Understanding and Dealing with Violence: A Multicultural Approach

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Edited by: Barbara C. Wallace & Robert T. Carter

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  • Part I: Understanding and Dealing with Violence through a Psychology of Oppression, Liberation, and Identity Development

    Part II: Understanding and Dealing with Hate, Hate Crimes, and Hate Violence

    Part III: Understanding and Dealing with Violence in Academic Settings

    Part IV: Understanding and Dealing with Youth Violence

    Part V: Understanding and Dealing with International Victims of Violence and Torture

  • WINTER ROUNDTABLE SERIES

    This book series is based upon the annual Winter Roundtable on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Education, convened each year by the Counseling Psychology Program at Teachers College, Columbia University. Inaugurated in 1983, the cross-cultural Winter Roundtable is the longest running, annual, national conference in the United States that specifically focuses on cultural, racial, and ethnic issues in psychology and education. Volumes in this series have their origin either in themes of Winter Roundtable conferences or in research developments in cross-cultural and multicultural psychology and education that reflect the goals and vision of the Winter Roundtable.

    SERIES EDITOR

    Robert T. Carter

    Teachers College, Columbia University

    EDITORIAL BOARD

    Clayton P. Alderfer, Rutgers University

    Patricia Arredondo, Arizona State University

    Nancy Boyd-Franklin, Rutgers University

    Lillian Comas-Diaz, Transcultural Mental Health Institute

    Donelda Cook, Loyola University of Baltimore

    Linda Darling-Hammond, Stanford University

    Michelle Fine, City University of New York

    Carl Grant, University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Anderson J. Franklin, City University of New York

    A. Lin Goodman, Teachers College, Columbia University

    Janet Helms, Boston College

    Samuel D. Johnson, Baruch College

    Teresa D. LaFromboise, Stanford University

    Stanley Sue, University of California at Los Angeles

    Volumes in this series …

    • Addressing Cultural Issues in Organization, edited by Robert T. Carter
    • Promoting Diversity and Social Justice: Educating People From Privileged Groups, by Diane J. Goodman
    • Understanding and Dealing With Violence, edited by Barbara C. Wallace and Robert T. Carter

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Foreword

    “Violence begets violence.”

    Wallace and Carter have compiled a significant volume that underscores the importance of each of us understanding the many facets of violence, including racism, prejudice, discrimination, sexism, heterosexism, classism, ethnic cleansing, physical and sexual assault, verbal assault, terrorism, war, hate messages, hate crimes, racial profiling, police brutality, and many other acts of inhumanity that exist. The authors of the book's chapters have many outstanding and powerful things to communicate, and I believe that most readers will continue to reflect on the written material long after reading each chapter. The contributors are quite skillful in blending their scholarly and personal perspectives throughout. The words and messages in each of the chapters are so profound that most individuals will find it difficult to read more than one chapter at a time without taking the opportunity to digest it fully.

    Among the first of its kind, this book will fill a substantial void in the multicultural mental health and education literature by offering unique and timely perspectives related to various forms of personal and interpersonal violence. I am also especially pleased by the social justice dimensions that are either implicit or explicit in each chapter. In particular, the chapters' authors consistently underscore the point that violence in all of its forms is damaging not only to individual persons but also to many components of the affected system(s). They almost uniformly assert that violence in any manner should not be tolerated because it contributes to a cycle or system of abuse that is ongoing until deliberate and concerted efforts are made to end this cycle.

    Wallace and Carter's book challenges us to identify constructive ways to resolve or at least address conflicts that could lead to violence in some way. Living in a multicultural society such as the United States and even the world further tests our ability to recognize and affirm the values and experiences of others as valid, even if we do not personally agree with others' ways of being. Nonetheless, it is important to note that to view one's worldview or experience as “absolute truth” is to negate and potentially pathologize other worldviews or experiences. This phenomenon, in fact, may lead to many types of intentional or unintentional violence.

    Wallace and Carter's edited volume is destined to serve as a primer to mental health clinicians, educators, clergy, social service personnel, students, and even community members and activists in their quest to combat violence in its numerous forms. This book is a “must-have” for anyone who is even remotely interested or affected in a small way by some type of violence. Especially in light of the terrorist events that occurred in the United States on September 11, 2001—and, indeed, other terrorist events that may occur on a daily basis in countries throughout the world—I would conclude that some form of violence has affected nearly every living being. I am grateful to Wallace and Carter for their vision and perseverance in bringing this book to fruition. I am certain that you will feel similarly after reading this volume—a work that, I predict, will be a seminal contribution to many areas of social science and education.

    Madonna G.Constantine, Ph.D.Associate Professor of Psychology and Education, Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Teachers College, Columbia University

    Preface

    After the violence of September 11, 2001, it was as if the world had stopped. Indeed, the production process involving this book halted as well, and a global community contemplated the devastating impact of violence. Those here in New York City, in particular, as well as across the expanse of the United States, faced the individual and collective task of fully absorbing the repercussions of violence as well as realizing that things will never be the same. This is the nature of the traumatic impact of violence—a universal experience of trauma that is ever so intimately known all too well by all too many around the globe.

    How are we to understand and deal with personal and social violence? This book answers that question, providing timely and much-needed answers at a time in American history when more individuals may be asking that question and seeking answers than ever before.

    In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, immigrants are being rounded up, interviewed, arrested, detained, incarcerated, and deported. Some institutions are extending “racial profiling,” as it is known when practiced against Blacks, to those who appear to be Islamic or Saudi Arabian, and bias crimes against such individuals have proliferated as one repercussion of the violence of September 11, even as one battle after another rages on distant lands. As Constantine reminds us in her Foreword, “violence begets violence.” So how do we go about the task of stopping the cycle of violence?

    Because the new millennium brings new demographics suggestive of an increasingly diverse society in the United States, as well as a diverse global community, what is needed is an approach to violence that appreciates the social, cultural, and historical context in which violence occurs. This kind of an approach to violence may be called multicultural in design. Thus, this edited volume introduces a multicultural approach to violence to the social sciences—as well as to the fields of psychology, education, and religion—that represents a viable approach to understanding and dealing with contemporary social and personal violence. Indeed, literally any member of the global community who seeks to understand violence and practical ways of dealing with it will find a practical tool for their use in this handbook.

    The multicultural approach to violence that this edited volume presents may itself be situated within a social, cultural, and historical context. The idea for this book arose around the planning of the 15th annual Teachers College Winter Roundtable on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Education in 1998. The roundtable has evolved from a pioneering conference setting for the discussion of cross-cultural counseling issues in psychology in the early 1980s to an annual national conference known for excellence in bringing together leading researchers, scholars, and practitioners in the areas of diversity and multiculturalism.

    Robert T. Carter, coeditor of this volume, has been the director of the conference for more than a decade. His leadership and vision of the conference have resulted in the roundtable expanding to include a focus on diversity and multiculturalism in education, going beyond the original focus primarily on cross-cultural counseling psychology. Since 1993, I have used the roundtable as an annual vehicle for presenting my thinking on the area of violence from a multicultural perspective. Over the years, I have developed a comprehensive theory of violence that accommodates both visible as well as invisible violence, seeks to end all forms of violence and oppression, and addresses damage done to identity. This edited volume allows me to present this comprehensive theory of violence as a psychology of oppression, liberation, and identity development, introducing the volume with this multicultural approach to violence in Chapter 1.

    What follows in subsequent chapters are the contributions of individuals who presented papers at the 1998 roundtable conference when the theme was “Understanding and Dealing With Personal and Social Violence.” Robert T. Carter asked me to provide leadership in selecting invited speakers who were experts in this area, as well as in organizing an edited book project on the same conference theme. Beyond what selected presenters shared at the conference, a few additional chapters were solicited from individuals who were not presenters at the roundtable but, nonetheless, have much to say of value.

    As a foundation in building a viable approach to violence that is multicultural and also expands the frontier of the field of cross-cultural psychology and education, it is hoped that the groundwork has been laid through this edited volume on which subsequent research and scholarship may stand. In addition, the “diverse and different other” within any society on any continent will find within this book important theory, research, and scholarship that effectively guide psychologists, educators, policymakers, religious leaders, community members, perpetrators, and victims or survivors of violence toward healing. Healing is required on the level of individuals, families, communities, organizations, professions, society, and the global community. The “diverse and different others” who are members of varied regional, national, and international communities will find in this book a practical tool to use in forging social justice movements that will improve the quality of their lives. Ideally, they will be supported if not accompanied by varied professionals working as equals alongside them who are willing to share their power, empower the oppressed, and take social action for social justice.

    The goal of this edited volume is to radically transform the personal and social lives of the “diverse and different” who have been historically oppressed, as well as transform the dynamic interplay between the oppressed and oppressor so that all can realize their highest potential and self-actualize the creation of positive identities. The goal of the volume is to also promote the work of ending all forms of violence and oppression, or man's inhumanity to man. This goal may seem idealistic to some. But any mission that is destined to take a considerable amount of time to complete requires a clear vision. Thus, the stated goal represents articulation of the vision, whereas this book is just one foundation stone placed on the path toward fulfilling the mission. Indeed, the book may inspire many to place their foot on that path and to take social action for social justice, as well as forge social justice movements for the liberation of the oppressed. It is hoped that future research and scholarship will attest to this prediction.

    But, today, in the aftermath of September 11, 2001, attacks and the regional, national, and international forms of violence reigning around the globe, a desperate humanity yearning to be free calls out for this book, and the volume responds through delivery of the kind of handbook that can direct social justice movements for their liberation. In addition, the voices of those who died on September 11 and in countless other atrocious acts of violence that still haunt a global community some days, months, years, decades, and centuries later collectively rise from the realm of spirit, asking us all to dedicate our energies to bringing an end to all forms of violence and oppression. Toward that end, this volume responds to a collective chorus of voices calling for well-reasoned, nonviolent efforts and offers a practical handbook for ending man's inhumanity to man.

    Barbara C.Wallace

    Acknowledgments

    Barbara C. Wallace acknowledges the many members of her extended family: Nana Okomfohene Korantemaa Ayeboafo for her spiritual service, editorial assistance, love, and support, as well as Cynthia, Uriel, Tersh, Adrienne, Ramsey, Kippie, and Isabella for their foundation of love, support, and good times. Not to be forgotten are Asuo Opare and Menu Opare, Ivonne Miranda, Dr. James Rosado, and Mensa Atta. Teachers College family includes Marsha Streeter and Cynthia Green, as well as a host of many others, including many beloved students. Spiritual family includes Nana Asuo Gyebi, Nana Asi, Nana Anima, Nana Oparebea, Boafo Tigare, Suapem, and my dear friend of many years, Jesus. And not to be forgotten are my ancestors, going back to the very beginning of time.

    Robert T. Carter would like to acknowledge many as well: He acknowledges and expresses his gratitude for the dedication and diligence of Barbara C. Wallace in “shepherding” this project from beginning to end, as well as the contributors to this edited volume for their thoughtful, insightful work and their courage in sharing their experience and cutting-edge work in the area of violence.

    He would also like to acknowledge the staff from the annual winter roundtable conference and those people who support the winter roundtable from around the country. Acknowledgments must also go to the people at Teachers College who support the annual conference, as well as the union staff and professional staff who provide invaluable assistance from various offices around the college. Finally, he acknowledges his wife, Adrienne, and his family.

    Dedication

    This book is dedicated to the memory of all of those who transitioned as a result of one of the many manifestations of violence and oppression, whether an atrocity, genocide, torture, trauma, war, hate, a bias crime, gun violence, police brutality, or any other form of man's inhumanity to man. It is also dedicated to those who are still living and willing to dedicate their lives to the eradication of violence and oppression. May this handbook guide the process of professionals and community members working alongside each other to bring about a world in which all can peacefully live and fully self-actualize an identity—regardless of how they may be perceived from the perspective of another as a “diverse and different other.”

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    About the Editors

    Barbara C. Wallace, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Health Education within the Department of Health and Behaviors Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University. She is a New York State Licensed Psychologist. She specializes in the treatment of those presenting chemical dependency and histories of sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence, and HIV/AIDS. She not only maintains a private practice and specializes in the treatment of those in recovery from chemical dependency and various forms of trauma, abuse, and violence but also provides spiritual counseling, couples counseling, and same-sex relationships counseling. Dr. Wallace has presented regionally, nationally, and internationally, specializing in “training the trainers,” or training other practitioners who can implement those techniques she has pioneered and refined in her frontline work (in the trenches, so to speak) with those impacted by the multiple epidemics involving drugs, HIV/AIDS, family trauma, and social and personal forms of visible and invisible violence. She has developed a reputation for being an especially dynamic presenter, covering topics such as the following: chemical dependency treatment, relapse prevention for a range of problem behaviors, trauma resolution for survivors of multiple forms of abuse, multicultural competency and diversity training, violence prevention and intervention, and social action for social justice. Her work reflects a deep-rooted commitment to social justice and ending the oppression of all humankind.

    Dr. Wallace is the author of numerous journal articles, articles in community-based publications, and several book volumes: Crack Cocaine: A Practical Treatment Approach for the Chemically Dependent (1991), The Chemically Dependent: Phases of Treatment and Recovery (1992), and Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families: Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment for Community Mental Health Promotion (1996). She is currently working on two books and several papers and chapters in edited books, reflecting her current research in the areas of addiction treatment, methadone to abstinence treatment outcome, multicultural counseling, and multicultural competence training.

    A native of Philadelphia, she traveled for the first time in the summer of 1999 to her spiritual home in Africa and rejoined her ancestral, indigenous Akan family through sacred ritual in the mountains of Larteh, Ghana. On January 6, 2000, in the presence of clan elders, sponsors, several chiefs, numerous priests, and loving family members, Dr. Wallace was enstooled as the Asona Aberadehemaa—being named Nana Ohemaa Agyiriwah. In Philadelphia, she serves the Asona Aberade Shrine as Queen Mother, also providing guidance and counseling within this context.

    Robert T. Carter, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology and Education, Chair of the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, and Director of Training of the Counseling Psychology Program at Teachers College, Columbia University. He is known internationally for his work on Black and White racial identity. He has published in the areas of psychotherapy processes and outcome, career development, cultural values, racial identity issues, educational achievements, and equality in education through the lens of racial identity. He has been retained to consult on organizational, legal, and educational issues associated with race and diversity. He also is the Conference Director for a national conference known as the Teachers College Winter Roundtable on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Education.

    Dr. Carter authored The Influence of Race and Racial Identity in Psychotherapy: Towards a Racially Inclusive Model (1995); coedited (with Chalmer E. Thompson) Racial Identity Theory: Applications for Individuals, Groups and Organizations (1997); coauthored (with D. Sue, J. M. Casas, M. J. Fouad, A. Levy, M. Jensen, R. LaFromboise, J. Manese, J. Ponterotto, and J. Vasques-Natall) Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Individual Professional and Organizational Development (1998); and is Series Editor for the Discussions From the Roundtable—The Counseling Psychologists and the Roundtable Book Series on Multicultural Psychology and Education. He is coeditor for the special issue of the Teachers College Record on Multicultural Education (Spring 2000).

    Dr. Carter is also a legal consultant. He works with organizations and individuals on issues such as organizational development, teacher training, desegregation, racial discrimination, cross-cultural adoption, and biracial custody. He is a Fellow in the American Psychological Association (Division 17, Counseling Psychology, and Division 45, Society for the Study of Ethnic Minority Issues) and former Chair of the Fellowship Committee for Division 17. He has also served on the editorial boards of The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Counseling and Development, Journal of Counseling Psychology, and Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. He is Editor-Elect of The Counseling Psychologist (2003–2008).

    About the Contributors

    Vanessa Alleyne is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Clinical and Counseling Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. She is currently on internship at Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, New York. Her research is in the area of addition, treatment motivation, and racial identity.

    Madonna G. Constantine, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her primary research interests are in the area of multicultural counseling competence and multicultural training and supervision. She has numerous publications related to her research interests, and she currently serves as an associate editor of the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development.

    Edward Dunbar, Ph.D., is a practicing psychologist in Los Angeles and an Associate Clinical Professor at UCLA. He has consulted to state and county agencies in the analysis of hate crime trends, trained school mental health staff in bias victim intervention, and testified on legislation to strengthen the sentencing for capital crimes against women, gays, and lesbians. He is also active in the study of human rights attitudes and ethnic bias in Eastern Europe. He treats victims of workplace harassment, hate violence, and sexual assault. His current areas of research address clinical aspects of racism, analysis of hate crime offenders, and individual difference factors of ethnic bias.

    Reverend Karla Fleshman is an ordained minister within the Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches (UFMCC). She is the founding pastor of Imago Dei Metropolitan Community Church (MCC). The mission of Imago Dei MCC is that of a loving, diverse Christian community of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and heterosexual allies providing transforming worship and small-group experience empowering people for ministry within our church and our world. Her mission echoes with that of the church; she is also a licensed social worker with a history of working within the HIV infected/affected community.

    Mary J. Heppner, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Education and Counseling Psychology and Assistant Director at the Career Center, University of Missouri at Columbia. Her research interests are in the areas of career development and vocational behavior and in sexual violence prevention. She is the coauthor of a recent text titled Career Counseling: Process, Techniques and Issues, as well as numerous journal articles. She recently won the 1999 Kemper Award for Outstanding Teaching from her university as well as the 1999 Early Scientist/Practitioner Award from Division 17 (Counseling Psychology) of the American Psychological Association.

    Darryl B. Hill, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec. He teaches courses on the social psychology of sex and gender and studies “trans” issues, gender identity, and self theory.

    Delores Jones-Brown, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Law and Political Science, John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York. She conducts research in the area of African American youth and their involvement in the criminal justice system, violence prevention, and varied interventions against violence for youth.

    Ashraf Kagee, Ph.D., is a fellow of the Solomon Asch Center for Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict at the University of Pennsylvania and a researcher in the Department of Psychology at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Dr. Kagee's research interests include stress and trauma, psychology and human rights, and the interface between psychology and public health.

    Richard Keller, M.A., is an advanced Ph.D. student in counseling psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. His research interests focus on disability issues, and his clinical experience reflects work with the population at large. In addition, he has been the Director of the Office of Access and Services for Individuals With Disabilities at Teachers College since 1996. That office seeks to level the playing field for all individuals with disabilities at Teachers College. Mr. Keller is a person who lives with a disability and has been involved with the disability rights movement for the past 12 years.

    Eric L. Kohatsu, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Psychology at California State University, Los Angeles. His research interests include racial identity theory and its applications, Asian American mental health, racism and prejudice, cross-cultural counseling, research methodology, spiritual issues, and alternative approaches to healing. He also directs the Center for Cross-Cultural Research at California State University, Los Angeles.

    José E. Nanin, Ed.D., is Assistant Director of the HIV Training Institute at the New York City Department of Health and adjunct faculty at Teachers College, Columbia University. He has developed several training curricula on HIV, sexuality issues, and behavior change counseling. His current interests include investigating the impact of burnout on HIV service providers as well as assessing factors that affect human sexuality development.

    Helen A. Neville, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology and the African American Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests focus on general and culture-specific aspects of the stress and coping process, primarily among African American populations. Her work also examines effectiveness of social awareness interventions and, more recently, colorblind racial attitudes. She has received several local and national awards for her work with students, including the Kenneth and Mamie Clark Award for Outstanding Contribution to the Professional Development of Ethnic Minority Graduate Studies from the Student Affiliate Group of the American Psychological Association.

    Toshi Sasao, Ph.D., is a community psychologist and Associate Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology and Graduate School of Education at International Christian University, Tokyo. He also directs the American Studies Program at the same institution. In addition, he teaches graduate-level courses in community psychology at the University of Tokyo Graduate School, Chuo University Graduate School, and Ochanomizu Women's University, all in Tokyo. His research interests include promoting the well-being and preventing mental health problems among adolescents, especially in multicultural contexts.

    Tom Schiff, Ed.D., is a health educator at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. Among his foci are men's health and violence prevention. In addition, he has over 20 years of experience as an educator, counselor, trainer, and consultant with an emphasis on organization development and human relations. He has a particular expertise in working with men on issues of abuse, violence, sexual harassment, sexism, and homophobia. He happy to discuss this chapter (and more) and can be reached at tschiff@uhs.umass.edu.

    Hawthorne E. Smith, Ph.D., is a psychologist with the Bellevue/NYU Program for Survivors of Torture and the Coordinator of Direct Services for Nah We Yone, Inc. (a nonprofit organization working primarily with refugees from Sierra Leone). He holds a Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Teachers College, Columbia University, a master's degree in International Affairs from the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs, and an advanced certificate in African Studies from Cheikh Anta Diop University in Dakar, Senegal.

    Lisa B. Spanierman, Ph. D., is Assistant Professor in the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests are in the areas of multiculturalism, specifically focusing on race and racism, psychological costs of racism to whites, and career development. She has presented her research at local and national conferences.

    Elizabeth Sparks, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Counseling, Developmental and Education Department at Boston College. Prior to her academic career, she worked for 17 years as a practicing clinician in various community-based settings, such as child welfare agencies and juvenile courts. She currently teaches courses on multicultural issues in counseling, psychopathology, and clinical supervision. She also maintains a private psychotherapy practice. Her research interests stem from her clinical career in community mental health and focus on interpersonal assaultive violence among African American youth, psychotherapy with at-risk youth, psychotherapy with women of color, and issues in multicultural training and supervision.

    María Torres-Guzmán, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Bilingual Education in the Department of International and Transcultural Studies at Teachers College, Columbia University. She is also Coordinator of the Program in Bilingual/Bicultural Studies, engaging in teacher preparation, training, and research.

    Maria R. Volpe, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology and Director of the Dispute Resolution Program at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York, and serves as Convener of the CUNY Dispute Resolution Consortium. She is an international leader in dispute resolution; has lectured and written extensively about dispute resolution processes, particularly mediation; and has been widely recognized for her distinguished career in the field of dispute resolution. She is a past-president of the International Society of Professionals in Dispute Resolution (SPIDR). Her current research focuses on police mediation and the dispute resolution process in educational settings.


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