Understanding Communication and Aging: Developing Knowledge and Awareness


Jake Harwood

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    This book is dedicated to Jean and Tony Harwood.


    View Copyright Page


    Work with many mentors, collaborators, and students has contributed immensely to the development of this book. In many cases these are also personal friends, so I trust they'll forgive me for using (hopefully not stealing!) their good ideas. Thanks are due to Howie Giles, Mary Lee Hummert, Nikolas Coupland, Jon Nussbaum, Ellen Ryan, Justine Coupland, Jordan Soliz, Yan Bing Zhang, Karen Anderson, Mei-Chen Lin, Priya Raman, Angie Williams, Miles Hewstone, Tito Roy, Lisa Sparks, Jaye Atkinson, Loretta Pecchioni, Cindy Gallois, Hiroshi Ota, Sik Hung Ng, Richard Clément, Richard Bourhis, and undoubtedly many others. I owe a particular debt to Howie, Jon, Ellen, Mary Lee, Nik, and Justine who as (relatively!) senior scholars were endlessly supportive of my interest in communication and aging when I was very early in my career. I thank those who reviewed chapters from the book: Jaye L. Atkinson (Georgia State University), Jo Anna Grant (California State University, San Bernardino), Sherry J. Holladay (Eastern Illinois University), Judith K. Litterst (St. Cloud State University), Sandra Metts (Illinois State University), Loretta L. Pecchioni (Louisiana State University), Jim L. Query, Jr. (University of Houston), Lisa Sparks (Chapman University), and Janelle D. Voegele (Portland State University). The feedback was uniformly constructive and incredibly useful. Mei-Chen Lin also provided invaluable feedback on Chapter 10. I also thank those who contributed to the book by writing their personal narratives—they're a great addition, and I appreciate the time put into them. I am indebted to the team at Sage, particularly Todd Armstrong who persuaded me to begin the project and then shepherded me through the obstacle course of book writing with a permanently encouraging tone. I thank my colleagues at the University of Arizona who provide a great working environment, as well as my former colleagues at the University of Kansas and the University of California, Santa Barbara, who did likewise. Everyone involved in the National Communication Association's “Communication and Aging Division” also deserves mention: The division has served as a wonderful resource and meeting place for people with an interest in the issues addressed in this book. Finally, thanks are due to Lori, Chloe, and Jonah who help me understand more about family relationships and human development than any book ever could.


    I wonder if age, in fact, may offer the opportunity to develop values and abilities, for each of us and for society, that are not visible or fully realized in youth.

    —Betty Friedan, The Fountain of Age
  • References

    AARP. (2005). Reimagining America: AARP's blueprint for the future. Washington, DC: Author.
    Aartsen, M. J., van Tilburg, T., Smits, C. H. M., & Knipscheer, K. C. R. M. (2004). A longitudinal study of the impact of physical and cognitive decline on the personal network in old age. Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 21, 249–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407504041386
    Adams, R. G. (1986). Emotional closeness and physical distance between friends: Implications for elderly women living in age-segregated and age-integrated settings. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 22, 55–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/1QD9-KLGJ-VYVA-C3ME
    Adelman, R. D., Greene, M. G., & Charon, R. (1987). The physician-elderly patient-companion triad in the medical encounter: The development of a conceptual framework and research agenda. The Gerontologist, 27, 729–734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/27.6.729
    Adelman, R. D., Greene, M. G., & Charon, R. (1991). Issues in physician-elderly patient interaction. Aging and Society, 11, 127–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X00003974
    Allan, G. (1977). Sibling solidarity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 39, 177–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351073
    Allman, J., Ragan, S. L., Newsome, C., Soufos, L., & Nussbaum, J. F. (1999). Elderly women speak about their interactions with health care providers. In H.Hamilton (Eds.), Language and communication in old age: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 319–350). New York: Garland.
    Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Almerico, G. M., & Fillmer, H. T. (1988). Portrayal of older characters in children's magazines. Educational Gerontology, 14, 15–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0380127880140102
    Analects of Confucius (J.Legge, Trans.). (1893). Retrieved June 2, 2006, from http://www.ishwar.com/confucianism/holy_confucian_analects/part_01.html
    Anderson, K., Harwood, J., & Hummert, M. L. (2005). The grandparent-grandchild relationship: Implications for models of intergenerational communication. Human Communication Research, 31, 268–294.
    Antonucci, T. C. (1985). Personal characteristics, social support, and social behavior. In R. H.Binstock & E.Shanas (Eds.), Handbook of aging and social sciences (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 94–128). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    Antonucci, T. C. (2001). Social relations: An examination of social networks, social support, and sense of control. In J. E.Birren & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (
    5th ed.
    , pp. 427–453). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Antonucci, T. C., & Akiyama, H. (1995). Convoys of social relations: Family and friendships within a life span context. In R.Blieszner & V. H.Bedford (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the family (pp. 355–372). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Arnoff, C. (1974). Old age in prime time. Journal of Communication, 24 (4), 86–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1974.tb00412.x
    Aronsson, K., Sätterlund Larsson, U., & Säljö, R. (1995). Clinical diagnosis and the joint construction of a medical voice. In I.Marková & R. M.Farr (Eds.), Representations of health, illness and handicap (pp. 131–144). Langhorne, PA: Harwood Academic Publishers.
    Arp, D., & Arp, C. (1996). The second half of marriage. New York: Zondervan.
    Association of American Medical Colleges. (2003, October). Analysis in brief [Vol. 3(2)]. Washington, DC: Author.
    Atkins, T. V., Jenkins, M. C., & Perkins, M. H. (1991). Portrayal of persons in television commercials age 50 and older. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 28, 30–37.
    Atkinson, J. L., & Ragab, S. (2004, November). Grandparents, ghosts, or genies: Portrayals of older characters in films. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Washington, DC.
    Baltes, M. M., & Wahl, H. (1996). Patterns of communication in old age: The dependence-support and independence-ignore script. Health Communication, 8, 217–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0803_3
    Baltes, P. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of lifespan developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23(5), 611–626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.23.5.611
    Baltes, P. B. (1997). On the incomplete architecture of human ontogeny: Selection, optimization and compensation as foundation of developmental theory. American Psychologist, 52, 366–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.4.366
    BaltesP. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In P. B.Baltes & M. M.Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1–34). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511665684.003
    Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (2003). New frontiers in the future of aging: From successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age. Gerontology, 49, 123–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000067946
    Baringer, D. K., Kundrat, A. L., & Nussbaum, J. F. (2004). Instructional communication and older adults. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 543–562). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Barker, V., & Giles, H. (2003). Integrating the communicative predicament and enhancement of aging models: The case of older Native Americans. Health Communication, 15, 255–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327027HC1503_1
    Barusch, A. S., & Steen, P. (1996). Keepers of community in a changing world. Generations, 20, 49–52.
    Bastida, E., & Gonzalez, G. (1993). Ethnic variations in measurement of physical health status: Implications for long-term care. In C.Barresi & D.Stull (Eds.), Ethnic elderly in long-term care (pp. 22–35). New York: Springer.
    Baxter, L. (1990). Dialectical contradictions in relationship development. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 69–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407590071004
    Beisecker, A. E. (1989). The influence of a companion on the doctor-elderly patient interaction. Health Communication, 1, 55–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0101_7
    Beisecker, A. E., & Beisecker, T. D. (1993). Using metaphors to characterize doctor-patient relationships: Paternalism versus consumerism. Health Communication, 5, 41–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0501_3
    Bell, J. (1992). In search of a discourse on aging: The elderly on television. The Gerontologist, 32(3), 305–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/32.3.305
    Bengtson, V. L., & Roberts, R. E. (1991). Intergenerational solidarity in aging families: An example of formal theory construction. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 856–870. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352993
    Berg, C. R. (2002). Latino images in film: Stereotypes, subversion, and resistance. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Bernard, M., & Phillipson, C. (2004). Retirement and leisure. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 353–378). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Best and worst by numbers. (1989, July). TV Guide, 8, 12–13.
    Bhat, A. K., & Dhruvarajan, R. (2001). Ageing in India: Drifting intergenerational relations, challenges and options. Aging and Society, 21, 621–640.
    Bielby, D. D., & Bielby, W. T. (2001). Audience segmentation and age stratification among television writers. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 45, 391–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4503_2
    Bleise, N. W. (1979). Media in the rocking chair: Media uses and functions among the elderly. In G.Gumpert & R.Cathcart (Eds.), Inter/media: Interpersonal communication in a media world (pp. 624–634). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Blieszner, R. (2000). Close relationships in old age. In C.Hendrick, S. S.Hendrick (Eds.), Close relationships: A sourcebook (pp. 85–96). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452220437
    Blit-Cohen, E., & Litwin, H. (2004). Elder participation in cyberspace: A qualitative analysis of Israeli retirees. Journal of Aging Studies, 18, 385–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2004.06.007
    Bonnesen, J. L., & Burgess, E. O. (2004). Senior moments: The acceptability of an ageist phrase. Journal of Aging Studies, 18, 123–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2004.01.008
    Braithwaite, D. O., & Eckstein, N. J. (2003). How people with disabilities communicatively manage assistance: Helping as instrumental social support. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 31, 1–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909880305374
    Braithwaite, V., Lynd-Stevenson, R., & Pigram, D. (1993). An empirical study of ageism: From polemics to scientific utility. Australian Psychologist, 28, 9–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00050069308258857
    Brashers, D. E., Neidig, J. L., Haas, S. M., Dobbs, L. K., Cardillo, L. W., & Russell, J. A. (2000). Communication in the management of uncertainty: The case of persons living with HIV or AIDS. Communication Monographs, 67, 63–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637750009376495
    Briller, B. R. (2000). TV's distorted and missing images of women and the elderly. Television Quarterly, 31, 69–74.
    Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language use. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Brown, S. L., Bulanda, J. R., & Lee, G. R. (2005). The significance of nonmarital cohabitation: Marital status and mental health benefits among middle-aged and older adults. Journals of Gerontology, 60B, S21–S29.
    Brussoni, M. J., & Boon, S. D. (1998). Grandparental impact in young adults' relationships with their closest grandparents: The role of relationship strength and emotional closeness. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 46, 267–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/2B7B-E3LH-74JJ-UJRY
    Buchanan, K., & Middleton, D. J. (1993). Discursively formulating the significance of reminiscence in later life. In N.Coupland & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Discourse and lifespan identity (pp. 55–80). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Buchholz, M., & Bynum, J. E. (1982). Newspaper presentation of America's aged: A content analysis of image and role. The Gerontologist, 22, 83–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/22.1.83
    Burholt, V., & Wenger, G. C. (1998). Differences over time in older people's relationships with children and siblings. Ageing and Society, 18, 537–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X98007090
    Burleson, B. R., Delia, J. G., & Applegate, J. L. (1995). The socialization of person-centered communication: Parental contributions to the social-cognitive and communication skills of their children. In M. A.Fitzpatrick and A. L.Vangelisti (Eds.), Explaining family interactions (pp. 34–76). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Burnett, J. J. (1991). Examining the media habits of the affluent elderly. Journal of Advertising Research, 31 (5), 33–41.
    Burr, J. A., & Mutchler, J. E. (1999). Race and ethnic variation in norms of filial responsibility among older persons. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 61(3), 674–687. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353569
    Burton, L. M., & Bengtson, V. L. (1985). Black grandmothers: Timing and continuity of roles. In V. L.Bengtson & J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 61–78). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Caporael, L. R. (1981). The paralanguage of caregiving: Baby talk to the institutionalizedaged. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 876–884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.40.5.876
    Carstensen, L. L. (1992). Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: Support for socio-emotional selectivity theory. Psychology and Aging, 7, 331–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.7.3.331
    Carstensen, L. L., Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1995). Emotional behavior in long-term marriage. Psychology and Aging, 10, 140–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.10.1.140
    Caspari, R., & Lee, S. (2004). Older age becomes common late in human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101 (30), 10895–10900. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0402857101
    Cassata, M., Anderson, P., & Skill, T. (1980). The older adult in daytime serial drama. Journal of Communication, 30, 48–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1980.tb01767.x
    Cassata, M., & Irwin, B. J. (1997). Young by day: The older person on daytime serial drama. In H. S.Noor al-Deen (Ed.), Cross cultural communication and aging in the United States (pp. 215–231). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Charness, N., & Holley, P. (2004). The new media and older adults: Usable and useful?American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 416–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764204270279
    Charness, N., & Schaie, K. W. (Eds.). (2003). Impact of technology on successful aging. New York: Springer.
    Chen, Y., & King, B. E. (2002). Intra- and intergenerational communication satisfaction as a function of an individual's age and age stereotypes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 562–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01650250143000553
    Cherlin, A. J., & Furstenberg, F. F., Jr. (1986). The new American grandparent: A place in the family, a life apart. New York: Basic Books.
    Christakis, N. A., & Allison, P. D. (2006). Mortality after the hospitalization of a spouse. New England Journal of Medicine, 354 (7), 719–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa050196
    Cicirelli, V. (1991). Attachment theory in old age: Protection of the attached figure. In K.Pillemer & K.McCartney (Eds.), Parent–child relationships throughout life (pp. 2–42). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cicirelli, V. (1993). Intergenerational communication in the mother–daughter dyad regarding caregiving decisions. In N.Coupland & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Discourse and lifespan identity (pp. 215–236). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Cliggett, L. (2001). Survival strategies of the elderly in Gwembe Valley, Zambia: Gender, residence and kin networks. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 16, 309–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014546709621
    Climo, J. (2001). Images of aging in virtual reality: The Internet and the community of affect. Generations, 25, 64–68.
    Cockerham, W. C. (1997). This aging society. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Cody, M. J., Dunn, D., Hoppin, S., & Wendt, P. (1999). Silver surfers: Training and evaluating Internet use among older adult learners. Communication Education, 48, 269–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529909379178
    Cogswell, C., & Henry, C. (1995). Grandchildren's perceptions of grandparental support in divorced and intact families. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 23, 127–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J087v23n03_08
    Cohen, G. (1994). Age-related problems in the use of proper names in communication. In M. L., Hummert, J. M.Wiemann, & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Interpersonal communication in older adulthood: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 40–57). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Cohen, G., & Faulkner, D. (1986). Memory for proper names: Age differences in retrieval. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4, 187–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1986.tb01010.x
    Cole, J. I. (2003). The UCLA Internet report: Surveying the digital future, year three. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Communication Policy.
    Colonia-Willner, R. (1998). Practical intelligence at work: Relationship between aging and cognitive efficiency among managers in a bank environment. Psychology & Aging, 13, 45–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.13.1.45
    Coupland, J. (2003). Ageist ideology and discourses of control in skincare product marketing. In J.Coupland & R.Gwyn (Eds.), Discourse, the body, and identity (pp. 127–150). New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Coupland, J., & Coupland, N. (2001). Roles, responsibilities, and alignments: Multiparty talk in geriatric care. In M. L.Hummert & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Aging, communication, and health: Linking research and practice for successful aging (pp. 121–156). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Coupland, J., Coupland, N., Giles, H., & Wiemann, J. M. (1988). My life in your hands: Processes of self-disclosure in intergenerational talk. In N.Coupland (Ed.), Styles of discourse (pp. 201–253). London: Croom Helm.
    Coupland, N., & Coupland, J. (1995). Discourse, identity, and aging. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (pp. 79–104). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Coupland, N., & Coupland, J. (1999). Ageing, ageism, and anti-ageism: Moral stance in geriatric medical discourse. In H.Hamilton (Ed.), Language and communication in old age: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 177–208). New York: Garland.
    Coupland, N., & Coupland, J. (2001). Language, ageing and ageism. In W. P.Robinson & H.Giles (Eds.), The new handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 451–468). New York: John Wiley.
    Coupland, N., Coupland, J., & Giles, H. (1989). Telling age in later life: Identity and face implications. Text, 9, 129–151.
    Creasey, G., & Koblewski, P. (1991). Adolescent grandchildren's relationships with maternal and paternal grandmothers and grandfathers. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 373–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971%2891%2990005-C
    Cuddy, A. J. C., & Fiske, S. J. (2002). Doddering but dear: Process, content and function in stereotyping of older persons. In T. D.Nelson (Ed.), Ageism : Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 3–27). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Czaja, S. J. (2001). Technological change and the older worker. In J. E.Birren & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (
    5th ed.
    , pp. 547–569). San Diego: Academic Press.
    Czaja, S. J. (2006). Employment and the baby boomers: What can we expect in the future? In S. K.Whitbourne & S. L.Willis (Eds.), The baby boomers grow up: Contemporary perspectives on midlife (pp. 283–298). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Czaja, S. J., & Lee, C. C. (2001). The Internet and older adults: Design challenges and opportunities. In N.Charness, D. C.Parks, & B. A.Sabel (Eds.), Communication, technology and aging: Opportunities and challenges for the future (pp. 60–78). New York: Springer.
    Czaja, S. J., & Lee, C. C. (2003). The impact of the internet on older adults. In N.Charness & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Impact of technology on successful aging (pp. 113–133). New York: Springer.
    Czaja, S. J., & Sharit, J. (1998a). Ability-performance relationships as a function of age and task experience for a data entry task. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Applied, 4, 332–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.4.4.332
    Czaja, S. J., & Sharit, J. (1998b). Age differences in attitudes toward computers. Journals of Gerontology, 53, 329–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/53B.5.P329
    Dannefer, D., & Perlmutter, M. (1990). Development as a multidimensional process: Individual and social constraints. Human Development, 22, 108–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000276506
    Davis, L. (2002). In black and white: A matter of gray. How media portray aging in the US and the UK, 1996–2001. Paper presented at the world NGO forum on aging, 2002. Retrieved September 25, 2005, from http://assets.aarp.org/www.aarp.org_/build/templates/international/Media.pdf
    Davis, R. H., & Westbrook, G. J. (1985). Television in the lives of the elderly: Attitudes and opinions. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 29, 209–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158509386579
    Derby, S. E. (1991). Ageism in cancer care of the elderly. Oncology Nursing Forum, 18, 921–926.
    Dickson, F. C., Christian, A., & Remmo, C. J. (2004). An exploration of the marital and family issues of the later-life adult. In A. L.Vangelisti (Ed.), Handbook of family communication (pp. 153–174). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Dillon, K. M., & Jones, B. S. (1981). Attitudes toward aging portrayed by birthday cards. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 13, 79–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/82BJ-H6DK-AUG9-YKJ9
    Donlon, M. M., Ashman, O., & Levy, B. R. (2005). Re-vision of older television characters: A stereotype-awareness intervention. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 307–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00407.x
    Downs, V. C. (1989). The grandparent-grandchild relationship. In J. F.Nussbaum (Ed.), Lifespan communication: Normative processes (pp. 257–281). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Doyle, A. B., & Aboud, F. E. (1995). A longitudinal study of white children's racial prejudice as a social-cognitive development. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 41, 209–228.
    Dreher, B. B. (2001). Communication skills for working with elders. New York: Springer.
    Dressel, P. L., & Barnhill, S. K. (1994). Reframing gerontological thought and practice: The case of grandmothers with daughters in prison. The Gerontologist, 34, 685–691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/34.5.685
    Drew, L. M., & Smith, P. K. (2002). Implications for grandparents when they lose contact with their grandchildren: Divorce, family feud, and geographical separation. Journal of Mental Health & Aging, 8(2), 95–119.
    Eastman, J. K., & Iyer, R. (2004). The elderly's uses and attitudes towards the Internet. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21, 208–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/07363760410534759
    Edwards, H. (2001). Family caregiving, communication, and the health of care receivers. In M. L.Hummert & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Aging, communication, and health: Linking research and practice for successful aging (pp. 203–224). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Edwards, H., & Noller, P. (1998). Factors influencing caregiver–care receiver communication and its impact on the well-being of older care receivers. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 355–370.
    Eggebeen, D. J., & Hogan, D. P. (1990). Giving between generations in American families. Human Nature, 1, 211–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02733984
    Elliott, J. A. (1984). The daytime television drama portrayal of older adults. The Gerontologist, 24 (6), 628–633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/24.6.628
    Erber, J. T., & Prager, I. G. (2000). Age and excuses for forgetting: Self-handicapping versus damage-control strategies. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 50, 201–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/XFJY-P3R6-7Y2X-FX3M
    Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
    Estes, C. (Ed.). (2001). Social policy and aging: A critical perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232676
    Estes, C. L., & Binney, E. A. (1989). The biomedicalization of aging: Dangers and dilemmas. The Gerontologist, 29, 587–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/29.5.587
    Eysenbach, G., Powell, J., Kuss, O., & Sa, E. R. (2002). Empirical studies assessing the quality of health information for consumers of the World Wide Web. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 2691–2702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.287.20.2691
    Falk, U. A., & Falk, G. (2002). Grandparents: A new look at the supporting generation. Amherst, NY: Prometheus.
    Fallowfield, L., Jenkins, V., Farewell, V., Saul, J., Duffy, A., & Eves, R. (2002). Efficacy of a Cancer Research UK communication skills training model for oncologists: A randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 359, 650–656. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2802%2907810-8
    Fingerman, K., Chen, P.-C., Hay, E., Cichy, K. E., & Lefkowitz, E. S. (2006). Ambivalent reactions in the parent and offspring relationship. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 61B, P152–P160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/61.3.P152
    Folwell, A. L., Chung, L. C., Nussbaum, J. F., Bethea, L. S., & Grant, J. A. (1997). Differential accounts of closeness in older adult sibling relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 14, 843–849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407597146008
    Fox, S., & Giles, H. (1993). Accommodating intergenerational contact: A critique and theoretical model. Journal of Aging Studies, 7, 423–451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0890-4065%2893%2990009-9
    Fryberg, S. A. (2003). Really? You don't look like an American Indian: Social representations and social group identities. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64(3-B), 1549.
    Gallois, C., Giles, H., Ota, H., Pierson, H. D., Ng, S. H., Lim, T. S., et al. (1999). Intergenerational communication across the Pacific Rim: The impact of filial piety. In J. C.Lasry, J.Adair, & K.Dion (Eds.), Latest contributions to cross-cultural psychology (pp. 192–211). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.
    Ganje, L. (2004). Elderly [Encyclopedia entry]. In C. A.Barrett & B. J.Markowitz (Eds.), American Indian Culture (Vol. 1, pp. 260–262). Pasadena, CA: Salem Press.
    Gantz, W., Gartenberg, H., & Rainbow, C. (1980). Approaching invisibility: The portrayal of the elderly in magazine advertisements. Journal of Communication, 30, 56–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1980.tb01769.x
    Garstka, T. A., McCallion, P., & Toseland, R. W. (2001). Using support groups to improve caregiving health. In M. L.Hummert & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Aging, communication, and health: Linking research and practice for successful aging (pp. 75–100). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Gattuso, S., & Shadbolt, A. (2002). Attitudes toward aging among Pacific Islander health students in Fiji. Educational Gerontology, 28 (2), 99–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601270252801364
    General Social Survey. (2006). General social survey (Machine-readable data file). Retrieved January 2006 from http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/projects/gensoc.asp
    Gerard, J. M., Landry-Meyer, L., & Guzell Roe, J. (2006). Grandparents raising grandchildren: The role of social support in coping with caregiving challenges. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 62, 359–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/3796-DMB2-546Q-Y4AQ
    Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Signorielli, N., & Morgan, M. (1980). Aging with television: Images on television drama and conceptions of social reality. Journal of Communication, 30(1), 37–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1980.tb01766.x
    Giarrusso, R., Silverstein, M., & Bengtson, V. (1996, Spring). Family complexity and the grandparent role. Generations, 17–23.
    Gibb, H., & O'Brien, B. (1990). Jokes and reassurance are not enough: Ways in which nurses relate through conversation with elderly clients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, 1389–1401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.1990.tb01781.x
    Giles, H. (1999). Managing dilemmas in the “silent revolution”: A call to arms!Journal of Communication, 49, 170–182.
    Giles, H., Dailey, R. M., Makoni, S., & Sarkar, J. M. (2006). Intergenerational communication beliefs across the lifespan: Comparative data from India. Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    Giles, H., Noels, K. A., Williams, A., Ota, H., Lim, T.-S., Ng, S. H., et al. (2003). Intergenerational communication across cultures: Young people's perceptions of conversations with family elders, non-family elders and same-age peers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 18, 1–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024854211638
    Giles, H., & Stoney, T. (2005, November). The darkest side of intergenerational communication: Elder abuse. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Boston, MA.
    Glascock, J., & Ruggiero, T. E. (2004). Representations of class and gender on primetime Spanish language television in the United States. Communication Quarterly, 52, 390–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463370409370208
    Glendenning, F. (2004). Education for older adults: Lifelong learning, empowerment, and social change. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 543–562). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Glenn, N. D. (1990). Quantitative research in marital quality in the 1980s: A critical review. Journal of Marriage and the family, 52, 818–831. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353304
    Goetting, A. (1986). The developmental tasks of siblingship over the life cycle. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 703–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352563
    Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. New York: Pantheon.
    Gold, D. P., & Arbuckle, T. Y (1995). A longitudinal study of off-target verbosity. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 50B, P307–P315.
    Gold, D. P., Arbuckle, T. Y., & Andres, D. (1994). Verbosity in older adults. In M. L.Hummert, J. M.Wiemann, & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Interpersonal communication in older adulthood: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 107–129). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Golish, T. (2000). Changes in closeness between adult children and their parents. Communication Reports, 13, 79–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08934210009367727
    Grainger, K. (2004). Communication and the institutionalized elderly. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 479–498). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Granny lifts baby Jesus from Nativity scene. (2005, December 14). Arizona Daily Star, p. A2.
    Gravell, R. (1988). Communication problems in elderly people: Practical approaches to management. London: Croom Helm.
    Graves, K., & Shavings, L. (2005). Our view of dignified aging: Listening to the voices of our elders. Journal of Native Aging and Health, 1, 29–40.
    Greenberg, B. S., Korzenny, F., & Atkin, C. K. (1980). Trends in the portrayal of the elderly. In B. S.Greenberg (Ed.), Life on television: Content analysis of U. S. TV drama (pp. 23–33). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Greene, M. G., & Adelman, R. D. (2001). Building the physician–older patient relationship. In M. L.Hummert & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Aging, communication, and health: Linking research and practice for successful aging (pp. 101–120). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Gutman, G. M. (2003). Commentary: Gerotechnology and the home environment. In N.Charness & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Impact of technology on successful aging (pp. 251–261). New York: Springer.
    Hagestad, G. O., & Uhlenberg, P. (2005). The social separation of old and young: A root of ageism. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 343–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00409.x
    Hanley, P., & Webster, K. (2000). Age in the frame: Television and the over-50s: A study of portrayal, representation, and viewing. London: Age Concern England and the Independent Television Commission.
    Hansson, R. O., & Carpenter, B. N. (1994). Relationships in old age: Coping with the challenge of transition. New York: Guilford.
    Harris, A., & Feinberg, J. (1977). Television and aging: Is what you see what you get?Gerontologist, 17 (5), 464–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/17.5_Part_1.464
    Harwood, J. (1997). Viewing age: Lifespan identity and television viewing choices. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 41, 203–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838159709364401
    Harwood, J. (2000a). Communication media use in the grandparent–grandchild relationship. Journal of Communication, 50(4), 56–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02863.x
    Harwood, J. (2000b). Communicative predictors of solidarity in the grandparent–grandchild relationship. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17, 743–766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407500176003
    Harwood, J. (2004). Relational, role, and social identity as expressed in grandparents' personal web sites. Communication Studies, 55, 300–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510970409388621
    Harwood, J., & Anderson, K. (2002). The presence and portrayal of social groups on prime-time television. Communication Reports, 15, 81–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08934210209367756
    Harwood, J., & Giles, H. (1992). “Don't make me laugh”: Age representations in a humorous context. Discourse and Society, 3, 403–436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003004001
    Harwood, J., & Giles, H. (1994, February). Cognitive representations of the life-span. Presented at the annual meeting of the Western Speech Communication Association, San Jose, CA.
    Harwood, J., Giles, H., McCann, R. M., Cai, D., Somera, L. P., Ng, S. H., et al. (2001). Older adults' trait ratings of three age-groups around the Pacific rim. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 16, 157–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010616316082
    Harwood, J., Giles, H., Ota, H., Pierson, H. D., Gallois, C., Ng, S. H., et al. (1996). College students' trait ratings of three age groups around the Pacific Rim. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 11, 307–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00115798
    Harwood, J., Giles, H., & Ryan, E. B. (1995). Aging, communication, and intergroup theory: Social identity and intergenerational communication. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (pp. 133–159). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Harwood, J., Hewstone, M., Paolini, S., & Voci, A. (2005). Grandparent–grandchild contact and attitudes towards older adults: Moderator and mediator effects. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 393–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271577
    Harwood, J., & Lin, M.-C. (2000). Affiliation, pride, exchange, and distance: Grandparents' accounts of relationships with their college-aged grandchildren. Journal of Communication, 50, 31–47.
    Harwood, J., Raman, P., & Hewstone, M. (2006). Communicative dynamics of age salience. Journal of Family Communication, 6, 181–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327698jfc0603_2
    Harwood, J., & Roy, A. (1999). Portrayals of older adults in magazine advertisements in India and the United States. Howard Journal of Communications, 10, 269–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/106461799246753
    Hasher, L., & Zacks, R. T. (1988). Working memory, comprehension, and aging: A review and a new view. In G. H.Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 22, pp. 193–226). New York: Academic Press.
    Hatch, L. R., & Bulcroft, K. (2004). Does long term marriage bring less frequent disagreements? Five explanatory frameworks. Journal of Family Issues, 25, 465–495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X03257766
    Haug, M. R., & Ory, M. G. (1987). Issues in elderly patient–provider interactions. Research in Aging, 9, 3–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027587009001001
    Hawkes, K. (2003). Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity. American Journal of Human Biology, 15, 380–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.10156
    Hayslip, B., & Kaminski, P. L. (2005). Grandparents raising their grandchildren: A review of the literature and suggestions for practice. The Gerontologist, 45, 262–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/45.2.262
    He, W., Sengupta, M., Velkoff, V. A., & DeBarros, K. A. (2005). 65+ in the United States: 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S, Census Bureau.
    Healey, T., & Ross, K. (2002). Growing old invisibly: Older viewers talk television. Media, Culture, & Society, 24, 105–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344370202400107
    Hedlund, A. L. (1999). Give-and-take: Navajo grandmothers and the role of craftswomen. In M. M.Schweitzer (Ed.), American Indian Grandmothers: Traditions and transitions (pp. 53–78). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
    Henwood, K. (1993). The discursive construction of identities within family relationships. Journal of Ageing Studies, 7, 303–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0890-4065%2893%2990017-E
    Henwood, K., Giles, H., Coupland, J., & Coupland, N. (1993). Stereotyping and affect in discourse: Interpreting the meaning of elderly painful self-disclosure. In D. M.Mackie & D. L.Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and stereotyping (pp. 269–296). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Hilt, M. L., & Lipschultz, J. H. (2004). Elderly Americans and the Internet: E-mail, TV news, information and entertainment websites. Educational Gerontology, 30, 57–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601270490249166
    Himes, C. L. (1994). Parental caregiving by adult women. Research on Aging, 16, 191–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027594162004
    Hodgson, L. G. (1995). Adult grandchildren and their grandparents: The enduring bond. In J.Hendricks (Ed.), The ties of later life (pp. 155–170). Amityville, NY: Baywood.
    Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural dimensions in management and planning. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 1, 81–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01733682
    Holladay, S. J., & Coombs, W. T. (2001, November). Media portrayals of the intergenerational battle over “grandparents' rights”: An examination of the Troxell v Granville case. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Atlanta.
    Holladay, S. J., & Coombs, W. T. (2004). The political power of seniors. In J. F.Nussbaum and J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 383–406). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Holladay, S. J., & Kerns, K. S. (1999). Do age differences matter in close and casual friendships?: A comparison of age discrepant and age peer friendships. Communication Reports, 12, 101–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08934219909367715
    Holladay, S. J., Lackovich, R., & Lee, M. (1998). (Re)constructing relationships with grandparents: A turning point analysis of granddaughters' relational development with maternal grandmothers. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 46, 287–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/00GV-5PWF-UDNH-EHDV
    Holladay, S. J., & Seipke, H. L. (2003, November). Communication between grandparents and grandchildren in geographically dispersed relationships. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Miami.
    Hoyert, D. L., Kung, H. C., & Smith, B. L. (2005). Deaths: Preliminary data for 2003. National Vital Statistics Reports, 53(15). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
    Hummert, M. L. (1994). Stereotypes of the elderly and patronizing speech. In M. L.Hummert, J. M.Wiemann, & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Interpersonal communication in older adulthood: Interdisciplinary theory and research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 162–184). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hummert, M. L., Garstka, T. A., O'Brien, L. T., Greenwald, A. G., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). Using the implicit association test to measure age differences in implicit social cognitions. Psychology and Aging, 17, 482–495http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.17.3.482
    Hummert, M. L., Garstka, T. A., Ryan, E. B., & Bonnesen, J. L. (2004). The role of age stereotypes in interpersonal communication. In J. F.Nussbaum and J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 91–121). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Hummert, M. L., Garstka, T. A., Shaner, J. L., & Strahm, S. (1994). Stereotypes of the elderly held by young, middle-aged and elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 49, 240–249.
    Hummert, M. L., & Nussbaum, J. F. (2001). Communication, aging, and health. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Hummert, M. L., & Ryan, E. B. (2001). Patronizing. In W. P.Robinson & H.Giles (Eds.), The new handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 253–270). Chichester, England: John Wiley.
    Hunt, G. G. (1997). Cleveland Free-Net Alzheimer's forum. Generations, 21(3), 37.
    Ikels, C. (2004). The impact of housing policy on China's urban elderly. Urban Anthropology & Studies of Cultural Systems & World Economic Development, 33, 321–355.
    Ingersoll-Dayton, B., & Saengtienchai, C. (1999). Respect for the elderly in Asia: Stability and change. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 48, 113–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/G1XR-QDCV-JRNM-585P
    Ishikawa, H., Roter, D. L., Yamazaki, Y., & Takayama, T. (2005). Physician–elder patient–companion communication and roles of companions in Japanese geriatric encounters. Social Science and Medicine, 60, 2307–2320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.08.071
    Jackson, D. D., & Chapleski, E. E. (2000). Not traditional, not assimilated: Elderly American Indians and the notion of “cohort.”Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 15, 229–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006709411417
    James, L. E. (2006). Specific effects of aging on proper name retrieval: Now you see them, now you don't. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 61B, P180–P183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/61.3.P180
    Jendrek, M. P. (1993). Grandparents who parent their grandchildren: Effects on lifestyle. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 609–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353342
    Kaiser Family Foundation. (2005). E-health and the elderly: How seniors use the Internet for health information. Menlo Park, CA: Author.
    Kanayama, T. (2003). Ethnographic research on the experience of Japanese elderly people online. New Media & Society, 5, 267–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444803005002007
    Kehl, D. G. (1985). Thalia meets Tithonus: Gerontological wit and humor in literature. The Gerontologist, 25, 539–544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/25.5.539
    Kemper, S. (1994). Elderspeak: Speech accommodations to older adults. Aging and Cognition, 1, 17–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09289919408251447
    Kemper, S., & Harden, T. (1999). Experimentally disentangling what's beneficial about elderspeak from what's not. Psychology and Aging, 14, 656–670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.14.4.656
    Kemper, S., Kynette, D., & Norman, S. (1992). Age differences in spoken language. In R.West & J.Sinnot (Eds.), Everyday memory and aging (pp. 138–154). New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Kemper, S., Kynette, D., Rash, S., O'Brien, K., & Sprott, R. (1989). Lifespan changes to adults' language: Effects of memory and genre. Applied Psycholinguistics, 10, 49–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400008419
    Kemper, S., & Mitzner, T. L. (2001). Language production and comprehension. In J. E.Birren & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (
    5th ed.
    , pp. 378–398). San Diego: Academic Press.
    Kemper, S., Rash, S. R., Kynette, D., & Norman, S. (1990). Telling stories: The structure of adults' narratives. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 2, 205–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09541449008406205
    Kemper, S., & Sumner, A. (2001). The structure of verbal abilities in young and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 16, 312–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.16.2.312
    Kessler, E.-M., Rekoczy, K., & Staudinger, U. M. (2004). The portrayal of older people in prime time television series: The match with gerontological evidence. Ageing and Society, 24, 531–552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X04002338
    King, V., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (1997). The legacy of grandparenting: Childhood experiences with grandparents and current involvement with grandchildren. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 848–859. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353787
    King, V., Elder, G. H., & Conger, R. D. (2000). Church, family, and friends. In G. H.Elder & R. D.Conger (Eds.), Children of the land: Adversity and success in rural America (pp. 151–163). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    King, V., Russell, S. T., & Elder, G. H. (1998). Grandparenting in family systems: An ecological perspective. In M. E.Szinovacz (Ed.), Handbook on grandparenthood (pp. 53–69). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Kite, M. E., & Johnson, B. T. (1988). Attitudes toward older and younger adults: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 3, 233–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.3.3.233
    Kite, M. E., Stockdale, G. D., Whitley, B. E., & Johnson, B. T. (2005). Attitudes towards younger and older adults: An updated meta-analytic review. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 241–266.
    Knox, V. J., Gekoski, W. L., & Johnson, E. A. (1986). Contact with and perceptions of the elderly. The Gerontologist, 26, 309–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/26.3.309
    Kogan, N., & Mills, M. (1992). Gender influences on age cognitions and preferences: Sociocultural or sociobiological?Psychology and Aging, 7, 98–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.7.1.98
    Kojima, H. (2000). Japan: Hyper-aging and its policy implications. In V. L.Bengtson, K.-D.Kim, G. C.Myers, & K.-S.Eun (Eds.), Aging in East and West: Families, states and the elderly (pp. 95–120). New York: Springer.
    Korczyk, S. M. (2004). Is early retirement ending?Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved May 23, 2006, from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/post-import/2004_10_retire.pdf
    Kornhaber, A. (1996). Contemporary grandparenting. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243580
    Kornhaber, A., & Woodward, K. L. (1981). Grandparents/grandchildren: The vital connection. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday.
    Korzenny, F., & Neuendorf, K. (1980). Television viewing and the self concept of the elderly. Journal of Communication, 30, 71–80.
    Krause, N. (1997). Received support, anticipated support, social class, and mortality. Research on Aging, 19, 387–422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027597194001
    Kruk, E., & Hall, B. L. (1995). The disengagement of paternal grandparents subsequent to divorce. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 23, 131–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J087v23n01_09
    Kwak, J., & Haley, W. E. (2005). Current research findings on end-of-life decision making among racially or ethnically diverse groups. The Gerontologist, 45, 634–641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/45.5.634
    Kynette, D., & Kemper, S. (1986). Aging and the loss of grammatical forms. Language and Communication, 6, 65–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309%2886%2990006-6
    Laguna, K., & Babcock, R. (1997). Computer anxiety in young and older adults: Implications for human computer interactions in older populations. Computers in Human Behavior, 13(3), 317–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0747-5632%2897%2900012-5
    Landry, L. (1999). Research into action: Recommended intervention strategies for grandparentcaregivers. Family Relations, 48 (4), 381–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585245
    Langer, E. J., & Rodin, J. (1976). The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged.: A field experiment in an institutional setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 191–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.34.2.191
    Laux, L. F. (2001). Aging, communication, and interface design. In N.Charness, D. C.Parks, & B. A.Sabel (Eds.), Communication, technology, and aging: Opportunities and challenges for the future (pp. 153–168). New York: Springer.
    Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M. (2005). Maintaining the double standard: Portrayals of age and gender in popular films. Sex Roles, 52, 437–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-3710-1
    Leitner, M. J. (1983). The representation of aging in pop/rock music of the 1960s and '70s. Activities, Adaptation, and Aging, 4, 49–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J016v03n02_08
    Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., & Gottman, J. M. (1993). Long-term marriage: Age, gender, and satisfaction. Psychology & Aging, 8, 301–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.8.2.301
    Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., & Gottman, J. M. (1994). The influence of age and gender on affect, physiology, and their interrelations: A study of long-term marriage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 56–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.1.56
    Levinson, R. (1973). From Olive Oyle to Sweet Poly Purebread: Sex role stereotypes and televised cartoons. Journal of Popular Culture, 9, 561–572.
    Levitt, S. D. (2004). Testing theories of discrimination: Evidence from “The Weakest Link.”Journal of Law and Economics, 17, 431–452.
    Levy, B., & Langer, E. (1994). Aging free from negative stereotypes: Successful memory in China and among the American deaf. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 989–997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.66.6.989
    Levy, B. R. (1996). Improving memory in old-age through implicit self-stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1092–1107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.6.1092
    Levy, B. R., Slade, M. D., Kunkel, S. R., & Kasl, S. V. (2002). Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 261–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.83.2.261
    Lin, C. (2001). Cultural values reflected in Chinese and American television advertising. Journal of Advertising, 30, 83–94.
    Lin, M.-C., & Harwood, J. (2003). Predictors of grandparent–grandchild relational solidarity in Taiwan. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20, 537–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02654075030204006
    Lin, M.-C., Harwood, J., & Bonnesen, J. L. (2002). Topics of conversation in the grandparent–grandchild relationship. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21, 302–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X02021003005
    Lin, M.-C., Harwood, J., & Hummert, M. L. (2006). Young adults' intergenerational communication schemas in the Taiwan and the US. Unpublished manuscript, Kent State University.
    Lin, M.-C., Hummert, M. L., & Harwood, J. (2004). Representation of age identities in online discourse. Journal of Aging Studies, 18, 261–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2004.03.006
    Lin, M.-C., Zhang, Y. B., & Harwood, J. (2004). Taiwanese younger adults' intergenerational communication schemas. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 19, 321–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JCCG.0000044687.83806.3e
    Liu, L.-F., & Tinker, A. (2001, August). Factors associated with nursing home entry for older people in Taiwan, Republic of China. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 15, 245–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13561820120063138
    Liu, L. L., & Park, D. C. (2003). Technology and the promise of independent living for adults: A cognitive perspective. In N.Charness & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Impact of technology on successful aging (pp. 262–289). New York: Springer.
    Lund, R., Avlund, K., Modvig, J., Due, P., & Holstein, B. E. (2004). Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 32, 419–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14034940410028
    Lye, D. N. (1996). Adult child–parent relationships. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 79–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.79
    Lyyra, T.-M., & Heikkinen, R.-L. (2006). Perceived social support and mortality in older people. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 61B, S147–S152.
    Mancini, J., & Blieszner, R. (1989). Aging parents and adult children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 51, 275–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352492
    Mares, M. L., & Cantor, J. (1992). Elderly viewers' responses to televised portrayals of old age: Empathy and mood management versus social comparison, Communication Research, 19, 459–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365092019004004
    Mares, M. L., & Woodard, E. (2006). Desperately seeking the elderly audience: Adult age differences in television viewing. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media.
    Markides, K. S., Martin, H. W., & Gomez, E. (1983). Older Mexican Americans: A study in an urban barrio. Austin: Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texas at Austin.
    Marks, R., Newman, S., & Onawola, R. (1985). Latency-aged children's views of aging. Educational Gerontology, 11, 89–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0380127850110202
    Martens, A., Greenberg, J., Schimel, J., & Landau, M. J. (2004). Ageism and death: Effects of mortality salience and perceived similarity to elders on reactions to elderly people. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1524–1536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271185
    Marziali, E., & Donahue, P. (2006). Caring for others: Internet video-conferencing group intervention for family caregivers of older adults with neurodegenerative disease. The Gerontologist, 46, 398–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/46.3.398
    Mastro, D., & Ortiz, M. (in press). A content analysis of social groups in primetime Spanish language television. Paper presented in the Mass Communication Division, International Communication Association, Dresden, Germany.
    Mastro, D. E., & Stern, S. R. (2003). Representations of race in television commercials: A content analysis of prime-time advertising. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 47, 638–647. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4704_9
    Matsumoto, Y. (in press). ‘We'll be dead by then!’—Comical self-disclosure by elderly Japanese women. To appear in the Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 2004 meeting.
    Matthews, S. H. (1996). Friendships through the life course: Oral biographies in old age. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Matthews, S. H. (2005). Reaching beyond the dyad: Research on adult siblings. In V. L.Bengtson, A. C.Acock, K. R.Allen, P.Dilworth-Anderson, & D. M.Klein (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theory and research (pp. 181–184). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412990172
    McConatha, J. T., McConatha, D., Deaner, S., & Dermigny, R. (1995). A computer-based intervention for the education and therapy of institutionalized older adults. Educational Gerontology, 21, 129–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0360127950210202
    McGoldrick, J. P., Pearce, J., & Giordana, N. (1982). Ethnicity and family therapy. New York: Guilford.
    McKay, V. C. (1999). Grandmothers and granddaughters in African American families: Imparting cultural tradition and womanhood between generations of women. In H.Hamilton (Eds.), Language and communication in old age: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 351–374). New York: Garland.
    McKay, V. C., & Caverly, R. S. (2004). The nature of family relationships between and within generations: Relations between grandparents, grandchildren, and siblings in later life. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 251–272). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    McMellon, C., & Schiffman, L. (2002). Cybersenior empowerment: How some older individuals are taking control of their lives. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 21, 157–175, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07364802021002002
    Merton, R. K., & Kitt, A. (1950). Contributions to the theory of reference group behavior. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Mikkelson, A. C. (2006). Communication among peers: Adult sibling relationships. In K.Floyd & M. T.Mormon (Eds.), Widening the family circle: New research on family communication (pp. 21–36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204369
    Miller, D. W., Leyell, T. S., & Mazachek, J. (2004). Stereotypes of the elderly in U.S. television commercials from the 1950s to the 1990s. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 58, 315–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/N1R6-7Q5Y-2N7Q-8NM1
    Miller-Day, M. A. (2004). Communication among grandmothers, mothers, and adult daughters: A qualitative study of maternal relationships. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Montepare, J. M., Steinberg, J., & Rosenberg, B. (1992). Characteristics of vocal communication between young adults and their parents and grandparents. Communication Research, 19, 479–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365092019004005
    Morrell, R. W., Dailey, S. R., & Rousseau, G. K. (2003). Applying research: The http://NIHSeniorHealth.gov project. In N.Charness & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Impact of technology on successful aging (pp. 134–161). New York: Springer.
    Mundorf, N., & Brownell, W. (1990). Media preferences of older and younger adults. The Gerontologist, 30(5), 685–692. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/30.5.685
    Murphy, B., Schofield, H., Nankervis, J., Bloch, S., Herrman, H., & Singh, B. (1997). Women with multiple roles: The emotional impact of caring for ageing parents. Ageing and Society, 17, 277–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X97006429
    Musick, K. (2005). Does marriage make people happier? Marriage, cohabitation and trajectories in well-being. In V. L.Bengtson, A. C.Acock, K. R.Allen, P.Dilworth-Anderson, & D. M.Klein (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theory and research (pp. 103–107). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412990172
    Namazi, K. H., & McClintic, M. (2003). Computer use among elderly persons in long-term care facilities. Educational Gerontology, 29, 535–550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713844391
    Nass, C., & Steuer, J. S. (1993). Voices, boxes, and sources of messages: Computers and social actors. Human Communication Research, 19, 504–527.
    National Center on Elder Abuse. (2004). The 2004 survey of state adult protective services. Retrieved June 21, 2006, from http://www.elderabusecenter.org/pdf/2-14-06%2060FACT%20SHEET.pdf
    National Center for Health Statistics. (2005). Data Warehouse on Trends in Health and Aging, Prevalence of Selected Conditions by Age and Sex: United States, 1984–1995. NHIS (NHIC95). Retrieved June, 2005 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/agingact.htm
    National Center for Health Statistics (2005). Health, United States, 2005 with chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. Centers for Disease Control: Hyattsville, MD.
    Nelson, T. D. (Ed.). (2004). Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Neussel, F. (1992). The image of older adults in the media: An annotated bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Ng, S. H., & He, A. (2004). Code-switching in tri-generational family conversations among Chinese immigrants in New Zealand. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 23, 28–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X03260807
    Noller, P., Feeney, J., & Peterson, C. C. (2001). Personal relationships across the lifespan. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
    Norman, S., Kemper, S., Kynette, D., Cheung, H., & Anagnopoulos, C. (1991). Syntactic complexity and adults' running memory span. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 46, 346–351.
    Normann, H. K., Norberg, A., & Asplund, K. (2002). Confirmation and lucidity during conversations with a woman with severe dementia. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39, 370–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2002.02298.x
    Nussbaum, J. F. (1983). Relationship closeness of elderly interaction: Implications for life satisfaction. The Western Journal of Speech Communication, 47, 229–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570318309374120
    Nussbaum, J. F. (1991). Communication, language, and the institutionalized elderly. Ageing and Society, 11, 149–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X00003986
    Nussbaum, J. F., & Bettini, L. (1994). Shared stories of the grandparent–grandchild relationship. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 39, 67–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/7WPK-LM6C-QCA4-GQ4R
    Nussbaum, J. F., & Coupland, J. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Nussbaum, J. F., Hummert, M. L., Williams, A., & Harwood, J. (1996). Communication and older adults. In B. R.Burleson (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 19 (pp. 1–48). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Nussbaum, J. F., Pecchioni, L. L., & Crowell, T. (2001). The older patient–health care provider relationship in a managed care environment. In M. L.Hummert & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Aging, communication, and health: Linking research and practice for successful aging (pp. 23–42). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Nussbaum, J. F., Pecchioni, L. L., Robinson, J. D., & Thompson, T. L. (2000). Communication and aging (
    2nd ed.
    ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    O'Connor, B. P., & Rigby, H. (1996). Perceptions of baby talk, frequency of receiving baby talk, and self-esteem among community and nursing home residents. Psychology and Aging, 11, 147–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.11.1.147
    Orange, J. B., & Ryan, E. B. (2000). Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 16, 153–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0690%2805%2970015-X
    Ory, M. G., Abeles, R. P., & Lipman, P. (1992). Aging, health, and behavior. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Parameswaran, R. E. (2004). Spectacles of gender and globalization: Mapping Miss World's media event space in the news. Communication Review, 7(4), 371–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10714420490886970
    Park, D. C., Lautenschlager, G., Hedden, T., Davidson, N., Smith, A. D., & Smith, P. (2002). Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult lifespan. Psychology and Aging, 17, 299–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.17.2.299
    Parrott, T. M., & Bengtson, V. L. (1999). The effects of earlier intergenerational affection, normative expectations, and family conflict on contemporary exchanges of help and support. Research on Aging, 21, 73–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027599211004
    Passuth, P. M., & Cook, F. L. (1985). Effects of television viewing on knowledge and attitudes about older adults: A critical reexamination. The Gerontologist, 25, 69–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/25.1.69
    Pasupathi, M., & Lockenhoff, C. E. (2002). Ageist behavior. In T. D.Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 201–246). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Pecchioni, L. L., Ota, H., & Sparks, L. (2004). Cultural issues in communication and aging. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 167–213). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Perloff, R. M., & Krevans, J. (1987). Tracking the psychosocial predictors of older individuals' television uses. The Journal of Psychology, 121, 365–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1987.9712677
    Petersen, M. (1973). The visibility and image of old people on television. Journalism Quarterly, 50, 569–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769907305000326
    Petrecca, L. (1999). Fox Sports baseball ads take a swing at elderly. Advertising Age, 70(19), 8.
    Pettigrew, T. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 65–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.65
    Pew Internet and American Life Project. (2001). Wired seniors: A fervent few inspired by family ties. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from http://www.pewinternet.org/reports.asp
    Pew Internet and American Life Project. (2004). Older Americans and the Internet. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from http://www.pewinternet.org/reports.asp
    Pew Internet and American Life Project. (2006). Finding answers online in sickness and in health. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from http://www.pewinternet.org/reports.asp
    Phillips, L. H., MacPherson, S. E. S., & Sala, S. D. (2002). Age, cognition and emotion: The role of anatomical segregation in the frontal lobes. In J.Grafman (Ed.), Handbook of neuropsychology (
    2nd ed.
    , Vol. 7, pp. 73–97). New York: Elsevier.
    Polacca, M. (2001). American Indian and Alaska Native elderly. In L. K.Olson (Ed.), Age through ethnic lenses: Caring for the elderly in a multicultural society (pp. 113–122). New York: Rowman Littlefield.
    Polivka, J. S. (1988). Is America aging? A message from media cartoons. Communication and Cognition, 21(1), 97–106.
    Polyak, I. (2000). The center of attention. American Demographics, 22(11), 30–33.
    Potter, W. J. (2004). Theory of media literacy: A cognitive approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Quinn, M. J., & Tomita, S. K. (1997). Elder abuse and neglect: Causes, diagnosis, and intervention strategies. New York: Springer.
    Quinn, W. H. (1983). Personal and family adjustment in later life. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 57–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351295
    Radecki, S. E., Kane, R. L., Solomon, D. H., Mendenhall, R. C., & Beck, J. C. (1988). Do physicians spend less time with older patients?Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 36, 713–718.
    Raman, P., Harwood, J., Weis, D., Anderson, J., & Miller, G. (2006). Portrayals of age groups in U.S. and Indian magazine advertisements: A cross-cultural comparison. Unpublished manuscript, University of Arizona.
    Raphael, E. I. (1989). Grandparents: A study of their role in Hispanic families. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 6, 31–62.
    Rasulo, D., Christensen, K., & Tomassini, C. (2005). The influence of social relations on mortality in later life: A study on elderly Danish twins. Gerontologist, 45, 601–608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/45.5.601
    Rawlins, W. K. (1982). Cross-sex friendship and the communicative management of sex-role expectations. Communication Quarterly, 30, 343–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463378209369470
    Rawlins, W. K. (2004). Friendships in later life. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.),
    Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 273–304). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Rexroat, C., & Shehan, C. (1987). The family life cycle and spouses' time in housework. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 737–750. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351968
    Richman, J. (1977). The foolishness and wisdom of age: Attitudes toward the elderly as reflected in jokes. The Gerontologist, 17, 210–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/17.3.210
    Riggs, K. (1996). Television use in a retirement community. Journal of Communication, 46, 144–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1996.tb01465.x
    Riggs, K. (1998). Mature audiences. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Roberto, K. A., & Scott, I. P. (1986). Equity consideration in the friendships of older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 41, 241–247.
    Robin, E. P. (1977). Old age in elementary school readers. Educational Gerontology, 2, 275–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0360127770020306
    Robinson, J. D., & Skill, T. (1995a). The invisible generation: Portrayals of the elderly on prime-time television. Communication Reports, 8 (2), 111–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08934219509367617
    Robinson, J. D., & Skill, T. (1995b). Media usage patterns and portrayals of the elderly. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (pp. 359–391). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Robinson, J. D., Skill, T., & Turner, J. W. (2004). Media usage patterns and portrayals of seniors. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 423–450). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Robinson, T., & Anderson, C. (2006). Older characters in children's animated television programs: A context analysis of their portrayal. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 50, 287–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem5002_7
    Robinson, T., Popvich, M., Gustafson, R., & Fraser, C. (2003). Older adults' perceptions of offensive senior stereotypes in magazine advertisements: Results of a Q-method analysis. Educational Gerontology, 29, 503–519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713844392
    Rodin, J., & Langer, E. J. (1977). Long-term effects of a control-relevant intervention with the institutionalized aged. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 897–902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.35.12.897
    Rodrigue, J. R., & Park, T. L. (1996). General and illness-specific adjustment to cancer: Relationship to marital status and marital quality. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 40, 29–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2895%2900540-4
    Rogers, W. A., & Fisk, A. D. (2003). Technology design, usability, and aging: Human factors techniques and considerations. In N.Charness & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Impact of technology on successful aging (pp. 1–14). New York: Springer.
    Rollins, B. C., & Feldman, H. H. (1970). Marital satisfaction over the family life cycle. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 32, 20–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/349967
    Rosenkranz, M. A., Jackson, D. C., Dalton, K. M., Dolski, I., Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., et al. (2003). Affective style and in vivo immune response: Neurobehavioral mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 11148–11153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1534743100
    Ross, C. (1995). Reconceptualizing marital status as a continuum of attachment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 129–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353822
    Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Random House.
    Roy, A., & Harwood, J. (1997). Underrepresented, positively portrayed: Older adults in television commercials. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25, 39–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889709365464
    Rubin, A. M. (1986). Television, aging and information seeking. Language & Communication, 6, 125–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309%2886%2990011-X
    Ryan, E. B. (1991). Normal aging and language. In R.Lubinski (Ed.), Dementia and communication: Clinical and research issues (pp. 84–97). Toronto: B. C, Decker.
    Ryan, E. B., Bajorek, S., Beaman, A., & Anas, A. (2005). “I just want you to know that ‘them’ is me”: Intergroup perspectives on communication and disability. In J.Harwood & H.Giles (Eds.), Intergroup communication: Multiple perspectives (pp. 117–137). New York: Peter Lang.
    Ryan, E. B., Bourhis, R. Y., & Knops, U. (1991). Evaluative perceptions of patronizing speech addressed to elders. Psychology and Aging, 6, 442–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.6.3.442
    Ryan, E. B., Giles, H., Bartolucci, G., & Henwood, K. (1986). Psycholinguistic and social psychological components of communication by and with the elderly. Language and Communication, 6, 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309%2886%2990002-9
    Ryan, E. B., Jin, Y., Anas, A. P., & Luh, J. J. (2004). Communication beliefs about youth and old age in Asia and Canada. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 19, 343–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JCCG.0000044688.27282.7b
    Ryan, E. B., Kennaley, D. E., Pratt, M. W., & Shumovich, M. A. (2000). Evaluations by staff, residents, and community seniors of patronizing speech in the nursing home: Impact of passive, assertive, or humorous responses. Psychology and Aging, 15, 272–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.15.2.272
    Ryan, E. B., Kwong See, S., Meneer, W. B., & Trovato, D. (1994). Age-based perceptions of conversational skills among younger and older adults. In M. L.Hummert, J. M.Wiemann, & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Interpersonal communication in older adulthood: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 15–39). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ryan, E. B., Meredith, S. D., MacLean, M. J., & Orange, J. B. (1995). Changing the way we talk with elders: Promoting health using the communication enhancement model. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 41, 87–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/FP05-FM8V-0Y9F-53FX
    Ryan, E. B., Szechtman, B., & Bodkin, J. (1992). Attitudes toward younger and older adults learning to use computers. Journal of Gerontology, 47, P96–101.
    Sabat, S. R. (1999). Facilitating conversation with an Alzheimer's disease sufferer. In H.Hamilton (Eds.), Language and communication in old age: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 115–131). New York: Garland.
    Salari, S. (2002). Invisible in aging research: Arab Americans, Middle Eastern immigrants, and Muslims in the United States. The Gerontologist, 42, 580–589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/42.5.580
    Salthouse, T. A. (1988). Effects of aging on verbal abilities. In L. L.Light & D. M.Burke (Eds.), Language, memory and aging (pp. 17–35). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511575020.003
    Sarkisian, C. A., Prohaska, T. R., Wong, M. D., Hirsch, S., & Mangione, C. M. (2005). The relationship between expectations for aging and physical activity among older adults. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20, 911–915. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0204.x
    Scharlach, A. E., Fuller-Thomson, E., & Kramer, B. J. (1994). Curriculum modules on aging and ethnicity. Berkeley: University of California, School of Social Welfare.
    Schecter, S. R., & Bayley, R. (1997). Language socialization practices and cultural identity: Case studies of Mexican-descent families in California and Texas. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 513–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3587836
    Schneider, B. A., Pichora-Fuller, M. K., Kowalchuk, D., & Lamb, M. (1994). Gap detection and the precedence effect in young and old adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 95, 980–991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.408403
    Seefeldt, C., & Ahn, U. R. (1990). Children's attitudes toward the elderly in Korea and the United States. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 31, 248–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002071529003100308
    Segerstrom, S. C., Taylor, S. E., & Kemeny, M. E. (1996). Causal attributions predict rate of immune decline in HIV-seropositive gay men. Health Psychology, 15, 485–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.15.6.485
    Segrin, C., & Flora, J. (2000). Poor social skills are a vulnerability factor in the development of psychosocial problems. Human Communication Research, 26, 489–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.2000.tb00766.x
    Segrin, C., & Flora, J. (2005). Family communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Selwyn, N., Gorard, S., Furlong, J., & Madden, L. (2003). Older adults' use of information and communications technology in everyday life. Ageing and Society, 23, 561–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X03001302
    Sharma, R.N. (1980). Ancient India according to Manu. New Delhi: Nag Publishers.
    Shaver, L. D. (1997). The dilemma of Oklahoma Native American women elders: Traditional roles and sociocultural roles. In H. S.Noor Al-Deen (Ed.), Cross-cultural communication and aging in the United States (pp. 161–178). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Shenk, D., & Fullmer, E. (1996). Significant relationships among older women: Cultural and personal constructions of lesbianism. Journal of Women and Aging; 8(3/4), 75–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J074v08n03_06
    Signorielli, N. (2004). Aging on television: Messages relating to gender, race, and occupation in prime time. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 48, 279–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4802_7
    Sillars, A. L., Burggraf, C. S., Yost, S., & Zietlow, P. H. (1992). Conversational themes and marital relationship definitions: Quantitative and qualitative investigations. Human Communication Research, 19, 124–154.
    Sillars, A. L., & Zietlow, P. H. (1993). Investigations of marital communication and lifespan development. In N.Coupland & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Discourse and lifespan identity (pp. 237–261). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Silverstein, M., & Parrott, T. M. (1997). Attitudes toward public support of the elderly: Does early involvement with grandparents moderate generational tensions?Research on Aging, 19, 108–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027597191005
    Slevin, K. F. (2005). Intergenerational and community responsibility: Race uplift work in the retirement activities of professional African American women. Journal of Aging Studies, 19, 309–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2004.08.001
    Snowdon, D. A., Kemper, S. J., Mortimer, J. A., Greiner, L. H., Wekstein, D. R., & Markesbery, W. R. (1996). Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life: Findings from the nun study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275, 528–532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03530310034029
    Soliz, J. (in press). Communicative predictors of a shared family identity: Comparison of grandchildren's perceptions of family-of-origin grandparents and stepgrandparents. Journal of Family Communication.
    Soliz, J., & Harwood, J. (2003). Perceptions of communication in a family relationship and the reduction of intergroup prejudice. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 31, 320–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369681032000132582
    Soliz, J., & Harwood, J. (2006). Shared family identity, age salience, and intergroup contact: Investigation of the grandparent–grandchild relationship. Communication Monographs, 73, 87–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637750500534388
    Soliz, J., Lin, M.-C., Anderson, K., & Harwood, J. (2006). Friends and allies: Communication in grandparent–grandchild relationships. In K.Floyd & M.Mormon (Eds.), Widening the family circle: New research on family communication (pp. 65–79). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204369
    Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape the intellectual identities and performance of women and African Americans. American Psychologist, 52, 613–629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.6.613
    Stern, S. R., & Mastro, D. (2004). Gender portrayals across the life span: A content analytic look at broadcast commercials. Mass Communication and Society, 7, 215–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327825mcs0702_5
    Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (2001). Wisdom and creativity. In J. E.Birren & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (
    5th ed.
    , pp. 500–522). San Diego: Academic Press.
    Sterns, A. A. (2005). Curriculum design and program to train older adults to use personal digital assistants. The Gerontologist, 45, 828–834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/45.6.828
    Stine, E. L., & Wingfield, A. (1987). Process and strategy in memory for speech among younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 2, 272–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.2.3.272
    Stine-Morrow, E. L., Loveless, M. K., & Soederberg, L. M. (1996). Resource allocation in on-line reading by younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 11, 475–486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.11.3.475
    Swayne, L. E., & Greco, A. J. (1987). The portrayal of older Americans in television commercials. Journal of Advertising, 16, 47–54.
    Szinovacz, M. E. (Ed.). (1998). Handbook on grandparenthood. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S.Worchel & W.Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Tallis, R. (2006). To the barricades, old codgers: You're the last bastions of threatened liberty. The Times of London, July 31.
    Thimm, C., Rademacher, U., & Kruse, L. (1998). Age stereotypes and patronizing messages: Features of age-adapted speech in technical instructions to the elderly. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 26, 66–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889809365492
    Thompson, L., & Walker, A. J. (1989). Gender and families in marriage, work, and parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 845–871. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353201
    Thompson, T. L., Robinson, J. D., & Beisecker, A. E. (2004). The older patient–physician interaction. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 451–478). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Toseland, R., & Rossiter, C. (1989). Group interventions to support family caregivers: A review and analysis. Gerontologist, 29, 438–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/29.4.438
    Toseland, R., Rossiter, C., Peak, T., & Hill, P. (1990). Therapeutic processes in support groups for caregivers. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 40, 297–303.
    Troxell v. Granville, 99–138 S. Ct. (2000).
    Uchino, B. N., Cacioppo, J. T., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1996). The relationship between social support and physiological processes: A review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 488–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.3.488
    Uhlenberg, P., & Hammill, B. G. (1998). Frequency of grandparent contact with grandchild sets: Six factors that make a difference. The Gerontologist, 38, 276–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/38.3.276
    Uhlenberg, P., & Kirby, J. B. (1998). Grandparenthood over time: Historical and demographic trends. In M. E.Szinovacz (Ed.), Handbook on Grandparenthood (pp. 23–39). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2005). World population prospects: The 2004 Revision Population Database. Retrieved June 3, 2005, from http://esa.un.org/unpp/
    U.S. Census Bureau. (2001). Current population survey report on computer use and ownership (Table 2B: Presence of a Computer and the Internet at Home for People 18 Years and Over, by Selected Characteristics). Retrieved May 24, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/computer.html
    U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). Computer and Internet use in the United States. Washington, DC: Author.
    Van der Goot, M., Beentjes, J. W. J., & van Selm, M. (2006). Older adults' television viewing from a lifespan perspective: Past research and future challenges. In C.Beck (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 30 (pp. 431–469). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Vandeputte, D. D., Kemper, S., Hummert, M. L., Kemtes, K. A., Shaner, J., & Segrin, C. (1999). Social skills of older people: Conversations in same- and mixed-age dyads. Discourse Processes, 27, 55–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01638539909545050
    VanLaningham, J., Johnson, D. R., & Amato, P. (2001). Marital happiness, marital duration, and the U-shaped curve: Evidence from a five-wave panel study. Social Forces, 78, 1313–1341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sof.2001.0055
    Vernon, J. A., Williams, J. A., Phillips, T., & Wilson, J. (1990). Media stereotyping: A comparison of the way elderly women and men are portrayed on prime-time television. Journal of Women & Aging, 2, 55–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J074v02n04_05
    Vidal, C. (1988). Godparenting among Hispanic Americans. Child Welfare, 67, 453–459.
    Wahl, H., & Mollenkopf, H. (2003). Impact of everyday technology in the home environment on older adults' quality of life. In N.Charness & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Impact of technology on successful aging (pp. 215–241). New York: Springer.
    Waldman, D. A., & Avolio, B. J. (1986). Meta-analysis of age differences in job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 33–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.1.33
    Waldron, V. R., Gitelson, R., & Kelley, D. L. (2005). Gender differences in social adaptation to a retirement community: Longitudinal changes and the role of mediated communication. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 24, 283–298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0733464805277122
    Waldrop, D. P., & Weber, J. A. (2001). From grandparent to caregiver: The stress and satisfaction of raising grandchildren. Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 82, 461–472.
    Walker, A. J., Allen, K. R., & Connidis, I. A. (2005). Theorizing and studying sibling ties in adulthood. In V. L.Bengtson, A. C.Acock, K. R.Allen, P.Dilworth-Anderson, & D. M.Klein (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theory and research (pp. 167–172). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412990172
    Walker, A. J., Manoogian-O'Dell, M., McGraw, L. A., & White, D. L. G. (2001). Families in later life: Connections and transitions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Walker, A. J., Pratt, C. C., & Eddy, L. (1995). Informal caregiving to aging family members: A critical review. Family Relations, 44, 402–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584996
    Weishaus, S., & Field, D. (1988). A half century of marriage: Continuity or change?Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 763–774. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352645
    Whitbourne, S. K., & Dannefer, W. D. (1985). The “life drawing” as a measure of time perspective in adulthood. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 22 (2), 147–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/V67D-Q976-R5TK-H42R
    White, H., McConnell, E., Clipp, E., Branch, L. G., Sloane, R., Pieper, C., et al. (2002). A randomized controlled trial of the psychosocial impact of providing Internet training and access to older adults. Aging and Mental Health, 6, 213–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860220142422
    Whitten, P., & Gregg, J. L. (2001). Telemedicine: Using telecommunication technologies to deliver health services to older adults. In M. L.Hummert & J. F.Nussbaum (Eds.), Aging, communication, and health: Linking research and practice for successful aging (pp. 3–22). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Williams, A., & Giles, H. (1996). Intergenerational conversations: Young adults' retrospective accounts. Human Communication Research, 23, 220–250.
    Williams, A., & Guendouzi, J. (2000). Adjusting to “the home”: Dialectical dilemmas and personal relationships in a retirement community. Journal of Communication, 50, 65–83.
    Williams, A., & Harwood, J. (2004). Intergenerational communication: Intergroup, accommodation and family perspectives. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 115–138). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Williams, A., & Nussbaum, J. F. (2001). Intergenerational communication across the life-span. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Williams, K., Kemper, S., & Hummert, M. L. (2003). Improving nursing home communication: An intervention to reduce elderspeak. The Gerontologist, 43, 242–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/43.2.242
    Williams, N., & Torrez, D. J. (1998). Grandparenthood among Hispanics. In M. E.Szinovacz (Ed.), Handbook on Grandparenthood (pp. 87–96). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Wiscott, R., & Kopera-Frye, K. (2000). Sharing the culture: Adult grandchildren's perceptions of intergenerational relations. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 51(3), 199–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/0UY5-MXXP-W81K-VXCU
    Woodward, K. (1991). Aging and its discontents: Freud and other fictions. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Wright, K. (2000). Computer-mediated social support, older adults, and coping. Journal of Communication, 50(3), 100–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02855.x
    Wright, K., & Query, J. L. (2004). Online support and older adults: A theoretical examination of benefits and limitations of computer-mediated support networks for older adults and possible health outcomes. In J. F.Nussbaum & J.Coupland (Eds.), Handbook of communication and aging research (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 499–522). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Ylänne-McEwen, V., & Williams, A. (2003). New lifestyles, new cultures, new challenges? Changing images of older people in British magazine advertisements. Paper presented at the 4th International Symposium on Cultural Gerontology, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Zhang, Y. B. (2004). Initiating factors of Chinese intergenerational conflict: Young adults' written accounts. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 19, 299–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JCCG.0000044686.61485.94
    Zhang, Y. B., Harwood, J., & Hummert, M. L. (2005). Perceptions of conflict management styles in Chinese intergenerational dyads. Communication Monographs, 72, 71–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0363775052000342535
    Zhang, Y. B., & Hummert, M. L. (2001). Harmonies and tensions in Chinese intergenerational communication. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 11, 203–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/japc.11.2.06zha

    About the Author

    Jake Harwood (Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara) is Professor of Communication and former director of the Graduate Program in Gerontology at the University of Arizona. His research focuses on communication and aging. He is interested in the ways in which cognitive (e.g., stereotypes) and societal (e.g., mass media) representations of age groups relate to communication processes. His research draws on theories of social identity, intergroup behavior, and communication accommodation. He is the coeditor of Intergroup Communication: Multiple Perspectives (2005) and has published over 50 articles in professional journals. His recent publications have appeared in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Journal of Communication, Communication Monographs, and Human Communication Research. He currently serves as the editor of Human Communication Research and is book review editor for the Journal of Language and Social Psychology. In 2004 he was the recipient of the National Communication Association's Giles/Nussbaum Distinguished Scholar Award for outstanding teaching, scholarship, and service to the field of communication and aging. Dr. Harwood taught at the University of Kansas before moving to the University of Arizona.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website