Understanding and Assessing Child Sexual Maltreatment

Books

Kathleen Coulborn Faller

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    To

    Lemuel Adolphus Johnson

    December 15, 1941, to March 12, 2002

    My much missed brother

    Who always respected my scholarship

    Even though we worked in different worlds

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    This book is written for practitioners who encounter cases of child sexual abuse. Although it will be useful for professionals from many fields, its primary audience is mental health practitioners who must work closely with other professionals, such as child protection workers and lawyers, on these complex cases.

    Because this is a book for practitioners, literature reviews are not exhaustive. Rather, relevant works are cited. In addition, because there are many gaps in research-based knowledge about child sexual abuse, much of the guidance and many of the opinions derive from clinical experience. I regard information based upon clinical experience to be as valid and useful as research-based knowledge in practice with sexual abuse cases. I believe these two sources of knowledge can complement one another.

    Throughout the book, I use the pronouns she and her to refer to children who are thought to have been sexually victimized and the pronouns he, him, and his to refer to those suspected of sexual abuse. This decision about pronouns was made for stylistic purposes and acknowledges that, to date, the majority of identified victims of sexual abuse are female and the majority of identified offenders are male. However, this is not meant to imply that there are no male victims, who now represent between one fifth (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS], 2001) and one third (Faller, 2000a) of identified victims. Nor should this decision allow us to ignore the existence of female sex offenders, who are being identified in increasing numbers (e.g., Davin, Hislop, & Dunbar, 1999; Elliot, 1993; Faller, 1995; Mathews, Matthews, & Speltz, 1989; Mendel, 1995; Rosencrans, 1997).

    The original edition of this book was published in 1990. The field of child sexual abuse has changed since then, in part by the generation of new knowledge. In addition, the field of child sexual abuse has bifurcated, so that the professionals and knowledge base that are child or victim focused are somewhat separate from the professionals and knowledge base related to sex offenders. It was not possible in this edition to do justice to the considerable developments in both child and offender research and practice. Most of the material in the original version of this book focused on the child victim. To incorporate the new knowledge related to the child and keep the book manageable, the chapter related to offenders has been eliminated.

    A second way in which the field of child sexual abuse has changed is by what has been termed the “backlash” (e.g., Myers, 1994). When the first edition of this book was published, the backlash was an emerging development (e.g., Hechler, 1988; Wexler, 1990), but it has grown greatly since then. The backlash has several facets. It involves a challenge to Child Protective Services (CPS) as a government program. “Backlashers” assert that CPS is characterized by over-intrusiveness—running roughshod over family privacy; underintrusiveness—failing to rescue children who are in genuine jeopardy; and incompetence (e.g., Eberle & Eberle, 1986; Gardner, 1991, 1992b). In addition, professionals, such as those in mental health, who work collaboratively with CPS are said to be part of the “child abuse industry.” The implication is that they substantiate cases in order to line their own pockets. Consider this excerpt from an editorial in the Wall Street Journal (2001):

    With the passage of the Mondale Act of 1974, otherwise known as the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, came also the large cottage industry of child advocates, self-proclaimed experts in abuse, and of course citizen hot lines, sources of anonymous—not to mention overwhelmingly false—accusations of abuse. (“The Funding Fount,” 2001, p. A14)

    Child sexual abuse cases, victims, and professionals have been the particular target of the backlash. The trustworthiness of children and adults reporting sexual abuse is a subject of great debate (e.g., Ceci & Bruck, 1993, 1995; False Memory Syndrome Foundation, 1992; Loftus & Ketchem, 1991; Yapko, 1994). Forensic interviewers, evaluators, and therapists are being attacked for incompetence (e.g., Wood & Garven, 2000), for having an “agenda,” and for gullibility—believing their clients.

    Professionals who work in the child sexual abuse field are on the defensive. To a large extent, the backlash has set the research agenda for child sexual abuse—the weaknesses of children's memory and their suggestibility and strategies to avoid false accounts. The backlash has also affected practice, governing how mental health professionals and others conduct interviews and provide treatment. The emphasis is on the danger of false allegations of sexual abuse rather than on the danger of being sexually abused and not disclosing the abuse. Children have lost their voice. An important goal of this book is to provide a considered response to the backlash but also a response that takes into account the needs of children.

    The book is divided into four parts. Part I is an introductory section of two chapters that focuses on professional roles, the extent of child sexual abuse, definitions, and indicators. Part II has two chapters. One deals with the agencies having mandated roles: CPS and law enforcement. The other provides information on the legal system and working with lawyers. Part III consists of three chapters and addresses the practice of assessment in child sexual abuse. A chapter on the child interview addresses interview structure, questioning techniques, and the use of media or props. Another chapter covers the larger context in which the child interview takes place; it includes material on various models for investigation or assessment of an allegation of sexual abuse, a short review of the literature on children's memory and suggestibility, and a summary of research and practice relevant to disclosure of sexual abuse. Finally, a chapter on decision making addresses how professionals go about making a decision about the likelihood of sexual abuse once they have gathered all their data. Part IV deals with three special situations: (a) sexual abuse in day care, (b) sexual abuse in foster care, and (c) allegations of sexual abuse in divorce cases.

    Acknowledgments

    I wish to acknowledge the University of Michigan School of Social Work's support of my scholarly work, including this book. The school strongly encourages faculty in research and knowledge development endeavors. Indicative of that support is the provision of editorial assistance to faculty. Thus, I would like to thank Terri Torkko, who read the manuscript in its entirety and gave invaluable editorial suggestions.

    I want to thank my colleagues, especially Mark Everson, who are concerned about children's welfare, for their contributions to the field of child sexual abuse. Mark and I have presented collaboratively over the years, and I have learned a great deal from him, as reflected in numerous references to his work, both published and unpublished. The knowledge Mark and other colleagues have developed, both research and practice based, is reflected in this book.

    I want to thank Terri Hendrix from Sage Publications. If it had not been for Terri, I would not have thought to produce a second edition of Understanding Child Sexual Maltreatment. In fact, because of advances in knowledge about child sexual abuse, the second edition is substantially a new book requiring a different title, Understanding and Assessing Child Sexual Maltreatment.

    Last, and perhaps most important, I want to thank my husband, Lincoln Faller, and my daughter, Helen McIntosh Faller, for being my family, supporting my career, and tolerating my workaholism.

  • References

    Abel, G., & Rouleau, J. (1990). Male sex offenders. In M.Thase (Ed.), Handbook on outpatient treatment of adults: Nonpsychotic mental disorders (pp. 271–290). New York: Plenum.
    Abrams, S., & Abrams, J. (1993). Polygraph testing of the pedophile. Portland, OR: Ryan Gwinner.
    Achenbach, T. (1993). Child behavior checklist. Burlington: University Medical Education Associates, University of Vermont College of Medicine.
    Achenbach, T., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont College of Medicine.
    Achenbach, T., Edelbrock, C., & Howell, C. (1987). Empirically-based assessment of behavioral/emotional problems of 2–3 year old children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 629–650. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00917246
    Adoption and Safe Families Act, 42 U.S.C.A. §§ 620, 670, et seq. (1997).
    Agar, S. (1987, February 22). Daddy hurt me. Free Press Magazine, pp. 10–20.
    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1997). Guidelines for the evaluation of child and adolescent sexual abuse. Washington, DC: Author.
    American Association for the Protection of Children. (1985). Highlights of official child neglect and abuse reporting, 1983. Denver, CO: American Humane Association.
    American Association for the Protection of Children. (1986). Highlights of official child neglect and abuse reporting, 1984. Denver, CO: American Humane Association.
    American Association for the Protection of Children. (1987). Highlights of official child neglect and abuse reporting, 1985. Denver, CO: American Humane Association.
    American Association for the Protection of Children. (1988). Highlights of official child neglect and abuse reporting, 1986. Denver, CO: American Humane Association.
    American Association for the Protection of Children. (1989). Highlights of official child neglect and abuse reporting, 1987. Denver, CO: American Humane Association.
    American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. (1995). Guidelines for the use of anatomical dolls. Chicago: Author.
    American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. (1996). Guidelines for the psychosocial evaluation of children suspected of being sexually abused. Chicago: Author.
    American Psychological Association. (1994). Guidelines for child custody evaluation in divorce proceedings. American Psychologist, 49, 667. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.7.667
    Applin, B., & Hunt, D. (2001, January). Sexual exploitation of children and the Internet. Presentation given at the Fifteenth Annual San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment, San Diego.
    Armstrong, L. (1976). Kiss daddy goodnight: A speak-out on incest. New York: Pocket Books.
    August, R., & Foreman, B. (1989). A comparison of sexually abused and non-sexually abused children's behavioral responses to anatomically correct dolls. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 20(1), 39–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00706956
    Bala, N., Paetsch, R., Trocme, N., Schuman, D., Tanchak, M., & Hornick, J. (2001). Allegations of child abuse in the context of parental separation: A discussion paper. Research Report, 2001-FCY-4E Ottawa: Department of Justice, Canada.
    Barden, R. C. (1995, January 5). Letter to Henry Hyde, Chairman of Judiciary Committee, signed by 30 professionals; accompanying draft statute. Available from R. Christopher Barden, 4025 Quaker Lane North, Plymouth, MN, 55441, tel. (612) 371-3296.
    Barnitz, L. (2001). Effectively responding to the commercial sexual exploitation of children: A comprehensive approach to prevention, protection, and reintegration services. Child Welfare, 80, 597–610.
    Barth, R., Courtney, M., Berrick, J. D., & Albert, V. (1997). From child abuse to permanency planning: Child welfare service, pathways, and placements. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Barth, R., Yeaton, J., & Winterfelt, N. (1994). Psychoeducational groups for foster parents with sexually abused children. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 11, 405–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01876590
    Bays, J., & Chadwick, D. (1993). Medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child. Child Abuse and Neglect17, 91–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2893%2990011-S
    Becker, J. (1985, November). Evaluating and treating adolescent sexual offenders. Paper presented at the Seventh National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect, Chicago.
    Bench, L. L., Kramer, S., & Erickson, S. (1997). Chapter 15: A discriminant analysis of predictive factors on sex offender recidivism. In B.Schwartz & H.Cellini (Eds.), The sex offender: New insights, treatment innovations, and legal developments (pp. 15–1 to 15-12). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
    Benedek, E. (1987). Court testimony, E. Morgan v. E. Foretich, V. Foretich, D. Foretich, Alexandria, Virginia, U.S. District Court, February 18, Civil Action No. 86 0944.
    Benedek, E., & Schetky, D. (1985). Allegations of sexual abuse in child custody and visitation disputes. In E.Benedek & D.Schetky (Eds.), Emerging issues in child psychiatry and the law (pp. 1–25). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Benedek, E., & Schetky, D. (1987). Clinical experience: Problems in validating allegations of sexual abuse. Part 1: Factors affecting the perception and recall of events. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 912–915. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198726060-00016
    Benedict, M., Zuravin, S., Somerfield, M., & Brandt, D. (1996). The reported health and functioningof children maltreated while in family foster care. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 561–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2896%2900044-0
    Berliner, L. (1988). Deciding whether a child has been sexually abused. In E. B.Nicholson & J.Bulkley (Eds.), Sexual abuse allegations in custody and visitation cases (pp. 3–32). Washington, DC: American Bar Association.
    Berliner, L. (1998). The use of expert testimony in child sexual abuse cases. In S.Ceci & H.Hembrooke (Eds.), Expert witnesses in child abuse cases. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Berliner, L., & Conte, J. (1993). Sexual abuse evaluations: Conceptual and empirical obstacles. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 111–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2893%2990012-T
    Berliner, L., & Saunders, B. (1996). Treating fear and anxiety in sexually abused children: Results of a controlled 2 year follow-up study. Child Maltreatment, 1(4), 294–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559596001004002
    Besharov, D. (1986). “Doing something” about child abuse: The need to narrow the grounds for state intervention. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 8, 459–566.
    Bienenfeld, F. (1988). Child custody mediation. New York: Science and Behavior Books.
    Bikel, O. (Director & Producer). (1993, July 20 & 21). Innocence lost. Frontline. New York: Public Broadcasting Service.
    Bloom v. Braun, 317 Ill. App. 3d 720; 739 N.E.2d 925 (2000).
    Blush, G., & Ross, K. (1986). Sexual allegations in divorce: The SAID syndrome. Unpublished manuscript, Mt. Clemens, MI.
    Boat, B., & Everson, M. (1994). Exploration of anatomical dolls by non-referred pre-school-aged children: Comparisons by age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 139–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2990116-3
    Bolen, R., & Scannapieco, M. (1999). Prevalence of child sexual abuse: A corrective metanalysis. Social Services Review, 73, 281–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/514425
    Bourg, W., Broderick, R., Flagor, R., Kelly, D., Ervin, D., & Butler, J. (1999). A child interviewer's guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Boychuk, T., & Stellar, M. (1992). Videotaped forensic interview of the school aged child. Unpublished manuscript. Available from Tasha Boychuk, Ph.D., Center for Child Protection, St. Joseph's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ.
    Bradley, A., & Wood, J. (1996). How do children tell? The disclosure process in child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 881–891. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2896%2900077-4
    Braga, W., & Schimmer, R. (1993). Sexual abuse and residential treatment. New York: Haworth.
    Brainerd, C., & Ornstein, P. (1991). Children's memories for witnessed events. In J.Doris (Ed.), The suggestibility of children's recollections (pp. 10–20). New York: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10097-002
    Bremner, J. D., Krystal, J., Southwick, S., & Cahrney, D. (1995). Functional neuroanatomical corre-lations of the effects of stress on memory. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 527–554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490080403
    Bresee, P., Stearns, G., Bess, B., & Packer, L. (1986). Allegations of child sexual abuse in child custody disputes: A therapeutic assessment model. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 56, 560–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1986.tb03488.x
    Britton, H., & O'Keefe, M. A. (1991). Use of nonanatomical dolls in the sexual abuse interview. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 567–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990040-K
    Brown, T., Frederico, M., Hewitt, L., & Sheehan, R. (2000). Revealing the existence of child abuse in the context of marital breakdown and custody and access disputes. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 849–859. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2800%2900140-X
    Bruck, M., Ceci, S., Francoeur, E., & Renick, A. (1995). Anatomically detailed dolls do not facilitate preschoolers’ reports of a pediatric examination involving genital touching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 1(2), 95–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.1.2.95
    Bruck, M., Ceci, S., & Hembrooke, H. (1998). Reliability and credibility of young children's reports: From research to policy and practice. American Psychologist, 53, 136–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.2.136
    Bull, R. (1995). Innovative techniques for questioning children, especially those who are young and those who are learning disabled. In M.Zaragoza, J.Graham, G.Hall, R.Hirschman, & Y.Ben-Porath (Eds.), Memory and testimony in the child witness (pp. 179–194). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Burgess, A. (1984). Child pornography and sex rings. Lexington, MA: Lexington.
    Burgess, A., Baker, T., & Hartman, C. (1996). Parents’ perceptions of their children's recovery 5 to 10 years following day-care abuse. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 101, 75–92.
    Bybee, D., & Mowbray, C. (1993). An analysis of allegations of sexual abuse in a multi-victim day-care center case. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 767–783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2808%2980007-5
    Cage, J. (1988). Criminal investigation of child sexual abuse cases. In S.Sgroi (Ed.), Vulnerable populations: Evaluation and treatment of sexually abused children and adult survivors (Vol. 1, pp. 127–228). Lexington, MA: Lexington.
    Campagna, D., & Poffenberger, D. (1988). The sexual trafficking in children. Dover, MA: Auburn House.
    Cantlon, J., Payne, G., & Erbaugh, C. (1996). Outcome based practice: Disclosure rates of child sexual abuse comparing allegation blind and allegation informed structured interviews. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 1113–1120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2896%2900100-7
    Carlson, N., & Riebel, J. (1978). Family sexual abuse: A resource manual for health services professionals. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Department of Family Practice and Community Health.
    Carnes, C., Gardell, D., & Wilson, C. (2000). Addressing challenges and controversies in child sexual abuse interviewing. The Forensic Evaluation Protocol and Research Project. In K. C.Faller (Ed.), Maltreatment in early childhood: Tools for research-based intervention (pp. 83–104). New York: Haworth.
    Carnes, C., & LeDuc, D. (1994). Forensic evaluation of children. Huntsville, AL: National Children's Advocacy Center.
    Carnes, P. (1984). The sexual addiction. Minneapolis, MN: CompCare.
    Cavanagh-Johnson, T. (1988). Child perpetrators: Children who molest other children: Preliminary findings. Child Abuse and Neglect, 12, 219–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2888%2990030-0
    Cavanaugh-Johnson, T. (1997). Sexual, physical, and emotional abuse in out-of-home care: Prevention skills for at-risk children. New York: Haworth.
    Ceci, S., & Bruck, M. (1993). The suggestibility of the child witness: A historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 403–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.403
    Ceci, S., & Bruck, M. (1995). Jeopardy in the courtroom. New York: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10180-000
    Ceci, S., Huffman, M., Smith, E., & Loftus, E. (1994). Repeatedly thinking about a non-event: Source misattributions among preschoolers. Consciousness and Cognition, 3, 388–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ccog.1994.1022
    Ceci, S., Loftus, E., Leichtman, M., & Bruck, M. (1994). The role of source misattributions in the creation of false beliefs among preschoolers. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 62, 304–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207149408409361
    Chaffin, M., & Stern, P. (2001, June). Child abuse in the 1980s: What were we thinking? Presentation given at the National Colloquium of the American Professional Society on Child Abuse, Baltimore.
    Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 42 U.S.C. 5101-5107 (1974).
    Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption, and Family Services Act, Pub. L. No. 100-294 (1988).
    Children of the Underground Watch. (2001). Editorial: Underground mother arrested. http://www.members.aol.com/underwatch/. Accessed July 29, 2002.
    Clarke-Stewart, A., Thompson, W., & Lapore, S. (1989, April). Manipulating children's interpretations through interrogation. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Child Development, Kansas City, KS.
    Cohen, J., & Mannarino, A. (1996). Treatment outcome study for sexually abused pre-schoolers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 42–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199601000-00011
    Cohn, D. (1991). Anatomical doll play of preschoolers referred for sexual abuse and those not referred. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 455–466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990029-D
    Colby, I., & Colby, D. (1987a). Videotaped interviews in child sexual abuse cases: The Texas example. Child Welfare, 66, 25–34.
    Colby, I., & Colby, D. (1987b). Videotaping the child sexual-abuse victim. Social Casework, 68, 117–121.
    Committee on the Family, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1980). Divorce, child custody, and the family. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Conte, J., & Berliner, L. (1986). The impact of sexual abuse on children. Final Report No. MH37133. Bethesda, Md.: National Institute of Mental Health.
    Conte, J., & Berliner, L. (1988). The impact of sexual abuse. In LenoreWalker (Ed.), Handbook on sexual abuse of children (pp. 72–93). New York: Guilford.
    Conte, J., Sorenson, E., Fogarty, L., & Dalla Rosa, J. (1991). Evaluating children's reports of sexual abuse: Results from a survey of professionals. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 428–437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079264
    Corwin, D. (1988). Early diagnosis of child sexual abuse: Diminishing the lasting effects. In G.Wyatt & G.Powell (Eds.), The lasting effects of child sexual abuse (pp. 251–270). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Corwin, D., Berliner, L., Goodman, G., Goodwin, J., & White, S. (1987). Child sexual abuse and custody disputes: No easy answers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence2(1), 91–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626087002001006
    Crewdson, J. (1988). By silence betrayed. New York: Harper & Row.
    Cross, T., De Vos, E., & Whitcomb, D. (1994). Prosecution of child sexual abuse: Which cases are accepted?Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 661–677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2990016-7
    Cross, T., & Saxe, L. (1992). A critique of the validity of polygraph testing in child sexual abuse cases. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1(4), 19–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v01n04_02
    Cross, T., & Saxe, L. (2001). Polygraph testing and sexual abuse: The lure of the magic lasso. Child Maltreatment, 6(3), 195–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559501006003001
    Cross, T., Whitcomb, D., & De Vos, E. (1995). Criminal justice outcomes of prosecution of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 1231–1442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2895%2900106-2
    Dallam, S. (2001). Crisis or creation? A systematic examination of the “False Memory Syndrome.”Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 9(3/4), 9–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v09n03_02
    Daro, D. (1988). Confronting child abuse. New York: Free Press.
    Daro, D., & Cohen, A. (1984). A decade of child maltreatment and evaluation efforts: What we have learned. Paper given at the Second National Conference of Family Violence Researchers, Durham, NH.
    Davies, D., Cole, J., Albertella, G., McCulloch, L., Allen, K., & Kekevian, H. (1996). A model for conducting forensic interviews of child victims of abuse. Child Maltreatment, 1(2), 189–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559596001003002
    Davin, P., Hislop, J., & Dunbar, T. (1999). Female sexual abusers. Orwell, VT: Safer Society Press.
    De Young, M. (1984). Counter-phobic behavior in multiply victimized children. Child Welfare, 63, 333–339.
    De Young, M. (1986). A conceptual model for judging the truthfulness of a young child's allegation of sexual abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 56, 550–559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1986.tb03487.x
    Deblinger, E., Lippman, J., & Steer, R. (1996). Sexually abused children suffering from post traumatic stress symptoms: Initial treatment outcome studies. Child Maltreatment, 1(4), 310–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559596001004003
    Deitrich-MacLean, G., & Walden, T. (1988). Distinguishing teaching interactions of physically abusive from nonabusive parent-child dyads. Child Abuse and Neglect, 12, 469–480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2888%2990064-6
    DeLoache, J. (1995). The use of dolls in interviewing young children. In M.Zaragoza, J.Graham, G.Hall, R.Hirschman, & Y.Ben-Porath, (Eds.), Memory and testimony in the child witness (pp. 160–178). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Detrich, A., & Carpenter, M. (1997, Dec. 14-17). Children of the Underground. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, pp. 1–26.
    DeVoe, E. R., & Faller, K. C. (1999). Characteristics of disclosure of children who may have been sexually abused. Child Maltreatment4(3), 217–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559599004003003
    DeVoe, E. R., & Faller, K. C. (2002). Disclosure patterns in children who may have been sexually abused. Child Maltreatment, 81(1), 5–32.
    Doueck, H., English, D., DePanfilis, D., & Moote, G. (1993). Decision-making in Child Protective Services: A comparison of selected risk assessment models. Child Welfare, 72, 441–452.
    Drake, B. (2000). How do I decide whether to substantiate a report? In H.Dubowitz & D.DePanfilis (Eds.), Handbook for child protection (pp. 113–117). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452205489
    Dubowitz, H., & DePanfilis, D. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook for child protection. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452205489
    Ducote, R. (2000). What I have learned at the courthouse. In E.St. Charles & L.Crook (Eds.), Expose: The failure of family courts to protect children from abuse in custody disputes (pp. 11–140). Los Gatos, CA: Our Children Our Future Charitable Foundation.
    Dunkerley, G., & Dalenberg, C. (2000). Secret-keeping in black and white children as a function of interviewer race, racial identity, and risk for abuse. In K. C.Faller (Ed.), Maltreatment in early childhood: Tools for research-based intervention (pp. 13–36). New York: Haworth.
    Duquette, D. (1981). Legal aspects of child abuse and neglect. In K. C.Faller (Ed.), Social work with abused and neglected children. New York: Free Press.
    Duquette, D. (1990). Advocating for the child in protection proceedings: A handbook for lawyers and court appointed special advocates. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Duquette, D. (2000). Legal representation of children in protection proceedings: Two distinct lawyer roles are required. Family Law Quarterly, 34, 441–466.
    Duquette, D., Faller, K. C., & D'Aunno, L. (1988a). Child Protective Services in Michigan: Recommendations for policy and practice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Interdisciplinary Project on Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Duquette, D., Faller, K. C., & D'Aunno, L. (1988b). Putting protective services in its place. In D.Duquette, K. C.Faller, & D'Aunno, L. (Eds.), Child Protective Services in Michigan: Recommendations for policy and practice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Interdisciplinary Project on Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Duquette, D., & Ramsey, S. (1987). Representation of children in child abuse and neglect cases: An empirical look at what constitutes effective representation. Journal of Law Reform, 20, 341–407.
    Eberle, P., & Eberle, S. (1986). The politics of child abuse. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart.
    Ehrensaft, D. (1992). Preschool child sexual abuse: The aftermath of the Presidio case. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 234–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079332
    Eisen, M., Goodman, G., Davis, S., & Qin, J. (1999). Individual differences in maltreated children's memory and suggestibility. In L.Williams & V.Banyard (Eds.), Trauma and memory (pp. 31–46). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Eisen, M.Goodman, G., Qin, J., & Davis, S. (1998). Memory and suggestibility in maltreated children: New research relevant to evaluating allegations of abuse. In S.Lynn & K.McConkey (Eds.), Truth in memory (pp. 153–180). New York: Guilford.
    Elliott, D., & Briere, J. (1994). Forensic sexual abuse evaluations of older children: Disclosures and symptomatology. Behavioral Science and the Law, 12, 261–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2370120306
    Elliot, M. (1993). Female sexual abuse of children: The ultimate taboo. London: Longman.
    Everson, M. (1996, January). Models for forensic assessment of children who may have been sexually abused. Paper presented at the San Diego Conference: Responding to Child Maltreatment, San Diego, CA.
    Everson, M. (2000). Forensic interviewing think tank. Paper presented at the San Diego Conference: Responding to Child Maltreatment, San Diego, CA.
    Everson, M., & Boat, B. (1994). Putting the anatomical doll controversy in perspective: An exami-nation of the major doll uses and related criticisms. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 113–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2990114-7
    Everson, M., & Boat, B. (1996). Concerning practices using anatomical dolls. Child Maltreatment, 2(1), 96–104.
    Everson, M., Hunter, W., & Runyan, D. (1989). Maternal support following disclosure of incest. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 197–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1989.tb01651.x
    Fahlberg, V. (1997). Creating kinship. Portland, OR: Doughy Center.
    Faller, K. C. (Ed.). (1981). Social work with abused and neglected children: A manual of interdiscipli-nary practice. New York: Free Press.
    Faller, K. C. (1984). Is the child victim of sexual abuse telling the truth?Child Abuse and Neglect, 8, 473–481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2884%2990029-2
    Faller, K. C. (1985). Unanticipated problems in the United States child protection system. Child Abuse and Neglect, 9, 63–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2885%2990093-6
    Faller, K. C. (1986). Case management using home based devices with high risk families. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Interdisciplinary Project on Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Faller, K. C. (1988a). Child sexual abuse: An interdisciplinary manual for diagnosis, case management, and treatment. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Faller, K. C. (1988b). Children who are sexually abused by more than one person. Victimology, 12, 21–29.
    Faller, K. C. (1988c). Criteria for judging the credibility of children's statements about their sexual abuse. Child Welfare, 67, 389–401.
    Faller, K. C. (1988d). The spectrum of sexual abuse in daycare: An exploratory study. Journal of Family Violence, 3, 283–298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00989978
    Faller, K. C. (1990). Understanding child sexual maltreatment. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Faller, K. C. (1991a). Polyincestuous families: An exploratory study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 310–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626091006003004
    Faller, K. C. (1991b). Possible explanations for child sexual abuse allegations in divorce. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 86–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079227
    Faller, K. C. (1993a). Child sexual abuse: Intervention and treatment issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Faller, K. C. (1993b, Fall). Ritual abuse: A continuum of belief. Believe the Children Newsletter, pp. 2–3.
    Faller, K. C. (1994a). Child sexual abuse allegations: How to decide when they are true. Violence Update, 4(6), 2–4, 8–11.
    Faller, K. C. (1994b). Extrafamilial sexual abuse. In S.Kaplan & D.Pelcovitz (Eds.), Child and adolescent clinics of North America (pp. 713–727). New York: W. B. Saunders.
    Faller, K. C. (1994c). Ritual abuse: A review of the research. APSAC Advisor, 7(2), 1, 19–27.
    Faller, K. C. (1995). A clinical sample of women who have sexually abused children. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 4(3), 13–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v04n03_02
    Faller, K. C. (1996a). Interviewing children who may have been abused: A historical perspective and overview of controversies. Child Maltreatment, 1(2), 4–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559596001002001
    Faller, K. C. (1996b). Study guide: Evaluating children suspected of having been sexually abused. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Faller, K. C. (1997). The polygraph, its use in decision-making about child sexual abuse: An exploratory study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21, 993–1008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2897%2900060-4
    Faller, K. C. (1998a). The flexible interview: The University of Michigan model for interviewing children who may have been sexually abused. Unpublished manuscript. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan School of Social Work.
    Faller, K. C. (1998b). Interviewing for sexual abuse: A forensic guide. New York: Guilford.
    Faller, K. C. (1999, April). Assessing children who may have been sexually abused: What can the research tell us? Paper presented at the Colloquium Series on Child Welfare, State University of New Jersey at Rutgers, School of Social Work.
    Faller, K. C. (2000a). Child maltreatment and protection in the United States. Journal of Aggression, Trauma, and Maltreatment, 2(4), 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J146v02n02_01
    Faller, K. C. (Ed.). (2000b). Maltreatment in early childhood: Tools for research-based intervention. New York: Haworth.
    Faller, K. C., & Corwin, D. (1995). Children's interview statements and behaviors, professional consensus and research findings for the identification of sexually abused children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 71–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2900104-3
    Faller, K. C., & DeVoe, E. (1995a). Allegations of sexual abuse in divorce. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 4(4), 1–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v04n04_01
    Faller, K. C., & DeVoe, E. (1995b). Final report: Computer assisted interviewing with children who may have been sexually abused. Available from K. C. Faller, University of Michigan School of Social Work, 1080 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1066.
    Faller, K. C., Froning, M., & Lipovsky, J. (1991). The parent-child interview: Use in evaluating child allegations of sexual abuse by a parent. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 552–557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079286
    Faller, K. C., & Henry, J. (2000). Child sexual abuse: A case study in community collaboration. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 1215–1225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2800%2900171-X
    False Memory Syndrome Foundation. (1992). The false memory syndrome phenomenon. Philadelphia: Author.
    False Memory Syndrome Foundation. (1998). Legal Corner. False Memory Foundation Newsletter, 7(4), 6–8.
    Farley, R. (2001, January). Advanced investigation in child sexual abuse and child exploitation cases. Paper presented at the Fifteenth Annual San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment, San Diego, CA.
    Finkel, M. (1989). Anogenital trauma in sexually abused children. Pediatrics, 84, 317–322.
    Finkelhor, D. (1979a). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press.
    Finkelhor, D. (1979b). What's wrong with sex between adults and children?American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49, 692–697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1979.tb02654.x
    Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press.
    Finkelhor, D., Hotaling, G., & Sedlak, A. (1992). The abduction of children by strangers and nonfamily members: Estimating the incidence using multiple methods. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 226–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626092007002008
    Finkelhor, D., & Jones, L. (2001, January). Sexual solicitation of children over the Internet. Research symposium presented at the San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment, Center for Child Protection, San Diego, CA.
    Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K., & Wolak, J. (2000). Online victimization: A report on the nation's youth. Washington, DC: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.
    Finkelhor, D., Moore, D., Hamby, S., & Straus, M. (1997). Sexually abused children in a national survey of parents: Methodological issues. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21(1), 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2896%2900127-5
    Finkelhor, D., Williams, L., & Burns, N. (1988). Nursery crimes: Sexual abuse in day care. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Fivush, R. (1993). Developmental perspectives on autobiographical recall. In G.Goodman & B.Bottoms (Eds.), Child victims, child witnesses (pp. 1–24). New York: Guilford.
    Fivush, R., & Shukat, J. (1995). Content, consistency, and coherence of early autobiographical memory. In M.Zaragoza, J.Graham, G.Hall, R.Hirschman, & Y.Ben-Porath (Eds.), Memory and suggestibility in the child witness (pp. 5–23). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Fontes, L. (1995). Sexual abuse in nine North American cultures. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243337
    Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552 (1974).
    Freyd, J. (1993). Personal perspectives on the delayed memory debate. Family Violence and Sexual Assault Bulletin, 9(3), 28–33.
    Friedrich, W. (1990). Psychotherapy with sexually abused children and their families. New York: Norton.
    Friedrich, W. (1993). Sexual victimization and sexual behavior in children: A review of recent literature. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 59–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2893%2990008-S
    Friedrich, W. (1994, January). Standardized measures for assessing child sexual abuse. Workshop presented at the Eighth Annual San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment, San Diego, CA.
    Friedrich, W. (1997). The Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
    Friedrich, W. (1999). The Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Lutz, FL.: Psychological Assessment Resources.
    Friedrich, W., Berliner, L., Butler, J., Cohen, J., Damon, L. & Shafram, C. (1996a). Child sexual behavior: An update with the CSBI-3. APSAC Advisor, 9(4), 13–14.
    Friedrich, W., Berliner, L., Butler, J., Cohen, J., Damon, L., & Shafram, C. (1996b, July). Normative sexual behaviors: CSBI-3. Paper presented at Trauma and Memory: An International Research Conference, Durham, NH.
    Friedrich, W., Grambsch, P., Broughton, D., Kuiper, J., & Beilke, R. (1991). Normative sexual behavior in children. Pediatrics, 88, 256–264.
    Fromuth, M., & Burkhart, B. (1987). Childhood sexual victimization among college men: Definitional and methodological issues. Victims and Violence, 2, 241–253.
    The funding fount [Editorial]. (2001, July 10). Wall Street Journal, p. A14.
    Gallagher, B. (1999). The abuse of children in public care. Child Abuse Review, 8, 357–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0852%28199911/12%298:6%3C357::AID-CAR580%3E3.0.CO;2-K
    Galtney, L. (1988, June 13). Mothers on the run. U.S. News and World Report, pp. 22–32.
    Gardner, R. (1987). The parental alienation syndrome and the differentiation between fabricated and genuine child sexual abuse. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
    Gardner, R. (1991). Sex abuse hysteria: Salem witch trials revisited. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
    Gardner, R. (1992a). The parental alienation syndrome. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
    Gardner, R. (1992b). True and false allegations of child sex abuse. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
    Gardner, R. (1995). Protocols for the sex-abuse evaluation. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
    Gil, E. (1982). Institutional abuse of children in out of home care. Children and Youth Services, 4(1, Suppl. 3), 7–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J024v04n01_03
    Goldsmith, S. (2000). Little girl's hell. In E.St. Charles & L.Crook (Eds.), Expose: The failure of family courts to protect children from abuse in custody disputes (pp. 113–122). Los Gatos, CA: Our Children Our Future Charitable Foundation.
    Goldstein, S. (1987). Sexual exploitation of children. New York: Elsevier.
    Goodman, G., Aman, C., & Hirschman, J. (1987). Child sexual and physical abuse: Children's testimony. In S. J.Ceci, M. P.Toglia, & D.Ross (Eds.), Children's eyewitness testimony (pp. 1–23). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-6338-5_1
    Goodman, G., Bottoms, B., Qin, J., & Shaver, P. (1994). Characteristics and sources of allegations of ritualistic child abuse. Grant No. 90CA1405. Final report to the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Goodman, G., & Clarke-Stewart, A. (1991). The suggestibility of children's testimony: Implications for sexual abuse investigations. In J.Doris (Ed.), The suggestibility of children's recollections (pp. 92–105). New York: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10097-006
    Goodman, G., Hirschman, J., Hepps, D., & Rudy, L. (1991). Children's memory for a stressful event. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 37, 109–158.
    Goodman, G., Pyle-Taub, E., Jones, D. P. H., England, P., Port, L. K., Rudy, L., & Prado, L. (1992). Testifying in criminal court. Monographs of the Society for Research on Child Development, 57 (5, Serial No. 229). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Goodman, G. S., Quas, J. A., Batterman-Faunce, J. M., Riddlesberger, M. M., & Kuhn, J. (1997). Children's reactions to and memory for a stressful event: Influences of age, anatomical dolls, knowledge, and parental attachment. Applied Developmental Science, 1(2), 54–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532480xads0102_1
    Goodwin, J., Sahd, D., & Rada, R. (1980). Incest hoax. In W.Holder (Ed.), Sexual abuse of children (pp. 37–46). Englewood, CO: American Humane Association.
    Gordon, B., Ornstein, P., Nida, R., Follmer, A., Crenshaw, C., & Albert, G. (1993). Does the use of dolls facilitate children's memories of visits to the doctor?Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7, 459–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.2350070602
    Gorey, K., & Leslie, D. (1997). Prevalence of child sexual abuse: Integrative review and adjustment for potential response and measurement bias. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21(4), 391–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2896%2900180-9
    Graffam-Walker, A. (1994). Handbook on questioning children. Washington, DC: American Bar Association.
    Gray, E. (1993). Unequal justice: The prosecution of child sexual abuse. New York: Free Press.
    Green, A. (1986). True and false allegations of sexual abuse in child custody disputes. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 449–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138%2810%2960001-5
    Groth, N. (1979). Men who rape. New York: Plenum.
    Groth, N., & Stevenson, T. (1990). Anatomical drawings. Dunedin, FL: Forensic Mental Health Associates.
    Guyer, M. (1983). False allegations of child abuse. Class presentation, University of Michigan Law School, Ann Arbor.
    Hanson, G. (1988). The sex abuse controversy: Letter to the editor. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198803000-00023
    Haralambie, A. (1993). The child's attorney. Chicago: American Bar Association.
    Haralambie, A. (1999). Child sexual abuse in civil cases. Chicago: American Bar Association.
    Hare, R.D. (1991). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Revised manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
    Haynes-Seman, C., & Baumgarten, D. (1994). Children speak for themselves. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Hechler, D. (1988). The battle and the backlash. Lexington, MA: Lexington.
    Heiman, M. (1992). Annotation: Putting the puzzle together: Validating allegations of child sexual abuse. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33(2), 311–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1992.tb00869.x
    Heriot, J. (1996). Maternal protectiveness following disclosure of sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 11, 181–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626096011002003
    Herman, J. (2000). Incest. Boston: Cambridge University Press.
    Hewitt, S. (1991). Therapeutic case management of pre-school cases of alleged but not substanti-ated sexual abuse. Child Welfare, 70, 59–67.
    Hewitt, S. (1999). Assessing allegation of sexual abuse in preschool children: Understanding small voices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452220505
    Hibbard, R. A., & Hartman, G. (1990). Emotional indicators in human figure drawings of sexually victimized and nonabused children. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 211–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28199003%2946:2%3C211::AID-JCLP2270460215%3E3.0.CO;2-C
    Hibbard, R. A., Roghmann, K., & Hoekelman, R. A. (1987). Genitalia in children's drawings: An association with sexual abuse. Pediatrics, 79, 129–37.
    Hobbs, G., Hobbs, C., & Wynne, J. (1999). Abuse of children in foster and residential care. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 1239–1252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2899%2900096-4
    Holden, C. (1989). Science in court. Science, 243, 1658–1659. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2928801
    Holder, W. (2000). How do I assess risk and safety? In H.Dubowitz & D.DePanfilis (Eds.), Handbook for child protection (pp. 27–32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452205489
    Hollingsworth, J. (1986). Unspeakable acts. New York: Congdon & Weed.
    Home Office. (1992). Memorandum of good practice on video recorded interviews with child witnesses in criminal proceedings. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Hoorwitz, A. N. (1992). The clinical detective. New York: Norton.
    Horner, T., Guyer, M., & Kalter, N. (1993). The biases of child abuse experts. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 21, 261–292.
    Hudson, J. A., & Fivush, R. (1987). As time goes by: Sixth graders remember a kindergarten experience (Emory Cognition Project No. 13). Atlanta: Emory University Department of Psychology.
    Huffman, M., Crossman, A., & Ceci, S. (1997). Are false memories permanent? An investigation of long term effects of source misattributions. Consciousness and Cognition, 6, 482–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ccog.1997.0316
    Hume, M. (1997). Child sexual abuse allegations in the Family Court. Unpublished master's thesis, University of South Australia Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Humphreys, C. (1997). Child sexual abuse in the context of divorce: Issues for mothers. British Journal of Social Work, 27, 529–544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjsw.a011240
    Hunter, W., Coulter, M., Runyan, D., & Everson, M. (1990). Determinants of placement for sexually abused children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 14, 407–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2890%2990012-I
    Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 U.S.C.A. 1912 (e) & (f) (1978).
    Jackson, H., & Nuttall, R. (1997). Childhood abuse: Effects on clinicians’ personal and professional lives. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Jampole, L., & Webber, M. (1987). An assessment of the behavior of sexually abused and non-sexually abused children with anatomically correct dolls. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, 187–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2887%2990057-3
    Jenny, C. (1996). Medical issues in sexual abuse. In J.Briere, L.Berliner, J.Bulkley, C.Jenny, & T.Reid (Eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (pp. 195–205). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Jones, B. J. (1995). The Indian child welfare handbook. Chicago: American Bar Association.
    Jones, D., & McGraw, E. M. (1987). Reliable and fictitious accounts of sexual abuse to children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 27–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626087002001002
    Jones, D., & McQuiston, M. (1985). Interviewing the sexually abused child. Denver, CO: Kempe National Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Jones, D., & Seig, A. (1988). Child sexual abuse allegations in custody or visitation cases: A report of 20 cases. In E. B.Nicholson & J.Bulkley (Eds.), Sexual abuse allegations in custody and visitation cases (pp. 22–36). Washington, DC: American Bar Association.
    Jones, L., & Finkelhor, D. (2001, January). The decline in child sexual abuse cases. Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Jonker, F., & Jonker-Bakker, P. (1991). Experiences with ritualistic child sexual abuse: A case study from the Netherlands. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 191–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990064-K
    Jonker, F., & Jonker-Bakker, P. (1997). Effects of ritual abuse: The results of three surveys in the Netherlands. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21, 541–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2897%2900011-2
    Kadushin, A. (1980). Child welfare services (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Macmillan.
    Kadushin, A., & Martin, J. (1988). Child welfare services (
    4th ed.
    ). New York: Macmillan.
    Kalichman, S. (1993). Mandated reporting of suspected child abuse. Washington, DC: American Psychological Society. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10128-000
    Kaplan, S. L., & Kaplan, S. J. (1981). The child's accusation of sexual abuse during a divorce and custody struggle. Hillside Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 3, 81–95.
    Katz, S., Schoenfeld, D., Levanthal, J., & Cicchetti, D. (1995). The accuracy of children's reportswith anatomically correct dolls. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16(2), 71–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004703-199504000-00001
    Kaufman, P. (2000). The role of mental health professionals in family courts. In E.St. Charles & L.Crook (Eds.), Expose: The failure of family courts to protect children from abuse in custody disputes. Los Gatos, CA: Our Children Our Future Charitable Foundation.
    Keary, K., & Fitzpatrick, C. (1994). Children's disclosure of sexual abuse during formal investigation. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 543–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2990080-9
    Kelley, S. J. (1988). Ritualistic abuse of children: Dynamics and impact. Cultic Studies Journal, 5, 228–236.
    Kelley, S. J. (1989). Stress responses of children to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse in day care centers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 502–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626089004004008
    Kelley, S. J. (1990). Parental stress response to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse of children in day-care centers. Nursing Research, 39, 25–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-199001000-00006
    Kelley, S. (1992a, January). Ritualistic abuse: Recognition, impact, and current controversy. Paper presented at the San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment, San Diego, CA.
    Kelley, S. (1992b). Stress responses of children and parents to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse in day care centers. In A. W.Burgess (Ed.), Child trauma I: Issues and research. New York: Garland.
    Kelley, S. (1993). Ritualistic abuse of children in day care centers. In M.Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults (pp. 340–351). New York: Norton.
    Kelley, S. J. (1994). Abuse of children in day care centers: Characteristics and consequences. Child Abuse Review, 3, 15–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.2380030105
    Kelley, S. J. (1996). Parents’ perceptions of their children's recovery 5 to 10 years following day-care abuse: Response. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 10, 93–96.
    Kelley, S. J., Brandt, R., & Waterman, J. (1993). Sexual abuse of children in day care centers. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 71–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2893%2990010-3
    Kleinheksel, K. (1988, June). The role of law enforcement in investigating child sexual abuse. Workshop delivered at the conference “A Community Approach to Child Sexual Abuse,” Ann Arbor, MI.
    Kline, D., & Overstreet, H. M. (1972). Foster care of children: Nurture and treatment. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Kroth, J. (1979). Child sexual abuse. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Kuenhle, K. (1996). Assessing allegations of child sexual abuse. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resources Press.
    La Foutaine, J. (1994). The extent and nature of organised and ritual abuse: Research findings. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Lamb, M. (1994). The investigation of child sexual abuse: An interdisciplinary consensus statement. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 1021–1028. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2990127-9
    Lamb, M., & Sternberg, K. (1999, March). Eliciting accurate investigative statement from children. Paper presented at the Fifteenth National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL.
    Lanning, K. (1990). Ritual abuse: A law enforcement view. Roundtable, 2(2), 14–16.
    Lanning, K. (1992). Investigator's guide to allegations of “ritual” child abuse. In The False Memory Syndrome Phenomenon. Philadelphia: False Memory Syndrome Foundation. 3508 Market St., Suite 128, 19104.
    Lawson, L., & Chaffin, M. (1992). False negatives in sexual abuse disclosure interviews. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 532–542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626092007004008
    Leavitt, F. (1994). Clinical correlations of alleged satanic abuse and less controversial sexual molestation. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 387–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2990041-8
    Leberg, E. (1997). Understanding child molesters. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Leichtman, M., & Ceci, S. (1995). The effects of stereotypes and suggestions on preschoolers’ reports. Developmental Psychology, 31, 568–578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.31.4.568
    Lilly, G. (1978). An introduction to the law of evidence. St. Paul, MN: West.
    Loftus, E., & Ketchem, K. (1991). Witness for the defense. New York: St. Martin's.
    Long, G. (1988). Legal issues in child sexual abuse: Criminal cases and neglect and dependency cases. In L. A.Walker (Ed.), Handbook on sexual abuse of children. New York: Springer.
    Lykken, D. (1987). The detection of deception. In L.Wrightsman, C.Willis, & S.Kassin (Eds.), On the witness stand (Chapter 2, pp. 37–47). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Lyon, T. (2002). Scientific support for expert testimony on the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. In J.Conte (Ed.), Critical issues in child sexual abuse (pp. 107–138). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Lyon, T., & Saywitz, K. (1999). Reducing maltreated children's reluctance to answer hypothetical oath-taking questions. Law and Human Behavior, 25, 81–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005644010134
    MacFarlane, K. (1986). Child sexual abuse allegations in divorce proceedings. In K.MacFarlane & J.Waterman (Eds.), Sexual abuse of young children (pp. 121–150). New York: Guilford.
    Mansell, L. (1990). Naptime. New York: William Morrow.
    Margolin, L. (1991). Child sexual abuse by nonrelated caregivers. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 213–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990066-M
    Marshall, W., Laws, D., & Barbaree, H. (1990). Handbook on sexual offending. New York: Plenum.
    Masson, G. (1984). The assault on the truth. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux.
    Mathews, R., Matthews, J., & Speltz, K. (1989). Female sexual offenders: An exploratory study. Orwell, VT.: Safer Society Press.
    Mayer, R. (1991). Satan's children: Case studies in multiple personality. New York: G. P. Putnam.
    Mayhall, P., & Norgard, K. (1983). Child abuse and neglect: Sharing responsibility. New York: John Wiley.
    McCann, J., Voris, J., & Simon, M. (1992). Genital injuries resulting from sexual abuse: A longitu-dinal study. Pediatrics, 89, 307–317.
    McCarty, L. (1981). Investigation of incest: An opportunity to motivate families to seek help. Child Welfare, 60, 679–689.
    McCormack, A., & Selvaggio, M. (1989). Screening for pedophiles in youth oriented community agencies. Social Casework, 70, 37–42.
    McDermott-Steinmetz, M. (1997). Interviewing for child sexual abuse: Strategies for balancing forensic and therapeutic factors. Notre Dame, IN: Jalice.
    McDonald, M. (1998, Spring). The myth of epidemic false allegations of sexual abuse in divorce cases. Court Review, 4(2), 1–14.
    McFadden, E. J. (1984a). Fostering the child who has been sexually abused: Instructor's manual. Ypsilanti: Eastern Michigan University, Institute for the Study of Children and Families.
    McFadden, E. J. (1984b). Preventing abuse in foster care. Ypsilanti: Eastern Michigan University, Institute for the Study of Children and Families.
    McFadden, E. J. (1989). The sexually abused child in specialized foster care. Child and Youth Services, 12, 91–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J024v12n01_07
    McFadden, E. J., & Ryan, P. (1986, August). Abuse in family foster homes: Characteristics of the vulnerable child. Paper presented at the Sixth International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect, Sydney, Australia.
    McFadden, E. J., & Ryan, P. (1991). Maltreatment in family foster homes: Dynamics and dimensions. Child and Youth Services, 15, 209–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J024v15n02_13
    McIntosh, J. A., & Prinz, R. J. (1993). The incidence of alleged sexual abuse in 603 family court cases. Law and Human Behavior, 17, 95–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01044539
    Melton, G. (1987, July). Overview of legal research. Paper presented at the Family Violence Research Conference for Practitioners and Policymakers, Durham, NH.
    Mendel, M. (1995). The male survivor. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Michigan Governor's Task Force on Children's Justice and the Family Independence Agency (1998). Michigan forensic interviewing protocol. Lansing, MI: Author.
    Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966).
    Moore, D., Gallup, G., & Schussel, R. (1995). Disciplining America's children: A Gallup poll report. Princeton, NJ: Gallup Organization.
    Moreau, D. (1987a). Concepts of physical evidence in sexual assault investigations. In R.Hazelwood & A.Burgess (Eds.), Practical aspects of rape investigation (pp. 61–94). New York: Elsevier.
    Moreau, D. (1987b). Major physical evidence in sexual assault investigation. In R.Hazelwood & A.Burgess (Eds.), Practical aspects of rape investigation(pp. 95–136). New York: Elsevier. Morgan v. Foretich, 846 F. 2d 941 (4th Cir. 1988).
    Morgan, M. (1995). How to interview sexual abuse victims. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    MSNBC. (2002). A call for help [Slide show]. http://www.msnbc.com/modules/slideshow/980424underground/980424underground.asp. Accessed July 29, 2002.
    Murphy, C. A., & Murphy, J. K. (1997). Polygraph admissibility. Update: National Center for. Prosecution of Child Abuse, 10(1/2), 1–2.
    Myers, J. E. B. (1994). The backlash: Child protection under fire. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Myers, J. E. B. (1997). Mother's nightmare: Incest. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Myers, J. E. B. (1998). Legal issues in child abuse and neglect practice (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452225562
    Myers, J. E. B., Bays, J., Becker, J., Berliner, L., Corwin, D., & Saywitz, K. (1989). Expert testimony in child abuse litigation. Nebraska Law Review, 68, 1–145.
    Myers, J. E. B., Goodman, G., & Saywitz, K. (1996). Psychological research on children as witnesses: Practical implications for forensic interviews and courtroom testimony. Pacific Law Journal, 27, 1–822.
    Nathan, D. (1987, September 29). Are these women child molesters?Village Voice, 32(39), 19–23, 27–31.
    National Association of Counsel for Children. (2001a). Advocacy for children and families: Moving from sympathy to empathy. Denver: Author.
    National Association of Counsel for Children. (2001b). NACC recommendations for representation of children in abuse and neglect cases. In Advocacy for children and families: Moving from sympathy to empathy. Denver: Author.
    National Center for the Prosecution of Child Abuse. (1997). Child Abuse and Neglect State Statute Series (5 vols.). Washington, DC: NCCAN Clearinghouse.
    National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. (2001). Child maltreatment, 1998. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Neustein, A., & Goetting, A. (1999). Judicial responses to the protective parent's complaint of child sexual abuse. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 8(4), 103–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v08n04_07
    New Jersey v. Michaels, 136 N.J. 299; 642 A.2d 1372 (1994).
    Nicholson, E. B., & Bulkley, J. (Eds.). (1988). Sexual abuse allegations in custody and visitation cases. Washington, DC: American Bar Association.
    North Carolina v. Kelly, 118 N.C. App. 589; 456 S.E.2d 861; disc. Rev. denied 341 N.C. 442; 461 S.E.2d 764 (1995).
    Nunno, M., & Motz, J. (1988). The development of an effective response to the abuse of children in out-of-home care. Child Abuse and Neglect, 12, 521–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2888%2990069-5
    Nunno, M., & Rindfleisch, N. (1991). The abuse of children in out of home care. Children and Society, 5, 295–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.1991.tb00495.x
    Oates, K.Jones, D., Denson, D., Sirotnak, A., Gary, N., & Krugman, R. (2000). Erroneous concerns about child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 149–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2899%2900108-8
    Okerblom, J. (n.d.). Satanism: Truth vs. myth. In The False Memory Syndrome Phenomenon. Philadelphia: False Memory Syndrome Foundation, 3508 Market St., Suite 128, 19104.
    Paradise, J., Rostain, A., & Nathanson, M. (1988). Substantiation of sexual abuse charges when parents dispute custody or visitation. Pediatrics, 81, 835–839.
    Peddle, N., & Wang, C.-T. (2001). Current trends in child abuse reporting and fatalities: The results of the 1999 Fifty State Survey. Chicago: Prevent Child Abuse America.
    Pence, D., & Wilson, C. (1994). The team investigation of child sexual abuse: An uneasy alliance. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Penfold, P. S. (1995). Mendacious moms or devious dads? Some perplexing issues in child custody/sexual abuse allegation disputes. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 337–341.
    Peters, S., & Wyatt, G. (1986). Prevalence. In D. Finkelhor & Associates (Eds.), Sourcebook on child sexual abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Petit, M., & Curtis, P. (1997). 1997 CWLA stat book: Child abuse and neglect: A look at the states. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.
    Petronio, S., Reeder, H., Hecht, M., & Ros-Mendoza, T. M. (1998). Disclosure of sexual abuse by children and adolescents. Journal of Applied Communications Research, 24, 191–199.
    Pfeiffer, S. (1999, August 27). SJC avoids judge's order for an Amirault hearing. Boston Globe, p. 3.
    Plass, P., Finkelhor, D., & Hotaling, G. (1997). Risk factors for family abduction: Demographics and family interaction characteristics. Journal of Family Violence, 12, 333–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022805005953
    Poole, D., & Lamb, M. (1998). Investigative interviews of children, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Poole, D., & Lindsay, S. (2001). Children's eyewitness reports after exposure to misinformation from parents. Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied, 7(1), 27–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.7.1.27
    Poole, D., & White, L. (1991). Effects of question repetition on the eyewitness testimony of children and adults. Developmental Psychology, 27, 975–986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.27.6.975
    Poole, D., & White, L. (1993). Two years later: Effects of question repetition on the eyewitness testimony of children and adults. Developmental Psychology, 29, 844–853. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.29.5.844
    Poole, D., & White, L. (1995). Tell me again and again: Stabilities and change in the repeated testimonies of children and adults. In M.Zaragoza, J.Graham, G.Hall, R.Hirschman, & Y.Ben-Porath (Eds.), Memory and testimony in the child witness (pp. 24–40). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Portland State University. (1996). Cohort II Report. http://www.cwp.pdx.edu/cohort2/study2.html. Accessed January 1999.
    Pruett, K., & Solnit, A. (1998). Psychological and ethical considerations in the preparation of the mental health professional as expert witness. In S.Ceci & H.Hembrooke (Eds.), Expert witnesses in child abuse cases (pp. 123–135). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10272-006
    Quinsey, V. (1993). APSAC Study guide: Assessment of sexual offenders against children. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Rabinowitz, D. (1999, June 30). Finality for the Amiraults. Wall Street Journal, pp. 1–4.
    Raskin, D., & Yuille, J. (1989). Problems in evaluating interviews of children in sexual abuse cases. In S.Ceci, D.Ross, & M.Toglia (Eds.), Perspectives on children's testimony (pp. 184–207). New York: Springer Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8832-6_9
    Reed, L. D. (1996). Findings from research on children's suggestibility and implications for conducting child interviews. Child Maltreatment, 1(2), 105–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559596001002003
    Reid, J. E., & Inbau, F. E. (1977). Truth and deception: The polygraph technique (
    2nd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
    Renshaw, D. (1987). Child sexual abuse: When wrongly charged. Encyclopedia Britannica Medical and Health Annual, 10, 301–303.
    Risin, L., & Koss, M. (1987). The sexual abuse of boys. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 309–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626087002003006
    Rosencrans, B. (1997). The last secret: Daughters sexually abused by mothers. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.
    Rosenthal, J., Motz, J., Edmondson, D., & Groze, V. (1991). A descriptive study of abuse and neglect in out of home care. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 249–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990069-P
    Russell, D. (1983). The incidence and prevalence of intrafamilial and extrafamilial sexual abuse of female children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 7, 133–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2883%2990065-0
    Russell, D. E. H. (1986). The secret trauma: Incest in the lives of girls and women. New York: Basic Books.
    Russell, D., & Bolen, R. (2000). The epidemic of rape and child sexual abuse in the United States. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ryan, G., & Lane, S. (1997). Juvenile sexual offending. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Ryan, P. (1984). Fostering discipline: Instructor's manual. Ypsilanti: Eastern Michigan University, Institute for the Study of Children and Families.
    Ryan, P., McFadden, E. J., & Wiencek, P. (1988, April). Analysis of level of agency services as related to maltreatment in family foster homes. Paper presented at the North Central Sociological Association, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Ryder, D. (1992). Breaking the circle of satanic ritual abuse. Minneapolis: CompCare.
    St. Charles, E., & Crook, L. (Eds.). (2000). Expose: The failure of family courts to protect children from abuse in custody disputes. Los Gatos, CA: Our Children Our Future Charitable Foundation.
    Sas, L., & Cunningham, A. (1995). Tipping the balance to tell the secret: The public discovery of child sexual abuse. Unpublished work available from the London Court Clinic, 254 Pall Mall St., Suite 200, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5P6, tel. (519) 679-7250.
    Sassoon, D. (1988). The sexual trafficking of children: Silence and taboo trigger its growth and continuation. Action for Children, 3(1), 1, 10.
    Satanic cults and children. (1987, November 19). Geraldo, Show No. 44. New York: Investigative News Groups, Inc.
    Satanic worship. (1988, February 17). Oprah, Show No. W373. Chicago: WLS-TV.
    Satanism. (1986, September 30). Oprah, Show No. 8607. Chicago: WLS-TV.
    Saunders, B. (1997). Medical and mental health experts in legal cases. In P.Stern (Ed.), Preparing and presenting expert testimony in child abuse cases. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243429
    Saunders, B., Kilpatrick, D., Lipovsky, J., Resnick, H., Best, C., & Sturgis, E. (1991, March). Prevalence, case characteristics, and long-term psychological effects of sexual assault: A national survey. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Orthopsychiatric Association, Toronto.
    Saunders, B., Villeponteaux, L., Lipovsky, J., Kilpatrick, D., & Veronen, L. (1992). Child sexual abuse as a risk factor for mental disorders among women: A community survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 189–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626092007002005
    Saxe, L., Dougherty, D., & Cross, T. (1987). The validity of polygraph testing: Scientific analysis and public controversy. American Psychologist, 40, 355–366. Reprinted in L. Wrightsman, C. Willis, & S. Kassin (Eds.), On the witness stand (pp. 14–36). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.3.355
    Saywitz, K., Geiselman, R., & Bornstein, G. (1992). Effects of cognitive interviewing and practice on children's recall performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(5), 74–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.5.744
    Saywitz, K., Goodman, G., Nicholas, E., & Moan, S. (1991). Children's memory for a genital examination: Implications for child sexual abuse cases. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 682–691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.5.682
    Schumacher, R., & Carlson, R. (1999). Variables and risk factors associated with child abuse in daycare settings. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 891–898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2899%2900057-5
    Schuman, D. (1986). False allegations of physical and sexual abuse. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 14, 5–21.
    Schwartz, B., & Cellini, H. (Eds.). (1995). The sex offender: Corrections, treatment and legal practice. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
    Sedlak, A., & Broadhurst, D. (1996). Third national incidence study of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.
    Sgroi, S. (Ed.). (1982). Handbook of clinical intervention in child sexual abuse. Lexington, MA: Lexington.
    Sgroi, S., Porter, F., & Blick, L. (1982). Validation of sexual abuse. In S.Sgroi (Ed.), Handbook of clinical intervention in child sexual abuse. Lexington, MA: Lexington.
    Sink, F. (1988a). A hierarchical model for evaluation of child sexual abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 58, 129–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1988.tb01572.x
    Sink, F. (1988b). Studies of true and false allegations: A critical review. In B.Nicholson & J.Bulkley (Eds.), Allegations of sexual abuse in divorce and custody disputes (pp. 37–47). Washington, DC: American Bar Association.
    Sivan, A., Schor, D., Koeppl, G., & Noble, L. (1988). Interaction of normal children with anatomi-cal dolls. Child Abuse and Neglect, 12, 295–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2888%2990042-7
    Snow, B., & Sorenson, T. (1990). Ritualistic child abuse in a neighborhood setting. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 474–487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626090005004004
    Sorenson, T., & Snow, B. (1991). How children tell: The process of disclosure in child sexual abuse. Child Welfare, 70, 3–15.
    Starr, R. (1987). Clinical judgment of abuse proneness based upon parent and child interactions. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, 87–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2887%2990036-6
    Steele, N. (1995). Cost effectiveness of treatment. In B.Schwartz & H.Cellini (Eds.), Chapter 4: Sex offender: Corrections, treatment and legal practice (pp. 4–1 to 4-15). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
    Stein, T. (1991). Child welfare and the law. New York: Longman.
    Steinberg, M., & Westhoff, M. (1988). Behavioral characteristics and physical findings: A medical perspective. In K. C.Faller (Ed.), Child sexual abuse: An interdisciplinary manual for diagnosis, case management, and treatment (pp. 244–264). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Stern, P. (1997). Preparing and presenting expert testimony in child abuse cases. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243429
    Sternberg, K., Lamb, M., Davies, G., & Wescott, H. (2001). The memorandum of good practice: Theory versus application. Child Abuse and Neglect, 25, 669–681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2801%2900232-0
    Sternberg, K., Lamb, M., Hershkovitz, I., Yudilevitch, L., Orbach, Y., Esplin, P., & Hovav, M. (1997). Effects of introductory style on children's abilities to describe experiences of sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21, 1133–1146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2897%2900071-9
    Steward, M. S., Steward, D. S., Farquhar, L., Myers, J., Welker, J., Joye, N., Driskill, J., & Morgan, J. (1996). Interviewing young children about body touch and handling. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Stickel, G. (1993). Archaeological investigations of the McMartin Preschool site: Manhattan Beach, California. 186 pp. Available from E. Gary Stickel, Ph.D., Department of Archeology, University of California at Los Angeles.
    Stone, L., & Stone, D. (1992). Ritual abuse: The experiences of five families. In D.Sakheim & S.Devine (Eds.), Out of darkness: Exploring Satanism and ritual abuse (pp. 175–184). New York: Lexington Books.
    Summit, R. (1983). The child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. Child Abuse and Neglect7, 177–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2883%2990070-4
    Terry, W. (1991, January). Perpetrator and victim accounts of sexual abuse. Paper presented at the conference “Health Science Response to Child Maltreatment,” Center for Child Protection, San Diego. Available from William Terry, M.D., 343 N. Allumbaugh St., Boise, ID 83704.
    Thoennes, N. (1988, April). Sexual abuse allegations in custody disputes. Paper presented at the National Conference on the Victimization of Children, Anaheim, CA.
    Thoennes, N., Pearson, J., & Tjaden, P. (1988). Allegations of sexual abuse in custody and visitation cases. Denver, CO: Association of Family and Conciliation Courts Research Unit.
    Thoennes, N., & Tjaden, P. (1990). The extent, nature, and validity of sexual abuse allegations in custody/visitation disputes. Child Abuse and Neglect, 14, 151–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2890%2990026-P
    Thompson, W., Clarke-Stewart, A., & Lapore, S. (1997). What did the janitor do? Suggestive interviewing and the accuracy of children's accounts. Law and Human Behavior, 21, 405–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024859219764
    Toth, P., & Whalen, M. (1987). Investigation and prosecution of child abuse. Alexandria, VA: National Center for the Prosecution of Child Abuse.
    Underwager, R., & Wakefield, H. (1988). Accusations of child sexual abuse. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Undeutch, U. (1989). The development of statement reality analysis. In J.Yuille (Ed.), Credibility assessment. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
    United States v. Paterson, 71 F. Supp. 2d 695 (S. Dist. Tex. 1999).
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1981). Executive summary: National study of the incidence of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1988). Study findings: Study of the national incidence and prevalence of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children's Bureau. (1998). Child maltreatment 1996. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children's Bureau. (2001). Child maltreatment 1999. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Valliere, P., Bybee, D., & Mowbray, C. (1988, April). Using the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist in child sexual abuse research: Longitudinal and comparative analysis. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Child Victimization, Anaheim, CA.
    Van der Kolk, B. (1994). The body keeps score: Memory and the psychobiology of posttraumatic stress. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 1, 253–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10673229409017088
    Van der Kolk, B., & Fisler, R. (1995). Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories: Overview and exploratory study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 505–526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490080402
    Vandervort, F. (2000). Representing children in protection proceedings: Learning from Michigan's experience. ABA Child Law Practice, 19(10), 153.
    Victims of Child Abuse Act, 18 U.S.C. 223 (1990).
    Walsh, W. (2001, April). Investigating child sexual exploitation. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse, Huntsville, AL.
    Wang, C.-T., & Daro, D. (1998). Current trends in child abuse reporting and fatalities: Results of the 1996 annual Fifty State Survey. Chicago: National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse.
    Wang, C.-T., & Harding, K. (1999). Current trends in child abuse reporting and fatalities: Results of the 1997 annual Fifty State Survey. Chicago: National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse.
    Wang, C.-T., & Harding, K. (2000). Current trends in child abuse reporting and fatalities: Results of the 1998 annual Fifty State Survey. Chicago: Prevent Child Abuse America.
    Ward, T., Hudson, S., & Marshall, W. (1995). Cognitive distortions and affective deficits in sex offenders: A cognitive deconstructionist interpretation. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 7(10), 67–83.
    Warren, A., & Lane, P. (1995). Effects of timing and type of questioning on eyewitness accuracy and suggestibility. In M.Zaragoza, J.Graham, G.Hall, R.Hirschman, & Y.Ben-Porath (Eds.), Memory and testimony in the child witness (pp. 44–60). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Warren, A., Woodall, C., Hunt, J., & Perry, N. (1996). “It sounds good in theory, but …”: Do inves-tigative interviewers follow guidelines based on memory research?Child Maltreatment, 1(3), 231–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559596001003006
    Waterman, J., Kelly, R., McCord, J., & Oliveri, M. K. (1989a). Manhattan Beach Molestation Study. Grant No. 90CA1179. Summary for NCCAN Grantees’ Meeting, March 1989. Unpublished report, University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Psychology.
    Waterman, J., Kelly, R., McCord, J., & Oliveri, M. K. (1989b). Supplementary material: Manhattan Beach Molestation Study. NCCAN Grant No. 90CA1179. Unpublished document, University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Psychology.
    Waterman, J., Kelly, R., Oliveri, M. K., & McCord, J. (1993). Behind the playground walls: Sexual abuse in preschools. New York: Guilford.
    Wehrspann, W., Steinhauer, P., & Klajner-Diamond, H. (1987). Criteria and methodology for assessing credibility of sexual abuse allegation. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 615–623.
    Weinberg, S. K. (1955). Incest behavior. New York: Citadel.
    Wells, S. (2000). How do I decide to accept a report for Child Protective Services investigation? In H.Dubowitz & D.DePanfilis (Eds.), Handbook for Child Protection Practice (pp. 3–6). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452205489
    Wexler, R. (1990). Wounded innocents. New York: Prometheus.
    White, S., Strom, G., Santilli, G., & Halpin, B. (1986). Interviewing young sexual abuse victims with anatomically correct dolls. Child Abuse and Neglect, 10, 519–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2886%2990057-8
    Williams, V. (1995). Response to Cross and Saxe's “A critique of the validity of polygraph testing in child sexual abuse cases.”Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 4(3), 55–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v04n03_04
    Wilson, C., & Steppe, S. (1986). Investigating sexual abuse in daycare. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.
    Wong, B., & McKeen, J. (1990). A case of multiple life-threatening illnesses related to early ritual abuse. Journal of Child and Youth Care, Special issue: In the shadow of Satan: The ritual abuse of children, 1–26.
    Wood, B., Orsak, C., Murphy, M., & Cross, H. (1996). Semistructured child sexual abuse inter-views: Interview and child characteristics related to credibility of disclosure. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20(1), 81–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2895%2900118-2
    Wood, J., & Garven, S. (2000). How sexual abuse interviews go astray: Implications for prosecu-tors, police, and child protection services. Child Maltreatment, 5(2), 109–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559500005002003
    Wyatt, G. (1985). The sexual abuse of Afro-American and white American women in childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 9, 507–519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2885%2990060-2
    Yapko, M. (1994). Suggestions of abuse. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Young, W., Sachs, R., Braun, B., & Watkins, R. (1991). Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical syndrome. Report of 37 cases. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 181–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990063-J
    Yuille, J. (n.d.). The step-wise interview. Available from John Yuille, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia.
    Yuille, J. (1988). The systematic assessment of children's testimony. Canadian Psychology, 29(3), 247–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079769
    Zaragoza, M. (1991). Preschool children's susceptibility to memory impairment. In. J.Doris (Ed.), The suggestibility of children's recollections (pp. 27–39). New York: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10097-003
    Zellman, G., & Faller, K. C. (1995). Reporting child abuse. In J.Briere, L.Berliner, C.Jenny, & T.Reid (Eds.), APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (pp. 359–382). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Zuravin, S., Benedict, M., & Somerfield, M. (1993). Child maltreatment in family foster care. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63(4), 589–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079480

    Name Index

    About the Author

    Kathleen Coulborn Faller, PhD, ACSW, DCSW, is Professor of Social Work at the University of Michigan. She is also Director of the Family Assessment Clinic, a multidisciplinary team, Principal Investigator of the Interdisciplinary Child Welfare Training Program, Principal Investigator of the Training Program for Child Welfare Supervisors, and Principal Investigator of the Hasbro Early Assessment Project, all at the University of Michigan. She is author of Social Work With Abused and Neglected Children (1981), Child Sexual Abuse: An Interdisciplinary Manual for Diagnosis, Case Management, and Treatment (1988), Understanding Child Maltreatment (Sage, 1990), Child Sexual Abuse: Intervention and Treatment Issues (1993), APSAC Study Guide: Evaluating Children Suspected of Having Been Sexually Abused (Sage, 1996), Maltreatment in Early Childhood: Tools for Research-Based Intervention (2000), and approximately 45 research and practice-based articles on child abuse and neglect. She was a member of the Board of Directors of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children for 6 years and of its Executive Board for 5 years and is currently a member of the Advisory Board of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children and Co-Chair of the Guidelines Task Forces.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website