Business School Press.1937) ‘Social time: a methodological and functional analysis’, American Journal of Sociology, 42: 615–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/217540and (2002) ‘Technical questions: a review of key works on the question of technology’, Ephemera: Critical Dialogues on Organization, 2: 64–83.(1989) ‘Time and work: a psychological perspective’, in P.Blyton, J.Hassard, S.Hill and K.Starkey (eds), Time, Work and Organization. London: Routledge.([Page 206]1986) Anger: The Struggle for Emotional Control in America's History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.and (1996) ‘Organizations viewed through the lens of aesthetics’, Organization, 3:209–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050849632004(2006) ‘Organizational artifacts and the aesthetic approach’, in A.Rafaeli and M.G.Pratt (eds), Artifacts and Organizations: Beyond Mere Symbolism. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 23–39.(1992) ‘Clerical consent: “shifting” work in the insurance office’, in A. J.Sturdy, D.Knights and H.Willmott (eds), Skill and Consent in the Labour Process. London: Routledge.(1998) ‘Customer care in a consumer society’, Organization, 5: 27–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050849851003(2003) ‘Knowing the unknowable? – a discussion of methodological and theoretical issues in emotion research and organizational studies’, Organization, 10:81–105.(2003) Talk as technique – a critique of the words and deeds distinction in the diffusion of customer service cultures', Journal of Management Studies, 40: 753–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00359and (2005) ‘In the name of the customer? Service work and participation’, in P.Thompson and W.Harley (eds), Participation and Democracy at Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave.and (2006) ‘Guess who's coming to dinner? Structures and uses of liminality in strategic management consultancy’, Human Relations, 9: 929–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726706067597, and (2003) ‘Knowledge management beyond codification: knowing as practice/concept’, Journal of Knowledge Management, 7: 32–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270310505368(Sunday Times (2005, 2006) 100 Best Companies to Work For. London: Sunday Times.2004) ‘Out of sight and beyond control? A spatial analysis of supervisors' responses to a remote workforce’, working paper, University of Warwick.(2001) ‘Editorial: knowledge management – concepts and controversies’, Journal of Management Studies, 38: 913–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00265and (2005) ‘The politics of networked innovation’, Human Relations, 58: 913–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726705057811and (2002) ‘The construction of “communities of practice” in the management of innovation’, Management Learning, 33(4): 477–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350507602334005and (1911) The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Norton.(1947) The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: W.W. Norton.(2004) World City Network: A Global Urban Analysis. London: Routledge.(2004) ‘Call centre offshoringto India’, Labour and Industry, 14:15–38.and (2001) ‘Juggling justice and care: gendered customer service in the contemporary airline industry’, in AJ.Sturdy, I.Grugulis and H.Willmott (eds), Customer Service – Empowerment and Entrapment. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.and (1997) ‘Dynamic capabilities and strategic management’, Strategic Management Journal, 18: 509–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0266%28199708%2918:7%3C509::AID-SMJ882%3E3.0.CO;2-Z, and (2002) ‘Life between faces’, ephemera: critical dialogues on organization, 2: 6–27.and (2000) European Modernity and Beyond. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222317(1967) ‘Time, work-discipline and industrial capitalism’, Past and Present, 38: 56–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/38.1.56(1989) The Nature of Work: An Introduction to Debates on the Labour Process,(2nd edn.Basingstoke: Macmillan.2002) Work Organisations: A Critical Introduction,and ([Page 207]3rd edn.Basingstoke: Palgrave.2005) Knowing Capitalism. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446211458(2003) ‘A failed panopticon: surveillance of nursing practice via new technology’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 18: 143–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00116(2003) ‘Bounding rationality to the world’, Journal of Economic Psychology, 24:143–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870%2802%2900200-3and (Community and Society. New York: Harper & Row.(1887/1963)1992) Reframing Human Resources Management: Power, Ethics and the Subject at Work. London: Sage.(1993) ‘Foucault, power/knowledge, and its relevance for HRM’, Academy of Management Review, 18: 518–45.(2005) ‘Electronic surveillance and cohesive teams: room for resistance in an Australian call centre?’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 20: 47–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2005.00143.x(1999) ‘Disciplined bodies: Women's embodied identities at work’, Organization Studies, 20(3): 423–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840699203003(1951) ‘Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal-getting’, Human Relations, 4(1): 3–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675100400101and (2001) ‘Captured by the discourse? The socially constitutive power of new higher education discourse in the UK’, Organization, 9: 183–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508401082005(1994) ‘What is management? An outline of a meta-theory’, British Journal of Management, 5: 289–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.1994.tb00080.x(2001) ‘What is organizational knowledge?’, Journal of Management Studies, 38(7): 973–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00268and (1977) Space and Place. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(2004) ‘Managing between the sheets: lifestyle magazines and the management of sexuality in everyday life’, Sexualities, 7(1): 81–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363460704040144(1997) ‘Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: the paradox of embeddedness’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 35–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393808(1964) The Instinct of Workmanship: And the State of the Industrial Arts. New York: Norton.(Vidich, A., Bensman, J. and Stein, M. (eds) (1964) Reflections on Community Studies. New York: Harper & Row.1995) ‘Managers' working hours’, paper presented to the British Academy of Management Annual Conference, Sheffield University Management School, 11–13 September.(1991) La Vitesse. Paris: Editions Flammarion.(1997) Speed and Politics: An Essay on Dromology. New York: Semiotext(e).(2001) ‘Making the most of your companies knowledge, Long Range Planning, 34: 421–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0024-6301%2801%2900059-0, , and (1991) ‘Technology, patriarchy and conceptions of skill’, Work and Occupations, 18: 29–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888491018001002(1996) ‘High society in a workers' society: work, community and Kibbutz’, Sociology, 30: 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038596030001002(2002) ‘“Show me how it feels to work here”: using photography to research organizational aesthetics’, ephemera, 2(3): 224–45.(Watson, J.L. (ed.) (1997) Golden Arches East: McDonald's in Asia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.The Protestant Ethic and the Sprit of Capitalism trans. T.Parsons. London: Unwin Hyman.(1904–5/1989)The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Routledge.(1930/2001) [Page 208]1978) Economy and Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1991) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. H.Gerth and C. WrightMills. London: Routledge.(1986) Information Technology: Post-Industrial Society or Capitalist Control. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.and (1997) Undoing Aesthetics. London: Sage.(1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2000) ‘Communities of practice and social learning systems’, Organization, 7: 225–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050840072002(2000) ‘Communities of practice: the organizational frontier’, Harvard Business Review, 78:139–45.and (2002) Cultivating Communities Of Practice: A Guide To Managing Knowledge. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press., and (1951) ‘Personnel counseling: the hawthorne case’, American Journal of Sociology, 57: 265–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/220945and (1983) The Shopfloor Politics of New Technology. London: Heinemann.(1983) Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society,(revised edn.London: Fontana.1996) ‘Emotions and “sociological imperialism”: a rejoinder to craib’, Sociology, 30(1): 145–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038596030001011and (Learning to Labour. Farnham: Ashgate.(1978/2003)1993) ‘Strength is ignorance: slavery is freedom – managing culture in modern organizations’, Journal of Management Studies, 30: 515–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1993.tb00315.x(2004) Organizational Behaviour and Work: A Critical Introduction,(2nd edn.Oxford: Oxford University Press.2003) ‘The labour of aesthetics and the aesthetics of organization’, Organization, 10: 33–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508403010001375, and (1990) The Machine that Changed the World. Oxford: Maxwell Macmillan International., and (1998) ‘Agency and organization: toward a cyborg-consciousness’, Human Relations, 51: 1209–26.(1989) The Transformation of Work?London: Unwin Hyman.(1980) Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2001) ‘Representing customer service: telephones and texts’, in A.J.Sturdy, I.Grugulis and H.Willmott (eds), Customer Service – Empowerment and Entrapment. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2002) Privatising Culture: Corporate Art Intervention since the 1980s. London: Verso.(1981) Hidden Rhythms: Schedules and Calendar in Social Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(Zimbalist, A. (ed.) (1979) Case Studies on the Labour Process. New York: Monthly Review Press.1988) In the Age of the Smart Machine. Harvard, MA: Harvard Business School Press.(1998) ‘Intellectual human capital and the birth of US biotechnology enterprises’, American Economic Review, 88: 290–306., and (