Understanding Corporate Life: The Warwick Organisation Theory Network

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Edited by: Philip Hancock & André Spicer

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    Notes on Contributors

    Martin Corbett works at Warwick Business School and has done for quite some time. He has written quite a bit of stuff on the psychological and cultural aspects of technology, although his more recent research interests include neuro-scientific management and the role of the unconscious in organizational behaviour.

    Christopher Grey is Professor of Organizational Behaviour at the University of Warwick. He was previously Professor of Organizational Theory at the University of Cambridge and has held posts at Leeds and Manchester. He has wide-ranging research interests including the sociology of management and management education, professional socialization and identity and the organization of intelligence agencies.

    Philip Hancock is an Associate Professor (Reader) of Organization Studies at the Warwick Business School. His research is concerned with a critical appraisal of organizational aestheticization and embodiment, space and place, and the managerial colonization of everyday life, all of which inform his current fascination with the organization of Christmas. He has published in the usual selection of internationally recognised journals and has co-authored and co-edited a number of books, the most recent of which is The Management of Everyday Life (Palgrave). He is currently joint editor-in-chief of the Inderscience publication, The International Journal of Work, Organization to Organisation.

    Chris Land lectures in management at the University of Essex. His research on ‘community’ has included a two-year project on Communities of Practice with the Innovation, Knowledge and Organization Networks (IKON) research unit at Warwick Business School, living in a commune, and working for a Community Interest Company. He sees in ‘community’ the possibility of moving beyond the idea of ‘resistance’ in critical management studies to explore instead the many and varied forms of non-capitalist organization found in daily life around the globe and throughout history.

    Karen Legge is Professor Emerita of Organizational Behaviour, Warwick Business School. Prior to her retirement in 2007, Karen held posts at Manchester Business School, Institute of Work Psychology – Sheffield, Imperial College Management School, Lancaster University Management

    School and Warwick Business School. She was a long serving Joint Editor of Journal of Management Studies and also served on numerous editorial boards, including British Journal of Industrial Relations, Industrial Relations, Human Resource Management Journal, Gender, Work and Organization and Organization. Karen's research interests lie in the area of applying postmodern and critical organization theory to HRM, change management, the development of learning organizations and in organizational ethics. She has published widely in these areas, a well known publication being HRM, Rhetorics and Realities (Palgrave/Macmillan, 1995), an updated anniversary edition of which was published in 2005.

    Nick Llewellyn is Associate Professor (Reader) of Organization Studies at Warwick Business School (IROB group). His research focuses mainly on work and interaction in organizations and in public settings. He has published on this research in journals such as The British Journal of Sociology, Sociology, Organization Studies, Human Relations and Discourse Studies.

    Glenn Morgan is Professor of Organizational Behaviour at Warwick Business School, University of Warwick. He is one of the Editors in Chief of the journal Organization: the critical journal of organization, theory and society. Recent publications include Images of the Multinational Firm (2009: edited with Collinson) and Changing Capitalisms? (2005 edited with Whitley and Moen) as well as articles in various journals. He is Visiting Professor at the International Centre for Business and Politics at Copenhagen Business School as well as an associate of the Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization at the University of Warwick.

    Maxine Robertson (BSc, MA, PhD) is a Professor of Management at Queen Mary University of London and Director of Research in the School of Business and Management. Her research interests include the management of knowledge workers and knowledge intensive firms, networked innovation and the management of knowledge in organizations. She has published extensively in all of these areas. She is also co-author of Managing Knowledge Work and Innovation published by Palgrave (2009). Recent research includes a comparative UK/US study of biomedical innovation. Her current research focuses on the management of clinical trials in the UK.

    André Spicer is an Associate Professor (Reader) of Organization Studies at the Warwick Business School and a visiting research fellow at Lund University, Sweden. His research focuses on political dynamics in and around organizations. He has studied these dynamics in the media, ports, libraries, and social movements. His work has appeared in journals such as Organization, Organization Studies, Human Relations and Journal of Management Studies. He is also author of Contesting the Corporation(Cambridge University Press) and Unmasking the Entrepreneur (Edward Elgar).

    Andrew Sturdy is Professor of Organisational Behaviour at Warwick Business School. He has a longstanding interest in the production and use of management ideas such as customer service. His research has explored this in various contexts including training, business school education and management consultancy. Most recently, he led a ‘fly-on-the-wall’ study of consultancy projects, from which a book (with Handley, Clark and Fincham) was published in 2009 by Oxford University Press – Management Consultancy: Boundaries and Knowledge in Action.

    Emma Surman lectures in marketing at Keele University. After completing her PhD at Keele in 2004, Emma was a research fellow at the University of Exeter and subsequently a lecturer at Warwick Business School before returning to Keele in August 2007 to join the marketing department. Prior to her career in academia, she held marketing posts in a variety of organizations that encompassed the private, public and charity sectors. Her research interests include: telework, emotion in the workplace, the production and consumption of organizational space, and gender, identity and power relations.

    Jacky Swan is Professor of Organizational Behaviour at Warwick Business School, University of Warwick. She holds a first degree in Psychology and completed her PhD at University of Wales, Cardiff. Jacky is co-founder of IKON – a research centre based at Warwick on Innovation Knowledge and Organisational Networks (http://www.warwick.ac.uk/go/ikon). Her interests are in linking innovation and networking to processes of managing knowledge across different industry sectors and national contexts. She is currently researching the processes through which knowledge is translated from scientific discovery into changes in clinical and healthcare practice, focusing on the management and organizational of clinical trials. She is a Senior Editor for Organization Studies, co-author of Managing Knowledge Work and Innovation and publishes in organization theory, innovation and management journals.

  • Conclusion

    AndréSpicer

    It is supposed to be the most rational place in the world. When you walk through the big revolving doors of a large corporation, you are supposed to be moving from the disorder, chaos and unreasonable world of street life into an altogether more reified environment. The expensive marble beneath your feet, the sleek black leather chairs, and the cool lighting are all supposed to remind you this is a different universe. The security barrier staffed by guards and the speedy lifts that race you towards the heavens of the executive quarters are all there to remind you that this is not normal life. This is corporate life.

    In this book, we have tried to take you inside this corporate life. As you probably know, it is a life that many aspire to lead. It is a life that looks attractive, well paid, and very exciting from the outside. It seems to be life doing important things with important people. And, as many texts books about management remind us, it is. But instead of trying to paint a picture of corporate life as one that is bursting with satisfaction and rationality, we have tried to let you in on a few of the dirty secrets. In this book, we have tried to provide the reader with a picture of corporate life that is at once inspiring as well as insipid. It is hyper-rational as well as completely crazy. It is moving and leaves you cold at the same time. It showers you with information but makes no sense.

    In order to let you into this world, we have gathered together a series of essays that each look at one aspect of corporate life. Instead of looking at the topics you would usually encounter in a textbook (like motivation, groups, structure), we tried to focus on the most immediate and obvious aspects of corporate life. We looked at how people use knowledge in organizations. We asked what kinds of space people dwell in and how they use them. We considered how people experience time during their day at work. We investigated the ways people seek to build an identity in the workplace. We uncovered the effects that globalization is having on everyday life at work. We traced through the ways in which technology is used and played with in the workplace. We deliberated on the aesthetics of corporate life. And finally, we asked whether community might be built within organizations. With all these questions, we have tried to lead you into some of strange corners and back allies of corporate life which are always there, but rarely visited. In doing so, we hope to have opened your eyes to some of the aspects of this world that you have either never thought about, or recognized, but never been able to talk about.

    Cross-Cutting Themes

    Reading across the text, we hope to have drawn out three cross-cutting themes. The first is the importance of understanding. Too often, we simply take corporations at their word. We assume that what their CEOs say is a matter of truth. If we are a little cynical, then we might suspect they are misleading us, but also think that we can do very little about such deception. Too often the words and sweet phrases of management gurus and grand plans associated with corporate change are too seductive to ignore. But we know all too well that when such advice is implemented, at best it can often only lead to fairly minor improvements in performance. At worst, it can lead to disastrous failures and the kind of corporate catastrophes that are becoming only too familiar today. By seeking to understand corporate life, rather than taking it at face value, we hope to push our readers beyond the corporate hype and into all the strange contradictions which plague everyday life at work. In addition, we also hope to question some of the more explicitly scientific views of the organization which hold that corporate life is a strict pattern of causality (like a giant game of billiard's). This involves realizing that, unlike the physical universe, the corporate world does not always go to plan. One may pull a ‘strategic lever’ and nothing happens. But it is equally possible that an entirely unexpected result will appear. This is because humans are far less predictable in their reactions than lumps of physical matter. It is just a pity that so many scientific and engineering trained managers seem to forget this, and get so confused when people do not react as they are expected to.

    Understanding corporate life also allows us to expand our repertoires of ways of understanding this world. Instead of simply assuming that there is one correct model that perfectly describes the social world, we would like to suggest multiplying the ways in which we are able to look at a problem. This means that we do not have a single myopic perspective on aspects of organizational life. Rather, it means that we can look at it from a range of different and contrasting perspectives. This is vital because any good social actor must have the ability to recognize the multi-faceted nature of any problem with an organization. By doing so, it means that they are able to appreciate the often unacknowledged or unthought of aspects of an organization.

    By seeking to enhance our understanding of corporate life, we are able to begin to describe and name aspects of organizational life that we already recognize but were previously not able to put into words. A proper understanding provides us with a formal language we can use to analyse, discuss and consider a particular phenomenon. For instance, by developing a proper understanding of space we are able to develop a language and set of terms that we can use to describe the office space which we work in now. It means we can talk sensibly about this space, describe it in some detail and perhaps compare it to other spaces. Instead of it just being there, it becomes something that has a degree of meaning for us. No longer are we mute about the things that happen to us and around us. When we seek to understand corporate life we gain the ability to actually make sense of this world which we accepted as just ‘there’ before.

    By seeking to develop an understanding of corporate life, we become far more able to intervene in it. An understanding of a phenomenon gives us a language that we can play with, talk about, and possibly use to suggest alternatives. For instance, once we begin to gain a language for talking about aesthetics in the workplace, it means we are able to talk about the horrible décor or oppressive architecture. It also means that we might be able to pick out what exactly we don't like about, and possibly begin to suggest alternatives. A proper understanding allows us to see the limitations of our existing understandings. It also allows us to play with alternative ways of understanding a phenomenon. This begins to provide us with different ways of engaging with it. Ultimately, we hope that understanding will become a central plank in identifying what we would like to change about a situation and then having the ability to set about changing it.

    The second theme that we hope cuts across the book is reviewing various aspects of the corporation. We hope that each of the chapters reminds the reader that corporations have become increasingly dominant institutions within our society. Indeed, they often infuse more and more aspects of our lives. Corporations have shaped our most intimate behaviour, such as how we experience time and how we move about in space. They also seek to forge a specific sense of identity and self within us. Furthermore, they build communities for us and offer us a sense of belonging in the increasingly faceless cities in which we dwell. Finally, we have tried to highlight that corporations shape even the broadest and most systematic aspects of social behaviour. For instance, in the chapter on globalization, we discussed how corporations have been instrumental in forging links between individuals and societies throughout the world.

    In addition to seeing how corporations shape aspects of lives, we hope that the chapters that are contained in this book remind us of another meaning of corporate life – that is a life lived in a corpus, or body. By reminding readers of this dimension, we hope to highlight the highly embodied aspects of corporate life. After all, we take our bodies to work, we drag them through the time of the work-day, our knowledge and skill is often inscribed into our bodies. Indeed, the corporation is in many ways a collection of bodies. But at the same time as being a group of actual bodies, it is also an abstract person – a person with a legal reality but without any body. So it seems that the corporation requires the bodies of the people who work for it to carry out all the tasks that it can't do. In some ways it is a kind of a body snatcher.

    The final aspect that cuts throughout these chapters is a reminder that corporate life is not like ‘normal’ life. Rather, life in the corporation involves a whole series of constraints that would not be tolerated in most aspects of our lives. Attempts to control where we move in space, how we use our time, the kind of knowledge we acquire, would be shocking to us in other circumstances. However, when we enter into the workplace, we merely take these aspects as a given in the workplace. Moreover, the kind of rights that the corporation has over our time, space and knowledge differs quite radically in different national contexts. For instance, Karoshi (or death by overwork) is a common consequence of the extreme demands on employees' time in Japan. However, this would not be tolerated in most European companies, because a corporation's claim on an individual's time is thought to be highly circumscribed to the working day. By thinking through these different constraints, we begin to understand why corporate life is so different in different national contexts.

    And yet these chapters also illustrate the fact that the time we do in corporations is after all part of our life. We hope to have shown the reader that there is no strict demarcation to be drawn between the corporation and life. Rather, much of our lives take place within corporations. We increasingly eat, are entertained, make friends, meet romantic partners, play sports and even sleep within the corporation. Even when we leave for the night, the corporation follows us home with the Blackberry we keep in our pockets. Further, forms of life and living seem to have become increasingly incorporated. This has happened as the most basic details of what we eat, how we sleep, how we make love, how we develop our sense of identity and our sense of time are governed and shaped by corporations. Recall that some corporations own the copyright for certain words, DNA structures, and even various routine behaviours. Indeed, some would argue that life is increasingly becoming the next big zone for corporations to do their trade in. Companies increasingly sell life itself in the form of our human genome, our patterns of eating and sleeping, and our biorhythms. We live a life incorporated. And to understand it, we must understand the corporations that shape it.

    In the march to quantify and commodify, corporations often come up against a barrier, something that they find very difficult to deal with. Bodies are messy things that cannot be fitted into corporate life that easily. Our bodies demand sleep, they cannot be effectively disciplined, and they have biological needs. Some people have bodies that are not accepted by large corporations because they do not fit into their criteria for the perfect worker. More than this, humans in corporations also demand a life. We want a sense that we can live a normal life. In fact, we often want a good life, something that is attractive and sustainable. And we are likely to say no to corporations when that good life is threatened, when we feel we risk our health, or when stress invades every pore of who we are. The result is that life continues to fight against being incorporated.

    Future Corporate Life

    The chapters in this book provide a compelling and interesting exploration of corporate life. Corporate life, as it has been lived for the past two decades, is very specific. It is has been a life where corporations have been rapidly expanding, where they have been increasingly flexible, where they have sought to incorporate people into them through a whole range of ideological mechanisms, where they have developed increasingly short-term commitments, where they have focused on speeding up and innovation. Underlying this new form of corporate life has been an emphasis on neo-liberal economic models which mean that the individual has to be available for the marketplace 24/7.

    However, this model of corporate life is now under serious threat – the recent financial melt-down has resulted in many of the most advanced corporations in the financial, manufacturing and service sectors coming under severe strain, and in some cases collapsing. Some of the basic principles that lie behind the contemporary corporation, such as short-term flexibility, control by financial institutions, increasing incorporation of all aspects of people's life-world are now being questioned. Some see the financial meltdown and the mass company failures associated with it as evidence that the kinds of principles developed by large companies have not been applied rigorously and strenuously enough. Others, however, argue that it is precisely these principles which have precipitated such a melt-down. Indeed, the increasingly short-term orientation of corporations has meant that they engaged in increasingly risky behaviours, did not undergo adequate due process when considering the issues associated with their undertakings, and so on. Indeed, many would argue that the forms of corporate life which we describe in the chapters in this book in fact laid the very groundwork for the economic tragedy which we now see unfolding before us.

    If we are indeed faced with the prospect that the theories we used to understand corporate life have utterly failed us, then we are faced with some very tough decisions. In particular, there is the question of how it is possible to sustain these kinds of ways of organizing and of living in the future. It is a question of exactly how we might actually make our way in the world and deal with many of these questions – how we might begin to forge a new kind of organizational life? There are many open questions about what it would actually look like. For instance, how would knowledge be developed, shared and transformed into innovations? How would these new corporate spaces look? Would they still be the same kind of skyscrapers in downtown areas which we see today or would they be quite different? How about time? Would we see a consistent concern and obsession with clock time? Or would some other way of marking time emerge? Would we find the need to develop new kinds of rhythms, and what would these be? What about speed? Would we continue with our obsession with increasingly accelerating the pace and circulation of commodities and people? Or might the gigantic financial coronary that the world economy is now suffering actually provide an opportunity and indeed a reason, to slow down? What about globalization? Are we witnessing a deepening global connection?

    Or might we actually be seeing a de-linking as some companies seek to protect themselves from the financial maelstrom? What will this mean for identity? Will people continue to invest significant aspects of their identity in the workplace? Or will this identity actually be something which changes? Will people find their identities in new places? Where will these be? And what of people who find themselves out of work following this collapse? How will they craft an identity in a workless present? What will the new corporate aesthetic look like? Will it still be one of unceasing blurring and modern slickness? Or will it be something altogether different? A cosier aesthetic? Or maybe an aesthetic of rubble and junk? Perhaps one of the hardest questions that we need to ask ourselves is what the revolutions and crises of our time might mean for communities? Will corporations still be able to provide the promise of community to employees? Or has that promise disappeared into ash and smoke? Are we going to witness quite another form of coming together to work in time to come? These are all question that must be answered in the future if we want to understand and indeed remake corporate life into something that is more fruitful, engaging and beautiful. These are the questions that we hope that you might begin to answer.

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